You are on page 1of 114

# VELTECH HIGH TECH Dr.RANGARAJAN Dr.

SAKUNTHALA
ENGINEERING COLLEGE
DEPARTMENT OF PHYSICS
(Owned by Vel R.S. Trust, 1997)
Approved by AICTE, New Delhi & Govt. of Tamilnadu & Affiliated
to Anna University

## PHYSICS LAB MANUAL

(COMMON TO ALL B.E/B.Tech)

Prepared by
Department of Physics

SEMICONDUCTOR LASER
(A) DETERMINATION OF WAVELENGTH OF
LASER USING GRATING
(B) PARTICLE SIZE DETERMINATION
(C) DETERMINATION OF NUMERICAL
APERTURE, ACCEPTANCE ANGLE OF AN
OPTICAL FIBER AND ANGLE OF DIVERGENCE
Expt. No:
Date:
AIM
To determine
(a) Wavelength of the given laser source, using a laser source
(b) To find the size of the given particle using the laser source
(c) To measure the numerical aperture and acceptance angle of the given optical fiber.

APPARATUS REQUIRED
1. A laser source, 2. Laser grating, 3. Lycopodium powder, 4. Screen, 5. Scale,
5. Optical fiber 6. Numerical aperture measurement jig

FORMULA
(a)Wavelength of the given laser source =

sin
Nn

N D
metre
Xn

(i)

## To find the wavelength of the laser source :

Distance between grating and screen (D) = cm=. 10-2 m
Number of rulings in the grating (N) = .lines / meter
Reading for the diffracted image
Left Side
Order of
diffraction
S.No
(n)

Unit

Distance
of
different
orders
(Xn)from
the central
spot

Right Side

tan 1=(Xn/D)

1= tan-1(Xn/D)

10-2 m

Distance of
different
orders
(Xn)from the
central spot

10-2 m

2= tan-1(Xn /

(c)

r
degree
d

## (ii) Numerical aperture NA = sinmax

(iii)Angle of divergence () =

r2 r1 180

degree
d 2 d1

Explanation of symbols
Symbol

Explanation

Unit

## Wavelength of the laser source

Order of spectrum

Unit

Xn

metre

metre

D1

metre

## Distance between the tip of the optical fiber and

the aperture of the numerical aperture (NA) Jig.

metre

## Radius of the circular opening in NA Jig.

metre

Angle of diffraction

degree

r1

metre

r2

## Radius of the beam spot at a distance d2

metre

lines/meter

THEORY
A device for producing spectra by diffraction and interference is known as
diffraction grating. While producing diffraction spectra using the particle, the size of the
particle should be comparably equal to the wavelength of the source. The diffracted wave
undergoes constructive and destructive interference effect. The intensities of the spectra
depend upon the diffraction angle. By measuring the diffraction angle in terms of orders of
spectra. The wavelength of the given laser source and the size of the particle can be
determined.

Numerical Aperture (NA) and Acceptance Angle: It is the light collecting efficiency of the
fiber and is the measure of the maximum amount of light that can be accepted by the fibre.
Using Snells law mathematically we can say NA = sin max n12 n 22
Where n1= Refractive index of core
n2= Refractive index of cladding
max Accep tan ce angle of the fiber sin 1 Numerical aperture
i.e. max sin 1 NA

PROCEDURE
(i) To find wavelength of the laser source
The laser source and the laser grating are mounted on separate stands as shown in
the fig 11.1. A fixed distance (D) is kept between the laser grating and the screen. The
laser source is switched ON and the beam of laser is allowed to fall on the laser grating.
The diffracted beams are collected on the screen. The diffracted beams are in the form
of spots as shown in Fig 11.2.
In the figure 11.2, the intensity of the irradiance is found to decrease, from zeroth
order to higher orders, i.e. the first order is brighter than the second order and so on.
The positions X1, X2, X3,..of the spots belonging to the first order, second order, third
order etc., on either side of the central maximum are marked on the screen and is noted.
The experiment is repeated for various values of D and the positions of the spots are
noted. Then by using the given formula the wavelength of the laser source can be
calculated and the mean is taken.

VIVA VOCE
1. What is semiconductor diode laser?
Semiconductor diode laser is a specially fabricated pn junction diode. It emits laser
light when it is forward biased.
2. What is meant by active material in laser?
A material in which population inversion is achieved is called active material.

(ii)

## To find the Size of the given particle :

Wavelength of the given laser source () =..

S. No.

Distance
between
screen and
galss plate

Order
(n)

Distance between
the bright point
and nth fringe

Particle size
d

(Xn)

10-2 m

10-2 m

(No.)

1.

First

2.

Second

3.

Third

## (ii) To find the size of the given particle

8

(metre)

Now the laser grating is removed and the size of the particle to be found is
introduced. The laser source is switched ON and the light is made to fall on the particle.
The screen is moved back and forth until the clear image of the spectrum is seen and the
distance between the screen and the particle (D1) is noted. Due to diffraction of laser light
by the particle, different orders of spectrum are obtained as shown in fig 11.3. the positions
Y1, Y2, Y3,.. of the spots belonging to the first order, second order, third order etc. on
either side of the central maximum are noted in a similar way as noted above. Then by
using the given formula the size of the particle can be determined.

