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Bending of composite plate weakened by square hole

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journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/ijmecsci

Nirav P Patel a, Dharmendra S Sharma b,n

a

b

Mechanical Engineering Department, Institute of Technology, Nirma University, Gandhinagar-Sarkhej Road, Ahmedabad 382481, Gujarat, India

Mechanical Engineering Department, Faculty of Technology and Engineering, The M. S. University of Baroda, Vadodara 390001, Gujarat, India

art ic l e i nf o

a b s t r a c t

Article history:

Received 11 December 2014

Received in revised form

12 February 2015

Accepted 28 February 2015

Available online 9 March 2015

The present analytic investigations emphasizes on the effect of stacking sequence, ply groups, loading

angles, materials and corner radii on the failure strength and moment distribution in symmetric

laminated composite plate weakened by a square hole. The generalized close form solution of bending

moment around such cut-out is presented by using the Muskhelishvili's complex variable formulation.

The layer wise stresses and failure strengths are studied and the failure strengths of laminates are

investigated.

& 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Keywords:

Bending

Complex variable approach

Failure strength

Flexural moduli

Symmetric laminate

1. Introduction

The multilayered plates are being essentially used in industries

ranging from space vehicles, aircrafts, biomedical to transportations, house buildings and electronics packaging due to their

superiorities like, high strength and light weight. Generally, holes/cut-outs are built into these plates, result into strength degradation. In order to exploit their advantages, the appropriate

mathematical tools that deal with their peculiar anisotropic

behavior especially when weakened with cutouts, are imperative.

By using various mathematical models, extensive studies have

been made on structural analysis of these plates globally and nd

applications. Goodier [1] and Reissner [2] have studied the

moment distribution around circular hole in thin isotropic plate

subjected to bending loading. In case of thick isotropic plates,

Naghdi [3], and Chen and Archer [4] have presented the solution of

stress concentration around circular hole due to bending.

Among all mathematical models, complex variable method [5] is

one of the efcient tool to study these plates containing simply or

multiply connected domains. By using Muskhelishvili's complex

variable approach [5], the problem of stress concentration around

various shaped holes for isotropic innite media subjected to in-plane

loading was solved by many researchers like Savin [6] (circular,

elliptical, square, and rectangular cut-outs), Lekhnitskii [7] (circular

and elliptical cut-outs), Theocaris and Petrou [8] (triangular cut-out),

E-mail addresses: nirav_npp@yahoo.com (N. Patel),

dss_iit@yahoo.com (D. Sharma).

http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijmecsci.2015.02.021

0020-7403/& 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

rectangular), Rezaeepazhand and Jafari [13] (polygonal cut-out),

Batista [14] (polygonal cut-out) and Sharma [15] (polygonal cut-out),

etc. The stress distribution is also obtained around circular [7,16],

elliptical [1619], triangular [2022], square and rectangular [23], and

irregular cut-outs [2426] in composite media subjected to in-plane

loading.

The problems of moment distribution around different shaped

discontinuities have also been studied. Savin [6] has obtained

moment distribution around circular, elliptical, triangular and square

hole in innite isotropic media. Ukadgaonker and Rao [27] have

given the general solution for the bending of symmetric laminates

based on the formulation of Savin [6] and Lekhnitskii [7].

For the structural analysis of plates, the study of loading

conditions, geometry of cuts-outs, material properties is indispensable as the behavior of these plates strongly depend on them

[2729]. The effects of these parameters have been studied around

circular [27], polygonal [28], elliptical and triangular hole [29] in

isotropic [28] and anisotropic plates [27,29] by using a complex

variable method [5]. Hsieh and Hwu [30] used Stroh-like formulation for the solution of bending in the anisotropic case. The

solutions of moment distribution around circular, elliptical hole

and inclusion were given.

To the best of author's knowledge, only few research articles

have reported the moment distribution around regular/irregular

holes for anisotropic media. Ukadgaonker and Rao [27], and

Sharma and Patel [29] have investigated the effect of stacking

sequence on moment distribution around circular [27], elliptical

and triangular hole [29] in symmetric laminated plate. The effects

of various parameters such as stacking sequence, loading angles,

132

N.P Patel, D.S Sharma / International Journal of Mechanical Sciences 94-95 (2015) 131139

and failure strength in case of laminated plates weakened by a

square hole are not investigated. In addition to these, the failure

strength of composite plate containing a cut-out, under bending

loading is also not addressed.

