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Progress of
Results and

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The objective of the project is to study the
working of camshaft on various cylinder to
optimise the speed (rpm). This project really
depend on camshaft designing include Lift,
duration, lobe centre, overlap, and much more
confer just how the camshaft will or will not alter
an (often theoretical) engine's performance
personality. To allow more airflow into engine, a
camshaft is designed with a profile (or curve) that
provides a specific amount lift to the valve.
Ti-VCT (twin independent variable camshaft
technology) allows extremely precise, variable
control of valve overlap, or the window of time
in which both the intake and exhaust valves in an
engine are open at the same time. By adjusting
overlap continuously, an engine can operate at
optimum settings for peak fuel economy or
power output as conditions demand.
Engine performance is major consideration in this
project. As engine using this technology deliver
high rpm with efficient fuel consumption. For
fulfilling the demand of designing various
calculation, software, and a practical knowledge
is implemented.
Our work in building a cam which operate both
intake and exhaust simultaneously with the
accurate precision helps to understand how the
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calculations work out with software. It gives the

simple understanding to design camshaft which
provide optimal speed.

Cam is a mechanical member for transmitting a
desired motion to a follower by direct contact.
The driver is called cam and driven is called
follower. Cam mechanism is a case of a higher
pair with line contact. Camshaft is the Brain of
the engine must include cam lobes, bearing
journals, and a thrust face to prevent fore and
after motion of the camshaft. In addition
camshaft can include a gear to drive the
distributor and an eccentric to drive a fuel pump.
Camshaft is controlling the valve train operation.
Camshaft is along with the crankshaft it
determines firing order. Camshaft is along with
the suction and exhaust systems it determines
the useful rpm range of the engine.

Figure 1. Cam

1. Max lift or nose 2. Flank Opening clearance ramp 3. Closing

clearance ramp 4. Base circle 5. Exhaust opening timing figure
6. Exhaust closing timing figure 7. Intake opening timing figure
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8. Intake closing timing figure 9. Intake to exhaust lobe


Cam measurement
2.1. Lift The valve should be lifted fully to its
maximum as soon as the valve starts opening
and should be closed in the same fashion
difference in measurement between the nose of
the lobe and the base circle of the lobe.
Increasing the lift opens the valve further. This
reduces the restriction to airflow at the valve and
allows air to flow more freely into the cylinder.
2.2. Duration
Duration is the length of time (measured in
degrees of crankshaft rotation) that the valve
remains open. At higher engine speeds the valve
opens and shuts in a shorter amount of time. This
limits how completely the cylinder can be filled.
2.3. Lobe Separation Angle
Lobe separation angle (LSA) is the number of
degrees separating the point of peak exhaust lift
and peak intake lift. Lobe separation angle
directly impacts the amount of valve overlap.
Because of this, production vehicles usually
employ a wide LSA to reduce valve overlap and
increase idle quality. Because of this, production
vehicles usually employ a wide LSA to reduce
valve overlap and increase idle quality.
2.4. Valve Overlap
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Valve overlap is the time in which both the intake

and exhaust valves are open. Valve overlap is
affected by Lobe separation angle and duration.
Valve overlap is used because of the principle of
exhaust scavenging (the exiting exhaust gases
help pull in the fresh intake charge, especially at
higher rpm when fill time is limited). At low RPM
when intake port speed is low, a long valve
overlap period will cause reversion into the intake
port (the cylinder pressure exceeds the force of
the air in the intake port and exhaust gasses are
forced into the intake port). This causes the
lumpy idle associated with big camshafts.
2.5. Intake Valve Closing
It is most critical valve opening/closing point. It is
too early of an intake valve closing and the
cylinder may not have time to fill completely.
Intake Valve Closing is too late of an intake valve
closing and the cylinder pressure will overcome
the inertia of incoming airflow and revert flow
back into the intake port. This causes a serious
disruption to flow and destroys any pressure
waving tuning.
2.6. Exhaust Valve Opening
Exhaust Valve Opening is second most critical
valve opening/closing event. It determines the
balance between power event efficiency and
exhaust pumping losses. It is too early of an
exhaust valve opening will reduce the amount of
energy converted from cylinder pressure to
mechanical force on the piston

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Factors to consider:
1. The longer the duration, the more time the
engine will have to let the burnt gases out. The
more burnt gases let out, the more space will
have for fresh fuel and air from the intake
system. This means more power.
2. If the duration is too long, the exhaust valve
will be open during combustion or when the
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piston is traveling down on the intake stroke.

