You are on page 1of 24

# Load carrying capacity and life

Operating life

## Axial load carrying capacity of cylindrical roller bearings

Top
Schaeffler KG introduced the Expanded calculation of the adjusted rating life
in 1997. This method was standardised for the first time in
DIN ISO 281 Appendix 1 and has been a constituent part of the international
standard ISO 281 since 2007.
As part of the international standardisation work, the life adjustment factor aDIN
was renamed as aISO but without any change to the calculation method.
Top

## Fatigue theory as a principle

The basis of the rating life calculation in accordance with ISO 281 is
Lundberg and Palmgren's fatigue theory which always gives a final rating

life.
However, modern, high quality bearings can exceed by a considerable margin
the values calculated for the basic rating life under favourable operating
conditions. Ioannides and Harris have developed a further model of fatigue in
rolling contact that expands on the Lundberg/Palmgren theory and gives a
better description of the performance capability of modern bearings.
The method Expanded calculation of the adjusted rating life takes account of
the following influences:

## The influencing factors, especially those relating to contamination, are

extremely complex. A great deal of experience is essential for an accurate
assessment. As a result the Engineering Service of Schaeffler Group
Industrial should be consulted for further advice.
The tables and diagrams can only give guide values.

Top

Dimensioning of
rolling bearings

## The required size of a rolling bearing is dependent on the demands made

on its:

rating life

operational reliability.

Top

carrying capacity and life

## The dynamic load carrying capacity is described in terms of the basic

DIN ISO 281.
The basic dynamic load ratings for rolling bearings are matched to empirically
proven performance standards and those published in previous FAG and INA
catalogues.
The fatigue behaviour of the material determines the dynamic load carrying
capacity of the rolling bearing.
The dynamic load carrying capacity is described in terms of the basic
dynamic load rating and the basic rating life.
The fatigue life is dependent on:

## the statistical probability of the first appearance of failure.

The basic dynamic load rating C applies to rotating rolling bearings. It is:

## a constant, concentrically acting axial load Ca for axial bearings.

The basic dynamic load rating C is that load of constant magnitude and
direction which a sufficiently large number of apparently identical bearings can
endure for a basic rating life of one million revolutions.
Top

## Calculation of the rating life

The methods for calculating the rating life are:

basic rating life L10 and L10h to ISO 281, see link

adjusted rating life Lna to DIN ISO 281:1990 (no longer a constituent
part of ISO 281), see link

## Basic rating life

The basic rating life L10 and L10h is calculated as follows:

L10
106 revolutions
The basic rating life in millions of revolutions is the life reached or exceeded by 90% of a
sufficiently large group of apparently identical bearings before the first evidence of
material fatigue develops
L10h
h
The basic rating life as defined for L10 but expressed in operating hours
C
N

P
N
p
Life exponent; for roller bearings: p = 10/3 for ball bearings: p = 3
n
min1
Operating speed.

## The equivalent dynamic load P is a calculated value. This value is constant

for axial bearings.
The load value P gives the same rating life as the combined load occurring in
practice.

P
N
Fr
N
Fa
N
X
Radial factor given in the dimension tables or product description
Y
Axial factor given in the dimension tables or product description.

## This calculation cannot be applied to radial needle roller bearings, axial

needle roller bearings and axial cylindrical roller bearings. Combined loads
are not permissible with these bearings.
Top

speed, other influences are known such as:

lubrication

or

## This calculation method was replaced in ISO 281:2007 by the calculation of

Lna

106 revolutions

Adjusted rating life for special material characteristics and operating conditions with a
requisite reliability of (100 n) %
L10
106 revolutions
Basic rating life

a1
Life adjustment factor for a requisite reliability other than 90%. In ISO 281:2007, the
values for the life adjustment factor a1 have been redefined, see table
a2
Life adjustment factor for special material characteristics. For standard rolling bearing
steels: a2 = 1
a3
Life adjustment factor for special operating conditions; in particular lubrication, Figure 1.

