You are on page 1of 33

CaSToRC

Baryon spectrum from


Nf =2+1+1
Christos Kallidonis
4 April 2013
ETM Collaboration Meeting
Nicosia, 3-6 April 2013

Mass spectrum from Nf = 2+1+1

OUTLINE
o Simulation details
o Overview of calculations
o Interpolating elds
o Results
o Chiral extrapolations xing the lattice spacing
o Lattice artifacts Isospin symmetry breaking
o Comparison between mixed action and unitary setup
o Comparison with other collaborations
o Conclusions Summary

4 April 2013

Mass spectrum from Nf = 2+1+1

203 48,

243 48,

323 64,

243 48,

323 64,

323 64,

483 96,

= 1.90, a = 0.0929(14) fm r0 /a = 5.231(38)


a
0.0040
No. of Confs
308
L = 1.9 fm
m (GeV)
0.3166
m L
2.99
a
0.0040 0.0060 0.0080
No. of Confs
523
479
449
L = 2.2 fm
m (GeV)
0.3074 0.3664 0.4216
m L
3.48
4.15
4.77
a
0.0030 0.0040 0.0050
No. of Confs
185
389
193
L = 3.0 fm
m (GeV)
0.2629 0.3000 0.3351
m L
3.97
4.53
5.05
= 1.95, a = 0.0815(11) fm, r0 /a = 5.710(41)
a
0.0085
No. of Confs 0.4689
L = 2.1 fm
m (GeV)
0.4428
m L
4.66
a
0.0025 0.0035 0.0055
No. of Confs
723
546
4644
L = 2.6 fm
m (GeV)
0.2582 0.3047 0.3752
m L
3.42
4.03
4.97
= 2.10, a = 0.0641(8) fm r0 /a = 7.538(58)
a
0.0045
No. of Confs
952
L = 2.1 fm
m (GeV)
0.3712
m L
3.87
a
0.0015 0.002
0.003
No. of Confs
606
186
113
L = 3.1 fm
m (GeV)
0.2142 0.2471 0.3004
m L
3.35
3.86
4.69

4 April 2013 3

0.0100
501
0.4729
5.35

0.0075
521
0.4357
5.77

abc

5 b

P3/2 =

Mass spectrum from Nf = 2+1+1

1
3

1
(6 p
3p2

p + p

6 p) .

4 April 2013

Overview
of
Calculations
espondance, the spin-1/2 interpolating field J
that has overlap only with the excited spin-1/2
0

T
J
=

s
abc
b sc

a uprojector
ed by acting with the spin-1/2

X1/2

P1/2 = g

P3/2
on JX
. In this work we study the mass
Calculation of two-point correlation functions

yons in the rest frame (~


p = ~0) and therefore the last term of Eq. (15) vanishes. In order to extra
er two-point correlation functions defined by

1
XT
T 1
p (t,
=C
abc
ub sc0 )+ shJ
sb ,utsink
sink
c ) JX (xsource , tsource )i,
aC
p
~ =2~0) s=a CTr(1
X (x
X
3
4
x

t = tsink

tsource

sink

ime reflection
symmetries
of the action
and the anti-periodic
boundary
conditions in the tempora
Anti-periodic
boundary
conditions
in t-direction
+imply
uark fields imply, for zero three-momentum correlators, that CX (t) = CX (T t). Therefore i
+
errors we average
correlators
CX
(t) =
CX (T in the
t) forward and backward direction and define
+
CX (t) = CX
(t)

CX (T

t) .

Average to gain statistics


Nucleon case

average proton and neutron correlation functions

timetoseparations
and better
accuracy
in the
masses
from local
are iexpected
have
theground
same
value
large
timeextraction
eive
mass
dierence
of thecorrelators
excited state
with respect
to the
mass in
m
. addition,
In
the sourceoflo
Xthe
Mass
spectrum
Ncorrelators
4mass
April
2013 9in
The sum
over excited
inatthe
eective
given
excited
state from
contaminations,
therefore
yielding
a plateau
regionstates
atboth
earlier
source-sink
f = 2+1+1 where
eses
been
extracted
from
Gaussian
smearing
is applied
the
source
correlation
among
measurem
upper
time
slice
boundary
isis
kept
fixed, and, allowin
in thelocal
extraction
of theare
mass.
Our The
fitting
procedure
to value
extract
as follows:
Xdefined
eaccuracy
masses from
correlators
expected
to have
the
same
in m
the
large
time
is
by
source
location
is chosen
randomly
the
lattice
each
configuration,
orderyields
to decrease
is whole
fitted
to
the for
form
given
in Eq.
(19).instate.
This
an es
in
the eective
mass
given in
Eq.
(18)onisyielding
truncated,
keeping
only
the
first
excited
sthe
excited
state
contaminations,
therefore
a plateau
region
at
earlier
source-sink
ong
Then,
be
extracted
from fit
eective
mass
calculations.
The
mass
a of
constant
out,
increasing
the eective
lower time
sl
ary measurements.
is kept
fixed,
and,
allowing
acan
separation
a procedure
couple
ofistime
slices
the
eective
mass
ccuracy
in the
extraction
ofmasses
the mass.
Our
fitting
tocarried
extract
m
as follows:
X is
contribution
toc1m
state is less th
n Eq.
(19). This
yields
aninestimation
the
parameters
and
= the
mexcited
mexcited
. Then
X due
1 first
X state.
the eective
mass
given
Eq. (17) isfortruncated,
keeping
only
the1to
first
X
2

