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Dual-mode Multi-modulus Algorithms for Blind Equalization of QAM Signals

Dual-mode Multi-modulus Algorithms for Blind Equalization of QAM Signals

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Wen si-yuan

Liu Feng

Jinan, China

Wsy1116@Sohu.com

Jessie88_ly@163.com

x(n-1),, x(n-L+1)]T , where L is the length of the

and a stop-and-go dual-mode multi-modulus algorithm (SAGDMMMA) for blind equalization of high-order quadrature

amplitude modulation (QAM) signals are proposed. Simulation

results show the proposed blind equalization algorithms have

faster convergence speed and smaller steady-state mean square

error, compared with the recently introduced multi-modulus

algorithm.

for transpose of vector. The error function e(n) can be

expressed as

e( n ) y R ( n ) J R y R2 ( n ) j y I ( n ) J I y I2 ( n ) . (4)

A particular problem of the MMA, however, is that it still

suffers from a low convergence when applies to the higher

order QAM. The dual-mode blind equalization algorithms

are therefore designed to speed up the convergence rate

[5,6,7]. These algorithms use the CMA at the first mode and

then switch to the second mode, so they suffer from the same

pitfall as the CMA, i.e. they cant correct the phase rotation

at the output of the equalizer. In this paper, we propose a

new dual-mode MMA to effectively improve the equalizers

convergence performance and recover the phase rotation

simultaneously.

Although the dual-mode algorithm switches in two

modes, it never stops adjusting the equalizer tap weights

even when the adjustment is in the wrong direction. If we

can tell whether a particular adjustment is correct or not, we

may improve the convergence behavior by making only the

right adjustment but bypassing those wrong ones. Such a

concept has been applied to blind equalization and is termed

stop-and-go [8,9,10]. In this paper, we develop a stop-andgo dual-mode MMA for blind equalizers.

The paper is organized as follows. In Section 2 we derive

and analyze the proposed algorithms. Computer simulations

are presented in Section 3, and the concluding remarks are

contained in Section 4.

algorithm; stop-and-go.

I.

INTRODUCTION

high-speed data transmission over band-limited channels.

Hence, the channels are subject to intersymbol interference

(ISI). Channel equalization is one of the techniques to

mitigate the effects of ISI. Blind equalization which does not

require any known training sequence has been an active area

for several decades.

The constant modulus algorithm (CMA)[1]has become a

favorite of practitioners due to its LMS-like complexity and

desirable robustness properties. But the CMA converges

independently of carrier recovery, and the output

constellation after convergence has a phase rotation. Thus a

rotator has to be added at the output of the equalizer, which

increases the complexity of implementation of the receiver in

steady-state operation. In order to improve the performance

of the CMA, a multi-modulus algorithm (MMA) has been

proposed [2,3,4]. The MMA provides reliable initial

convergence without the need of a rotator in steady-state.

The MMA cost function is [2]

2

2

J MMA E y R2 ( n ) J R y I2 ( n ) J I (1)

yI(n) are the real and imaginary parts of the equalizer output

y(n), respectively. R and I are computed as

E a R4 ( n )

E a I4 ( n )

(2)

JR

,

J

I

E a R2 ( n )

E a I2 ( n )

where a(n)=aR(n) + j aI(n) is the transmitted QAM

data symbol. The corresponding MMA tap updating

algorithm is

W (n 1) W (n) P e(n) X (n)

(3)

II.

A.

Suppose Dk (k=1,2,) denotes the union of the square

regions Dk (as shown in Fig. 1 using the 32-QAM signal as

an example) enclosing data points of the QAM data

constellation. In these regions, we define a new cost function:

2

2

~ 1

J

E y R ( n ) a R , p ( n ) y I ( n ) a I ,q ( n ) (5)

2

where

arg min y R ( n ) a R ,i ( n ) ,

arg min y I ( n) a I ,k ( n) ,

denotes complex conjugation. The equalizer complex tap

weight-vector and input-vector are respectively defined as

_____________________________________

1,2,

(6)

1,2, .