## Good cleanliness and suitable

Very high cleanliness and low
Contamination in the lubricant
= viscosity ratio
Figure 1

Viscosity ratio
The viscosity ratio is an indication of the quality of lubricant film formation:

mm2s1
Kinematic viscosity of the lubricant at operating temperature
1
mm2s1
Reference viscosity of the lubricant at operating temperature.

## The reference viscosity 1 is determined from the mean bearing diameter

dM = (D + d)/2 and the operating speed n, Figure 2.
The nominal viscosity of the oil at +40 C is determined from the required
operating viscosity and the operating temperature , Figure 3. In the case of
greases, is the operating viscosity of the base oil.
In the case of heavily loaded bearings with a high proportion of sliding
contact, the temperature in the contact area of the rolling elements may be up
to 20 K higher than the temperature measured on the stationary ring (without

## the influence of any external heat).

Taking account of EP additives in calculation of the expanded adjusted rating

1 = reference viscosity
dM = mean bearing diameter
n = speed
Figure 2
Reference viscosity 1

= operating viscosity
= operating temperature
40 = viscosity at +40 C
Figure 3
V/T diagram for mineral oils

Top

The calculation of the expanded adjusted rating life Lnm was standardised in
DIN ISO 281 Appendix 1. Since 2007, it has been standardised in the
worldwide standard ISO 281. Computer-aided calculation in accordance with
DIN ISO 281 Appendix 4 has been specified since 2008 in ISO/TS 16 281.
Lnm is calculated as follows:
Lnm
106 revolutions
Expanded adjusted rating life to ISO 281
a1
Life adjustment factor for a requisite reliability other than 90%, see table
aISO
Life adjustment factor for operating conditions
L10
106 revolutions

The values for the life adjustment factor a1 were redefined in ISO 281:2007
and differ from the previous data.

Requisite reliability
%
90
95
96

life
Lnm
L10m
L5m
L4m

a1
1
0,64
0,55

Requisite reliability
%
97
98
99
99,2
99,4
99,6
99,8
99,9
99,92
99,94
99,95

life
Lnm
L3m
L2m
L1m
L0,8m
L0,6m
L0,4m
L0,2m
L0,1m
L0,08m
L0,06m
L0,05m

a1
0,47
0,37
0,25
0,22
0,19
0,16
0,12
0,093
0,087
0,08
0,077

The standardised method for calculating the life adjustment factor aISO
essentially takes account of:

## contamination in the lubricant.

aISO
Life adjustment factor for operating conditions,
Figure 4 to Figure 7
eC
Life adjustment factor for contamination, see table
Cu
N
P
N

For 4, calculation should be carried out using = 4.
For 0,1, this calculation method cannot be used.

lubricant

## In accordance with ISO 281, EP additives can be taken into consideration in

the following way:

## For a viscosity ratio 1 and a contamination factor eC 0,2,

calculation can be carried out using the value = 1 for lubricants with
EP additives that have proven effective. With severe contamination
(contamination factor eC 0,2), the effectiveness of the additives
under these contamination conditions must be proven. The
effectiveness of the EP additives can be demonstrated in the actual
application or on a rolling bearing test rig FE 8 to DIN 51 819-1.If the
EP additives are proven effective and calculation is carried out using
the value = 1, the life adjustment factor must be restricted to
aISO 3. If the value aISO calculated for the actual is greater than 3,
this value can be used in calculation.

Figure 4

Figure 5
for axial roller bearings

Figure 6

Figure 7
for axial ball bearings

Top

The fatigue limit load Cu in accordance with ISO 281 is defined as the load
below which, under laboratory conditions, no fatigue occurs in the material.
Top

for contamination

The life adjustment factor for contamination ec takes into consideration the
influence of contamination in the lubrication gap on the rating life, see table.
The rating life is reduced by solid particles in the lubrication gap and is
dependent on:

## Due to the complex nature of the interaction between these influencing

factors, only an approximate guide value can be attained. The values in the
tables are valid for contamination by solid particles (factor eC). They do not
take account of other contamination such as that caused by water or other
fluids.
Under severe contamination (eC 0) the bearings may fail due to wear. In

this case, the operating life is substantially less than the calculated life.