Eective
mass
m
This
criterion
is
in
most
cases
in
agreement
with
/d.o.
e (t
,ryincreasing
the
lower
time
slice
boundary
(hence
decreasing
the
fitting
range)
until
the
is kept fixed, and, allowing a separation of a couple of time slices the eective mass
eective
mass isfit.made to ensu
the
excited
than50%for
of the careful
statistical
error
of mof
from
constant
P
isanless
examination
X1t the
Eq.first
(18).
This state
yields
estimation
parameters
c1 and
=m
1
1them
X . Then
i
2CX (t)
1+
ci e criterion is not satisfied a
i=1this
ses
in agreement
withtime
/d.o.f.
< 1.
InXthe
cases decreasing
in
which
increasing
the
lower
slice
boundary
(hence
the fitting range)
P
mX
(t)
=
log
=
m
+
log
!where
mXuntil the
mX(18)
is
1
i = mi
e
(t+1)
i
t!1
C
(t
+
1)
1
+
c
e
ective
mass
is
made
to
ensure
that
the
fit
range
is
in
the
plateau
region.
X
i

e first excited state is less than 50% of the statistical error


constant
fit.in this work ha
i=1 of mX from the All
results
2
X
s in agreement with /d.o.f. < 1. In the cases in which this criterion is and
not satisfied
ageneral,
me (t)

mX + log
sink.
In
eect
m
m
is
the
mass
dierence
of
the
excited
state
i
with
respect
to
the
ground
mass
m
.
1
i
X
X
ective mass is made to ensure
range
is
in
the
plateau
region.
that the fit

limit,
but
smearing
suppres
1t
+ c1 ecorrelators where Gaussian smearing is applied both at the source
this work
have been extracted1from
mX
(t)

m
+
log
! mX representative results
(19)
time of
separations
better
X
e
We
the eective
masses
1 (t+1)
eneral, eective
masses
from
are show
expected to have the same
value
in the and
large
timeo
t!1
+ c1 ecorrelators
1 local

The
sum
over
excited
state
1t
+ c1 e
ontherefore
the constant
fits aare
obtained
using
jackknife
analysis.
aring m
suppresses
excited
state1contaminations,
yielding
plateau
region
at (18)
earlier
source-sink
X
(t)

m
+
log
!
m
X
X
The
upper
time
slice
bound
e
1 (t+1)
ns andofbetter
accuracymasses
in the
of thet!1
mass.
to extract
mX is as follows:
esults
the eective
ofextraction
considered
in Our
this fitting
work inprocedure
Fig. 4. The
error bands
1+
cbaryons
1e
fitted
theexcited
form given
excited
states
in the eective
thetofirst
state.
ained
using
jackknife
analysis.mass given in Eq. (18) is truncated, keepingis only
a
constant
fit
is
carried
ou
ults
of
the
eective
masses
of
baryons
considered
in
this
work
in
Fig.
3.
The
error
bands
e slice boundary is kept fixed, and, allowing a separation
of a couple of time
slices the eective mass

mmXX due
to
ned
using
jackknife
analysis.
form
given
in Eq. (19).
This yields an estimation for the parameters c1contribution
and 1 = mto
. Then
1
is in until
mostthe
ca
s carried out, increasing the lower time slice boundary (hence decreasingThis
the criterion
fitting range)
examination
of the
c
mX due to the first
state is1less than 50% of the statistical error careful
of mX from
the constant
fit.
mexcited
m
X
X

2
c
/d.o.f.
mX
s in Criterion:
most cases in1 agreement
< 1. In the cases in which this criterion is not satisfied a
c + m with
2
(m
)
X
X
2 mass
ation of the eective
is made to ensure that the fit range is in the plateau region.

Overview of Calculations

mX
e (t) mX + log

1 + c1 e 1 t
! mX
1 (t+1)
t!1
1 + c1 e

(19)r
We show representative

on the constant fits are obt

resentative results of the eective masses of baryons considered in this work in Fig. 4. The error bands

Mass spectrum from Nf = 2+1+1

4 April 2013

Interpolating elds
Interpolating elds are constructed such that they have the quantum
Lattice QCD
mesons
numbers
of the baryon Charmed
in interest

4 quark avours
Outline
Lattice QCD

Charmed mesons

Charmed baryons

SU(3) sub-groups of SU(4)

Baryons (qqq)
U(4) representations
usc

Charmed baryons

+
c

representations
+
20 = 8 6 3 3
SU(4)
20plet of
spin-1/2
baryons
udc c
dsc
0
c

usc

+
c

20plet of spin-3/2 baryons


udc=10 6 3 1
dsc 20

uds

+
c

0
c

uds

Summ

Sum

from
ly Mass
APEspectrum
smearing
to N
the
spatial links that enter the hopping matrix. The parameters 4April
and 2013
n
f = 2+1+1
matrix understood as a matrix in coordinate, color and spin space,
PE smearing at each value of are collected in Table VII.
in why use these parameters?
3

y; U
(t))Interpolating
=
Ui (x, t)elds
+U
ai,baryons,
t) x,y+ai depending
.
(12)
i (x
x,y aiof
spin-3/2
on structure,
can

Interpolating elds

E.

Two-point correlators

have overlap with


aring to the spatial links that enter the hopping matrix. The parameters and n
elds for
theheavier
spin-3/2 spin-1/2
baryons asexcited
defined in
Tables II,IV and VI have overlap with their heavier
states
g
at
each
value
of
are
collected
in
Table
s well. These overlaps can be removed withVII.
the incorporation of a spin-3/2 projector in the
epolating
theseparameters?
spin-1/2 ground states
fields
i=1

the incorporation of projectors


Overlaps
are removed
E. Two-point
Jcorrelators
=with
P3/2
JX .

X
3/2

(13)

JX1/2 = P1/2 JX .

ntum,
P3/2
is defined
by

have overlap with their heavier


spin-3/2
baryons
as defined
in Tables JII,IV
and
VI
=
P
JX . Projector to 1/2
Projector
to
3/2
X1/2
1/2 of
se overlaps can be removed with the incorporation
a spin-3/2 projector in the
1
1
1
ds



P
=
P
=
P3/2 =
(6 p p + p
6 p) . 1/2
3/2
3
3
3p2

(14)

only 1

the spin-1/2 interpolating


field
J
that
has
overlap
with
the
excited
spin-1/2 state can
J
=
P
JX
=
P
J
.
X
X
X1/2
1/2 JX . (13)
3/2
1/2
P
=
P
=
3/2
1/2

3/2
RESULTS
with the spin-1/2 projector P1/2
= g P3/2
on JX
. In this3II.
workLATTICE
we study the
mass spectrum
s defined by ~
rest
frame
(~
p = 0)function
and therefore
the last term
of Eq. (14) vanishes. In order to extract masses
2-point
for spin-3/2
baryons
Isospin

breaking
correlation functions defined by
=
g
P

PA.

