SAKUNTHALA
ENGINEERING COLLEGE
DEPARTMENT OF PHYSICS
(Owned by Vel R.S. Trust, 1997)
Approved by AICTE, New Delhi & Govt. of Tamilnadu & Affiliated
to Anna University
Prepared by
Department of Physics
SEMICONDUCTOR LASER
(A) DETERMINATION OF WAVELENGTH OF
LASER USING GRATING
(B) PARTICLE SIZE DETERMINATION
(C) DETERMINATION OF NUMERICAL
APERTURE, ACCEPTANCE ANGLE OF AN
OPTICAL FIBER AND ANGLE OF DIVERGENCE
Expt. No:
Date:
AIM
To determine
(a) Wavelength of the given laser source, using a laser source
(b) To find the size of the given particle using the laser source
(c) To measure the numerical aperture and acceptance angle of the given optical fiber.
APPARATUS REQUIRED
1. A laser source, 2. Laser grating, 3. Lycopodium powder, 4. Screen, 5. Scale,
5. Optical fiber 6. Numerical aperture measurement jig
FORMULA
(a)Wavelength of the given laser source =
sin
Nn
N D
metre
Xn
(i)
Unit
Distance
of
different
orders
(Xn)from
the central
spot
Right Side
tan 1=(Xn/D)
1= tan1(Xn/D)
102 m
Distance of
different
orders
(Xn)from the
central spot
102 m
2= tan1(Xn /
(c)
r
degree
d
r2 r1 180
degree
d 2 d1
Explanation of symbols
Symbol
Explanation
Unit
Order of spectrum
Unit
Xn
metre
metre
D1
metre
metre
metre
Angle of diffraction
degree
r1
metre
r2
metre
lines/meter
THEORY
A device for producing spectra by diffraction and interference is known as
diffraction grating. While producing diffraction spectra using the particle, the size of the
particle should be comparably equal to the wavelength of the source. The diffracted wave
undergoes constructive and destructive interference effect. The intensities of the spectra
depend upon the diffraction angle. By measuring the diffraction angle in terms of orders of
spectra. The wavelength of the given laser source and the size of the particle can be
determined.
Numerical Aperture (NA) and Acceptance Angle: It is the light collecting efficiency of the
fiber and is the measure of the maximum amount of light that can be accepted by the fibre.
Using Snells law mathematically we can say NA = sin max n12 n 22
Where n1= Refractive index of core
n2= Refractive index of cladding
max Accep tan ce angle of the fiber sin 1 Numerical aperture
i.e. max sin 1 NA
PROCEDURE
(i) To find wavelength of the laser source
The laser source and the laser grating are mounted on separate stands as shown in
the fig 11.1. A fixed distance (D) is kept between the laser grating and the screen. The
laser source is switched ON and the beam of laser is allowed to fall on the laser grating.
The diffracted beams are collected on the screen. The diffracted beams are in the form
of spots as shown in Fig 11.2.
In the figure 11.2, the intensity of the irradiance is found to decrease, from zeroth
order to higher orders, i.e. the first order is brighter than the second order and so on.
The positions X1, X2, X3,..of the spots belonging to the first order, second order, third
order etc., on either side of the central maximum are marked on the screen and is noted.
The experiment is repeated for various values of D and the positions of the spots are
noted. Then by using the given formula the wavelength of the laser source can be
calculated and the mean is taken.
VIVA VOCE
1. What is semiconductor diode laser?
Semiconductor diode laser is a specially fabricated pn junction diode. It emits laser
light when it is forward biased.
2. What is meant by active material in laser?
A material in which population inversion is achieved is called active material.
(ii)
S. No.
Distance
between
screen and
galss plate
Order
(n)
Distance between
the bright point
and nth fringe
Particle size
d
(Xn)
102 m
102 m
(No.)
1.
First
2.
Second
3.
Third
(metre)
Now the laser grating is removed and the size of the particle to be found is
introduced. The laser source is switched ON and the light is made to fall on the particle.
The screen is moved back and forth until the clear image of the spectrum is seen and the
distance between the screen and the particle (D1) is noted. Due to diffraction of laser light
by the particle, different orders of spectrum are obtained as shown in fig 11.3. the positions
Y1, Y2, Y3,.. of the spots belonging to the first order, second order, third order etc. on
either side of the central maximum are noted in a similar way as noted above. Then by
using the given formula the size of the particle can be determined.
PRECAUTION
It is dangerous to view the laser light directly. So direct exposure of laser light to
eye should be avoided.
VIVA VOCE
1. What is laser?
The term LASER stands for Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation.
It is a device which produces a powerful, monochromatic collimated beam of light in which
the waves are coherent.
2. What is stimulated emission?
The process of forced emission of photons caused by incident photons is called
stimulated emission
3. What are the characteristics of laser radiation?
Laser radiation has high intensity, high coherence, high monochromatism and high
directionality with less divergence.
10
11
(iii)
S. No.
Distance
between NA
Jig opening
and the fibre
(d)
( 10 3 m )
Radius of the
circular opening in
Numerical aperture
Jig (r)
2
( 10 m )
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
12
Acceptance angle
max=r/d
degree
NA = sinmax
no unit
VIVAVOCE
1. Define numerical aperture
Numerical aperture is defined as the light gathering capability of an optical fibre. It
is the sign of the acceptance angle
NA =sin a
13
r1
m)
2
(X10
r2
m)
2
(X10
d1
2
(X10 m )
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
14
d2
2
(X10 m )
(deg)
CALCULATION
(a) Wavelength of the given laser source =
sin
Nn
=..degree
N =..lines/m
= .