Either condition means less power.
3. Duration is limited to 0 - 330 degrees.
4. Exhaust valve size + intake valve size must be
less than the size of the bore. If the exhaust
valve diameter + intake valve diameter is bigger
than the bore, one of those valves is hitting the
deck of the block and not opening at all.
5. Exhaust valve lift does not have air separation
problems, so the lift can be higher, allowing
smaller exhaust valve size. Exhaust valve lift can
be 20% of the bore without losing effectiveness.
After 20%, there are no gains in air flow.
6. It is easier to push air out of an engine than it
is to draw air in, so the average open exhaust
valve area need only be 57.82% of the average
open intake valve area.
The lobes on the cam are the egg shaped
bumps. These lobes have lift and duration
specifications that we dictate. The lift is how high
the lobe on the cam will lift the valve. The
duration is how long, in crank degrees, the valve
will be open.
It is easier to push air out of an engine than it is
to draw air in, so the average open exhaust valve
area need only be 57.82% of the average open
intake valve area. To design a cam and exhaust
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valve combination with an average open exhaust

valve area that is 57.82% of the average open
intake valve area, we could estimate it by using
an exhaust valve duration or an exhaust valve
size or an exhaust valve lift that is 57.82% of the
same intake values. However, this will leave us
short of the maximum benefit of a designed cam.
So, if to find exact and maximize power, we uses
the equation below. Exhaust valve duration is
determined by the exhaust lobe on the cam.
Exhaust valve duration is measured in crank
degrees . When we set the duration in crank
degrees, we are determining the point on the
cam at which the lobe begins pushing the lifter
up and where it lets the lifter back down. Since
the cam rotates 1 time for every 2 times the
crank rotates, an exhaust valve duration of 300
degrees means the exhaust valve is open for 150
degrees of a single revolution of the engine.
Exhaust valve duration, exhaust valve diameter
and exhaust valve lift factor in together to
determine air velocity in the exhaust system.

Parameters for design

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Bore dia = 80mm

Valve lift = .48in =
Opening duration =
Dwell period = 112o
Stroke length = 12mm
Base circle dia =
Valve dia = 35.77mm
(20% area of bore)

Bore dia = 80mm

Valve lift = .48in =
Delay period = 121o
Opening duration =
Dwell period = 112o
Base circle dia =
Valve dia =
28.47mm(intake valve
area is 57.82% more
than exhaust)

1. Equation of cam profile
Cam rotates 1 time for every 2 times the crank
rotates and cam duration is measured in crank
degrees, the equation for exhaust cam degrees
exhaust cam degrees = exhaust valve
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Next, we calculate the angle from the x-axis to

the point at which lift begins. We call this angle
Theta = 90 - exhaust cam degrees/2
=90-62 =28

Next, we calculate the x and y values of the point

at which lift begins, using the angle we just
x = 0.5 cos (3.14159/ (180 / theta))
x =0.5 cos (3.14159/ (180 / 28))
y = 0.5 sin (3.14159/ (180 / theta))
y = 0.5 sin (3.14159/ (180 / 28))
y = 0.2344

Next, we calculate the b-value for the equation y

= ax2 + b, which is the equation for a parabola.
We use a parabola because it closely represents
the shape of a cam lobe:
b = exhaust valve lift + radius of base circle
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b = 12 mm + 23.45 (exhaust valve lift = stroke

length )
b = 35.45
a = -(y-b)/x2
a = 79.78
The final equation for cam profile with constants
a & b
Y = b ax2
Y = 35.45 79.78x2
The 0.5 in the equation above is the radius of
what is called the cam base circle. The cam base
circle is the minimum radius the lifter will rest on.

Displacement Diagram

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1.Cam analyser for valve timing analysis.
This software help us to understand at what
rocker ratio and lash ratio with total no of
working cylinder at various intake and
exhaust valve lift the cam can be
determined. Like the company like ford use
the rocker arm 1.5-1.8 and we use 1.5 as
standard with .026-.028 lash ratio.
2.Solid works full model view (camshaft &
We have prepared the solidwork model on
the basis of the calculations performed. This
model is based on two working cams on the
basis of the intake valve lift and exhaust

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valve lift with total lift of the cam.

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Results & Discussions

A cam-shaft was designed using the standard
parameters but using non-conventional
technique of Ti VCT (Twin independent variable
cam timing). The engine performance is
optimised by improving the breathing capacity at
different rpms by using 2 different cams for
intake and exhaust valves controlled separately
by ECU. A standard cam profile was drawn using
pre-existing techniques for both intake and
exhaust cams i.e.
Y= 35.45 79.78x2
The following optimisation of the cams gives
better engine performance.
1.7% improvement in peak performance.
2.4.5% improvement in fuel economy.
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3.Reduced NOx and Hydrocarbon emissions

without compromising idle quality.
4.5% improvement in low-speed torque for
better acceleration.
5.Optimised cold-start operation and
minimizing cold-start emissions.

1. High Performance Math by Doug Reisgen and
Craig Reisgen | (2009)
2. specification 2014 F-150
3. Engine Basics. Camshaft
Basics from the February, 2009 issue of Chevy
High Performance by Bob Mehlhoff.
4. Modelling, Design and Finite Element Analysis
of Cam Shaft by
Vivekanandan.Pa, Kumar

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