1/2
3/2
1 ij 1
1
1

ij
i j
i j
P3/2 =
(6 p p + p
6 p) . C 3 (t) +
(14)
1 (t)
C
(t)
=
C
2
2
2
X
The
twisted
mass
action
breaks
isospin
explicitly
to
O(a
)
and
the
size
of
O(a
3
3p
2
2
1
3 (x
3t = t
= ~0) = Tr (1
hJ
, tsink
)isJX
tsourcethe
)i, splitting
tsource
(15) lim
0)
X (xsink
source ,that
sink
breaking
would
be.
It
expected
is zero
in the continuum

II. LATTICE
RESULTS
4
interpolatingbreaking
fieldxsink
JX1/2
that has
overlap
only splitting
with the between
excited spin-1/2
state can to the same
manifests
itself
as a mass
baryons belonging

Mass spectrum from Nf = 2+1+1

P1/2
=
P1/2 =

P3/2
= 1
P3/2 = 3
3

4 April 2013

Interpolating
m =elds

m0

4c m2

++
Projectingto 3/2 and
1/2 for
the eective mass of

1
1
3
3

i j
i j

1
C (t) + 1
C (t) + 3
3
3
32
2

i j
i j

C 1 (t)
C 122 (t)

X
1
1X
3
C 32 (t) = 1 Tr[C] + 1
C 32 (t) = 3Tr[C] + 6
3
6 i6=j
i6=j

i j Cij
i j Cij

ij
ij

t) =
t) =

++

= abc uTa

2
10 g

3
m
9 16f2

ub

uc

D15.48

II.

LATTICE RESULTS

A.

Isospin breaking

2
2
3 action breaks isospin explicitly to O(a ) and the size of O(a )
The twisted mass
X
1
1X
3

would1 be.
Iti jisCijexpected
that the splitting is zero in the continuum lim
C 12breaking
(t) = 1 Tr[C]
C 12 (t) = 3Tr[C] 3
i j Cij
breaking
splitting between baryons belonging to the same m
3 manifests
3 i6=jitself as a mass
i6=j

interesting to examine at first the degree of


isospin splitting between baryons belongi

analysis by presenting the eective masses of


due to lattice artifacts. We begin this

II.
LATTICE of
RESULTS
++
representation
SU
(3),
namely
the
,
, + and 0 shown in Fig. 4.
II. LATTICE RESULTS
As shown in Fig. 4, the masses of the
baryons show consistency within errors
A.
Isospin
breaking
light quarks
and d are in fact degenerate. Therefore, no isospin splitting eects ar
Isospinubreaking
A.
1/2

projection
givesbaryons
a higherofmass
as expected
However, the strange
the octet
representation of SU (3) is a case wher
2
2
pin explicitly
to O(a
the=size
of O(a
determines
how
large this
2 ) and
2 ) terms
is clearly
visible
for the
1.95,
whereas
fordetermines
= 2.1 the
splitting
is decreased as ex
pin explicitly
to O(a
) and
size
of O(a
) terms
how
large this
at the splitting
is zero
inthe
the continuum
limit.
In general,
isospin
symmetry
show results
onin
for the
strange
particles
and
in Fig. 5. A more q
at the splitting
is zero
themasses
continuum
limit.
In general,
isospin
symmetry
tting between
baryons
belonging
to
the
same
multiplets.
Therefore,
it
would
be
degreebaryons
of isospin
breaking
willsame
follow.
tting between
belonging
to the
multiplets. Therefore, it would be

X1/2

1/2

Mass spectrum from Nf = 2+1+1

1/2
1/2 =

=P
3/2

1 =
P
= 3/2
3

1
3

4 April 2013

Interpolating
m =elds

m0

4c m2

Projecting
to 3/2 and 1/2 for the eective mass of ++

1 i j
1 i j
1
i j
3
C
(t)
+
3
C (t) + 2
C 12 (t) C 12 (t)
3 2
3
3

3
3
1
1 1X 1X
(t) =
Tr[C]
C 32 (t)
= +Tr[C] + i j Cij
3
3 6
6
i6=j

i6=j

++

= abc uTa

ub

uc

55.32, 200 statistics

II.

LATTICE RESULTS

i j Cij

ij
i j

ij
)= 1
3

2
10 g

3
m
9 16f2

A.

Isospin breaking

The 1twisted mass


action breaks isospin explicitly to O(a2 ) and the size of O(a2 )
3
Cw/p (t) =
1 3 Tr[C]
1X
breaking
would
be. iItj C
isijexpected
that the splitting is zero in the continuum lim
C 12 (t) = Tr[C]
3 manifests
3
breaking
i6=j itself as a mass splitting between baryons belonging to the same m

interesting to examine at first the degree


of isospin splitting between baryons belongi
I. LATTICE RESULTS
due to lattice artifacts. We begin
this analysis by presenting the eective masses of

0
II.representation
LATTICE RESULTS
of SU (3), namely the ++
, , + and
shown
in
Fig.
4.

A. Isospin breaking
As shown in Fig. 4, the masses of the
baryons show consistency within errors
++ is
A.eective
Isospin
light
quarks
ubreaking
andofd are
in fact degenerate.
no isospin
splitting eects ar

mass
byTherefore,
including
2
licitly to O(a ) and the size of O(a2hardly
) termsaected
determines
how largethe
this3/2-projector
However, the strange baryons of the octet representation of SU (3) is a case wher
plitting is zero in the
continuum limit. In2 general, isospin symmetry
2
is
clearly
visible
forthe
=
whereas
fordetermines
= 2.1
the
pin
explicitly
tobelonging
O(a ) and
size1.95,
ofmultiplets.
O(a
) terms
howsplitting
large thisis decreased as ex
tween
baryons
to
the
same
Therefore,
it
would
be
the results
overlap
of
this
interpolating
eld
with
the excited
tspin
thesplitting
splitting
is zeroon
inthe
the masses
continuum
limit.
In
general,
isospin
symmetry
show
for the
strange
particles
spin-1/2
and
instate
Fig.is5.small
A more q
between
baryons
belonging
to
the
same
isospin
multiplets
between
belonging
to the
same
multiplets.
Therefore,
it would be
degreebaryons
of
breaking
will
follow.
sting
by presenting
theisospin
eective
masses
of the
light
baryons in
the decuplet