N D
Xn
metre
=..m
N=..m
D =.m
d =.m
15
r
degree
d
r = . X102m
d = X102m
NA =..(No unit)
r2 r1 180
degree
d 2 d1
r1 = X102m
r2 = X102m
d1 = X102m
d2 = X102m
= degree
16
RESULT
(a) The wavelength of the given laser source = .
(b) The size of the given particle
= ..metre
(c) (i) The Numerical aperture of the
given optical fiber
= (No unit)
(ii) The Acceptance angle of the
Given optical fiber
=.degree
(iii) The Angle of divergence
=.....degree
17
18
AIRWEDGE
Expt. No:
Date:
AIM
To find the thickness of a thin wire by forming interference fringes using airwedge
arrangement.
APPARATUS REQUIRED
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
Traveling microscope
Sodium vapour lamp
Two optically plane rectangular glass plates
Condensing lens
Reading lens
Thin wire
FORMULA
Thickness of the thin wire
(t) = 2
metre
Explanation of symbols
Symbol
Explanation
Unit
metre
metre
metre
PROCEDURE
An air wedge is formed by keeping two optically plane glass plates in contact along
one of their edges. At the other end, thin wire is introduced with its length perpendicular to
the length of the plate. The glass plates are tied together in this position by means of rubber
band. It is then placed on the horizontal bed plate of the traveling microscope.
The interference pattern can be obtained with the help of the glass plate inclined at
45 to the horizontal plane and a condensing lens (Fig.2.1). Light from the sodium vapour
lamp is made to fall vertically on the air wedge. These interference fringes are viewed
through the traveling microscope.
19
Microscope reading
MSR
VSC
(x102 m)
(div)
TR=MSR+
(VSC x LC)
(x102 m)
Width of five
bands
(x102 m)
Mean width
of one
band()
(x102 m)
n
n +5
n +10
n +15
n +20
n +25
n +30
n +35
n +40
n +45
n +50
= ........................ x102 m
20
A system of equispaced straight alternately dark and bright bands are obtained
(Fig.2.2)
The vertical cross wire of the telescope is adjusted to coincide with the centre of
well defined dark band near the edge of contact of the glass plates. It is taken as the n th
band. The reading on the horizontal scale of the microscope is noted. The microscope is
then moved in the same direction by working the horizontal transverse screw and made to
coincide with every successive 5th fringe. The readings are noted. This is continued till
about 50 fringes are covered. The readings are tabulated. From these readings, the mean
width of one fringe () is found.
The distance l between the edges of contact and the wire is measured with the help
of the traveling microscope. (Fig2.3). Assuming the wave length of sodium light, the
thickness of the thin wire is calculated by using the given formula.
21
(ii) To find the distance between edge of contact and specimen wire
LC=0.001cm
Position
Microscope reading
MSR
VSC
(x102 m)
(div)
Rubber band
(edge of
contact)
Specimen wire
TR=MSR+
(VSC x LC)
(x102 m)
l = R1 R2
(x102 m)
(R1)
(R2)
l=............................. x102 m
22
PRECAUTION
1. The two glass plates must be cleaned and should be optically planed.
2. The movement of the vernier should be in one direction only so as to avoid back
lash error.
VIVAVOCE
1. What do you mean by interference of light?
When the two waves superimpose over each other, resultant intensity is modified.
The modification in the distribution of intensity in the region of superposition is called
interference.
2. Is there any loss of energy in interference phenomenon?
No, there is only redistribution of energy i.e., energy from dark place is shifted to
bright places.
3. What are interference fringes?
They are alternatively bright and dark patches of light obtained in the region of
superposition of two wave trains of light.
4. What type of source is required in division of amplitude?
In division of amplitude a broad source is required so that the whole firm may be
viewed together.
5. What is the shape of fringes in wedge shape film?
The fringes in the wedgeshaped film are straight line fringes.
6. When white light is used to illuminate the slit, what is the colour of fringes?
When white light is used to illuminate the slit, the edge of the wedge is dark, with
separate coloured fringes from violet to red.
23
CALCULATION
l
t = m
24
RESULT
Thickness of the given thin wire = . metre
25
26
ULTRASONIC INTERFEROMETER
Expt. No:
Date
:
AIM
(i)
(ii)
APPARATUS REQUIRED
1.
2.
3.
4.
Ultrasonic interferometer
Quartz crystal of natural frequency 2 MHz
Micrometer and sensor
Liquids (Kerosene, Benzene and CCl4) as source.
FORMULA
(i) Velocity of ultrasonic waves in a given liquid
v =
metre/second
2d
n
K= v 2
metre
metre2/newton
Explanation of symbols
Symbol
Explanation
Unit
Numbers of oscillations
kilogram/metre3
27
DESCRIPTION
28
Measuring Cell: Measuring cell shown in fig3.3 has a double walled vessel with
a provision to maintain temperature constant. At the top of the cell a fine micrometer screw
is fitted. With the help of this screw, the reflector plate placed in the cell can be lowered or
raised through a known distance. The reflector and the quartz crystal (mounted at the
bottom of the cell) are parallel to each other. When the alternating field from the frequency
generator is applied to the crystal, it gets into resonant vibrations.
PROCEDURE
The high frequency generator is switched on and the alternating field from the
generator is applied to the quartz crystal. The quartz crystal produces longitudinal
ultrasonic waves. The ultrasonic waves pass through the liquid and gets reflected at the
surface of the reflector plate.
If the distance between the reflector and crystal is exactly a whole multiple of the
sound wavelength, standing waves are formed within the medium. This results in the
formation of acoustic resonance and causes a change in the potential difference at the
generator which excites the crystal. Due to this, anode current of the generator becomes
maximum. The change in the anode current can be measured from the micrometer fitted
with the frequency generator.
The distance between the reflector and crystal is varied using the micrometer screw
such that the anode current decreases from maximum and then increases up to a maximum.