In this study, the values of moments and failure strengths of

symmetric laminated plates containing a square hole subjected to

bending loading are investigated. The mathematical model of rst

ply failure theory is used to calculate failure strength of laminate

under bending loading. The stresses and TsaiHill strengths are

described for each layer of laminate. The inuence of various

parameters such as stacking sequences, ply groups, corner radii,

materials and loading angles is investigated.

Fig. 1. Plate with square hole.

3 1 ; 4 2 :

no. of layers, subjected to bending loading, is considered (refer

Fig. 1). Each layer is considered to be orthotropic with uniform

thickness and perfectly bonded together.

By considering (x, y) as off-axis and (1, 2) as a principal material

axis, the transformation equations for kth layer is employed as:

2

3

2 2

31

Q xx Q xy 2Q xs

c

s2

2cs

6Q

6

7

7

c2 2cs 5

4 yx Q yy 2Q ys 5 4 s2

2

2

Q sx Q sy 2Q ss

cs cs c s k

k

2

3

E1

12 E1

2 2

3

0

c

s2

2cs

6 1 12 21 1 12 21

7

6 21 E2

7

6

7

E2

0 7 4 s2

1

c2 2cs 5 ;

6 1 12 21 1 12 21

4

5

2

2

1

s

cs

cs

c

0

0

k

2G12

arbitrary and analytic functions, F1(1) and F2(3) as

wx; y 2F 1 1 F 2 2 ;

7

i

n

where Q ij i; j x; y; s are the stiffness coefcients referred to offaxis x y of kth ply, derived from the Young moduli, Ei i 1; 2,

the Poisson ratios, ij i; j 1; 2; the shear moduli, Gij i; j 1; 2,

c cos and s sin , is ber orientation of kth ply.

For the plate subjected to bending, stresses x ; y ; xy in x and

y direction can be expressed in-terms of deection wx; y (deection of the mid-plane in the direction of z-axis) as follows:

2

3

2

3 2

3

Q xx Q xy Q xs

x

w;xx

6 7

6

7 6

7

2

4 y 5 z4 Q yx Q yy Q ys 5 4 w;yy 5;

Q sx Q sy Q ss

xy

2w;xy

k

the laminate and w;ij i; j x; y are the curvatures 1 ; 2 ; 3 of

laminate.

The moments in x and y directions, M x ; M y and M xy (per unit

length of the mid plane) can be obtained by taking:

2

3

2

3

2

3 2

3

x

w;xx

Mx

Z t Q xx Q xy Q xs

Z t

2

2

6M 7

6 7

6Q

7

6

7

4 y 5

4 y 5 zdz

4 yx Q yy Q ys 5 4 w;yy 5z2 dz

2t

2t

Q sx Q sy Q ss

M xy

xy

2w;xy

2

F xx

6

4 F yx

F sx

F xy

F yy

F sy

32

w;xx

F xs

6

7

F ys 7

54 w;yy 5;

F ss

2w;xy

exural stiffness.

Using Eq. (3) and equilibrium equation, the following 4th order

characteristic equation can be obtained [8]:

F xx w;xxxx 4F xs w;xxxy 2 F xy 2F ss w;xxxy 4F ys w;xyyy F yy w;yyyy 0:

4

The roots of Eq. (4) are

1 1 i1 ; 2 2 i2 ;

obtained by transforming the area external to given hole in plane to unit circle -plane by generalized transformation function

given below:

"

!

!#

l

l

X

X

R

4n 1

1 4n

j Aj 1

cn

cn

Bj

; j 1; 2;

2

n1

n1

f4p 1 2g

Cn

p1

n

4 4n 1n!

can be related to number of terms (l) by r 0:1; l 1; r

0:0417; l 2; r 0:0240; l 3; r 0:0161; l 4 and r

0:0117; l 5.