9 16f

JX
= P1/2
.
1/2 from

Mass spectrum
Nf J=JX
2+1+1
4 April 2013
3
JX1/2 = P1/2
X .
1
1X
1 i j
1 i j C 32 (t) = Tr[C] +
i j Cij
ij
6
++
C 32 (t) +
C 12 (t) 3
i6=j
J
= abc uTa ub uc
3
3
1

P1/2
= P3/2
= 1

3
*0
= Pto
=
1
P1/2
Projecting
3/2
and
1/2
for
the
eective
mass
of

3/2
3
3
Cw/p (t) = Tr[C]
1
1X
3
0
t) = Tr[C] +
i j Cij

J
= abc sTa ub sc
3
6

1 i j
1
i6=j
) = ij
C 32 (t) + i j C 12 (t)
2
31 i j
31 i j

g
0 1 (t)
2
3
) = ij
C 32 (t) +
C
m
=
m
4c
m
m
55.32,
200
statistics

3 1
3
16f2

1
Cw/p (t) = Tr[C]
0
T
T

3
3
J = p abc 2 sa C ub sc + sa C sb uc
1
1X
32
C 32 (t) = Tr[C] +
i j Cij
3
31
61 X m = m0 4c m2 25 g
m3
i6
=
j

2
3 (t) =
Tr[C] +
27 16f
i j Cij
. C
LATTICE
2

3 RESULTS
6
i6=j
II. LATTICE RESULTS

Interpolating elds

A.

3
Isospin
1 breaking
1X

C 12 (t) =

ij
= m0
imjC

4c m2

2
10 g

m3Isospin breaking
A.
2
9 16f

Tr[C]
3
31 2
31 X
i6
=
j

licitly
to =
O(a Tr[C]
) and the size
of O(a2 ) terms determines
how large this
C 12 (t)
i j Cij

3 in the 3continuum limit.


2
2
plitting isThe
zero
In isospin
general,explicitly
isospin symmetry
i6=j action breaks
twisted mass
to
O(a
)
and
the
size
of
O(a
)t
++
TTherefore,

it would
be

tween baryons
belonging
to
the
same
multiplets.
= abcthat
ua the
ub splitting
uc
would
be. It is Jexpected
is
zero in the continuum limit.

II.breaking
LATTICE
RESULTS
spin splitting between baryons belonging to the same isospin multiplets
breaking manifests itself as a mass splitting between baryons belonging to the same mu
by presenting
the eective
the light baryons
in the decuplet
*0 is of
II. LATTICE
RESULTS
ofmasses
at
systematically
using
the 3/2-projector
tomass
examine
first
the degree ofhigher
isospinwhen
splitting
between
baryons belongin
A. eective
Isospin
breaking
+ interesting
0
,
and
shown in Fig. 4.
0

duefor
to interpolating
lattice artifacts.
thissaanalysis
= abc
eldWeJbegin
ub sc by presenting the eective masses of th
++
0
A.
Isospin
breaking
2
2the
representation
of SU
(3),
namely
,
, +how
andlarge
shown in Fig. 4.
pin explicitly
to
O(a
)
and
the
size
of
O(a
)
terms
determines

this interpolating eld has overlap with spin-1/2 state this


As shown
4, the masses
thegeneral,
baryons
show
consistency within errors,
t the splitting
is zeroininFig.
the continuum
limit.of In
isospin
symmetry
2
2
in explicitly
to O(a ubelonging
) and0d
the
size
) terms determines
O(a
large
ting
between
baryons
to
theof
same
multiplets.
Therefore,
itno
would
bethis
1 in
light quarks
are
fact
degenerate.
Therefore,how
isospin
splitting eects are

= m
0
m
Massijspectrum
from
N
=
2+1+1
1 i j
1 i j
f

t) =

C 32 (t) +

4c m2

C 12 (t)

g
m3
2
16f

Interpolating elds

++

= abc

4 April 2013
uTa ub uc

JX
= P1/2
JX .
1/2
25 g 2
0
2
3
m =m
4c m
m3
1
1X
0
*0
2
J
= abc sTa ub sc
3
C 2 (t)
= Tr[C] + to 3/2i and
27 16f mass of
Projecting

j Cij 1/2 for the eective


3
6
i6=j
1

P1/2 =
P3/2 =

3
D15.48
2

10 g 30 1

3
0
2
T
T
X

1
1m
= m
m
p
J
=

2
s
C
u
s
+
s
4c
m

abc

b
c

a
aC

2
C12 (t) = Tr[C]
i j Cij
9
16f
3

13 i j
1 i j
i6=j
ij
t) =
C 32 (t) +
C 12 (t)
3
3

II. LATTICE RESULTS


++
T

=
abc ua

LATTICE RESULTS
J

3
1
1X
C 32 (t)A.= Isospin
Tr[C] +breaking
i j Cij
3
6
i6=j

II.

ub

uc

A.

Isospin breaking
2

twisted
mass
action breaks isospin explicitly to O(a ) and the siz
of O(a
pin explicitly to O(a2 ) and the size
) terms
JThe
= 2abc
sTa determines
ub sc how large this

breaking
would Inbe.general,
It is expected
that the splitting is zero in the conti
at the splitting is zero in 3the continuum
limit.
isospin symmetry
X
1baryons belonging
1
breaking
manifests
as a mass
between
to
ttingCbetween
to the same
multiplets.
Therefore,
would
itself

it splitting
be
baryons
belonging

1 (t) =
Tr[C]
C
i
j
ij
2
interesting
to examine
at first
the multiplets
degree
of isospin splitting between baryo
3
3
ee of isospin
splitting
between
baryons
belonging
to the same
isospin
i6=j
to
artifacts.
We Tbegin
analysis
by presenting the eective
analysis by presenting
the eective
of the
light baryons
in thethis
decuplet
lattice

0
1 duemasses
T

++ Introduce
+
0
++
p
J
=

2
s
C
u
s
+
s
C
s
u
abc 4.
of bSU (3),
c
the
b
c ,
,
,
and shown in Fig.
representation
namely
, + and 0 shown in Fig
a
a
II.

