20 views

Uploaded by Tharindu Gangenath

- Vibration 2nd Assinment
- MEC3453-2014.PDF
- Theory of Vibrations - Saran - Soil Dynamics and Machine Foundation
- 33726671 Mechanical Vibration Solved Examples
- Vibesols
- RUbber Mount
- Complete Physics MCQ
- Structural Dynamics Eucation Module
- Nonlinear vibration
- Damper in Turbo
- physcis
- IATS09_03-99_71
- Forced Damped Vibrations - Chirayu (Regular 48),Darshil Shah (d to d 08),Parth Bhatt(d to d 10)
- Barry Isolators Selection Guide
- Earthquake Response of Modified Folded Cantilever Shear Structure With Fixe
- An Analytical Model of Pneumatic Suspensions
- Tuned Sloshing Water Dampers IITK
- Optimal Design Theories of Tuned Mass Dampers With Nonlinear Viscouos Damping
- Lecture 04 Session 02
- sd

You are on page 1of 21

Mechanical Vibrations

(MCEN3005)

OF SINGLE DEGREE OF FREEDOM

SYSTEMS

Laboratory Report - 01

Name

Curtin ID

SLIIT ID

Date of submission

:- M.K.S.Liayanarachchi

:- 18373350

:- EN 13522148

:- 24th April 2015

Executive Summary

The objectives of this experiment is to validate two theoretical expression,

1. The mass of the spring can be neglected when calculating natural frequency oscillation,

if the mass of the spring is small when compared with the oscillating mass.

2. The damped natural oscillation frequency is virtually same as undamped natural

oscillation frequency, when the damping ratio is small.

This experiment can be divided into three section. The stiffness of the spring was calculated in

the first part of the experiment. This enabled the use of an accurate value for stiffness of spring

to be used in the latter part of the experiment. Second part of this experiment is to validate the

accuracy of the first expression regarding the mass of the spring and frequency of oscillation.

This was done by directly measuring the period of oscillation of spring mass system for

different applied loads. In third section of this experiment a damper was used to validate the

second expression. The damping ratio of the system was calculated during this section.

The summary of results obtain during first two section of the experiment is given bellow,

Table 1 Summary of results

Total mass of

weights on

hanger mi (Kg)

Experimental Period of

oscillations, T (sec)

1.02

1.53

2.04

2.24

2.55

3.06

0.3018

0.324

0.378286

0.370923

0.418167

0.4576

Theoretical Period of

oscillations without considering

spring mass, T (sec)

Theoretical Period of

oscillations with considering

spring mass, T (sec)

0.121088

0.143884

0.163532

0.170621

0.181061

0.197036

0.121232

0.144005

0.163638

0.170723

0.181157

0.197124

1. The stiffness of the spring can be accurately calculated using equation (18)

2. The mass of the spring can be neglected when calculating natural frequency oscillation,

if the ratio of ms/mi is less than 0.06.

3. If the damping ratio is less than 0.2, the natural frequency of damped oscillation is

[i]

Table of Contents

Executive Summary ................................................................................................................................................. i

List of Figures ......................................................................................................................................................... iii

List of tables ........................................................................................................................................................... iv

1.0 Introduction and Aims ...................................................................................................................................... 1

2.0 Theory ............................................................................................................................................................... 3

2.1 Calculating equivalent mass for a one degree spring mass system when the mass of the spring is not

negligible. ........................................................................................................................................................... 3

2.2 Viscous Damping and its effects .................................................................................................................. 4

3.0 Procedure ......................................................................................................................................................... 6

4.0 Results ............................................................................................................................................................. 7`

4.1 Measuring the Stiffness of a spring .............................................................................................................. 7

4.2 Natural Frequency of Oscillation (without and with lumped mass correction) ............................................ 7

5.0 Calculations....................................................................................................................................................... 8

5.1 Theoretical calculation of stiffness of the spring .......................................................................................... 8

5.2 Experimentally calculating stiffness of the spring ....................................................................................... 9