(7)

used to adjust the tap weights most of the time. When

yR(n)aR(n) and yI(n)aI(n), the error signal in (11) will

have a very small value, which provides a good steady state

behavior for the DM-MMA.

and wI(n) separately, and replacing the value of statistical

expectation by the instantaneous value, we obtain:

~

wJ

y R ( n ) a R , p ( n ) sgn y R ( n ) X R ( n )

wW R

(8)

y (n) a

I

~

wJ

wW I

y (n) a

y (n) a

I ,q ( n )

sgn y ( n ) X

I

sgn y ( n ) X ( n )

( n ) sgn y ( n ) X ( n )

R,p ( n )

I ,q

B.

Although the DM-MMA correctly decide whether the

equalizer is in a transient state or a steady state, it does not

tell whether a particular adjustment is correct or not. The

stop-and-go method can solve this problem by using a

simple flag. The flag suggests go if the error signal is

sufficiently reliable for adaptation, and suggests stop

otherwise [8, 9]. In the following, we present a stop-and-go

DM-MMA (SAG-DMMMA) for blind equalization. The

SAG-DMMMA can be described by the following equations:

I(n)

(9)

W(n 1)

y ( n) D k , k

W(n 1)

1,2,

(16)

~

~

W(n) P > f R (n)e R (n) j f I (n)e I (n)@ X (n),

y ( n) D k , k

1,2,

(17)

where

(18)

f R ( n)

0, if sgne R ( n ) z sgne~R ( n )

1, if sgne I ( n ) sgne~I ( n )

. (19)

f I ( n)

0, if sgne I ( n ) z sgne~I ( n )

W (n 1) W (n) P ~

e ( n) X ( n)

(10)

The error signal in (10) is expressed as

e~ (n) e~R (n) j e~I (n),

y ( n) D k

(11)

where

~

e (n)

y ( n ) a ( n ) sgn y ( n )

(12)

R

~

eI ( n )

y (n) a

I

R,p

I ,q ( n )

III.

We have demonstrated the performance of the DMMMA and SAG-DMMMA using computer simulations. The

data sequences for simulations were generated according to

the model of Fig. 2. In this model, a T-spaced (where T is the

symbol period) symbol sequence {a(n)} is transmitted

through the channel, which is the overall complex baseband

equivalent impulse response of the transmitter filter,

unknown channel and receiver filter. The channel output is

corrupted by additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN). The

received signal r(n) is interpolated by a factor of two and

filtered by a T/2-spaced feedforward filter. After that, the

output is decimated by a factor of two to get the T-spaced

sequence {y(n)} for the posterior decision device.

The channel used in simulations was taken from [8]. A

decision-feedback equalizer with a 5-tap T/2-spaced

feedforward filter and a 3-tap feedback filter was used. The

equalizer was initialized so that the center taps were set to

one and the other taps were set to zero. The signal to noise

ratio (SNR) was fixed at 20 dB in all simulations.

In Fig. 3 we show that for the different d values (the

width of each square is 2d as depicted in Fig. 1), there has a

sgn y ( n ) .

I

SIMULATIONS

(13)

region based MMA (CR-MMA).

From (3), (4), (10), (11) and the preceding discussion, we

may express the dual-mode MMA (DM-MMA) as

W (n 1) W (n) P e(n) X (n),

y (n) D k (14)

~

W (n 1) W (n) P e (n) X (n),

y ( n) D

(15)

k

distortion introduced by the channel during the transient

stages, the output of the equalizer will be scattered in a very

large area around the transmitted data point. Therefore, most

of the equalizer outputs will not be in Dk and the MMA

(i.e. (14)) will be used to adjust the tap weights most of the

time. This provides a MMA-like initial convergence

behavior for the DM-MMA. On the other hand, in the steady

state, since the output of the equalizer will be very close to

proposed algorithm. From this figure, it can be seen that the

performance of the algorithm deteriorates when d is

increased beyond 0.85, and for d=1 the algorithm fails to

converge. Note that when d=1, the square regions touch each

other, and this case is very similar to the CR-MMA

equalization scheme.