PRECAUTION
It is dangerous to view the laser light directly. So direct exposure of laser light to
eye should be avoided.

VIVA VOCE
1. What is laser?
The term LASER stands for Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation.
It is a device which produces a powerful, monochromatic collimated beam of light in which
the waves are coherent.
2. What is stimulated emission?
The process of forced emission of photons caused by incident photons is called
stimulated emission
3. What are the characteristics of laser radiation?
Laser radiation has high intensity, high coherence, high monochromatism and high
directionality with less divergence.

10

## (iii) Measurement of Numerical Aperture and Acceptance Angle

A known length of fiber is taken. One end of the fiber is connected to the laser
source and the other end is connected to the numerical aperture (NA) Jig as shown in fig.
11.4. The source is switched ON. The opening in the NA jig is completely opened so that a
circular red patch of laser light is observed on the screen. Now the opening in the NA Jig is
slowly closed with the knob provided, so that at a particular point the circular light patch in
the screen just cuts. The radius of the circular opening (r) of NA Jig at which the circular
patch of light just cuts is measured.
The distance between the NA jig opening and the fiber can be measured directly
with the help of the calibration in NA jig. By substituting the values in the given formula
the numerical aperture can be calculated.
The same procedure can be adopted for various distances between the fiber and the
opening of NA jig. The same procedure can also be adopted for various lengths of fiber
cables.
By finding the mean of numerical aperture (NA) and substituting it in the given
formula the acceptance angle can be determined.

11

(iii)

S. No.

## Measurement of numerical aperture :

Length
of the
given
fibre
(metre)

Distance
between NA
Jig opening
and the fibre
(d)
( 10 3 m )

Radius of the
circular opening in
Numerical aperture
Jig (r)
2

( 10 m )

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

12

Acceptance angle
max=r/d
degree

NA = sinmax
no unit

VIVA-VOCE
1. Define numerical aperture
Numerical aperture is defined as the light gathering capability of an optical fibre. It
is the sign of the acceptance angle
NA =sin a

## 2. What is the principle used in fibre optic communication system?

The principle behind the transmission of light waves in an optical fibre is total
internal reflection.
3. Define acceptance angle
The maximum angle a with which a ray of light can enter through one end of the
fibre and still be total internally reflected is called acceptance angle of the fibre

13

## Determination of angle of divergence

S.No

r1
m)

-2
(X10

r2
m)

-2
(X10

d1
-2
(X10 m )

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

14

d2
-2
(X10 m )

(deg)

CALCULATION
(a) Wavelength of the given laser source =

sin
Nn

=..degree
N =..lines/m

= .

N D
Xn

metre

=..m
N=..m
D =.m

d =.m

15

r
degree
d

r = . X10-2m
d = X10-2m

NA =..(No unit)

## (iii) Angle of divergence () =

r2 r1 180

degree
d 2 d1

r1 = X10-2m
r2 = X10-2m
d1 = X10-2m
d2 = X10-2m

= degree

16

RESULT
(a) The wavelength of the given laser source = .
(b) The size of the given particle
= ..metre
(c) (i) The Numerical aperture of the
given optical fiber
= (No unit)
(ii) The Acceptance angle of the
Given optical fiber
=.degree
(iii) The Angle of divergence
=.....degree

17

18

AIR-WEDGE
Expt. No:
Date:
AIM
To find the thickness of a thin wire by forming interference fringes using air-wedge
arrangement.

APPARATUS REQUIRED
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

Traveling microscope
Sodium vapour lamp
Two optically plane rectangular glass plates
Condensing lens
Reading lens
Thin wire

FORMULA
Thickness of the thin wire

(t) = 2

metre

Explanation of symbols
Symbol

Explanation

Unit

## Wave length of sodium light

Distance of the wire from
the edge of contact
Mean width of one fringe

metre
metre

metre

PROCEDURE
An air wedge is formed by keeping two optically plane glass plates in contact along
one of their edges. At the other end, thin wire is introduced with its length perpendicular to
the length of the plate. The glass plates are tied together in this position by means of rubber
band. It is then placed on the horizontal bed plate of the traveling microscope.
The interference pattern can be obtained with the help of the glass plate inclined at
45 to the horizontal plane and a condensing lens (Fig.2.1). Light from the sodium vapour
lamp is made to fall vertically on the air wedge. These interference fringes are viewed
through the traveling microscope.