Now, moments can be calculated by putting the values from

Eq. (6) into Eq. (3):

2

3

'

'

2

3

2

3

2 1 2

Mx

F xx F xy F xs

6

7

6M 7

6

76

7

'

'

8

4 y 5 4 F yx F yy F ys 56 221 1 22 2 7;

4

5

M xy

F sx F sy F ss

'

'

41 1 2 2

where 1 dF 1 =d 1 ; 2 dF 2 =d 2 :

Here, 1 and 2 are the stress functions calculated by

using method of superposition [5]:

1 1 1 2 1 ;

2 1 2 2 2 :

follows:

1 1 1 ;

1 2 n 2 ;

10

n

so, CQ0. Now, the constants, and can be calculated by using

following equations:

2 3 2

3 2 13

E11 E12 E13 1 M x

B

6 n 7 6E

7 6 M1 7

7

4 B 5 4 21 E22 E23 5 6

4 y 5;

1

n

M

E

E

E

C

31

32

33

xy

n

N.P Patel, D.S Sharma / International Journal of Mechanical Sciences 94-95 (2015) 131139

(M x ; M y ; M xy ) are transformed into an orthogonal curvilinear

coordinate system constant, constant (M ; M ; M ) using

the transformation relations.

E21 2F xy L21 L22 F yy 2L1 F ys ;

E22 2F xy L23 L24 F yy 2L3 F ys ;

E23 22L3 L4 F yy 2L4 F ys ;

E32 2F xs L23 L24 F xy 2L3 F ss ;

E33 22L3 L4 F xy 2L4 F ss ;

L1 1 ; L2 Im1 ;

L3 2 ; L4 Im2 ;

1

M1

x ; My

11

M1

xy

and

are the moments applied at innity that

where

can be calculated by employing Gao's arbitrary biaxial loading

conditions [18] in which various boundary conditions can be

obtained by considering different combinations like, 0;

0

900 (cylindrical bending about-X axis, M 1

x 1); 0; 0

(cylindrical bending about-Y axis, M 1

1);

1;

0

(pure

y

0

1

1

bending, M 1

x M y 1) and 1; 45 (twisting, M xy 1),

where and is biaxial loading factor and loading angle respectively.

Now, boundary conditions around the ctitious hole due to

applied moments at innity, can be obtained:

p

q n

1

f 1 1 1 1 2 ;

1

f2

n

p2 1 q2 2 ;

12

laminated plate weakened by a square hole is presented below.

First, curvatures ( 1 w;xx ; 2 w;yy ; 3 2w;xy ) around

the hole are calculated by using Eq. (3):

F 1 M :

p1 F xx F xy 21 2F xs 1 ; q1 F xx F xy 22 2F xs 2 ;

N total number of layers. Now, from the values of stresses, the

failure strength of each lamina is calculated by using TsaiHill

failure criterion:

8 2

91

2

2

>

>

< N 1 x;N

=

N 2 y;N

N3 xy;N

2

2

2

2f ;N

;

>

: N 4 x;N 4 y;N N5 y;N 4xy;N N 6 x;N 4xy;N >

;

N1

N2

p2 F xy F yy 21 2F ys 1 ; q2 F xy F yy 22 2F ys 2 :

By introducing the values of 1 and 2 into above equations

2

and considering negative of the boundary conditions (f 1

1 2

1

f 1 ; f 2 f 2 ) on the hole boundary, the stress functions

(2 ; 2 ) can be obtained by using Schwarz formula [6]:

"

#

l

X

1

a1

1 4n

2

b1

cn

;

p1 q2 2 p2 q1 1

n1

"

#

l

X

2

a2

1 4n

2

b2

cn

;

13

p1 q2 2 p2 q1 1

n1

where

a1 q1 k3 k4 q2 2 k1 k2 ; b1 q1 k4 k3 q2 2 k2 k1 ;

a2 p1 k3 k4 p2 1 k1 k2 ; b2 p1 k4 k3 p2 1 k2 k1 ;

R p1

q

R p1

q

k1

A1 1 n A2 ; k2

B1 1 n B2 ;

2 1

2 1

2

2

R

R

n

n

k3 p2 A1 q2 A2 ; k4 p2 B1 q2 B2 :

2

2

Final stress functions are obtained by superposition of stress

function from Eqs. (10) and (13). The resultant moments and

torque around the hole are:

2

3 2 13 2

32

3

Mx

F xx F xy F xs

Mx

22' 1 2' 2

6

7

1

6 M 7 6M 7 6F

76

7

2

2

4 y 5 4 y 5 4 yx F yy F ys 54 21 2' 1 2 2' 2 5;

