You are on page 1of 13

H2 History Decolonisation

A - Level H2 History
C1
Decolonisation
South-East Asia Nationalism
1945-

- Impacts on decolonisation [Reasons, Pace,


Nature]

H2 History Decolonisation

Impacts on Decolonisation
Nationalists [Internal]
***Strengths of Nationalists [Mass Support,
Arms]

Possession of Mass Support


Possession of Armed capabilities
Strong position to accelerate pace of decolonization
Made it difficult for the colonial powers to counteract
Forced them to concede independence

Outcome
Burma

Indonesia

AFPFL
Contained wide-range of political
grouping and had nationwide
structure, military formations and
access to arms
Demanded immediate
independence
Organised strikes with massive
public support throughout Burma
until it was clear that Labour
government was unable to
implement policies and maintain
order in the country
Broad base support and armed
capabilities manifested in PVO

Republican Government
Were able to command the
support of the pemudas and
masses who were desirous of
independence
Despite two police actions, were
unable to retain control

Conflict made it unsustainable


for Dutch to maintain its
position
Led to negotiations for
independence in 1949

Made it ungovernable for British


Convinced British their position
was untenable
Led to negotiations for transfer of
power

Ability to Expulse communist


Proved their strength over
control
Proof of moderate and anticommunist stance
Quelled Communist PKI-led
revolts at Madiun in 1948

Ability to convince USA of their


ability and to pressure the exit
of the Dutch

H2 History Decolonisation

Internal
Nationalists
Accelerated Process
Can be argued as both smooth / struggle
-

Alternate Outcome

Vietnam

Vietminh
Strength in military
Lead to defeat of French at Dien
Bien Phy 1954

Led to a drawn-out conflict


Process was complicated and
prolonged by the escalation and
transformation of conflict

Internal
Nationalists
Prolonged Process
Violent
-

Conclusion
However, it still accelerated the pace as it led to the withdrawal of the
French which could have proven otherwise without the strength of the
nationalists as the French had no plans to withdraw from Vietnam

H2 History Decolonisation

***Approach by Nationalists
Impacted the process by making it one which was marked by transfer of
sovereignty through use of negotiations

Collaborative Approach
Outcome

Philippines

Malaya [Strength of Nationlists]

Manila Elite led by Roxas


Well-entrenched which offered
United States prospect of a return
to stability
Cooperated with returning
Americans
In contrast to leftist Huks who
offered endless prospect of
political strife and social upheaval
Pave the way for smooth transfer
of power through series of
negotiations

Led to Tydings
Bell Acts
Signed which set the context for
post-independence relationship

Ability of Malay and Chinese


political elite to forge interethnic compromise
Malay laws were not challenged
while Chinese were given full
autonomy over economic power
Later joined by Indian political
leaders
Demonstrated ability to work
together
Offered prospect of a stable
nation

Convinced British of their ability


of compromise
Paved way for negotiations
between the alliance and British
Resulted in incremental doses of
self-governance which
culminated to independence in
1957 led by Alliance
government

Link

H2 History Decolonisation

Internal
Nationalists
Peaceful
Positive Impact on Nationalists

Confrontational Approach
Marked by outright conflict
Seek to recover control through violent means

Alternate Outcome

Vietnam

Indonesia

Vietminh and French


Engaged in 8 year long war
Culminated to defeat of French at
Dien Bien Phu

Link

Internal
Nationalists
Prolonged??? Accelerated??
Violent
-

Conclusion
4

Republican government
Adopted policy of diplomacy and
confrontation
Engulfed Dutch forces in a
conflict which they could not
sustain
Formed the backdrop of the
Indonesian revolution

H2 History Decolonisation

Colonial Powers
***Focus of Colonial powers
Depended on colonial attitudes and priorities
Affected nature and pace of process

Outcome

Philippines

Burma

USA
Based on guaranteed timetable
for Philippines independence
even before the war
Saw Roxas a compliant individual
who could be relied upon to
secure country against radical
social change

Led to peaceful process marked


by negotiations

Link

Labour Government
Had changing priorities after the
war
Conceding of independence to
India in 1947 set the stage for
transfer of power in Burma was
accelerated
Mountbatten placed pressure on
Hubert Rance to involve key
nationalists in the AFPFL in the
process
Knew that if they wanted to
maintain future relations with
Burma, they had to grant
independence

H2 History Decolonisation

Internal
Colonial
Accelerated Process
Peaceful
Positive Impact on Nationalists

Alternate Outcome

Indonesia

Vietnam

Dutch
Importance of colony in post-war
pans
Reconstruction was the aim of the
Dutch