19

## (i)To find the fringe width

LC=0.001cm
Order of
the band

Microscope reading
MSR

VSC

(x10-2 m)

(div)

TR=MSR+
(VSC x LC)
(x10-2 m)

Width of five
bands
(x10-2 m)

Mean width
of one
band()
(x10-2 m)

n
n +5
n +10
n +15
n +20
n +25
n +30
n +35
n +40
n +45
n +50
= ........................ x10-2 m

20

A system of equi-spaced straight alternately dark and bright bands are obtained
(Fig.2.2)
The vertical cross wire of the telescope is adjusted to coincide with the centre of
well defined dark band near the edge of contact of the glass plates. It is taken as the n th
band. The reading on the horizontal scale of the microscope is noted. The microscope is
then moved in the same direction by working the horizontal transverse screw and made to
coincide with every successive 5th fringe. The readings are noted. This is continued till
about 50 fringes are covered. The readings are tabulated. From these readings, the mean
width of one fringe () is found.
The distance l between the edges of contact and the wire is measured with the help
of the traveling microscope. (Fig2.3). Assuming the wave length of sodium light, the
thickness of the thin wire is calculated by using the given formula.

21

(ii) To find the distance between edge of contact and specimen wire
LC=0.001cm
Position

Microscope reading
MSR

VSC

(x10-2 m)

(div)

Rubber band
(edge of
contact)
Specimen wire

TR=MSR+
(VSC x LC)
(x10-2 m)

l = R1 R2
(x10-2 m)

(R1)
(R2)
l=............................. x10-2 m

22

PRECAUTION
1. The two glass plates must be cleaned and should be optically planed.
2. The movement of the vernier should be in one direction only so as to avoid back
lash error.

## Scope of this experiment & Engineering application

1. This experiment can be used to determine the thickness of any thin objects like hair,
paper, blade etc.
2. The thickness of the insulation of an enameled or cotton covered copper wire can
also be found by this method.

VIVA-VOCE
1. What do you mean by interference of light?
When the two waves superimpose over each other, resultant intensity is modified.
The modification in the distribution of intensity in the region of superposition is called
interference.
2. Is there any loss of energy in interference phenomenon?
No, there is only redistribution of energy i.e., energy from dark place is shifted to
bright places.
3. What are interference fringes?
They are alternatively bright and dark patches of light obtained in the region of
superposition of two wave trains of light.
4. What type of source is required in division of amplitude?
In division of amplitude a broad source is required so that the whole firm may be
viewed together.
5. What is the shape of fringes in wedge shape film?
The fringes in the wedge-shaped film are straight line fringes.
6. When white light is used to illuminate the slit, what is the colour of fringes?
When white light is used to illuminate the slit, the edge of the wedge is dark, with
separate coloured fringes from violet to red.

23

CALCULATION
l

## Thickness of wire (t) = 2

m
Wavelength of sodium light () = 5893 x 10-10m
l = x 10-2m
= x 10-2m

t = m

24

RESULT
Thickness of the given thin wire = . metre

25

26

ULTRASONIC INTERFEROMETER
Expt. No:
Date
:
AIM
(i)

## To determine the velocity of ultrasonic waves in the medium of different liquids

using ultrasonic interferometer.
To determine the compressibility of the given liquid.

(ii)

APPARATUS REQUIRED
1.
2.
3.
4.

Ultrasonic interferometer
Quartz crystal of natural frequency 2 MHz
Micrometer and sensor
Liquids (Kerosene, Benzene and CCl4) as source.

FORMULA
(i) Velocity of ultrasonic waves in a given liquid
v =

metre/second

2d
n

## (iii) Compressibility of the liquid

K= v 2

metre
metre2/newton

Explanation of symbols
Symbol

Explanation

Unit

## Frequency of the generator which excites the hertz

crystal
Distance moved by the oscillator
metre

Numbers of oscillations

kilogram/metre3

27

DESCRIPTION

28

## Ultrasonic Interferometer technique gives a very accurate value in the measurement

of sound velocity. The ultrasonic interferometer consists of following two parts as shown in
Fig. 3.1 (i) High frequency generator and (ii) Measuring Cell.

## High frequency generator: It generates alternating field or variable

frequencies. The frequency generator is used to excite the quartz plate placed at the bottom
of the measuring cell at its resonant frequency. The excited quartz crystal generates
ultrasonic waves in the experimental liquid in the measuring cell. (Fig 3.2)

Measuring Cell: Measuring cell shown in fig3.3 has a double walled vessel with
a provision to maintain temperature constant. At the top of the cell a fine micrometer screw
is fitted. With the help of this screw, the reflector plate placed in the cell can be lowered or
raised through a known distance. The reflector and the quartz crystal (mounted at the
bottom of the cell) are parallel to each other. When the alternating field from the frequency
generator is applied to the crystal, it gets into resonant vibrations.
PROCEDURE
The high frequency generator is switched on and the alternating field from the
generator is applied to the quartz crystal. The quartz crystal produces longitudinal
ultrasonic waves. The ultrasonic waves pass through the liquid and gets reflected at the
surface of the reflector plate.
If the distance between the reflector and crystal is exactly a whole multiple of the
sound wavelength, standing waves are formed within the medium. This results in the
formation of acoustic resonance and causes a change in the potential difference at the
generator which excites the crystal. Due to this, anode current of the generator becomes
maximum. The change in the anode current can be measured from the micrometer fitted
with the frequency generator.
The distance between the reflector and crystal is varied using the micrometer screw
such that the anode current decreases from maximum and then increases up to a maximum.
The distance between successive maximum or minimum in the anode current is equal to
half the wavelength of the ultrasonic waves in the liquid. (fig.3.4)
By noting the initial and final position of the micrometer for one complete
oscillation (maxima - minima), one can determine the distance moved by the parallel
reflector as shown in figure.3.3
Thus n number of successive maxima or minima is recorded for a distance d. The
total distance moved by the micrometer screw is given by