The distance between successive maximum or minimum in the anode current is equal to
half the wavelength of the ultrasonic waves in the liquid. (fig.3.4)
By noting the initial and final position of the micrometer for one complete
oscillation (maxima  minima), one can determine the distance moved by the parallel
reflector as shown in figure.3.3
Thus n number of successive maxima or minima is recorded for a distance d. The
total distance moved by the micrometer screw is given by
29
LC = 0.01mm
Number
of
Maxima
d
(x103 m)
n
n+5
n+10
n+15
n+20
n+25
n+30
n+35
n+40
n+45
n+50
Mean
d= [(n+m)n]
2
m
d=
where mnumber of rotations for corresponding oscillations
2
30
2d
n
(x103 m)
From the value of , the velocity of the longitudinal ultrasonic waves is calculated
using the relation, v = , where is the frequency of the generator which is used to excite
the crystal. After determining the velocity of the ultrasonic waves in liquids, the
compressibility of the liquid is calculated using the formula K = 1/ 2 where is the
density of the liquid. The experiment is repeated for different liquids.
PRECAUTION
1. Do not switch on the generator without filling the experimental liquid in the cell.
2. Remove experimental liquid out of the cell after use, keep it cleaned and dried.
3. While cleaning the cell, it should be noted that the gold plating on the crystal is not
spoiled or not scratched.
31
CALCULATION
(i) Wavelength of ultrasonic waves =
2d
metre
n
d=. x103m
n=.
=....m
v =....m/sec
32
RESULT
(i) Velocity of ultrasonic waves in a given liquid
(ii) Compressibility of the liquid
v = metre/second
K = metre2/newton
33
34
SPECTROMETER GRATING
Expt. No:
Date:
AIM
To find the wavelengths of the prominent spectral lines in the mercury (Hg) source.
APPARATUS REQUIRED
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Spectrometer
Plane transmission grating
Sodium vapour lamp
Mercury vapour lamp
Reading lens.
FORMULA
Wavelength of the prominent lines in the mercury (Hg) source =
sin
Nn
Explanation of symbols
Symbol
Explanation
Angle of diffraction
Unit
degree
lines/metre
PROCEDURE
1. Adjustment of the grating for normal incidence
The initial adjustments of the spectrometer are made as usual. The plane
transmission grating is mounted on the grating table. The telescope is released and placed
in front of the collimator. The direct reading is taken after making the vertical crosswire to
coincide with the fixed edge of the image of the slit which is illuminated by a source of
light (Sodium vapour lamp or mercury vapour lamp).
(i) To find N
35
Difference
(2)
Right side
=2 /2
Mean
VernierA
VernierB
MSR
VSC
TR
(A1)
(deg)
(div)
(deg)
MSR
(deg)
VernierA
VSC
TR
(B1)
MSR
(div)
(deg)
(deg)
VernierB
VSC
TR
(A2)
MSR
VSC
TR
(B2)
(div)
(deg)
(deg)
(div)
(deg)
VA
A1
A2
VB
B1
B2
VA
VB
(deg)
(deg)
(deg)
(deg)
Yellow
The telescope is then rotated by an angle 90 (either left or right side) and fixed.
The grating table is rotated until on seeing through the telescope the reflected image of the
slit coincides with the vertical crosswire. This is possible only when a light emerging
36
si
n
(deg)
Lin
out from the collimator is incident at an angle 45 towards the collimator. Now light
coming out from the collimator will be incident normally on the grating (Fig. 4.1).
37
The slit is now illuminated by white light from mercury vapour lamp. The central
direct image will be an undispersed image. The telescope is moved on both sides of the
direct image, the diffraction pattern of the spectrum of the first order is seen. The readings
are taken by coinciding the prominent lines namely violet, green, yellow and red with the
vertical cross wire. The readings are tabulated and from this, the angles of diffraction for
different colours are determined (Fig.4.2). The wavelengths for different line are calculated
by using the given formula. The number of lines per metre in the grating is also calculated.
39
Colour
of
spectral
lines
Left side
VernierA
MSR
VSC
(deg)
(div)
Right side
VernierB
TR
(A1)
(deg)
MSR
VSC
(deg)
(div)
VernierA
TR
(B1)
(deg)
MSR
VSC
(deg)
(div)
Violet
I
Violet
II
Blue
BluishGreen
Green
Yellow
Red
PRECAUTION
40
VernierB
TR
(A2)
(deg)
MSR
VSC
(deg)
(div)
TR
(B2)
(deg)
Difference
(2)
VA
VB
A1
B1
A2
B2
(deg) (deg)
=2 /2
VA
VB
(deg)
(deg)
Mean
(deg)
1. The grating should be held from the edges and the ruled surface should not be
touched.
2. The ruled surface should face away from the collimator.
VIVA VOCE
1. In the present experiment, what class of diffraction does occur and how?
Fraunhofer class of diffraction occurs. Since the spectrometer is focused for parallel
rays, the source and the image are effectively at infinite distances from grating.
2. What is plane transmission diffraction grating?
A plane transmission diffraction grating is an optically plane parallel glass plate on
which equidistant, extremely close grooves are made by ruling with a diamond point.
3. How are commercial gratings made?
A commercial grating is made by pouring properly diluted cellulose acetate on the
actual grating and drying it to a thin strong film. The film is detached from the original
grating and is mounted between two glass plates. A commercial grating is called a replica
grating.
4. What type of grating do you use for your experiment?
Plane transmission type replica grating.
CALCULATION
41
N =.lines/m
VioletI
sin
=
Nn
VioletII
sin
=
Nn
Blue
sin
=
Nn
Bluish green
sin
=
Nn
42
Green
sin
=
Nn
Yellow
sin
=
Nn
Red
sin
=
Nn
RESULT
(i)
(ii)
V = ..