As shown in Fig. 4, the masses of the


baryons show consistency wi
light on
quarks
u andofd
are
fact degenerate.
*0 in
consistent results
the mass
(projection
to 3/2)Therefore, no isospin splittin

LATTICE RESULTS

A.

Isospin breaking
II. the
LATTICE
RESULTS
in analogy with
case, the
1/2 projection of this eld gives an

spin-1/2
pin explicitly to excited
O(a2 ) and
the sizestate
of O(a2 ) terms determines how large this
A. Isospin
breaking
at the splitting is zero in the continuum
limit. In
general, isospin symmetry

s of f and gA are used in the fits, namely f = 0.092419(7)(25) and gA = 1.2695(29), which is common practice
Mass spectrum from N = 2+1+1
4 April 2013
ral fits to lattice data onf the nucleon mass [2527]. The left plot of Fig. 18 shows the fit to the O(p3 ) result of
20) on the nucleon mass. The error band and the errors on the fit parameters are obtained from super-jackknife
sis. As can be seen, the O(p3 ) result provides a very good fit to our lattice data, which in fact confirms that
17
and finite volume eects are small for the -values used. The results on the fit parameter m0N and the lattice
Nucleon
ngs a =1.90
, a =1.95 and a =2.10 are collected in Table XI. The physical spatial lengths of the lattices used in
3
alculation
are obtained
from the
lattice
spacings
of the
their
the pion mass
dependence
forresulting
the nucleon
mass
in HB
PTfitisand
given
byvalues are labeled in Fig. ??.
O(
p
)
HB

PT
(leading
order)

perform the same analysis with higher order chiral corrections to Eq. (20). These O(p4 ) corrections are known
2
n several expansion schemes. In the so0 called small
scale
expansion
(SSE) scheme [27], the -degress of freedom
3gA
2
3
m
=
m
4c
m
m
(20)
N
1
xplicitly included in covariant baryonN PT by introducing

32f2 as an additional counting parameter the -nucleon


splitting, m
mN , taking O( /mN ) O(m /mN ). In SSE the nucleon mass is given by

Chiral extrapolations

) SSE
Scheme
O(atpthe
nucleon mass
chiral limit and together with c1 are treated as fit parameters.

This lowest order


leon in HB PT was first derived
in Ref. [22] and 3successfully
lattice
data
are also
in
mdiscussed

2
2
2
2
gA
+ 3c2A fitted
3g
3gA

A + 10cA
0
2
3
4
4
4
mN This
= mNresult
4c1 m
m HB
4E1PT
( )m
mand
m log
23, 24].
isthe32f
same
with
dimensional
infra-red
regularization
as well as

2 in
64 2 f2 m0N
32 2 f2 m0N

ee of freedom 2is explicitly


included.
Itis also the same
Lorentz-invariant formulation

inmmanifestly

c
3

3
2 fix the lattice
2
A
gularization. Therefore
this result
as
1 + we0 will use
m2 +
mto
log
+ spacing
m2using
R (mthe
) nucleon mass (21)

2
2
3
f
2m
4
2
2

N
lso provide a non-trivial
check
of our lattice formulation. The lattice spacings a =1.90 , a =1.95 and
dered
independent
combined
fit of our data atq = 1.90,
= 1.95
fit parameters in a

as additional
p
p
2
1 fitted curve passes through the physical
2 costhe
2
fit2 so that
pointmby+fixing
the
c1 , .
e constrain
R (m
) = ourm
for m > and R (m
)=
m2 log
1 value
for mof
<
m
m2

spacings
are determined
mass
the the
physical
point asE1the
input. The
physical
ake
the cut-o
scale = 1 using
GeV, the
c1 =nucleon
1.127 [27]
andat
treat
counter-term
as only
an additional
fit parameter.

3
gAtheare
used
in the
fits,the
namely
f values
= 0.092419(7)(25)
and corresponding
gA = 1.2695(29),
which
is on
common
practice
O(p
) case
we use
physical
of gA and f . The
plot is
shown
the right
panel of
3

tticeThe
data
onband
the nucleon
[2527].
Thefitleft
plot of Fig.
18 shows
thesuper-jackknife
fit to the O(panalysis.
) result One
of
18.
error
as well asmass
the errors
on the
parameters
are obtained
using
mass.
ee that
this formulation
a good
description
of the
lattice data as
and yields
of the lattice
ucleon
The errorprovides
band and
the errors
on the
fitparameters
arewell
obtained
fromvalues
super-jackknife
0
3

ngs
and mthe
consistent
with those
obtained
in to
O(pour
) oflattice
HB PT.
Thewhich
resulting
parameters
of this

be
seen,
O(p3are
) result
provides
a very
good fit
data,
in fact
confirms
thatfit
N which

0
iven
in Table XI.

volume
-values used. The
results on the fit parameter
mN and the lattice
eects are small for the

a =1.95
and a =2.10 are collected
in Table XI. The
physical spatial lengths of
the lattices used in

re obtained
from the resulting
lattice spacings of thefit and their values are labeled
in Fig. ??.

chiral
to

e sameanalysis
with higher
order
corrections
Eq. (20).
These
O(p4 ) corrections
are known



pansion schemes. In the so
called small scale expansion (SSE) scheme [27],
the -degress of freedom

Mass spectrum from N = 2+1+1

4 April 2013

f
mined that the tuning
of the bare strange quark mass in the mixed action approach
the unitary setup, we perform a similar analysis as for the nucleon mass to fix the
s as input. This could provide a cross-check of the results when using the nucleon
Omega
tuning
of the strange
quark mass is optimal. In the case of the , the leading one-loo
2
p ) HB PT (leading order)
O(form
the simple

Chiral extrapolations
m = m0

4c1 m2

mass at the chiral


limit and as in the nucleon mass case, the value of c1 is kept fi

es through the physical point. In Fig. 19 we show the fit on the result of Eq. (22) as a

provide the resulting


parameters of this fit in Table XII. The physical spatial length

d from the resulting


lattice spacings of the fit and their values are shown in Fig. 19.
the results from the
nucleon and the , the lattice spacings a =1.95 and a =2.10 sh
0 the value is larger in the case and its outside error bars, when compared to the

. To this end, we conclude that fixing the lattice spacing using the mass is not as

e the case encompasses


assumptions which
in principle may not be accurate. Su

ns of the physical kaon


kaon mass, which is used as input
mass from the simulated

ning.