29

LC = 0.01mm
Number
of
Maxima

## Reading for Oscillations

PSR
HSC
Correct
Reading =PSR+
(HSC x LC)
-3
(x10 m) (div)
(x10-3 m)

d
(x10-3 m)

n
n+5
n+10
n+15
n+20
n+25
n+30
n+35
n+40
n+45
n+50
Mean

d= [(n+m)-n]

2
m
d=
where m-number of rotations for corresponding oscillations
2

30

2d
n

(x10-3 m)

From the value of , the velocity of the longitudinal ultrasonic waves is calculated
using the relation, v = , where is the frequency of the generator which is used to excite
the crystal. After determining the velocity of the ultrasonic waves in liquids, the
compressibility of the liquid is calculated using the formula K = 1/ 2 where is the
density of the liquid. The experiment is repeated for different liquids.

PRECAUTION
1. Do not switch on the generator without filling the experimental liquid in the cell.
2. Remove experimental liquid out of the cell after use, keep it cleaned and dried.
3. While cleaning the cell, it should be noted that the gold plating on the crystal is not
spoiled or not scratched.

31

CALCULATION
(i) Wavelength of ultrasonic waves =

2d
metre
n

d=. x10-3m
n=.

=....m

=..x10-3 m
=2x106 Hz

v =....m/sec

## (iii) Compressibility of the liquid K = v 2 metre2/newton

v =....m/sec
=.....................Kg/m3
K =....m2/N

32

RESULT
(i) Velocity of ultrasonic waves in a given liquid
(ii) Compressibility of the liquid

v = metre/second

K = metre2/newton

33

34

SPECTROMETER GRATING
Expt. No:
Date:
AIM
To find the wavelengths of the prominent spectral lines in the mercury (Hg) source.

APPARATUS REQUIRED
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Spectrometer
Plane transmission grating
Sodium vapour lamp
Mercury vapour lamp
Reading lens.

FORMULA
Wavelength of the prominent lines in the mercury (Hg) source =

sin
Nn

Explanation of symbols
Symbol

Explanation

Angle of diffraction

## Number of lines per metre in the grating.

Unit
degree
lines/metre

PROCEDURE
1. Adjustment of the grating for normal incidence
The initial adjustments of the spectrometer are made as usual. The plane
transmission grating is mounted on the grating table. The telescope is released and placed
in front of the collimator. The direct reading is taken after making the vertical cross-wire to
coincide with the fixed edge of the image of the slit which is illuminated by a source of
light (Sodium vapour lamp or mercury vapour lamp).

(i) To find N
35

## Wavelength of spectral line =5893 X 10-10 m

Diffracted ray reading
Left side
Colour
of
spectral
lines

Difference
(2)

Right side

=2 /2
Mean

Vernier-A

Vernier-B

MSR

VSC

TR
(A1)

(deg)

(div)

(deg)

MSR
(deg)

Vernier-A

VSC

TR
(B1)

MSR

(div)

(deg)

(deg)

Vernier-B

VSC

TR
(A2)

MSR

VSC

TR
(B2)

(div)

(deg)

(deg)

(div)

(deg)

VA
A1
A2

VB
B1
B2

VA

VB

(deg)

(deg)

(deg)

(deg)

Yellow

The telescope is then rotated by an angle 90 (either left or right side) and fixed.
The grating table is rotated until on seeing through the telescope the reflected image of the
slit coincides with the vertical cross-wire. This is possible only when a light emerging
36

si
n

(deg)

Lin

out from the collimator is incident at an angle 45 towards the collimator. Now light
coming out from the collimator will be incident normally on the grating (Fig. 4.1).

37

## 2. Wavelengths of the spectral lines of the mercury spectrum

38

The slit is now illuminated by white light from mercury vapour lamp. The central
direct image will be an undispersed image. The telescope is moved on both sides of the
direct image, the diffraction pattern of the spectrum of the first order is seen. The readings
are taken by coinciding the prominent lines namely violet, green, yellow and red with the
vertical cross wire. The readings are tabulated and from this, the angles of diffraction for
different colours are determined (Fig.4.2). The wavelengths for different line are calculated
by using the given formula. The number of lines per metre in the grating is also calculated.