5.3 Theoretically predicting the period of oscillations with and without considering the spring mass ............ 10

5.4 Graph plotted between time periods versus (mi +mh)^0.5 .......................................................................... 11

5.5 Graph plotted between time periods versus (mi +mh+ ms/3)^0.5 ............................................................... 12

5.6 Graph plotted between time periods versus square root mass for both heavy and light spring .................. 13

6.0 Discussion ....................................................................................................................................................... 14

7.0 Conclusions ..................................................................................................................................................... 16

[ii]

List of Figures

Figure 1 Simple one degree freedom spring mass system ..................................................................... 1

Figure 2 Simple one degrees freedom spring mass system with a heavy spring ................................... 3

Figure 3 Distance to viscous damper and spring for the pivot O ............................................................ 4

Figure 4 Plotted graph between forces vs. deflection ............................................................................ 9

Figure 5 Plotted graph between time period and total mass ............................................................... 11

Figure 6 Plotted graph between time period and total mass ............................................................... 12

[iii]

List of tables

Table 1 Summary of results ..................................................................................................................... i

Table 2 Recorded data on applied load and spring deflection ............................................................... 7

Table 3 Recorded data on total mass and period of oscillation ............................................................. 7

Table 4 Comparison on result obtained on period of oscillation ......................................................... 10

[iv]

This experiment is designed to confirm the accuracy two of the theoretical expressions. First

equation is used when calculating oscillation frequency simple spring-mass oscillator where

spring is not massless. The second equation that would be verified during this laboratory is that

damped natural oscillation frequency is virtually the same as the undamped natural oscillation

frequency when damping ratios less than 0.1 or when there is no deliberately designed damper.

The fundamentals of mechanical Vibrations is an important aspect of mechanical engineering.

Mechanical vibration is strongly connected to classical mechanics, solid mechanics and fluid

dynamics. In most of engineering applications mechanical vibration is significant and proper

calculation must be conducted to understand the dynamic behavior of a system. Vibration may

results in the failure of machines or their critical components. The effects of vibration on

mechanical systems depends on frequency, magnitude of displacement, acceleration and total

duration of the vibration.

Galileo discover the relationship between the length of a pendulum and its frequency. He also

observed the resonance occurring in two bodies with same natural frequency. Just like the mass

pendulum, frequency of oscillation in a one degree freedom simple spring mass system can be

easily calculated using the equation given below.

(01)

Mass (M)

Spring (K)

[1]

Natural frequency of oscillation in a one degree freedom simple spring mass system can be

calculated by applying newtons second law to the spring mass system and deriving a value for

. This is done using the lamp parameter assumption. There it is assumed that the mass of the

spring is negligible when compared with the oscillating mass. But there may be complicated

systems this assumption is invalid. It could be shown that for those types of systems, the total

mass of the system can be calculated by adding one third of the mass of the spring to the

oscillating mass.

=

2 +

3

(02)

Generally amplitude of natural vibration decays with time. This is due to the effects of

damping. The decaying of amplitude happens since the initial energy contained in the system

has been converted in to form other than kinetic or strain energy. A part of the initial energy

has been converted into other form- usually heat by the damper. Damping mechanism can take

several forms. Mainly,

1) Coulomb Damping

2) Hysteretic Damping

3) Viscous Damping

Viscous damping can be found in many mechanical systems. Viscous drag or viscous damping

force can be represented as,

=

(03)

reduced by a factor.

= 1 2

(04)

But when damping ratio is small, the ratio between damped and undamped natural frequencies

is almost equal to 0ne. A typical range for the damping ratio for an engineering application is

around 0.002-0.05. Values higher than 0.2 is archived by deliberately designing dampers in the

system.

[2]

2.0 Theory

2.1 Calculating equivalent mass for a one degree spring mass system when the mass of the

spring is not negligible.