Factor eC
Contamination
Extreme cleanliness

Factor eC
dM

dM

1)

100 mm
1

100 mm1)
1

0,8 to 0,6

0,9 to 0,8

0,6 to 0,5

0,8 to 0,6

0,5 to 0,3

0,6 to 0,4

0,3 to 0,1

0,4 to 0,2

0,1 to 0

0,1 to 0

## Particle size within lubricant film

thickness

Laboratory conditions

High cleanliness
Oil filtered through extremely fine filter
Sealed, greased bearings
Standard cleanliness

## Oil filtered through fine filter

Slight contamination

## Slight contamination of oil

Typical contamination

material from other machine elements

Heavy contamination

contaminated

sealed

## Very heavy contamination

______
1
dM = mean bearing diameter (d + D)/2.

Top

## Equivalent operating values

The rating life formulae assume a constant bearing load P and constant
bearing speed n. If the load and speed are not constant, equivalent
operating values can be determined that induce the same fatigue as the
actual conditions.
The equivalent operating values calculated here already take account of the
life adjustment factors a3 or aISO. They must not be applied again when

If the load and speed vary over a time period T, the speed n and equivalent
bearing load P are calculated as follows:

Variation in steps

If the load and speed vary in steps over a time period T, n and P are
calculated as follows:

Top

If the function F describes the variation in the load over a time period T and
the speed is constant, P is calculated as follows:

Top
constant speed

If the load varies in steps over a time period T and the speed is constant, P
is calculated as follows:

Top
If the speed varies but the load remains constant, the following applies:

Top
speed varying in steps
If the speed varies in steps, the following applies:

Top
Under oscillating bearing motion
The equivalent speed is calculated as follows:

The formula is valid only if the angle of oscillation is greater than twice the
angular pitch of the rolling elements. If the angle of oscillation is smaller,
there is a risk of false brinelling.

Figure 8
Angle of oscillation

Top
Symbols, units and definitions

n
min1
Mean speed
T
min
Time period under consideration
P
N
p
Life exponent;
for roller bearings: p = 10/3
for ball bearings: p = 3
ai, a(t)
Life adjustment factor aISO for current operating condition,
ni, n(t)
min1
Bearing speed for current operating condition
qi
%
Duration of operating condition as a proportion of the total operating period;
qi = (ti/T) 100
Fi, F(t)
N
Bearing load during the current operating condition
nosc
min1
Frequency of oscillating motion

Top

## Required rating life

If no information is available on the rating life, the guide values from the
following tables may be used.
Do not overspecify the bearing. If the calculated life is 60 000 h, this
normally means that the bearing arrangement is overspecified. Pay attention
to the minimum load for the bearings; see the design and safety guidelines in
the product sections.

Motor vehicles

Motorcycles
Passenger car powertrains
Passenger car gearboxes protected

## Recommended rating life in h

Ball bearings
Roller bearings
from
to
from
to
400
2 000
400
2 400
500
1 100
500
1 200
200
500
200
500

against contamination
Passenger car wheel bearings
Light commercial vehicles
Medium commercial vehicles
Heavy commercial vehicles
Buses
Internal combustion engines

1 400
2 000
2 900
4 000
2 900
900

Mounting location

Rail vehicles
Mounting location
Wheelset bearings for freight wagons
Tram carriages
Passenger carriages
Goods wagons
Tipper wagons
Powered units
Locomotives, external bearings
Locomotives, internal bearings
Gearboxes for rail vehicles

Shipbuilding
Mounting location
Marine thrust blocks
Marine shaft bearings
Large marine gearboxes
Small marine gearboxes
Boat propulsion systems