39

## (ii) Determination of wavelength () of the prominent line of the

mercury spectrum
LC = 1'
N = ..lines/metre

## Order of the spectrum (n) =

Total Reading = MSR + (VSC LC)
Diffracted ray reading

Colour
of
spectral
lines

Left side
Vernier-A
MSR

VSC

(deg)

(div)

Right side
Vernier-B

TR
(A1)
(deg)

MSR

VSC

(deg)

(div)

Vernier-A
TR
(B1)
(deg)

MSR

VSC

(deg)

(div)

Violet
I
Violet
II
Blue
BluishGreen
Green
Yellow
Red

PRECAUTION

40

Vernier-B
TR
(A2)
(deg)

MSR

VSC

(deg)

(div)

TR
(B2)
(deg)

Difference
(2)
VA
VB
A1
B1
A2
B2
(deg) (deg)

=2 /2
VA

VB

(deg)

(deg)

Mean

(deg)

1. The grating should be held from the edges and the ruled surface should not be
touched.
2. The ruled surface should face away from the collimator.

VIVA VOCE
1. In the present experiment, what class of diffraction does occur and how?
Fraunhofer class of diffraction occurs. Since the spectrometer is focused for parallel
rays, the source and the image are effectively at infinite distances from grating.
2. What is plane transmission diffraction grating?
A plane transmission diffraction grating is an optically plane parallel glass plate on
which equidistant, extremely close grooves are made by ruling with a diamond point.
3. How are commercial gratings made?
A commercial grating is made by pouring properly diluted cellulose acetate on the
actual grating and drying it to a thin strong film. The film is detached from the original
grating and is mounted between two glass plates. A commercial grating is called a replica
grating.
4. What type of grating do you use for your experiment?
Plane transmission type replica grating.

CALCULATION
41

sin
N=
lines/m
n
n =1
= 5893 x 10-10m

N =.lines/m

Violet-I

sin
=
Nn

Violet-II

sin
=
Nn

Blue

sin
=
Nn

Bluish green

sin
=
Nn

42

Green

sin
=
Nn

Yellow

sin
=
Nn

Red

sin
=
Nn

RESULT
(i)

(ii)

V = ..

B = ..

BG = ..

G = ..

Y = ..

R = ..

43

## To find the thickness of the bad conductor (d)

Zero error = ..............div
Zero correction = ..............mm

LC = 0.01 cm
Sl.No.

PSR

HSC

TR=PSR+
(HSC x LC)

Correct
Reading=
TR ZC

(x10-3 m)

(div)

(x10-3 m)

(x10-3 m)

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Mean d = ...................... x10-3 m.

44

THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY OF A
BADCONDUCTOR-LEES DISC
Expt. No:
Date:
AIM
To determine the thermal conductivity of a bad conductor using Lees disc
apparatus.

APPARATUS REQUIRED
1. Lees disc apparatus
2. Bad Conductors (card board, glass or ebonite)
3. Thermometers
4. Stop-Clock
5. Steam boiler
6. Screw Gauge
7. Vernier Calipers.

FORMULA
Thermal Conductivity of a bad conductor
d

dt

d r 2h

MS
K

r 2 1 2 2r 2h

watt metre-1kelvin-1

Symbol
M

dt

(i)

Explanation

Unit
kg

J kg-1K-1
C/s

metre

45

## Zero error = ..............div

Zero correction = ..............mm

LC = 0.01 mm
Sl.No.

PSR

HSC

TR=PSR+(HSCxLC)

(x10-3 m)

(div)

(x10-3 m)

Correct
Reading=
TR ZC
(x10-3 m)

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Mean h = ...................... x10-3 m.

46

metre

## Thickness of the bad conductor

metre

PROCEDURE
The thickness of the bad conductor (say card board) and thickness of the metallic
disc are determined using a screw gauge. The radius of the metallic disc is found using a
vernier caliper. The mass of the metallic disc is also found using a common balance. The
readings are tabulated.
The whole Lees disc apparatus is suspended from a stand as shown in figure. The
given bad conductor is placed in between the metallic disc and the steam chamber. Two
thermometers T1 and T2 are inserted in the respective holes.
Steam from the steam boiler is passed in to the steam boiler until the temperature of
the steam chamber and the metallic disc are steady. The steady temperature 1 of the steam
chamber and the steady temperature 2 of the metallic disc recorded by the thermometers
are noted.
Now the bad conductor is removed and the steam chamber is placed in direct
contact with the metallic disc. The temperature of the disc rapidly rises. When the
temperature of the disc rises about 10C above 2 C (steady temperature of the disc), the
steam chamber is carefully removed, after cutting off the steam supply.
When the temperature of the disc reaches 10 C above the steady temperature of the disc
i.e., (2+10)C, a stop clock is started. Time for every 1C fall of temperature is noted until
the metallic disc attains a temperature (2-10)C.