Mass spectrum from Nf = 2+1+1

4 April 2013

Chiral extrapolations - Results


Nucleon results
O(p
O(p33)) HB
HB PT
PT
O(p
O(p44)) SSE
SSE

aa =1.90
=1.90
0.0929(14)
0.0929(14)
0.0967(19)
0.0967(19)

a =1.95
=1.95
0.0815(11)
0.0854(17)

E VIII.
LE
VIII. Fit
Fit parameters
parameters aa =1.90
a =1.95
=1.90,, a
=1.95, a
sing the
mass.
using
the nucleon
nucleon
mass. for Lm > 3.5
analysis

=2.10
=2.10

a =2.10
=2.10
0.0641(8)
0.0668(12)

m0N
0.8681(15)
0.8826(48)

E1 ( )
-2.5849(2530)

0
in fm, m0N
N in GeV and E1 ( ) in GeV

to check nite volume eects

/d.o.f
1.4314
0.9303

from O(p3 ) HB PT and O

2
a =1.90
a =1.95
a =2.10
m0N
E1 ( )
/d.o.f
comparing3 the results from the nucleon and the , the lattice spacings a =1.95 and a =2.10 show consiste
) HB
PT is0.0916(17)
0.0805(14)
0.0631(11)
0.8667(15)
1.8290
for =O(p
1.90
the
value
larger
in
the

case
and
its
outside
error
bars,
when
compared
to
the
value extra
4
O(p
)
SSE
0.0978(27)
0.0866(26)
0.0678(19)
0.8859(72)
-2.7476(3732)
1.2580
the nucleon. To this end, we conclude that fixing the lattice spacing using the mass is not as reliable as u

ucleon, since the case encompasses assumptions which in principle may not be accurate. Such assumpt
2
mass
as approach
a functionand
of munitary
=
1.90,deviations,
= 1.95 and
= as
2.10
in SU(2) of
HBthePT.
The physical
mass
deThe
mixed
action
setup
as well
deviations
physical
kaon mass
fromi
for
0
3
3
LE
IX.kaon
Fit
parameters
a is
, a to
, a =2.10
fm, mN quark
in GeVtuning.
and E1 ( ) in GeV from O(p ) HB PT and O
black
asterisk.
=1.90
=1.95
ated
mass, which
used
perform
theinstrange

using the nucleon


mass.
Omega
results

a =1.90 and the


a =1.95
a =2.10

comparing the results from the nucleon


, the lattice
spacings am=1.95
and a/d.o.f
=2.10 show consiste
SU(2)
HB
PT in
0.1018(5)
0.0660(4)
1.6673(16)
2.0925
for = 1.90 the
value
is larger
the case 0.0857(4)
and its outside
error bars,
when compared
to the value extra
the nucleon. To this end, we conclude that fixing the lattice spacing using the mass is not as reliable as u
ucleon, since the case encompasses assumptions which in principle may not be accurate. Such assumpt
ABLE
IX.action
Fit parameters
, a =1.95
, a =2.10
in fm and
m0 as
in deviations
GeV from SU(2)
PT using
the from
mas
de mixed
approachaand
unitary
setup
deviations,
as well
of the HB
physical
kaon mass
=1.90

Mass spectrum from Nf = 2+1+1

4 April 2013

Isospin symmetry breaking


Twisted mass action breaks isospin symmetry explicitly to O(a 2 )
Size of O(a 2 ) terms determine how large the breaking will be
It is expected to be zero in the continuum limit
Manifests itself as mass splitting between baryons belonging to the
same isospin multiplets due to lattice artifacts

Masses of light baryons calculated on the lattice are not expected to


exert any degree of isospin symmetry breaking

Mass spectrum from Nf = 2+1+1

4 April 2013

baryons

No isospin splitting for light

baryons
(u and d quarks are degenerate)

D15.48

B55.32

is clearly visible for = 1.95, whereas for = 2.1 the splitting is decreased as expected. To de
Massresults
spectrum
4 April 2013 de
show
onfrom
the Nmasses
for the strange particles and in Fig. 6. A more quantitative
f = 2+1+1
degree of isospin breaking will follow.

Strange baryons

Strange spin-1/2 states


splitting between baryons belonging
to same isospin multiplets

Circles: B55.32
Squares: D15.48

FIG.
6. Left: Eective mass of + , 0 and for = 1.95,al = 0.0055 (circles) and = 2.1,al = 0.00
Eective mass of 0 and for = 1.95,a = 0.0055 (circles), = 1.95,al = 0.0035 (triangles) and
Strange spin-3/2 states
(squares).

It is of interest to notice that the same behaviour is not observed for the corresponding spin-3
No isospin
splitting
states and . Here, the splitting eect is not apparent within
errors, neither
for = 1.95, no

is shown in Fig. 7, where we plot the eective masses of the strange spin-3/2 baryons of the de
need some
help for commenting on this
Circles: B55.32
Squares: D15.48
We continue
our analysis by studying the isospin breaking on the charm baryons. To this end

the results obtained


for
baryons,
light quarks and a charm quark as we

thecharm
c
containing

FIG. 9. Left: Eective mass of ++


, +
and 0
= 1.95,al = 0.0055 (circles) and = 2.1,al =
c
c
c for
Mass spectrum from Lattice
QCD
4 April 2013
+
0
Right: Eective mass of c and c for = 1.95,al = 0.0055 (circles), = 1.95,al = 0.0035 (triangles)
0.0015 (squares).
Charm c resonance states

5,al = 0.0055 (circles) and = 2.1,al = 0.0015 (squares).


circles), D15.48
= 1.95,al = 0.0035 (triangles) and = 2.1,al =

No isospin symmetry breaking


for spin-1/2 c resonance states

00
00
FIG. 10. Left: Eective mass of 0+
= 2.1,al = 0.0015. Right: Eective mass of 0+
c and c for
c and c


(circles), = 1.95,al = 0.0035 (triangles)
0.0055
and = 1.95,al = 0.0025 (squares).