Agricultural machinery
Mounting location
Tractors
Self-propelled machinery
Seasonal machinery

Construction machinery
Mounting location

5 300
4 000
5 300
8 800
11 000
4 000

1 500
2 400
3 600
5 000
3 600
900

7 000
5 000
7 000
12 000
16 000
5 000

## Recommended rating life in h

Ball bearings
Roller bearings
from
to
from
to
7 800
21 000 35 000 50 000
20 000 35 000
20 000 35 000
20 000 35 000
35 000 50 000
35 000 50 000
75 000 110 000
14 000 46 000 20 000 75 000

Ball bearings
Roller bearings
from
to
from
to
20 000
50 000
50 000
200 000
14 000
46 000
20 000
75 000
4 000
14 000
5 000
20 000
1 700
7 800
2 000
10 000

Ball bearings
Roller bearings
from
to
from
to
1 700
4 000
2 000
5 000
1 700
4 000
2 000
5 000
500
1 700
500
2 000

Ball bearings
Roller bearings
from
to
from
to

## Excavators, travelling gear

Excavators, slewing gear

## Recommended rating life in h

Ball bearings
Roller bearings
from
to
from
to
500
1 700
500
2 000
1 700
4 000
2 000
5 000
1 700
4 000
2 000
5 000

generators
Vibrator bodies

500

Mounting location

Electric motors
Mounting location
Electric motors for household
appliances
Series motors
Large motors
Electric traction motors

## Rolling mills, steelworks equipment

Mounting location
Roll stands
Rolling mill gearboxes
Roller tables
Centrifugal casting machines

Machine tools

500

2 000

Ball bearings
Roller bearings
from
to
from
to
1 700
4 000
21 000
32 000
14 000

32 000
63 000
21 000

35 000
50 000
20 000

50 000
110 000
35 000

## Recommended rating life in h

Ball bearings
Roller bearings
from
to
from
to
500
14 000 500
20 000
14 000 32 000 20 000
50 000
7 800
21 000 10 000
35 000
21 000 46 000 35 000
75 000

Drilling spindles
Grinding spindles
Workpiece spindles in grinding

## Recommended rating life in h

Ball bearings
Roller bearings
from
to
from
to
14 000 46 000 20 000 75 000
14 000 32 000 20 000 50 000
7 800
21 000 10 000 35 000
21 000 63 000 35 000 110 000

machines
Machine tool gearboxes
Presses, flywheels
Presses, eccentric shafts
Electric tools and compressed air tools

14 000
21 000
14 000
4 000

Mounting location

Woodworking machinery

1 700

32 000
32 000
21 000
14 000

20 000
35 000
20 000
5 000

50 000
50 000
35 000
20 000

## Recommended rating life in h

Ball bearings
Roller bearings
from
to
from
to
Milling spindles and cutter blocks
14 000 32 000 20 000
50 000
Saw frames, main bearings
35 000
50 000
Saw frames, connecting rod bearings 10 000
20 000
Mounting location

## Recommended rating life in h

Ball bearings
Roller bearings
from
to
from
to
4 000
14 000 5 000
20 000

Mounting location
Circular saws

Gearboxes in
general machine building

## Recommended rating life in h

Ball bearings
Roller bearings
from
to
from
to
4 000
14 000
5 000
20 000
4 000
14 000
5 000
20 000
14 000
46 000
20 000
75 000