47

dt

## Steady temperature in the metallic disc (2) =..................C

Temperature ()

Time (t)

Second

48

GRAPH
A graph is drawn taking time along the X axis and temperature along the Y axis.
The cooling curve is obtained. To obtain the rate of cooling (d/dt) 2 from this graph, a
triangle is drawn by taking 1C above and 1C below the steady temperature 2. Then the
slope AB / BC gives the rate of cooling at (d/dt) at 2.
From these readings and using the given formula the thermal conductivity of the
bad conductor is calculated.

49

CALCULATION
Thermal Conductivity of a bad conductor
d

dt

d r 2h

MS
K

r 2 1 2 2r 2h

watt metre-1kelvin-1

M = ..kg
S = ... J kg-1K-1
d

dt

= . C

d = x10-3m
r = .x10-2m
h = x10-3m
1 = C
2 = C

K = watt metre-1kelvin-1

50

RESULT
Thermal conductivity of the given bad conductor =Wm-1K-1.

51

52

## B H CURVE USING CRO

Expt. No:
Date:
AIM
To determine the hysteresis loss in the transformer core using B H curve unit.

APPARATUS REQUIRED
1. B H curve unit
2. Cathode Ray Oscilloscope (CRO)
3. Patch cords

FORMULA
Hysteresis loss =

N 1 R2 C
SV S H Area of the loop
N 2 R1 V
joule cycle-1metre-3

## Explanation of the symbols

Symbol
N1
N2

V
SV

SH
R1 &
R2

Explanation
Number of turns in the primary coil
Number of turns in the secondary coil
Volume of the core
Vertical sensitivity of CRO
Horizontal sensitivity of CRO
Resistances in the circuit

Unit
metre3
Vm-1
Vm-1
ohm

## Capacitance of the capacitor in the circuit

farad

PROCEDURE
The experimental arrangement is shown in the figure 6.1
One of the specimens used in the unit is made using transformer stampings. There
are two windings on the specimen (primary and secondary). The primary is fed to low A.C
voltage (50 Hz). This produces a magnetic field H in the specimen. The voltage across R1
(resistance connected in series with primary) is proportional to the magnetic field
It is given to the input of the CRO. The A.C magnetic field induces a voltage in the
secondary coil. The voltage induced is proportional to dB/dt.

53

54

This voltage is applied to passive integrating circuit. The output of the integrator is
proportional to B and fed to the vertical input of the CRO.
As a result of the application of voltage proportional to H the horizontal axis and a
voltage proportional to B is the vertical axis, the loop is formed as shown in fig 6.3. A
measurement of the area of the loop leads to the evaluation of energy loss in the specimen.
The top view of the unit is shown in the figure 6.2. There are 12 terminals on the
panel, sin patch cords are supplied with the kit.
The value of R1 can be selected by connecting terminal D to A, B or C (A-D=50
ohm; B-D=150 ohm; C-D=50 ohm)
A is connected to D. The primary terminals of the specimen is connected to p,p
secondary to s,s terminals. The CRO is calibrated as per the instructions given the
Instruction Manual of CRO. CRO is adjusted to work on external mode (the time base is
switched off). The horizontal and vertical position controls are adjusted such that the spot is
at the centre of the CRO screen.
The terminal marked GND is connected to the ground of the CRO. The H is
connected to the Horizontal input of the CRO. The terminal V is connected to the vertical
input of the CRO. The power supply of the unit is switched on. The Hysteresis loop is
formed. The horizontal and vertical gains are adjusted such that the loop occupies
maximum area on the screen of the CRO. Once this adjustment is made, the gain controls
should not be disturbed. The loop is traced on a translucent graph paper. The area of the
loop is estimated,
The connections from CRO is removed without disturbing the horizontal and
vertical gain controls. The vertical sensitivity of the CRO is determined by applying a
known A.C voltage say 1 volt (peak to peak).
If the spot deflects by x cms for 1 volt, the vertical sensitivity is 1/(x x 10-2)
(volt/m). let it be SV. The horizontal sensitivity of CRO is determined by applying a known
A.C voltage say 1 volt (peak to peak). Let the horizontal sensitivity be SH (volt/m).
The hysteresis loss is calculated by using the given formula.

55

OBSERVATIONS
Number of turns in the primary
Number of turns in the secondary
Resistance
Resistance
Capacitance of the capacitor
Vertical sensitivity of CRO
Horizontal sensitivity of CRO

N1 = ...
N2 =
R1 = .. ohm
R2 = .. ohm
C = F
SV =... Vm-1
SV =... Vm-1

CALCULATION
Area of the loop =.. m2
(from the graph)

Hysteresis loss =

N 1 R2 C
SV S H Area of the loop joule cycle-1metre-3
N 2 R1 V

56

RESULT
Energy loss = . joules cycle -1 metre-3

57

58

TORSIONAL PENDULUM
Expt. No:
Date:
AIM
To determine (i) the moment of inertia of the disc and (ii) the rigidity modulus of
the material of a wire by torsional oscillations.

APPARATUS REQUIRED
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

## Torsional pendulum (uniform circular disc suspended by a wire)

Two equal cylindrical masses
Stop-clock
Screw gauge
Metre scale.