= 1.95 simulations, where we have three pion masses. As Fig. 12 suggests, the results for diere
the
same lattice spacings are consistent. Therefore, we conclude that the isospin breaking does n
pion mass within our statistical accuracy.

Circles: B55.32
Triangles: B35.32
Squares: B25.32

Mass spectrum from Nf = 2+1+1

4 April 2013

Charm cc baryons

Circles: B55.32
Triangles: B35.32
Squares: D15.48

No isospin symmetry breaking

for charm spin-1/2 AND spin-3/2


baryons

13

Circles: B55.32

++
+
+
B35.32
FIG. 11. Triangles:
Eective
mass of cc , cc (left) and
++

cc , cc (right) for
Squares: D15.48

(triangles)
and = 2.1,al = 0.0015 (squares).

= 1.95,al = 0.0055 (circles),

Mass spectrum from Lattice QCD

4 April 2013

Isospin splitting as a function of lattice spacing

Isospin splitting eects are small and reduce for smaller values of
the lattice spacing for spin-1/2 baryons

consistent with zero for spin-3/2 baryons (as for the baryons)

y saturates to the ground state, although in both cases


same
ThisLattice
indicates
that when performing
Massparameters.
spectrum from
QCD
order to remove excited states contaminations and noise
in earlier time slices.

-0.5

4 April 2013

Mixed action Vs. Unitary Setup


2

10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26
t/a

B35.32

B55.32

1.6

mixed action
unitary

1.6
1.4

unitary

1.4

B35.32

B55.32

1.2

eff

1.2
1

am

am eff

mixed action

0.8

1
0.8
0.6

0.6

0.4

0.4
0.2

0.2

10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26
t/a

0
2

10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26
t/a

A40.32
1.6

Same smearing applied to both

setups
RAPOLATION
1.4
1.2

am eff

n mass

0.8

mixed action
unitary

FIG. 17. eective mass comparison in the unitary and mix


Statistics
= 1.95, a = 0.0035. Lower
left: = 1.95, a = 0.0055. Lo

Consistent results in the


plateau region

n our simulations, we combine lattice results at = 1.90,


0.6
tion theory
in an infinite volume to extrapolate to the
yon chiral
0.4 perturbation theory ( PT) [21]. The leading

B35.32

B55.32

Unitary Setup

459

306

Mixed Action Setup

546

4464

Mass spectrum from Nf = 2+1+1

4 April 2013

Comparison with other collaborations


Nucleon

S. Aoki et. al. (PACS-CS), Phys. Rev. D 79, 034503 (2009), 0807.1661
S. Durr et. al., Science 322, 1224 (2008)
A. Walker-Loud, H.-W.Lin, D. Richards R. Edwards, M. Engelhardt, et. al., Phys.Rev. D 79, 054502 (2009), 0806.4549

1
Mass spectrum from Nf = 2+1+1 C
(t)
=
Tr[C]
w/p

4 April 2013

Comparison with other collaborations

baryon

m =

m0

4c m2

2
g
3
m
16f2

=m

4c

m2

25 g 2
3
m
27 16f2

m =

m0

4c m2

2
10 g

3
m
9 16f2

II.

LATTICE RESULTS

A.

Isospin breaking

the size
determines
how large
action breaks isospinexplicitly
to O(a2 ) and
of O(a2 ) terms
It is expected that the splitting is zero in the
limit. In general, isospin symm
continuum

self as a mass splitting between baryons belonging to the same multiplets. Therefore, it would
S. Aoki
al. (PACS-CS),
Rev. Dsplitting
79, 034503between
(2009), 0807.1661
ne at
firstet.the
degree ofPhys.
isospin
baryons belonging to the same isospin multip
S. Durr et. al., Science 322, 1224 (2008)
ts. A.We
begin this analysis
by presenting
the eective masses of the light baryons in the decu
Walker-Loud, H.-W.Lin,
++ D. Richards
+ R. Edwards,
0 M. Engelhardt, et. al., Phys.Rev. D 79, 054502 (2009), 0806.4549
(3), namely the
,
,
and
shown in Fig. 4.

Mass spectrum from Nf = 2+1+1


m =

m0

4c m2

2
g
3
m
16f2

4 April 2013

Comparison with other collaborations

baryon

m =m

4c

m2

25 g 2
m3
2
27 16f

m =

m0

4c m2

2
10 g

3
m
9 16f2

II.

LATTICE RESULTS

A.

Isospin breaking

s action breaks isospin explicitly to O(a2 ) and the size of O(a ) terms determines how larg

It is expected
that the splitting is zero in the continuum limit.
In general, isospin sym

itself as a mass splitting between baryons belonging to the same multiplets.


Therefore, it wo
ne at first the
degree of isospin splitting between baryons belonging to the same isospin mul

cts. We begin this analysis by presenting the eective masses of the light baryons in the de

U (3), namely the ++ ,


, + and 0 shown
in Fig.
4.
4,S.the
of the Phys.baryons
show (2009),
consistency
Aokimasses
et. al. (PACS-CS),
Rev. D 79, 034503
0807.1661within errors, as one would expect, sin
d are
in fact
Therefore,
no isospin splitting eects are observed for the light ba
S. Durr
et. al.,degenerate.
Science 322, 1224
(2008)
A. baryons
Walker-Loud,
D. Richards
R. Edwards, M.
Phys.Rev.
D 79,
054502
(2009), of
0806.4549
ange
ofH.-W.Lin,
the octet
representation
of Engelhardt,
SU (3) iset.aal.,
case
where
some
degree
isospin sp

Mass spectrum from Nf = m


2+1+1
= m0

4c

m2

25 g 2
3
m
27 16f2

4 April 2013

Comparison with other collaborations

* baryon

m =

m0

4c m2

2
10 g

3
m
9 16f2

II.