Mounting location
Universal gearboxes
Geared motors
Large gearboxes, stationary

Conveying equipment

## Recommended rating life in h

Ball bearings
Roller bearings
from
to
from
to
Belt drives, mining
75 000 150 000
Conveyor belt rollers, mining
46 000 63 000 75 000 110 000
Conveyor belt rollers, general
7 800
21 000 10 000 35 000
Belt drums
50 000 75 000
Bucket wheel excavators, travel drive 7 800
21 000 10 000 35 000
Bucket wheel excavators, bucket wheel 75 000 200 000
Bucket wheel excavators, bucket wheel 46 000 83 000 75 000 150 000
Mounting location

drive
Winding cable sheaves
Sheaves

32 000
7 800

## Pumps, fans, compressors

46 000
21 000

50 000
10 000

75 000
35 000

Ventilators, fans
Large fans
Piston pumps
Centrifugal pumps

## Recommended rating life in h

Ball bearings
Roller bearings
from
to
from
to
21 000 46 000 35 000 75 000
32 000 63 000 50 000 110 000
21 000 46 000 35 000 75 000
14 000 46 000 20 000 75 000
500
7 800
500
10 000

engines
Gear pumps
Compressors

500
4 000

Mounting location

Centrifuges, stirrers
Mounting location
Centrifuges
Large stirrers

7 800
21 000

500
5 000

10 000
35 000

## Recommended rating life in h

Ball bearings
Roller bearings
from
to
from
to
7 800
14 000
10 000
20 000
21 000
32 000
35 000
50 000

Textile machinery

## Recommended rating life in h

Ball bearings
Roller bearings
from
to
from
to
Spinning machines, spinning spindles 21 000 46 000 35 000
75 000
Weaving and knitting machines
14 000 32 000 20 000
50 000
Mounting location

Plastics processing
Mounting location
Plastics worm extruders
Rubber and plastics calenders

## Recommended rating life in h

Ball bearings
Roller bearings
from
to
from
to
14 000 21 000 20 000
35 000
21 000 46 000 35 000
75 000

Jaw crushers
Gyratory crushers, roll crushers
Rigid hammer mills, hammer mills,

## Recommended rating life in h

Ball bearings Roller bearings
from
to from
to
20 000
35 000
20 000
35 000

50 000
110 000

impact crushers
Tube mills
Vibration grinding mills
Grinding track mills
Vibrating screens
Briquette presses
Rotary furnace track rollers

Mounting location

## Paper and printing machinery

Mounting location
Paper machinery, wet section
Paper machinery, dry section
Paper machinery, refiners
Paper machinery, calenders
Printing machinery

50 000
5 000
50 000
10 000
35 000
50 000

100 000
20 000
110 000
20 000
50 000
110 000

## Recommended rating life in h

Ball bearings
Roller bearings
from
to
from
to
110 000
150 000
150 000 250 000
80 000
120 000
80 000
110 000
32 000 46 000 50 000
75 000

Top

Operating life

The operating life is defined as the life actually achieved by the bearing. It
may differ significantly from the calculated value.
This may be due to wear or fatigue as a result of:

## insufficient or excessive operating clearance

contamination

insufficient lubrication

brinelling)

## Due to the wide variety of possible installation and operating conditions, it is

not possible to precisely predetermine the operating life. The most reliable
way of arriving at a close estimate is by comparison with similar applications.

Top

of cylindrical roller bearings

## Radial cylindrical roller bearings used as semi-locating and locating

bearings can support axial forces in one or both directions in addition to

The axial load carrying capacity is dependent on:

the size of the sliding surfaces between the ribs and the end faces of
the rolling elements

## Ribs subjected to load must be supported across their entire height.

The permissible axial load Fa per must not be exceeded, in order to avoid
unacceptably high temperatures.
The limiting load Fa max must not be exceeded, in order to avoid unacceptable

## pressure at the contact surfaces.

The ratio Fa/Fr must not exceed a value of 0,4. For bearings of TB design, the
value 0,6 is permissible.
permissible.