V

v

c

dc

Mass (M)

Heavy Spring (K)

Figure 2 Simple one degrees freedom spring mass system with a heavy spring

1

Kinetic energy of the body only = 2

2

(05)

2

(06)

2

From triangles , = ( )

(07)

1 2 2

2 2 0

(08)

1 2

( )

2 3

(09)

By equating the maximum strain energy and kinetic energy, natural frequency of oscillation can be

calculated,

+ 3

[3]

(10)

Vertical deflection at the point which the spring is attached, () =

2 2 =

+

2

2

+

(11)

(12)

2 =

2 4

4 2

2

=

(13)

2

= 1 =

[4]

1 2

2 4

(1 2

)

2

4

(14)

=

2

1

( ) =

By substitution

(15)

2

( )

2

(

2

)

2 ]

(16)

+1

And

2 4

2

= 1 2

= 1

[5]

(17)

3.0 Procedure

The objective of this experiment is to measure effects of spring mass and damping on simple

one-degree spring mass systems. Stiffness of the spring is used in calculating the natural

frequency. So first part of this laboratory is to measure the stiffness of the spring. This can be

determined by measuring its stretch due to a known load. To improve the accuracy of

calculating the mass of the spring a graph was used to generate the average value. During the

experiment deflection of the spring was measured for appropriate mass increment. Then a

graph was drawn using load as the abscissa and deflection as Ordinate. The slope of that graph

is equal to 1/k (m/N). So the spring stiffness would be equal to 1/slope (N/m).

After calculating spring stiffness, the mass of the spring and hanger was measured. The spring

and hanger was the reinstalled to the apparatus. To calculate the natural frequency of

oscillation, a vertical oscillation with an amplitude about 10mm was induced to the apparatus

and recorded the time it takes to complete a specific number of cycles. After tabulating the data

two graphs were drawn. The first graph is drawn between T versus square root of (mi + mh).

The second graph was drawn between T versus square root of (mi + mh + ms/3). These graphs

would enable comparison between natural frequencies calculate with considering the mass of

the spring and neglecting the mass of the spring.

After measuring the effects of spring mass for natural frequency, another part of this

experiment must be carried out to calculate the effects of damping on natural frequency. First

measure a (distance to damper form pivot) and c (distance to spring for pivot) to the nearest

mm. Then drain the oil from dashpot and measure the undamped natural frequency by

measuring the time it takes to complete 40 oscillations. After that calculate Io from equation

(??). Next refill the dashpot and enable the chart recorder function. Displace the free end of

oscillating arm about 35mm and release it. Record a time trace of amplitude y versus time

which contains about 20 cycles. From these data calculate damping coefficient q. after that

determine the frequency of damped free oscillation with the use of digital counter.

[6]

4.0 Results

Mass of spring

Mass of hanger

Spring length

Wire diameter

No of coils

Outer coil diameter

Inner coil diameter

=8.82g

=218.16g

=31.38g

=1.30mm

=25

=10.96mm

=8.36mm

Table 2 Recorded data on applied load and spring deflection

Total suspended

mass, mi (kg)

0

1

2

3

4

5

6

Total force,

Fi=mig (N)

0.218

0.728

1.238

1.747

2.257

2.767

3.276

2.14

7.14

12.14

17.14

22.14

27.14

32.14

Scale reading,

i (mm)

0

2

8

14

23

30

37

Deflection,

i-o (mm)

0

2

8

14

23

30

37

Increment in

Deflection (mm)

0

2

6

6

7

7

7

4.2 Natural Frequency of Oscillation (without and with lumped mass correction)

Table 3 Recorded data on total mass and period of oscillation

Total mass of

weights on

hanger mi (Kg)

1.02

1.53

2.04

2.24

2.55

3.06

Number of

cycles, N

100

80

70

65

60

50

oscillations, t

(sec)

30.18

25.92

26.48

24.11

25.09

22.88

[7]

Period of

oscillations,

T (sec)

0.3018

0.324

0.378286

0.370923

0.418167

0.4576

+

(Kg)-0.5

1.112654

1.322120

1.502664

1.567801

1.663731

1.810525

+ +

.(Kg)-0.5

1.113975

1.323231

1.503642

1.568738

1.664614

1.811337

5.0 Calculations

5.1 Theoretical calculation of stiffness of the spring

From strength of material text will show that,

=

Where,

8 3

4

(18)