1

M xy

M xy

F sx F sy F ss

41 2' 1 2 2' 2

14

'

'2

2' 1

; ' z1 ;

'

'

1

1'

d 1

d 2

; 2'

:

d

d

15

values of curvatures (Eq. (15)) for each ply as follows:

k-N=2 zQ k-N=2 k ;

16

where

where

133

N3

N4

N5

N6

c4

s4

Xt

Yt

X 2t

s4

c4

Xt

Yt

8c2 s2

2

4c2 s2

X 2t

Y 2t

2

2

c s2

X 2t

2

3

6cs 2c3 s

X 2t

3

6c s 2cs3

X 2t

c2 s2 2 ;

!

c2 s2 2 ;

X 2t

2

2

c s2

S2

Yt

S2

2

4c3 s

Y 2t

4cs3

Y 2t

c cos k ; s sin k ;

c 2 s2

X 2t

!

2 ;

2c2 s2 2 ;

2c3 s 2s3 c

S2

2cs3 2sc3

S2

!

2;

!

2;

17

tension, Y t transverse strength in tension and S shear strength.

The minimum value of the strength around the hole will give the

failure strength of a particular ply. At the end, the rst ply failure

phenomenon is considered that means the ply with the lowest

failure strength is considered to be weakest among all plies and

the failure strength of this lamina is considered as the overall

strength of laminate:

f min f ;1 ; f ;2 :: f ;N :

18

The objective of the present work is to investigate the inuence

of various parameters such as, staking sequence, materials, loading

angles, corner radii and ply groups on the moment distribution

and failure strength around a square hole for symmetric laminated

plate. In addition to these, layer wise stresses and failure strengths

around hole are also studied. The moments are calculated by using

Muskhelishvili's complex variable formulation (Eq. (14)) and the

failure strength is obtained by applying rst ply failure theory (Eq.

(18)). The mathematical formulation has been coded and results

134

N.P Patel, D.S Sharma / International Journal of Mechanical Sciences 94-95 (2015) 131139

Table 1

Properties of various materials.

Carbon/epoxy

Kevlar/epoxy

Glass/epoxy

12 0:28; G12 5:65 GPa;

X t 200 MPa;

Y t 61 MPa;

S 70 MPa;

12 0:34; G12 2:2 GPa;

X t 1280 MPa;

Y t 30 MPa;

S 49 MPa;

12 0:26; G12 4:14 GPa;

X t 1062 MPa;

Y t 31 MPa;

S 72 MPa;

symmetric laminate plate.

Fig. 2. Flexural moduli (F xx ; F yy ) for various ply groups of carbon/epoxy.

Fig. 3. Moment distribution around square hole (r 0:1) for isotropic plate

subjected to twisting.

symmetric laminated plate (Table 1) subjected to various loading

conditions (cylindrical bending about-X axis, cylindrical bending

about-Y axis, pure bending and twisting). Here, 16 layered symmetric laminate (thickness of each ply0.0125 mm) of cross ply

((04/904)S, (02/902)2S and (0/90)4S) and angle ply ((454/ 454)S,

(452/ 452)2S and (45/ 45)4S) are considered for the present study.

Here, the complex parameters depend upon the values of

exural moduli (F ij ; i; j x; y; s) (Eq. (4)). The variations of these

moduli are addressed as the number of ply group increases (Fig. 2).

It is observed that as number of ply group increases the value of

F xx and F yy converges towards one value. The result is plotted for

Fig. 5. Maximum M x =M; M y =M around square hole (r 0:1) for various ply groups

of carbon/epoxy.

exural moduli converge to the value of modulus of quasihomogeneous symmetric laminate.

The present analytical investigation is validated by considering

simple case of isotopic plate (E 200 GN/m2, G12 80 GN/m2,

12 0:25) and graphite/epoxy (E1 181 GN/m2, E2 10.30 GN/

m2, G12 7.17 GN/m2, 12 0:28, 21 0:016) symmetric laminated plate ((45/ 45)4S) containing square hole. The input data

of loading, material, and radius are used to be similar to the work

done by Savin [6] (for isotropic case, 1; 450 ) and

N.P Patel, D.S Sharma / International Journal of Mechanical Sciences 94-95 (2015) 131139

135

Fig. 8. M =M around square hole for angle ply of kevlar/epoxy laminated plate

subjected to twisting.