FORMULA
2

2m( d 2 d1 )T0
2

T2 T1

n=

kg m2

8Il
2
T0 r 4

newton/metre2

Symbol
m
d1
d2
T0
T1

Explanation

Unit

## Mass (mass of one of the cylinders) placed on the

disc
Closest distance (minimum) between suspension
wire and the centre of mass of the cylinder
Farthest distance (maximum) between suspension
wire and the centre of mass of the cylinder
Time period without any mass placed on the disc

kg
metre
metre
second
second

## Time period when equal masses are placed at a

distance d1
Time period when equal masses are placed at a
distance d2
Length of the suspension wire

metre

T2

59

second
metre

(i)

## To find the time periods of the disc at different stages

Length of the suspension wire (l) =............................. x10-2 m

masses

## Time for 20 oscillations

Trail -1
(sec)

Trail -2
(sec)

Without
Symmetrical
masses
With masses at
closest distance
d1 = ......... x10-2 m
With masses at
maximum distance
d2 = ......... x10-2 m

60

Mean
(sec)

Time for 1
oscillation
(sec)

PROCEDURE
One end of a long, uniform wire whose rigidity modulus is to be determined is
clamped by a vertical chuck. To the lower end, a heavy uniform circular disc is attached by
another chuck. The length of the suspension l is fixed to a particular value (say 60 cm or
70 cm). The suspended disc is slightly twisted so that it executes torsional oscillations. Care
is taken to see that the disc oscillates without wobbling.
The first few oscillations are omitted. By using the pointer, (a mark made in the
disc) the time taken for 20 complete oscillations are noted. Two trials are taken. The mean
time period T (time for one oscillation) is found.
Two equal cylindrical masses are placed on the disc symmetrically on either side,
close to the suspension wire (at the minimum distance). The closest distance d1 from the
centre of the mass of the cylinder and the centre of the suspension wire is found. The disc
with masses at distance d1is made to executive torsional oscillations by twisting the disc.
The time taken for 20 oscillations is noted. Two trials are taken. The mean time period T1
is determined.
Two equal masses are now moved to the extreme ends so that the edges of masses
coincide with the edge of the disc and the centres are equi-distant. The distance d2 from
the centre of the mass of the cylinder and the centre of the suspension wire is noted. The
disc with masses at distance d2 is allowed to execute torsional oscillations by twisting the
disc. The time taken for 20 oscillations is noted and time period T2 is calculated.
The mass of one of the cylinders placed on the disc is found. The diameter of the
wire is accurately measured at various places along its length with screw gauge. From this,
the radius of the wire is calculated. The moments of inertia of the disc and rigidity modulus
of the wire are calculated using the given formulae.

61

(ii)

## To find the radius of the suspension wire (r)

Zero error = ..............div
Zero correction = ..............mm

LC = 0.01 mm
Sl.No.

PSR

HSC

TR=PSR+(HSCxLC)

(x10-3 m)

(div)

(x10-3 m)

Correct
Reading=
TR ZC
(x10-3 m)

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Mean d = ...................... x10-3 m.
Mean radius r =

62

d
= ...................... x10-3 m.
2

PRECAUTION
1. The circular disc must be horizontal.
2. The suspension wire should be well clamped, thin, long and free from kinks.
3. The motion of the circular disc should be purely rotational in horizontal plane,
up and down and lateral oscillations must be completely checked.
4. Equal masses should be placed diametrically opposite with respect to the centre
of the disc.

VIVA-VOCE
1. What is torsional pendulum?
A body suspended from a rigid support by means of a long and thin elastic
wire is called torsional pendulum.
2. What is the rigid body you can use for a torsional pendulum?
Sphere, cylinder or circular disc.
3. Why is it called a torsional pendulum?
As it performs torsional oscillations, it is called torsional pendulum.
4. What is the type of oscillation?
This is of simple harmonic oscillation type.
5. On what factors do the time period depends?
It depends upon (i) moment of inertia of the body (ii) rigidity of wire i.e.,
length, radius and material of the wire.
6. What type of wire do you prefer for this experiment?
Thin and long metallic wire.
7. How will you determine the rigidity of fluids?
As fluids do not have a shape of their own, hence they do not possess
rigidity. Hence there is no question of determining it.

## Scope of this experiment

By doing this experiment, we understand an important concept of elasticity. The
elastic characteristics of different materials like steel, copper wire etc can be analyzed.

63

CALCULATION
2

2m( d 2 d1 )T0
2

T2 T1

kgm2

T0 = . second

## Time period when masses are at distance d1 T1 =. second

Time period when masses are at distance d2 T2 =. second
Closest distance between suspension wire
and the centre of mass of the cylinder

d1 = x 10-2m

## Farthest distance between suspension wire

and the centre of mass of the cylinder

d1 = x 10-2m

m = x 10-3 kg

l = x 10-2m

r = x 10-3m

I = .kg.m2

## Rigidity modulus of the material of the wire n =

8Il
N/m2
2
T0 r 4

n = .N/m2

64

RESULT
Moment of inertia of the disc (I) = .. kg m2
Rigidity modulus of the material of given wire (n) = Nm-2

65

66

## YOUNGS MODULUS NON UNIFORM BENDING

Expt No:
Date:
AIM
To find the Youngs modulus of the material of a uniform bar (metre scale) by non
uniform bending.