B = ..
BG = ..
G = ..
Y = ..
R = ..
43
LC = 0.01 cm
Sl.No.
PSR
HSC
TR=PSR+
(HSC x LC)
Correct
Reading=
TR ZC
(x103 m)
(div)
(x103 m)
(x103 m)
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Mean d = ...................... x103 m.
44
THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY OF A
BADCONDUCTORLEES DISC
Expt. No:
Date:
AIM
To determine the thermal conductivity of a bad conductor using Lees disc
apparatus.
APPARATUS REQUIRED
1. Lees disc apparatus
2. Bad Conductors (card board, glass or ebonite)
3. Thermometers
4. StopClock
5. Steam boiler
6. Screw Gauge
7. Vernier Calipers.
FORMULA
Thermal Conductivity of a bad conductor
d
dt
d r 2h
MS
K
r 2 1 2 2r 2h
watt metre1kelvin1
dt
(i)
Explanation
Unit
kg
J kg1K1
C/s
metre
LC = 0.01 mm
Sl.No.
PSR
HSC
TR=PSR+(HSCxLC)
(x103 m)
(div)
(x103 m)
Correct
Reading=
TR ZC
(x103 m)
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Mean h = ...................... x103 m.
46
metre
metre
PROCEDURE
The thickness of the bad conductor (say card board) and thickness of the metallic
disc are determined using a screw gauge. The radius of the metallic disc is found using a
vernier caliper. The mass of the metallic disc is also found using a common balance. The
readings are tabulated.
The whole Lees disc apparatus is suspended from a stand as shown in figure. The
given bad conductor is placed in between the metallic disc and the steam chamber. Two
thermometers T1 and T2 are inserted in the respective holes.
Steam from the steam boiler is passed in to the steam boiler until the temperature of
the steam chamber and the metallic disc are steady. The steady temperature 1 of the steam
chamber and the steady temperature 2 of the metallic disc recorded by the thermometers
are noted.
Now the bad conductor is removed and the steam chamber is placed in direct
contact with the metallic disc. The temperature of the disc rapidly rises. When the
temperature of the disc rises about 10C above 2 C (steady temperature of the disc), the
steam chamber is carefully removed, after cutting off the steam supply.
When the temperature of the disc reaches 10 C above the steady temperature of the disc
i.e., (2+10)C, a stop clock is started. Time for every 1C fall of temperature is noted until
the metallic disc attains a temperature (210)C.
47
dt
Time (t)
Second
48
GRAPH
A graph is drawn taking time along the X axis and temperature along the Y axis.
The cooling curve is obtained. To obtain the rate of cooling (d/dt) 2 from this graph, a
triangle is drawn by taking 1C above and 1C below the steady temperature 2. Then the
slope AB / BC gives the rate of cooling at (d/dt) at 2.
From these readings and using the given formula the thermal conductivity of the
bad conductor is calculated.
49
CALCULATION
Thermal Conductivity of a bad conductor
d
dt
d r 2h
MS
K
r 2 1 2 2r 2h
watt metre1kelvin1
M = ..kg
S = ... J kg1K1
d
dt
= . C
d = x103m
r = .x102m
h = x103m
1 = C
2 = C
K = watt metre1kelvin1
50
RESULT
Thermal conductivity of the given bad conductor =Wm1K1.
51
52
APPARATUS REQUIRED
1. B H curve unit
2. Cathode Ray Oscilloscope (CRO)
3. Patch cords
FORMULA
Hysteresis loss =
N 1 R2 C
SV S H Area of the loop
N 2 R1 V
joule cycle1metre3
V
SV
SH
R1 &
R2
Explanation
Number of turns in the primary coil
Number of turns in the secondary coil
Volume of the core
Vertical sensitivity of CRO
Horizontal sensitivity of CRO
Resistances in the circuit
Unit
metre3
Vm1
Vm1
ohm
farad
PROCEDURE
The experimental arrangement is shown in the figure 6.1
One of the specimens used in the unit is made using transformer stampings. There
are two windings on the specimen (primary and secondary). The primary is fed to low A.C
voltage (50 Hz). This produces a magnetic field H in the specimen. The voltage across R1
(resistance connected in series with primary) is proportional to the magnetic field
It is given to the input of the CRO. The A.C magnetic field induces a voltage in the
secondary coil. The voltage induced is proportional to dB/dt.
53
54
This voltage is applied to passive integrating circuit. The output of the integrator is
proportional to B and fed to the vertical input of the CRO.
As a result of the application of voltage proportional to H the horizontal axis and a
voltage proportional to B is the vertical axis, the loop is formed as shown in fig 6.3. A
measurement of the area of the loop leads to the evaluation of energy loss in the specimen.
The top view of the unit is shown in the figure 6.2. There are 12 terminals on the
panel, sin patch cords are supplied with the kit.
The value of R1 can be selected by connecting terminal D to A, B or C (AD=50
ohm; BD=150 ohm; CD=50 ohm)
A is connected to D. The primary terminals of the specimen is connected to p,p
secondary to s,s terminals. The CRO is calibrated as per the instructions given the
Instruction Manual of CRO. CRO is adjusted to work on external mode (the time base is
switched off). The horizontal and vertical position controls are adjusted such that the spot is
at the centre of the CRO screen.
The terminal marked GND is connected to the ground of the CRO. The H is
connected to the Horizontal input of the CRO. The terminal V is connected to the vertical
input of the CRO. The power supply of the unit is switched on. The Hysteresis loop is
formed. The horizontal and vertical gains are adjusted such that the loop occupies
maximum area on the screen of the CRO. Once this adjustment is made, the gain controls
should not be disturbed. The loop is traced on a translucent graph paper. The area of the
loop is estimated,
The connections from CRO is removed without disturbing the horizontal and
vertical gain controls. The vertical sensitivity of the CRO is determined by applying a
known A.C voltage say 1 volt (peak to peak).