Fig. 6. M =M around square hole for angle ply laminated plate of kevlar/epoxy

subjected to all round moment.

Fig. 7. M =M around square hole for cross ply carbon/epoxy laminated plate

subjected to bending about-X axis.

1; 00 ) for the sake of comparison of the present analytic

investigation. The results obtained from the present work are in

marked agreement (Figs. 3 and 4).

In present work, the maximum normalized moments M x =M;

M y =M are calculated for each value of ply group for cross ply

symmetric laminated plate weakened by square hole

r 0:1considering all round moment (Fig. 5). The trend is similar

to the exural moduli variation (Fig. 2). Here, the variation

converge to one value as the number of ply group increases. This

may be due to the values of corresponding exural moduli

converge to the value of modulus of quasi-homogeneous symmetric laminate.

A 16 layered symmetric laminated plates of carbon/epoxy,

kevlar/epoxy and glass/epoxy with three different ply groups (4,

8 and 16 of cross ply and angle ply) are considered. The moment

distribution M =M for some of the cases of cross ply and angle ply

are as shown in Figs. 68. The maximum values of M =M and

respective loadings are addressed (Figs. 68). Along with these,

maximum values of M =M for all other cases are tabulated in

Table 2. It is evident from the results, the value of M =M decreases

signicantly as the number of ply group increased. This may be

because, for less number of ply groups, the laminate has larger

tangential moment greatly affected by the bluntness at the corner

of a square hole. The maximum M =M increases with the decrease

in corner radii. Here, it can also be observed that the value of

M =M changes signicantly as stacking sequence varies. This

proves that the stacking conguration is the one of the governing

parameter on which the behavior of laminate depends.

As we know that the performance of laminates can be checked

by deciding the value of strength for specic loading. Here, in the

present work, the procedure to calculate failure strength of a

laminate is also demonstrated by taking few cases. Foremost, the

values of stresses (around hole) ( x ; y ; xy ) (Eq. 16) are calculated

for each layer from which the layer-wise strengths are calculated

(Eq. (17)). The layer-wise maximum stresses ( x ; y ) for (04/904)S

and (454/ 454)S of glass/epoxy symmetric laminated plate subjected to all round moment and bending about-X axis are

addressed in Fig. 9. Similarly, the values of strengths are plotted

for each layer of kevlar/epoxy (cross ply and angle ply with m 4,

8 and 16) subjected to all round moment is also plotted (Fig. 10).

Here, it is observed that the values of stresses and strengths are

higher at top and middle layer respectively.

The values of strengths are calculated for all cases of cross ply

and angle ply (m 4, 8 and 16) symmetric laminates (carbon/

epoxy, kevlar/epoxy and glass/epoxy) considering various loadings

( 1; 00 ; 0; 900 ; 0; 00 and 1; 450 ) for

various bluntness of square hole (Table 3). As observed from

Table 3, the values of strengths are signicantly affected by corner

radii of the hole. The strength increases as the corner radii

increases.

The cross ply laminate is performing well in case of plate

subjected to bending about-X axis compare to other loadings as its

strength is higher for all materials. On the contrary, the values of

normalized tangential moment are lower for cross ply laminates

subjected to bending about-X axis. However, similar trend is not

observed for angle ply laminates. Here, the values of normalized

tangential moment are higher in case of kevlar/epoxy plate

compare to other materials for all loadings. Glass/epoxy symmetric

laminated plate is performing well in all loadings with angle ply

conguration compare to cross ply (Table 3). Among all materials,

strength of carbon/epoxy is higher irrespective of loadings and ply

congurations. So, the values of strength and moments are

affected by the values of ber congurations. The behavior of

laminates can be tailored by changing the ber conguration to

satisfy the intent requirement (Tables 2 and 3).

136

N.P Patel, D.S Sharma / International Journal of Mechanical Sciences 94-95 (2015) 131139

Table 2

Maximum M =M in laminates containing square hole for various loading conditions.