= stretch

P = axial load

D = mean coil diameter

n = number of coils

G = shear modulus of wire

d = wire diameter

8 3 1

=

=

4

=

8 3

=

(208109 )(0.0013)4

8(9.66)3 25

= 3295.151 1

[8]

(18)

0.01

0.009

y = 0.0003x

0.008

Deflection (m)

0.007

0.006

0.005

0.004

0.003

0.002

0.001

0

-2

0

-0.001

10

12

14

16

18

20

22

24

Force (N)

Calculating the stiffness of the spring using the slope of the graph,

() =

1

= 0.0003

= 3333.33 1

[9]

26

28

30

32

34

5.3 Theoretically predicting the period of oscillations with and without considering the spring

mass

2

() = ( ) +

() = (

2

333.333

) +

() = (0.1088280163) +

, () = ( ) + +

3

() = (

) + +

3

3333.333

() = (0.1088280163) + +

Total mass of

weights on

hanger mi (Kg)

Experimental Period

of oscillations, T (sec)

1.02

1.53

2.04

2.24

2.55

3.06

0.3018

0.324

0.378286

0.370923

0.418167

0.4576

without considering spring mass,

T (sec)

0.121088

0.143884

0.163532

0.170621

0.181061

0.197036

[10]

Theoretical Period of

oscillations with considering

spring mass, T (sec)

0.121232

0.144005

0.163638

0.170723

0.181157

0.197124

2

y = 3.9934x

1.5

0.5

0

-0.1

0.1

0.2

0.3

-0.5

+ (2 )

Figure 5 Plotted graph between time period and total mass

[11]

0.4

0.5

5.5 Graph plotted between time periods versus (mi +mh+ ms/3)^0.5

+ +

(2 )

2

y = 3.996x

1.5

0.5

0

-0.1

0

-0.5

0.1

0.2

+ +

0.3

[12]

0.4

0.5

5.6 Graph plotted between time periods versus square root mass for both heavy and light

spring

Heavy Spring

Light Spring

0.5

0.45

0.4

0.35

0.3

0.25

1

1.1

1.2

1.3

1.4

1.5

1.6

1.7

1.8

1.9

M

Figure 7plotted graph of time period vs total mass

This graph indicated that there is no significant difference for the time period of heavy spring

and light spring for this experiment.

[13]

6.0 Discussion

First part of this experiment is about calculating the spring stiffness. The spring stiffness was

calculated using a graph. The graph was drawn using load as the abscissa and deflection as

Ordinate. The slope of that graph is equal to 1/k (m/N). So the spring stiffness would be equal

to 1/slope (N/m). The theoretical shape of the graph is y=mx, so that the origin (0, 0) is a point

in graph that is known without any uncertainty.

Spring stiffness can be also calculated using the relationship between load and stretch for a

close-coiled helical spring. The spring stiffness is equal P/. Measurements on mean coil

diameter, wire diameter, shear modulus of the spring material and number of coils are needed

calculate spring stiffness using this formula. The difference between spring stiffness is due to

errors in measurement, non-uniformity of the spring material, errors in applied load.

Data point that were collected to draw the graph of force verse deflection is not in straight line,

this due to errors on measuring and non-linearity of the spring. There is a small difference

between spring stiffness calculated from the equation and stiffness calculated form the graph.

The difference between experiment and theoretical values of spring stiffness is about 38Nm-1

and this is due errors in measuring the diameter of spring, difference actual youngs modulus

and effects of helix angle of the spring

When measuring period of oscillation in the system is done by measuring the mean time for a

large number of oscillations and dividing it by number of cycles. When selecting the number

of cycles it must not be very small so that the error when measuring the time is high and number

of cycle should not be very large so that the vibration amplitude decays significantly. Doing

the experiment for the same weight three or more times and taking the average of the period of

oscillation lowers the uncertainty errors. When taking the average reject any obvious outlying

measurements to improve the accuracy of the period.