If the spot deflects by x cms for 1 volt, the vertical sensitivity is 1/(x x 102)
(volt/m). let it be SV. The horizontal sensitivity of CRO is determined by applying a known
A.C voltage say 1 volt (peak to peak). Let the horizontal sensitivity be SH (volt/m).
The hysteresis loss is calculated by using the given formula.
55
OBSERVATIONS
Number of turns in the primary
Number of turns in the secondary
Resistance
Resistance
Capacitance of the capacitor
Vertical sensitivity of CRO
Horizontal sensitivity of CRO
N1 = ...
N2 =
R1 = .. ohm
R2 = .. ohm
C = F
SV =... Vm1
SV =... Vm1
CALCULATION
Area of the loop =.. m2
(from the graph)
Hysteresis loss =
N 1 R2 C
SV S H Area of the loop joule cycle1metre3
N 2 R1 V
56
RESULT
Energy loss = . joules cycle 1 metre3
57
58
TORSIONAL PENDULUM
Expt. No:
Date:
AIM
To determine (i) the moment of inertia of the disc and (ii) the rigidity modulus of
the material of a wire by torsional oscillations.
APPARATUS REQUIRED
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
FORMULA
2
2m( d 2 d1 )T0
2
T2 T1
n=
kg m2
8Il
2
T0 r 4
newton/metre2
Explanation
Unit
kg
metre
metre
second
second
metre
T2
59
second
metre
(i)
Trail 2
(sec)
Without
Symmetrical
masses
With masses at
closest distance
d1 = ......... x102 m
With masses at
maximum distance
d2 = ......... x102 m
60
Mean
(sec)
Time for 1
oscillation
(sec)
PROCEDURE
One end of a long, uniform wire whose rigidity modulus is to be determined is
clamped by a vertical chuck. To the lower end, a heavy uniform circular disc is attached by
another chuck. The length of the suspension l is fixed to a particular value (say 60 cm or
70 cm). The suspended disc is slightly twisted so that it executes torsional oscillations. Care
is taken to see that the disc oscillates without wobbling.
The first few oscillations are omitted. By using the pointer, (a mark made in the
disc) the time taken for 20 complete oscillations are noted. Two trials are taken. The mean
time period T (time for one oscillation) is found.
Two equal cylindrical masses are placed on the disc symmetrically on either side,
close to the suspension wire (at the minimum distance). The closest distance d1 from the
centre of the mass of the cylinder and the centre of the suspension wire is found. The disc
with masses at distance d1is made to executive torsional oscillations by twisting the disc.
The time taken for 20 oscillations is noted. Two trials are taken. The mean time period T1
is determined.
Two equal masses are now moved to the extreme ends so that the edges of masses
coincide with the edge of the disc and the centres are equidistant. The distance d2 from
the centre of the mass of the cylinder and the centre of the suspension wire is noted. The
disc with masses at distance d2 is allowed to execute torsional oscillations by twisting the
disc. The time taken for 20 oscillations is noted and time period T2 is calculated.
The mass of one of the cylinders placed on the disc is found. The diameter of the
wire is accurately measured at various places along its length with screw gauge. From this,
the radius of the wire is calculated. The moments of inertia of the disc and rigidity modulus
of the wire are calculated using the given formulae.
61
(ii)
LC = 0.01 mm
Sl.No.
PSR
HSC
TR=PSR+(HSCxLC)
(x103 m)
(div)
(x103 m)
Correct
Reading=
TR ZC
(x103 m)
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Mean d = ...................... x103 m.
Mean radius r =
62
d
= ...................... x103 m.
2
PRECAUTION
1. The circular disc must be horizontal.
2. The suspension wire should be well clamped, thin, long and free from kinks.
3. The motion of the circular disc should be purely rotational in horizontal plane,
up and down and lateral oscillations must be completely checked.
4. Equal masses should be placed diametrically opposite with respect to the centre
of the disc.
VIVAVOCE
1. What is torsional pendulum?
A body suspended from a rigid support by means of a long and thin elastic
wire is called torsional pendulum.
2. What is the rigid body you can use for a torsional pendulum?
Sphere, cylinder or circular disc.
3. Why is it called a torsional pendulum?
As it performs torsional oscillations, it is called torsional pendulum.
4. What is the type of oscillation?
This is of simple harmonic oscillation type.
5. On what factors do the time period depends?
It depends upon (i) moment of inertia of the body (ii) rigidity of wire i.e.,
length, radius and material of the wire.
6. What type of wire do you prefer for this experiment?
Thin and long metallic wire.
7. How will you determine the rigidity of fluids?
As fluids do not have a shape of their own, hence they do not possess
rigidity. Hence there is no question of determining it.
63
CALCULATION
2
2m( d 2 d1 )T0
2
T2 T1
kgm2
T0 = . second
d1 = x 102m
d1 = x 102m
m = x 103 kg
l = x 102m
r = x 103m
I = .kg.m2
8Il
N/m2
2
T0 r 4
n = .N/m2
64
RESULT
Moment of inertia of the disc (I) = .. kg m2
Rigidity modulus of the material of given wire (n) = Nm2
65
66
APPARATUS REQUIRED
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
Traveling microscope
Two knife edge supports
Weight hanger with set of weights
Pin
Metre scale
Vernier Calipers
Screw gauge
FORMULA
Youngs modulus of the material of the beam (metre scale) E =
Mgl 3
N/m2
4bd 3 y
Explanation
Unit
y
g
metre
m/s2
metre
metre
metre
Load applied
kg
67
(i)
To find depression y
Load
(x 103kg)
1.