Bearings of TB design

In the case of bearings of TB design, the axial load carrying capacity has
been significantly improved through the use of new calculation and
manufacturing methods.
Optimum contact conditions between the roller and rib are ensured by means
of a special curvature of the roller end faces. As a result, axial surface
pressures on the rib are significantly reduced and a lubricant film with
improved load-carrying capabilities is achieved. Under normal operating
conditions, wear and fatigue at the rib contact running and roller end faces is
completely eliminated. The axial frictional torque is reduced by up to 50%. The
bearing temperature during operation is therefore significantly lower.
Top

Permissible and
Fa per and Fa max are calculated as follows:
Bearings of standard design

Bearings of TB design

## Bearings of standard and TB design

Fa per
N
Fa max
N
kS
Factor dependent on the lubrication method,
see table
kB
Factor dependent on the bearing series,
see table
dM
mm
Mean bearing diameter (d + D)/2
n
min1
Operating speed.

## Misalignment caused by shaft deflection for example, may lead to

alternating stresses on the inner ring ribs. In this instance, the axial load
must be restricted to Fas in accordance with the formula where the bearing is
tilted up to a maximum of 2 angular minutes.

## For more severe tilting, a separate strength analysis is required.

Factor kS
for lubrication method

Factor

Lubrication methods1)
Minimal heat dissipation, drip feed oil lubrication, oil mist

kS
7,5 to 10

## lubrication, low operating viscosity ( 0,5 1)

Little heat dissipation, oil sump lubrication, oil spray lubrication,

10

to 15

## low oil flow

Good heat dissipation, recirculating oil lubrication (pressure oil

12

to 18

lubrication)
Very good heat dissipation,

16

to 24

## recirculating oil lubrication with oil cooling,

high operating viscosity ( 2 1)
______
1
The precondition for these kS values is the reference viscosity 1 according
to the section Oil lubrication. Doped oils should be used such as
CLP (DIN 51 517) and HLP (DIN 51 524) of ISO-VG classes 32 to 460 and
ATF oils (DIN 51 502) and gearbox oils (DIN 51 512) of SAE viscosity
classes 75 W to 140 W.

Bearing factor kB

Series
SL1818, SL0148
SL1829, SL0149
SL1830, SL1850
SL1822
LSL1923, ZSL1923
SL1923
NJ2..-E, NJ22..-E, NUP2..-E, NUP22..-E
NJ3..-E, NJ23..-E, NUP3..-E, NUP23..-E
NJ4

Factor
kB
4,5
11
17
20
28
30
15
20
22

Top

Very high static loads or shock loads can cause plastic deformation on the
raceways and rolling elements. This deformation limits the static load
carrying capacity of the rolling bearing with respect to the permissible noise

## level during operation of the bearing.

If a rolling bearing operates with only infrequent rotary motion or completely
without rotary motion, its size is determined in accordance with the basic
According to DIN ISO 76, this is:
a constant, concentrically acting axial load C0a for axial bearings.
The basic static load rating C0 is that load under which the Hertzian pressure
at the most heavily loaded point between the rolling elements and raceways
reaches the following values:
for roller bearings, 4 000 N/mm2
for ball bearings, 4 200 N/mm2
for self-aligning ball bearings, 4 600 N/mm2.
Under normal contact conditions, this load causes a permanent deformation at
the contact points of approx. 1/10 000 of the rolling element diameter.

In addition to dimensioning on the basis of the fatigue limit life, it is advisable
to check the static load safety factor. The guide values and shock loads
occurring in operation to table must be taken into consideration, see table,

The static load safety factor S0 is the ratio between the basic static load rating
C0 and the equivalent static load P0:

S0
C0 (C0r, C0a)
N
P0 (P0r, P0a)
N

Guide values for axial spherical roller bearings and high precision bearings:
see corresponding product description.
For drawn cup needle roller bearings, S0 3 is necessary.

Guide values

Operating conditions

S0
for roller

bearings
Smooth, low-vibration, normal operation with 1

for ball
bearings
0,5

## minimal demands for smooth running;

bearings with slight rotary motion
Normal operation with higher requirements

## The equivalent static load P0 is a calculated value. It corresponds to a radial

P0 induces the same load at the centre point of the most heavily loaded
contact point between the rolling element and raceway as the combined load
occurring in practice.

P0
N
F0r
N
F0a
N