Since the mass of the spring that were used in this experiment is negligible when compared

with the oscillating mass. There are no significant difference on natural oscillation frequency

between with and without the spring mass. The natural frequency of oscillation is predicted

theatrically will be more accurate when the mass of the spring is considered. When the ratio

between ms/mi is equal to 0.06 the different between natural frequencies obtained considering

with and without the spring mass is less than 1%. So if the ratio between ms/mi is less than

0.06, then the mass of the spring can easily be neglected.

[14]

If the mass of the spring used in this experiment is large such as around 2kg, the effect of the

mass of the spring could be observed easily. But due to resource limitation this spring was the

heaviest spring that could be used with the apparatus.

There is more than 50% difference between theoretical periods of oscillation and experimental

period of oscillation is mainly due to error of measuring the mean time for N number of

oscillations.

Damping is important in engineering applications since it prevents systems oscillating at high

amplitudes at resonance. Natural frequency of oscillation changes when there is significant

amount of damping present in the system. But this effect is negligible if the damping ratio is

less than 0.2.

During the practical the oil from the dashpot is removed to get the undamped natural frequency

of the system. This method is more accurate than removing the damper from the apparatus

when calculating natural frequency. This is due to the fact if the dashpot was removed from

the system, the mass of the system will change thus changes the natural frequency.

[15]

7.0 Conclusions

From looking at the results obtained from the first part of the experiment following conclusion

can be derived. The experimental and theoretical values for the spring stiffness is almost

identical, so a conclusion could be derived that the equation that were used to predict the spring

stiffness is accurate. And also another conclusion can be derived about the relationship between

applied load and deflection. From the data obtained it is safe to assume that there is a linear

relationship between applied load and deflection.

Form the second part of the experiment following conclusions can be derived. By looking at

the collected data from the experiment it is safe to assume that if the mass of the spring is small

when compared with the oscillating mass, then the mass of the spring can be neglected when

calculating the natural frequency of oscillation. So if the ratio between ms/mi is less than 0.06,

then the mass of the spring can easily be neglected when calculating the natural frequency.

Another conclusion that can be derived for this part of the experiment is that there is a linear

relationship between the period of oscillation and square root of the total applied load on the

spring.

[16]

- Vibration 2nd AssinmentUploaded bySandeep Bhaskar
- MEC3453-2014.PDFUploaded byMonash_Student
- Theory of Vibrations - Saran - Soil Dynamics and Machine FoundationUploaded byshivabtowin3301
- 33726671 Mechanical Vibration Solved ExamplesUploaded byKajal Khan
- VibesolsUploaded byDennis Korir
- RUbber MountUploaded byShaminder
- Complete Physics MCQUploaded byAbdul Hamid Bhatti
- Structural Dynamics Eucation ModuleUploaded bySony Day Omar Rachman
- Nonlinear vibrationUploaded byMohdQasim
- Damper in TurboUploaded byRohit Singla
- physcisUploaded byAmjad Ali
- IATS09_03-99_71Uploaded bysadeq03
- Forced Damped Vibrations - Chirayu (Regular 48),Darshil Shah (d to d 08),Parth Bhatt(d to d 10)Uploaded byChirayuOlkar
- Barry Isolators Selection GuideUploaded byAhmad Waal
- Earthquake Response of Modified Folded Cantilever Shear Structure With FixeUploaded byAnonymous XhJ5p0UVQ
- An Analytical Model of Pneumatic SuspensionsUploaded byVirgil Nițu
- Tuned Sloshing Water Dampers IITKUploaded byAshutoshAparaj
- Optimal Design Theories of Tuned Mass Dampers With Nonlinear Viscouos DampingUploaded bydong1978
- Lecture 04 Session 02Uploaded byElena Christodoulou
- sdUploaded bydskumar49
- Damped UndampedUploaded bybabu1434
- Vibra ModuleUploaded byNarry Strummer
- 14examUploaded bySon Tran
- Hall-2006_ProblemsEncounteredFromUseRayleighDamping.pdfUploaded byOscar Ccama
- UNIT IUploaded byAshlin Aarthi
- TM167_1015_FV BeamUploaded bygurudev001
- Arbol de Problemas de La Escasez en DapaUploaded byDANIEL ALEXANDER MUELAS RIVERA
- 1-s2.0-S1877705812046243-mainUploaded byRodrigo Luis
- Iast.lect22Uploaded byShyam Radsun
- Dhupia_JVC_5-08Uploaded bykalvino314