Next, to examine the performance of the proposed

algorithm, we compared the DM-MMA and SAG-DMMMA

with the CMA and the MMA for the 32-QAM, 128-QAM

and 256-QAM data constellations. The step-size is set to

0.000012 and 0.00004 for the CMA and the MMA with the

32-QAM data set, respectively. For the DM-MMA and

SAG-DMMMA, d=0.7 and =0.002, 0.0001 and 0.00002 for

the 32-QAM, 128-QAM and 256-QAM constellations,

respectively. Fig. 4 shows the constellations after

convergence. Fig. 4(a) shows for the CMA of a 32-QAM

signal. It is clear that the equalized output constellation has

an arbitrary phase rotation introduced by the channel, which

has not been corrected. Fig. 4(b), 4(c) and 4(d) are the

constellations of 32-QAM signals for the MMA, DM-MMA

and the SAG-DMMMA, respectively. The phase rotation has

been recovered for these algorithms and the DM-MMA and

SAG-DMMMA can achieve better performance compared

with the MMA. In addition, we can see from Fig. 4 that the

symbols are more clearly distinguishable at the output of the

SAG-DMMMA equalizers than those of the DM-MMA.

Note that the CMA and the MMA did not succeed in opening

the eye for the 128-QAM and 256-QAM signals, so we have

not presented their data constellations.

Finally, we consider the convergence behavior and

steady state MSE of these algorithms. Fig. 5 shows the

ensemble-averaged MSE, obtained from 100 Monte Carlo

runs. From the results, we can see that the SAG-DMMMA

has the fastest convergence rate and the smallest steady state

MSE among all the algorithms.

0

-5

d=1

d=0

MSE(dB)

-10

d=0.1

-15

d=0.5

-20

d=0.3

d=0.7

d=0.85

-25

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

1

1.2

Iterations

1.4

1.6

1.8

2

4

x 10

Figure 3. Learning curves for DM-MMA for a 16-QAM system. For d=0,

the corresponding step-size are =0.00002; for d=1, =0.001, and others

=0.002.

receiver.

outperform the MMA and offer practical alternatives to blind

equalization of higher-order QAM signals.

[1]

Godard DN. Self-recovering equalization and carrier tracking in twodimensional data communication systems. IEEE Transactions on

Communications 1980; 28(11):1867-1875.

[2] Yang J, Werner JJ, Dumont GA. The multimodulus blind equalization

and its generalized algorithms. IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in

Communications (ISACEM) 2002; 20(5): 997-1015.

[3] Yuan JT, Tsai KD. Analysis of the Multimodulus Blind equalization

Algorithm in QAM Communication Systems. IEEE Transactions on

Communications 2005; 53(9): 1427-1431.

[4] Yuan JT, Chang LW. Carrier Phase Tracking of Multimodulus Blind

Equalization Algorithm Using QAM Oblong Constellations. IEEE

International Conference on Communications, 2007(ICC 2007),

Glasgow, Scotland, 24-28 June 2007;2991-2998.

[5] Weerackody V, Kassam SA. Dual-mode type algorithms for blind

equalization. IEEE Transactions on Communications 1994; 42(1): 2228.

[6] Shahmohammadhi M, Kahaei MH. A new dual-mode approach to

blind equalization of QAM signals. Proceedings ISCC,

Antalya,Turkey, June 2003;277-281

[7] Banovic K, Abdel-Raheem E, Khalid MAS. Hybrid methods for blind

adaptive equalization: new results and comparisons. Proceedings

ISCC, June 2005;1341-1346.

[8] Picchi G, Prati G. Blind equalization and carrier recovery using a

stop-and-go decision-directed algorithm. IEEE Transactions on

Communications 1987; 35(9): 877-887.

[9] Tseng CH, Lin CB. A stop-and-go dual-mode algorithm for blind

equalization. Proceedings of Globecom , 1996;1427- 1431.

[10] Abrar S, Amin A, Siddiq F. Stop-and-go square-contour blind

equalization algorithms: design and implementation. IEEE

International Conference on Emerging Technologies, Islamabad,

2005; 157-162.

-2

CMA for 32QAM

-4

-6

-8

MSE(dB)

-10

DM-MMA for 32QAM

-12

-14

SAG-DMMMA for 32QAM

-16

SAG-DMMMA for 256QAM

-18

-20

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

1

1.2

Iterations

1.4

1.6

1.8

2

4

x 10

IV.

CONCLUSIONS

algorithms for blind equalization and have analyzed their

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