2.
W+50
3.
W+100
4.
W+150
5.
W+200
6.
W+250
7.
W+300
LC = 0.001 cm
Microscope Readings
Loading
Unloading
MSR
VSC
TR
MSR
VSC
TR
2
2
2
(x 10 m) (div) (x 10 m)
(x 10 m) (div) (x 102m)
Mean
Depress
y for M
(x 102m)
(x 102
Mean y
Mean y = x 102m
68
PROCEDURE
The weight of the hanger is taken as the dead load W. The experimental bar is
brought to elastic mood by loading and unloading it a number of times with slotted
weights. With the dead load W suspended from the mid point, the microscope is adjusted
such that the horizontal crosswire coincides with the image of the tip of the pin. The
reading of the vertical scale is taken.
The experiment is repeated by adding weights in steps. Every time the microscope
is adjusted and the vertical scale reading is taken. Then the load is decreased in the same
steps and the readings are taken. From the readings, the mean depression of the mid point
for a given load can be found. The length of the bar between the knife edges is measured l.
The bar is removed and its mean breadth b is determined with a vernier caliper and
its mean thickness d with a screw gauge.
From the observations, Youngs modulus of the material of the beam is calculated
by using the given formula.
69
(ii)
LC = 0.01 cm
Sl.No.
MSR
VSC
TR = MSR+(VSC X LC)
(x 102m)
(div)
(x 102m)
(x 102m)
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Mean b = x 102m
70
PRECAUTIONS
1. The beam must be kept horizontal.
2. While taking readings, the microscope must be moved in the same direction so as to
avoid the backlash error.
3. After loading or removing weights, some time must be allowed before taking the
readings.
71
PSR
HSC
(x 103m)
(div)
S. No.
Observed Reading =
PSR + (HSC LC)
(x 103m)
Correct Reading =
OR ZC
(x 103m)
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
72
VIVAVOCE
1. What is Youngs modulus?
Youngs modulus is defined as the ratio of the longitudinal stress to the
longitudinal strain.
2. What is a beam?
When the length of a rod of uniform crosssection is very large compared to
its breadth such that the shearing stress over any section of the rod can be neglected,
the rod is called a beam.
3. How are longitudinal strain and stress produced in your experiment?
Due to depression, the upper or the concave side of the beam becomes
smaller than the lower or the convex side of the beam. As a result, longitudinal
strain is produced. The change in length will be due to the forces acting along the
length of the beam. These forces will give rise to longitudinal stress.
4. How do you ensure that in your experiment the elastic limit is not exceeded?
The consistency in the readings of depressions both for increasing load and
decreasing load indicates that in the experiment the elastic limit is not exceeded.
5. Which dimension breadth, thickness, or length of the barshould be measured very
carefully and why?
The thickness of the bar should be measured very carefully since its
magnitude is small and it occurs in the expression E in the power of three. An
inaccuracy in the measurement of the thickness will produce the greatest
proportional error in E.
6. What is the SI unit of Youngs modulus?
newton/m2
7. Will the value of Youngs modulus obtained by you change if the length, thickness
or breadth of the bar is altered?
No
8. Why do you place the beam symmetrically on the knife edges?
To keep the reaction at the knife edges equal in conformity with the theory.
CALCULATION
73
Mgl 3
Youngs modulus of the material of the beam (metre scale) E =
N/m2
4bd 3 y
Load applied
M = .kg
g = 9.8 m/sec2
l = x102m
b = x102m
d = x102m
y = x102m
E = N/m2
74
RESULT
Youngs modulus of the material
of the given bar (metre scale) = ..newton/metre2
75
VISCOSITY OF A LIQUID
76
BY POISEUILLES METHOD
Expt. No:
Date:
AIM
To find the coefficient of viscosity of a liquid by Poiseullies method.
APPARATUS REQUIRED
1. Graduated burette without stopper, 2. Retort stand with clamp, 3. Capillary tube,
4. Beaker, 5. Water
6. Stop watch
7. Meter scale
8. Rubber tube
9. Pinch cock
FORMULA
Coefficient of viscosity of the given liquid
gr 4 ht
Nsm2
8lV
Explanation
Unit
m/s2
kg/m3
metre
metre
metre3
(h1+h2)/2  h0
metre
h1
metre
77
Burette
reading
(cc)
Time
note
while
crossing
level
(second)
Range
Time
for flow
of 5 cc
liquid
Height of
initial
reading
h1
(cc)
(second)
( X102m)
1.
05
2.
510
3.
10
1015
4.
15
1520
5.
20
2025
6.
25
2530
7.
30
3035
8.
35
3540
9.
40
4045
10.
45
4550
11.
50
Height of
final
reading
h2
( X102m)
Pressure
head
h = (h1+ h2
)/2 h0
( X102m)
( X102msecond)
h2
metre
h0
metre
78
ht
second
PROCEDURE
A clean dry burette is fixed to a stand. A capillary tube is connected to the burette
by means of a rubber tube and is held parallel to the table so that the flow of liquid is
streamlined.
A given liquid is filled in the burette and the level of liquid reaches the zero mark,
the stopclock is started and the time is noted, when liquid level crosses 0, 5, 10, 15 ...45cc.
The time taken for the flow of 5 cc of liquidt is thus determined. It is seen that as height
h decreases the time of flowt increases. The product ht is a constant. The mean value of
ht is substituted to calculate coefficient of viscosity of the liquid.
To find the radius (r) of the capillary tube:
The capillary tube is held horizontally. The horizontal crosswire of telescope of the
traveling microscope is made to coincide with the top of the bore of the capillary tube. The
reading in the vertical scale is taken. Again, the horizontal crosswire is adjusted to be
tangential to the bottom of the bore of the capillary tube. The readings in the vertical scale
are taken. The difference between the two readings gives the diameter of the bore.