- CNC CODESUploaded byKrishna Pramod
- dddUploaded byTharindu Gangenath
- March 17 note.pdfUploaded byTharindu Gangenath
- 2nd Year Time Table - Semester I 2017 (1)Uploaded byTharindu Gangenath
- 2 44569X16000068-mainUploaded byMonjurul Mohasin
- 309Uploaded byTharindu Gangenath
- diffquotUploaded bybatman2227
- hhUploaded byTharindu Gangenath
- Pie ChartsUploaded byRevekka Papaioannou
- 1Uploaded byTharindu Gangenath
- Refrigerants.pdfUploaded byTharindu Gangenath
- 17467Uploaded byTharindu Gangenath
- Air CondUploaded byAnonymous DJrec2
- 10 Steps to Performing an Energy AuditUploaded byAdewale Adefemi Jonathan
- ax.pdfUploaded byjosepilataxi
- SatelliteUploaded byRam Babu
- 210 Part II January 2018Uploaded byTharindu Gangenath
- 02b.pdfUploaded byDamo Daran G
- 1-s2.0-S1876610214031397-mainUploaded byTharindu Gangenath
- bodymetamorphosis12weekworkout.pdfUploaded byTharindu Gangenath
- Major Equipment Life-cycle Cost AnalysisUploaded byedubittar
- Articles a and TheUploaded byTharindu Gangenath
- Application FormUploaded byTharindu Gangenath
- 324 Part III March 2017Uploaded byTharindu Gangenath
- cccbbUploaded byTharindu Gangenath
- Work Study_ Method Study and Work Measurement _ Shyam BhatawdekarUploaded byTharindu Gangenath
- Exam q2-Energy AuditUploaded byTharindu Gangenath

- 69-2815EFS.pdfUploaded byIndUShealth
- Belarus 900-952-engUploaded bypaky1111
- Unit8-YMSUploaded byVikram Puttenahalli Nagesh Gowda
- Falkner skan mathematica analysisUploaded byShashank Mishra
- Buckling of Real Structural Elements IUploaded byMihajloDjurdjevic
- 10397_1 en Sealing Solutions for the Machine Tool Industry - Customized Machined Seals and EngineUploaded byufuk7731
- Tank ThesisUploaded byvttrlc
- Saudi Aramco Operation of CompressorUploaded byjust_4_u_dear_in9549
- Vacuum Box TestUploaded bystewartj9251005
- Honda 50 65 Shop ManualUploaded byDarko Marjanovic
- CL2Uploaded bySita Mali
- JIS Z3211 for ElectrodeUploaded byHoque Anamul
- 1-s2.0-S0957415897000044-mainUploaded byLarry Smith
- Dynamic 1Uploaded byGaozheng Relinquish
- Report StructureUploaded byEjad Adha
- rr311805-tehniques-of-metal-joiningUploaded bySRINIVASA RAO GANTA
- Sample of Esr-fullUploaded by1339979
- Fastner DataUploaded bySanket Pujari
- EnglishnhjngnUploaded byAyano Ni
- RPS 4000 Refrigerator Model Trainee Manual EngUploaded bySergioi Indurain
- Constant Acceleration - Solutions.pdfUploaded bywolfretonmaths
- Big Blue 400PUploaded byIr Jose
- trabajo valvulasUploaded byapla_chau
- 1985_Design and Optimization of Solar Steam Systems_BaerUploaded byhakeemniyas
- Designing Plastic Parts for AssemblyUploaded byskyvane
- joomla.pdfUploaded byAnonymous N74GLGLcPp
- Motor StarterUploaded byMssnMurthy
- RLC-SVU02C-E4 0106Uploaded byElias Garcia
- IncUploaded byJenille C. Villanueva
- 21eb7_0.pdfUploaded bydedirandu