LATTICE RESULTS

A.

Isospin breaking

ass action breaks isospin explicitly to O(a2 ) and the size of O(a2 ) terms determines how larg
that the splitting is zero in the continuum

e. It is expected
limit. In general, isospin sym

s itself as a mass
same multiplets. Therefore, it wo
splitting between baryons belonging to the
mine at first the degree of isospin splitting between baryons
belonging to the same isospin mul

facts. We begin
this analysis by presenting the eective masses
of the light baryons in the de

SU (3), namely the ++ ,


, + and 0 shown in Fig. 4.

g. 4, the masses of the


baryons show consistency within errors,
as one would expect, sin
d d are in fact
degenerate. Therefore, no isospin splitting eects are observed for the light ba
octet representation

some degree
of isospin sp
range baryons of the
of SU (3)
is a case where

or = 1.95, whereas for = 2.1 the splitting


is decreased
as expected. To demonstrate th

he masses for the strange particles and in Fig. 5. A more quantitative determination
S. Aoki et.
al. (PACS-CS),
breaking
will
follow. Phys. Rev. D 79, 034503 (2009), 0807.1661
Durr et. that
al., Science
1224
(2008)
toS.notice
the 322,
same
behaviour
is not observed for the corresponding spin-3/2 strange b
A. Walker-Loud, H.-W.Lin, D. Richards R. Edwards, M. Engelhardt, et. al., Phys.Rev. D 79, 054502 (2009), 0806.4549
Here, the splitting eect is not apparent within errors, neither for = 1.95, nor for = 2.1

Mass spectrum from Nf = 2+1+1

4 April 2013

Comparison with other collaborations

Spectrum at the physical point

S. Aoki et. al. (PACS-CS), Phys. Rev. D 79, 034503 (2009), 0807.1661
S. Durr et. al., Science 322, 1224 (2008)
A. Walker-Loud, H.-W.Lin, D. Richards R. Edwards, M. Engelhardt, et. al., Phys.Rev. D 79, 054502 (2009), 0806.4549

Mass spectrum from Nf = 2+1+1

4 April 2013

SUMMARY
o Nucleon chiral extrapolations are a reliable way of xing the lattice
spacing rather than the Omega
o Isospin breaking is present only for strange spin-1/2 baryons
o It is under control and vanishes in the continuum limit
o Mixed Action and Unitary setup results are consistent
o the tuning of the strange and charm quark masses is done correctly
o TM results have overall agreement with results from other
collaborations

Thank you for your attention

tting is decreased as expected. To demonstrate this, we


spectrum
= 2+1+1
Mass
in Fig.
6. A from
moreNfquantitative
determination of the

Strange baryons

11

= 0.0055 (circles) and = 2.1,al = 0.0015 (squares). Right:


= 1.95,a
= 2.1,a = 0.0015
l = 0.0035 (triangles) and

observed for the corresponding spin-3/2 strange baryon


within errors, neither for = 1.95, nor for = 2.1. This
he strange
spin-3/2 baryons of the decuplet. NOTE: I

g on the charm baryons. To this end we concentrate on

ight quarksand
a charm
well
as the
charm
quark
as
c

4 April 2013

Mass spectrum from N = 2+1+1


4 April 2013
baryons, which containf a light, a strange and a charm quark. As before, we plot results for = 1.9
compare
dierent lattice spacings.
between
baryons
c

++
c ,

FIG. 8. Left: Eective mass of


+
0
Eective
mass of c and c for
(squares).

+
c

and
= 1.95,al = 0.0055 (circles) and = 2.1,al = 0.0015
c for

= 1.95,a
= 1.95,al = 0.0035 (triangles) and =
l = 0.0055 (circles),

the left plot of Fig. 8 suggests, no isospin splitting among the three states of the charm bar
As
c
both for = 1.95 and = 2.1, which is in contrast with the corresponding strange states as w
above.
On the other hand, this eect, although in a smaller extent, is still present on the c baryon
can be seen from the right plot of Fig. 8. As expected, one can see from Fig. 9 that neither of the t
and the two c states show this eect for both = 1.95 and = 2.1. All these results could have

conclusion
thatthe isospin
splitting
is a common cut-o eect between the strange spin-1/2 baryons


0
same multiplets. What comes
in contrast to this is the behaviour of the charm c resonance states

Mass spectrum from Lattice QCD


. As before, we plot results for = 1.95 and

Charm c states

Circles: B55.32
Triangles: B35.32
Squares: D15.48

4 April 2013

= 2.1 to

Same observations as with strange

baryons

Circles: B55.32
Triangles: B35.32
0.0055 (circles)
and
Squares: D15.48
=
1.95,al = 0.0035

12

= 2.1,al = 0.0015 (squares).


Right:


(triangles) and = 2.1,a
l = 0.0015

three states of the charm baryons is observed,


ng the
c
he corresponding strange states as we have discussed
extent, is still present on the c baryons for = 1.95 as
an see from Fig. 9 that neither of the three spin-3/2 c
d = 2.1. All these results could have led to a general

t between
the strange
spin-1/2
belonging

baryons

to
the
0
viour of the charm c resonance
states. Despite having

However

Mass spectrum from Nf = 2+1+1

4 April 2013

Interpolating elds
Local interpolating elds are not optimal for suppressing excited state
contributions

Gaussian smearing at source and sink

APE Smearing at the spatial links


entering the hopping matrix
Smearing parameters

APE
Gaussian

= 1.90

= 1.95

= 2.10

all

all

D15.48

rest

20

20

50

20

0.5

0.5

0.5

0.5

50

50

110

50

4.0

4.0

4.0

4.0

Mass spectrum from Nf = 2+1+1

4 April 2013

Simulation details
values at 1.90, 1.95 and 2.10
Help check lattice artifacts
Determination of lattice spacing

Lattice sizes 243 x 48, 323 x 64, 483 x 96 and 203 x 48


Volume eects at similar pion masses

Unitary setup calculations


Compare with corresponding mixed action setup results

Use of alternative interpolating elds and comparison