Carbon/epoxy

Kevlar/epoxy

(a) Cylindrical bending, (b) bending about-X axis, (c) bending about-Y axis, (d) twisting

(a)

r 0.1

04 =904 S

02 =902 2S

0=90 4S

454 = 454 S

452 = 452 2S

45= 45 4S

r 0.0417

04 =904 S

02 =902 2S

0=90 4S

454 = 454 S

452 = 452 2S

45= 45 4S

r 0.0240

04 =904 S

02 =902 2S

0=90 4S

454 = 454 S

452 = 452 2S

45= 45 4S

(b)

(c)

(d)

(a)

(b)

Glass/epoxy

(c)

(d)

(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

2.872

8.828

2.720

6.127

12.755

9.862

2.713

7.206

27.301

6.305

2.549

3.756

6.188

2.35

3.844

11.201

6.626

2.327

4.325

24.374

5.020

2.288

2.740

4.094

5.392

2.223

3.719

11.556

5.708

2.197

4.216

21.896

4.539

2.181

2.637

4.677

12.987

8.284

15.638

3.864

16.130

18.156

28.303

6.108

6.934

3.100

5.023

3.357

7.209

5.043

6.977

4.756

8.032

8.251

10.820

5.214

5.343

2.785

3.429

3.921

5.946

3.788

4.531

5.222

6.442

5.166

6.160

5.725

4.856

2.598

2.851

4.203

10.587

3.248

7.342

15.437

11.769

3.270

8.593

33.718

7.500

3.036

4.463

3.451

7.447

2.801

4.646

13.611

7.953

2.768

5.206

30.043

6.003

2.700

3.303

4.930

6.490

2.641

4.505

14.184

6.853

2.598

5.178

27.066

5.437

2.559

3.033

5.623

17.090

11.385

21.350

5.150

21.382

24.733

38.441

7.772

9.223

4.241

6.927

4.523

9.496

6.991

9.593

6.408

10.555

11.232

14.485

7.022

6.969

3.813

4.726

5.335

7.758

5.260

6.275

7.071

8.429

7.142

8.377

7.737

6.312

3.546

3.904

5.739

3.905

12.146

3.752

8.394

17.921

13.487

3.738

9.815

39.321

8.584

3.483

5.102

8.558

3.228

5.330

15.883

9.136

3.169

5.966

35.251

6.873

3.082

3.791

5.606

7.458

3.036

5.192

16.417

7.873

2.982

6.006

31.802

6.224

2.914

3.407

6.411

20.754

14.019

25.999

6.175

25.972

30.082

46.526

8.929

10.765

5.117

8.526

5.459

11.208

8.521

11.593

7.737

12.563

13.523

17.323

8.443

8.305

4.531

5.797

6.474

9.236

6.420

7.611

8.578

10.011

8.635

10.077

9.346

7.460

4.224

4.764

6.979

Fig. 9. Layer wise maximum stress x =; y = for glass/epoxy plate containing square hole (r 0.0240). (a) (04/904)S, 1, 01 (b) (04/904)S, 0, 901 (c) (454/-454)S,

1, 01 and (d) (454/-454)S, 0, 901

and strengths for different number of ply groups are also studied

(Fig. 11). The carbon/epoxy plate of cross ply laminate weakened

are nearly converges to one value. This trend is similar to

convergence of exural moduli (Fig. 2) and bending moment

N.P Patel, D.S Sharma / International Journal of Mechanical Sciences 94-95 (2015) 131139

137

Fig. 10. Layer wise strength for kevlar/epoxy laminated plate weakened by square hole (r 0.0240) considering all round moment.

Table 3

Failure strength values of laminates containing square hole for various loading conditions.

Failure strength values (MPa)

Carbon/epoxy

Kevlar/epoxy

(a) All round moment, (b) bending about-X axis, (c) bending about-Y axis, (d) twisting

r 0.1

04 =904 S

02 =902 2S

0=90 4S

454 = 454 S

452 = 452 2S

45= 45 4S

r 0.0417

04 =904 S

02 =902 2S

0=90 4S

454 = 454 S

452 = 452 2S

45= 45 4S

r 0.0240

04 =904 S

02 =902 2S

0=90 4S

454 = 454 S

452 = 452 2S

45= 45 4S

(c)

(d)

(a)

(b)

(c)

Glass/epoxy

(a)

(b)

(d)