Similarly, using vertical crosswire, the readings in the horizontal scale
corresponding to left and right edges of the bore of the capillary tube are taken. The
difference between the two readings gives the diameter. The readings are tabulated. The
average diameter and hence the radius are determined.
Using the mean value of ht, the coefficient of viscosity of the given liquid is
calculated.
79
MSR
VSC
TR
( X102m)
(div)
( X102m)
Position
Top
Left
Bottom
Right
80
MSR
VSC
TR
( X102m)
(div)
( X102m)
PRECAUTION
The motion of the liquid must be stream line and care must be taken to ensure that
the flow of liquid doesnt become turbulent.
VIVAVOCE
1. What is viscosity and define the coefficient of viscosity?
In the presence of a relative motion between two layers of a liquid, an opposing
tangential force sets in between the layers to destroy the relative motion. This property of
liquid is termed viscosity and is analogous to friction. The tangential force acting per unit
area over two adjacent layers of the liquid for a unit velocity gradient is referred to as the
coefficient of viscosity.
2. How does the coefficient of viscosity changes with temperature?
The coefficient of viscosity changes with rise in temperature in case of liquids. But for
gases it increase with rise with temperature.
3. Which quantity requires greatest care in its measurement? Why?
The radius of the capillary tube requires greatest care in its measurement. Since it
occurs in the forth power in the expression of . Thus a small measurement of r, which
itself small, will contribute to a large proportional error in . The tube selected must
therefore be uniform and its radius be measured very carefully.
4. Can you use this method for all types of liquids?
No, this method can be suitably applied for liquids of low viscosity. For highly
viscous liquids, Stokes method can be used.
5. Is there any difference between friction and viscosity?
Friction and viscosity have some similarities and some differences between them. For
liquids at rest, friction works but viscosity doesnt because viscosity arises only when there
is a relative motion between the layers of a liquid.
CALCULATION
81
gr 4 ht
Nsm2
8lV
= .. kg/m3
g = .. m/s2
r = ..x102m
ht =. x102msecond
l = x102m
V =.. metre3
=  newtonsecond/metre2
82
RESULT:
The coefficient of viscosity of a given liquid = .Nsm2
83
Expt. No:
Date:
AIM
To find the dispersive power of the material of the prism using spectrometer.
APPARATUS REQUIRED
1.
2.
3.
4.
Spectrometer
Mercury vapour lamp
Glass prism
Reading lens
FORMULAE
A D
A
sin
sin
(No unit)
v
r
Dispersive power of the material of the prism 1 (No unit)
y
v
r
y
Explanation
Angle of the prism
Angle of minimum deviation
Refractive index of the prism for violet line
Refractive index of the prism for red line
Refractive index of the prism for yellow line
Unit
degree
degree

PROCEDURE
The initial adjustment of the spectrometer namely adjustment of eye piece for
distinct vision of cross wires, adjustment of telescope for the distant object and collimator
for parallel rays are made as usual. The slit of the collimator is illuminated by the mercury
vapour lamp.
85
S. Refracted
No.
ray
readings
Lines of
the
spectrum
LC = 1'
Vernier A
Vernier B
MSR
VSC
TR
MSR
VSC
TR
( deg)
(div)
( deg)
( deg)
(div)
( deg)
Angle of
minimum
deviation (D)
Ver A Ver B
R1~R2 R1~R2
VioletI
2.
VioletII
3.
Blue
4.
5.
Bluish
green
Green
6.
Yellow
7.
Orange
8.
Red
(deg)
( deg)
1.
Mean D =
( deg)
shown in fig. The telescope is turned to catch the reflected image from one face
of the prism and fixed in that position. The tangential screw is adjusted until the
vertical crosswire coincides with the fixed edge of the image of the slit.
The readings on both the verniers are noted. Similarly the readings corresponding to
the reflected image of the slit on the other face are also taken. The difference
between the two readings of the same vernier gives twice the angle of the prism.
Hence, the angle of the prism A is determined.
(ii) Determination of angle of minimum deviation (D)
The prism table is rotated so that the beam of light from the collimator is incident
on one face of the prism and emerges out from the other face. The telescope is
rotated to catch the refracted image of the yellow slit. The prism table is rotated in
such a direction so that the refracted image move towards the direct beam. The
telescope is rotated carefully to have the image in the field of view. At one stage,
the image stops momentarily and turns back. This is the position of the minimum
deviation (fig)
The telescope is rotated and made to coincide with the violet slit. The
telescope is fixed in this position and refracted ray reading of the telescope is noted.
The experiment is repeated for red slit. The prism is removed and the direct reading
of the slit is taken. The difference between the direct reading and the refracted ray
reading corresponding to the minimum deviation gives the angle of minimum
deviation D. The dispersive power is calculated using the given formula.
PRECAUTION
1. All the initial adjustments of the spectrometer must be done before starting
the experiment.
2. During rotation of the telescope, if the vernier zero crosses the zero mark of
the main circular scale, then the latter should be considered as 360 and
calculations should made accordingly.
3. The polished faces of the prism should not be touched.
87
Reflected ray
Lines of the
spectrum
LC = 1'
Vernier A
Vernier B
MSR
VSC
TR
MSR
VSC
TR
( deg)
(div)
( deg)
( deg)
(div)
( deg)
Readings of image
reflected from one
face (left)
(R1)
(R1)
(R2)
(R2)
Readings of image
reflected from one
face (right)
2A= R1~R2
2A= R1~R2
Mean 2A =
Mean A =
VIVAVOCE
1. What is a spectrometer?
It is an instrument used for analyzing the spectrum of a source of light.