Aim of nationalists and dutch


were in direct conflict
Dutch desirous aim to reconstruct
while nationalist wanted
independence

Link

Internal
Colonial
Prolonged Process
Violent
Negative Impact on Nationalists

Conclusion

French
Sought to perpetuate control
through French Union and
Indochinese Federation
Continued intransigence of the
French to negotiate or consider
compromise with Vietnminh led
to the prolonged and violent
conflict

H2 History Decolonisation

**Cost of Second World War


Brought new pressures on the metropole
Caused re-evaluation of post-war policy
Increased costs of recovering and maintaining control

Outcome (+ve for nationalists)

Burma

Indonesia

Labour government
More focused on domestic
economic reconstruction
Maintenance of empire was
placed aside

Further complicated by threat


by US to withhold Marshall Plan
Incapacitated Dutch economic
inability to pursue its control
over Indonesia

Led to Indians independence in


1947 which further reduced the
need for retaining Burma

Link

Escalating costs of colonial


conflict
Pressured Hague to negotiate
with Republican government

External
Colonial
Accelerated Process
Positive Impact on Nationalists
7

H2 History Decolonisation

Superpowers / Cold War [External]


***Fear of Communism

Fear of communist
Cold War impact
Domino theory manifested
Importance of intervention

Outcome [Anti-communist nationalists]

Indonesia

Philippines

USA fear of communism


Convinced USA it had to support
non-communist nationalists
Republican government, Sukarno
and Hatta
Perceived as a valuable ally after
it quelled PKI-led revolts at
Madiun in 1948
Placed pressure on Dutch through
UN and threatened to withhold
Marshall Plan aid
External influence forced Dutch
into negotiations with nationalists

Washingtons thinking was


shapred by anticipation that
efforts to sustain colonial rule
would generate instability and
provide fertile ground for
communist agitation
Belief that progressive evolution
to native self-government was
key to defusing tensions
Conceded independence to
Manila elite
Swift transfer of leadership to
Liberal Party under Roxas
Offered Roxas Endorsement of
pre-war Filipino oligarchy was
favoured over potential
instability which could result

H2 History Decolonisation
from accommodating the leftist
Huks within the poltical process

Link

External
USA, Cold War
Accelerated Process
Peaceful
Positive Impact on Nationalists

Alternate Outcome [Communist nationalists]

Vietnam

Malaya (Outcome on Nationalists


only)

USA fear of communist regime


which Vietnam was led by
communist Vietminh
USA extended military and
economic aid to French

Further complicated colonial war


and prolonged its duration

MCP
Claims of creating an
independent socialist Malaya
marked by armed insurgency in
1948
British retaliated by declaring
Emergency and launching
reprisals

By 1950, MCP was nullfied

Link

External
USA, Cold War
- (Prolonged)
Violent
Negative Impact on Nationalists

H2 History Decolonisation

Conclusion

**International Pressure / UN
International opinion of freedom
UN became platform to which international pressure placed on colonial
powers to give independence

Outcome

Philippines

USA
Took the lead in extending
independence in 1946

Provided an example for its


wartime allies to do the same

Indonesia

UN
Played a role in garnering
international opinion against
continued Dutch attempts at
restoring control
Particularly after secondary
police Action

Turned the tide of international


opinion against Hague to
reconsider its policy in Indonesia

Link

External
UN
Accelerated Process
10

H2 History Decolonisation

Peaceful
Positive Impact on Nationalists

Possible Intros:

The process of Decolonisation in Southeast Asia depended on


Although ____ had caused the decolonisation in Southeast Asia,

Possible Conclusions:

Summary Table
Nature of Process of Decolonization
Cause/Result

Accelerated Process

Nationalist Strength

Yes:
Exception:

Peaceful Transfer

Nationalist
Cooperative
Nationalist
Confrontational
Colonial

Responsible for Decolonization


Cause/Result

Prevented Process

Nationalist Strength
Nationalist
Cooperative
Nationalist
Confrontational
Colonial
11

Allowed Process

H2 History Decolonisation

Summary
Nationalist
***Strengths of
Nationalists [Mass
Support, Arms]

Colonial Powers
***Focus of Colonial
powers

Superpowers
***Fear of
Communist

**Cost of Second World


War

**International
Pressure / UN

***Approach by
Nationalists
Collaborative Approach
Confrontational
Approach

12