(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

10.064

60.404

10.212

4.871

5.823

45.733

5.739

1.790

2.965

13.715

3.359

2.650

19.065

74.355

19.154

6.499

11.807

64.103

11.522

2.448

4.425

17.502

5.091

3.280

23.570

75.665

23.676

7.199

14.830

60.575

14.553

2.739

5.144

15.931

6.0

3.584

19.489

20.788

10.492

19.896

10.908

7.343

4.597

10.527

7.689

15.893

9.815

8.282

35.982

34.742

23.901

33.028

21.277

21.599

16.821

21.011

10.656

20.113

21.316

10.784

44.581

45.687

36.482

36.416

26.342

30.826

26.454

24.092

12.006

21.604

23.351

11.828

1.937

7.455

42.954

7.496

3.556

4.326

32.875

4.210

1.309

2.218

9.798

2.499

14.206

53.476

14.077

4.717

8.822

45.319

8.456

1.784

3.283

12.527

3.746

2.382

17.773

54.453

17.595

5.266

11.173

45.672

10.764

2.008

3.842

11.852

4.430

2.617

14.951

15.774

7.740

15.029

7.955

5.438

3.418

8.039

6.033

12.168

7.094

6.371

27.618

27.536

18.399

24.787

16.403

17.004

13.012

15.827

8.276

15.361

15.456

8.185

34.248

37.362

29.109

27.036

20.271

24.331

20.673

17.947

9.294

16.520

18.008

8.910

1.593

6.168

34.875

6.181

2.925

3.580

26.815

3.470

1.077

1.838

7.976

2.062

11.835

44.710

11.700

3.941

7.321

36.693

7.052

1.501

2.733

10.484

3.121

1.987

14.622

44.665

14.314

4.313

9.247

37.795

8.769

1.655

3.157

9.965

3.639

2.157

12.311

13.184

6.397

12.500

6.572

4.523

2.835

6.662

5.137

10.344

5.809

5.343

23.296

23.536

15.517

20.592

13.944

14.531

10.959

13.124

6.988

12.913

12.638

6.802

28.921

32.549

24.986

22.518

17.073

21.046

17.867

14.811

7.912

13.822

15.171

7.410

M x =M; M y =M (Fig. 5). Herein, the values of stresses are decreasing

as the number of ply group increases while strength is increasing.

So, the values of moments, failure strengths and stresses are

strongly affected by number of ply groups. The effects of exural

moduli can be observed from Figs. 2, 5 and 11, and Tables 2 and 3.

The values of maximum normalized moments are reduced as the

values of Fxx is reduced (Fyy is increased), while the reverse trend is

observed for the values of strengths.

subjected to in-plane loading, the loading angle has a substantial

consequence on the stress distribution. To understand the effect of

loading angle, the glass/epoxy symmetric laminated plate (angle

ply and cross ply) containing square hole (r 0.1) is considered.

The maximum value of normalized tangential stresses and failure

strength is calculated for each loading angle (Figs. 12 and 13). The

maximum values of normalized tangential stresses are observed to

138

N.P Patel, D.S Sharma / International Journal of Mechanical Sciences 94-95 (2015) 131139

and values of maximum strengths are 13.7147, 17.5024, 14.1701,

15.8933, 21.3157 and 23.3513 (Fig. 13) for cross ply (m 4, 8 and

16) and angle ply (m 4, 8 and 16) symmetric laminate respectively. It is manifest from the results, the loading angle has a

substantial consequence on the values of stresses and strengths in

case of composite plates.

5. Conclusions

Fig. 11. The maximum value of normalized stresses ( x =; y =) and strength for

different number of ply groups.

obtain the moment distribution around square hole with a known

mapping function in symmetric laminates subjected to equibiaxial bending, cylindrical bending and twisting. The results from

the present solution are in good agreement with the available

literatures. The procedure to calculate the failure strength of

symmetric laminate containing cut-outs considering bending

loading is demonstrated in the present work. It is evident that

the properties like strength can be controlled by varying the ber

orientation to meet particular design requirements. The parameters such as, materials, exural moduli, stacking sequence,

loading conditions, and corner radius signicantly affect the values

of strength and moment. The value of maximum tangential

moment is reduced as the number of ply group and corner radii

increase.

References

Fig. 12. Maximum = for laminates containing square hole considering various

loading angles.

Fig. 13. Maximum f = for laminates containing square hole considering various

loading angles.

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plate with rectangular hole with rounded corners with uniform loading at

innity. Indian J Eng Mater Sci 1994;1:1725.

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