88
sin i
a constant known as refractive index.
sin r
CALCULATION
89
Refractive index v1
v
2
A D
=
A
sin
sin
A D
=
A
sin
sin
A D
A
sin
sin
A D
A
sin
sin
A D
A
sin
sin
90
v r
y 1
RESULT
1.
2.
3.
4.
Angle of prism
= .. degree
Angle of minimum deviation
= .. degree
Refractive index of the given prism = . (No unit)
Dispersive power of the prism
= . (No unit)
91
Expt. No:
Date:
AIM
To determine the Youngs modulus of the material of the beam (metre scale) by
uniform bending.
APPARATUS REQUIRED
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
Traveling microscope
Two knife edges
Two set of weights
Pin
Metre scale
Vernier caliper
Screw gauge
FORMULA
Youngs modulus of the material of the beam (metre scale)
E
3Mgal 2
2bd 3 y
newton/metre2
Explanation
Unit
kg
Load applied
kg
metre
metre
metre
metre
m/s2
LC = 0.001 cm
93
Sl.
No.
Load
(x 103kg)
1.
2.
W+50
3.
W+100
4.
W+150
5.
W+200
6.
W+250
7.
W+300
Microscope Readings
Loading
Unloading
MSR
VSC
TR
MSR
VSC
TR
(x 102m) (div) (x 102m)
(x 102m) (div) (x 102m)
Mean
(x 102m)
Mean y
Mean y = x 102m
PROCEDURE
The given beam is symmetrically supported on two knife edges and weight hangers
are suspended at equal distance from the knife edges. A pin is fixed vertically at the mid
point of the beam. A suitable dead load W is suspended from each hanger.
94
Depress
y for M
(x 102m
Using traveling microscope, the reading corresponding to the tip of the pin is taken.
The load is increased in steps of 50 gram up to 250 gram and the readings of the
microscope are noted.
Readings are also taken when the load in each hanger is decreased in the same step.
The readings are tabulated and the mean elevation is determined.
The length l and a are measured. The breadth (b) of the scale is determined using
vernier caliper. The thickness (d) of the scale is determined using a screw gauge. From the
observations, the Youngs modulus of the material of the scale is calculated.
95
(ii)
LC = 0.01 cm
Sl.No.
MSR
VSC
(x 102m)
(div)
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Mean b = x 102m
PRECAUTION
1. The beam must be kept horizontal
96
2. Since the value of thickness (d) is small and it occurs in the third power, it must
be measured carefully with a screw gauge.
3. While taking readings, the microscope must be moved in the same direction, so as
to avoid the back lash error.
4. After loading or removing weights, some time must be allowed before taking the
readings.
97
S. No.
PSR
( 103 m)
Observed Reading =
PSR + (HSC LC)
( 103 m)
Correct Reading =
OR ZC
( 103 m)
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
VIVAVOCE
1. What is elasticity?
The property of the body to regain its original shape or size, after the removal of
deforming force is called elasticity.
98
CALCULATION
Youngs modulus of the material of the beam (metre scale) E
Load applied
3Mgal 2
newton/metre2
2bd 3 y
M = .kg
99
g = 9.8 m/sec2
a = x102m
l = x102m
b = x102m
d = x103m
y = x102m
E = N/m2
100
RESULT
Youngs modulus of the material
of the beam (metre scale) = newton/metre2
101
102
Expt. No:
Date:
AIM
To find the width of the forbidden energy gap in a semiconductor material taken in
the form a pn diode.
APPARATUS REQUIRED
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
0 15 v dc power supply
Heating arrangement to heat the diode
Thermometer (0C to 100C)
Micrometer (0 50 A)
Germanium diode.
FORMULA
The width of the forbidden energy gap is given by Eg = 0.198 x slope eV
Circuit:
The circuit diagram for conducting the experiment is shown in fig. 6.1. The diode is
reverse biased with the help of dc voltage obtained from a dc power supply and the current
that flows through the reverse biased diode is measured with a micrometer. A heating
system (heating coil or oil bath) helps to raise the temperature of the diode. The circuit is
available in a readytouse training board form also.
PROCEDURE
Sufficiently long wires are soldered to the diode terminals and diode is connected in
to the circuit as shown in fig.6.1. The diode is immersed in an oil bath which in turn is kept
in a heating mantle. A thermometer is also kept in the oil bath such that its mercury bulb is
just at the height of the diode. The power supply is switched on and the voltage is adjusted
to say 5 volts. The current through diode and room temperature are noted. The power
supply is switched off. The heating mantle is switched on and the oil bath is heated up to
65C.
103
104
Sl.No.
Temperatur
e (T)
Temperature
(T)
1000
T
(C)
(K)
(K1)
Resistance
P
()
Q
()
RT
R
()
PR
Q
()
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
The heating mantle is switched off when the temperature of oil bath reached 65C.
The oil is stirred and time is allowed. The temperature of oil bath stabilized say at 75C.
The power supply is again switched on and the voltage is kept at 5V. The temperature (say
75C) and corresponding current through the diode are noted. The oil bath is allowed to
105
log RT
()
cool slowly. As its temperature falls, the current through the diode decreases. As the current
falls through steps of 2 A the corresponding temperatures are noted down in the table. The
calculations are completed. A graph is plotted taking
1000
on X axis and log Io on Y
T
axis. A straight line such fig.6.2 is obtained. The slope of the straight line is determined and
using it in the formula, the band gap Eg calculated.
VIVA VOCE
1. Define Fermi level.
Fermi level is that state at which the probability of electron occupation is
1
at any temperature above 0K and also it is the level of maximum energy of the
2
106
107
RESULT
The width of the forbidden gap in germanium semiconductor is = eV
108
109
110
111
112
113
114