APPARATUS REQUIRED
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

Traveling microscope
Two knife edge supports
Weight hanger with set of weights
Pin
Metre scale
Vernier Calipers
Screw gauge

FORMULA
Youngs modulus of the material of the beam (metre scale) E =

Mgl 3
N/m2
4bd 3 y

Symbol

Explanation

Unit

y
g

## Mean depression for a load M

Acceleration due to gravity

metre
m/s2

metre

metre

## Thickness of the beam (metre scale)

metre

Load applied

kg

67

(i)

To find depression y

## Total Reading (TR) = MSR + (VSC X LC)

M = ..x 10-3kg
Sl.
No.

Load
(x 10-3kg)

1.

2.

W+50

3.

W+100

4.

W+150

5.

W+200

6.

W+250

7.

W+300

LC = 0.001 cm

Microscope Readings
Loading
Unloading
MSR
VSC
TR
MSR
VSC
TR
-2
-2
-2
(x 10 m) (div) (x 10 m)
(x 10 m) (div) (x 10-2m)

Mean

Depress
y for M

(x 10-2m)

(x 10-2

Mean y

Mean y = x 10-2m

68

PROCEDURE
The weight of the hanger is taken as the dead load W. The experimental bar is
brought to elastic mood by loading and unloading it a number of times with slotted
weights. With the dead load W suspended from the mid point, the microscope is adjusted
such that the horizontal cross-wire coincides with the image of the tip of the pin. The
reading of the vertical scale is taken.
The experiment is repeated by adding weights in steps. Every time the microscope
is adjusted and the vertical scale reading is taken. Then the load is decreased in the same
steps and the readings are taken. From the readings, the mean depression of the mid point
for a given load can be found. The length of the bar between the knife edges is measured l.
The bar is removed and its mean breadth b is determined with a vernier caliper and
its mean thickness d with a screw gauge.
From the observations, Youngs modulus of the material of the beam is calculated
by using the given formula.

69

(ii)

LC = 0.01 cm
Sl.No.

## Zero error = div

Zero correction = cm

MSR

VSC

TR = MSR+(VSC X LC)

## Correct reading =TR

ZC

(x 10-2m)

(div)

(x 10-2m)

(x 10-2m)

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Mean b = x 10-2m

70

PRECAUTIONS
1. The beam must be kept horizontal.
2. While taking readings, the microscope must be moved in the same direction so as to
avoid the back-lash error.
3. After loading or removing weights, some time must be allowed before taking the
readings.

71

LC = 0.01mm

## Zero error = div

Zero correction = mm

PSR

HSC

(x 10-3m)

(div)

S. No.

Observed Reading =
PSR + (HSC LC)
(x 10-3m)

Correct Reading =
OR ZC
(x 10-3m)

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

## Mean (d) = 10-3 m

72

VIVA-VOCE
1. What is Youngs modulus?
Youngs modulus is defined as the ratio of the longitudinal stress to the
longitudinal strain.
2. What is a beam?
When the length of a rod of uniform cross-section is very large compared to
its breadth such that the shearing stress over any section of the rod can be neglected,
the rod is called a beam.
3. How are longitudinal strain and stress produced in your experiment?
Due to depression, the upper or the concave side of the beam becomes
smaller than the lower or the convex side of the beam. As a result, longitudinal
strain is produced. The change in length will be due to the forces acting along the
length of the beam. These forces will give rise to longitudinal stress.
4. How do you ensure that in your experiment the elastic limit is not exceeded?
The consistency in the readings of depressions both for increasing load and
decreasing load indicates that in the experiment the elastic limit is not exceeded.
5. Which dimension breadth, thickness, or length of the bar-should be measured very
carefully and why?
The thickness of the bar should be measured very carefully since its
magnitude is small and it occurs in the expression E in the power of three. An
inaccuracy in the measurement of the thickness will produce the greatest
proportional error in E.
6. What is the SI unit of Youngs modulus?
newton/m2
7. Will the value of Youngs modulus obtained by you change if the length, thickness
or breadth of the bar is altered?
No
8. Why do you place the beam symmetrically on the knife edges?
To keep the reaction at the knife edges equal in conformity with the theory.

CALCULATION
73

Mgl 3
Youngs modulus of the material of the beam (metre scale) E =
N/m2
4bd 3 y

Load applied

M = .kg

g = 9.8 m/sec2

l = x10-2m

b = x10-2m

d = x10-2m

## Depression for load applied

y = x10-2m

E = N/m2

74

RESULT
Youngs modulus of the material
of the given bar (metre scale) = ..newton/metre2

75

VISCOSITY OF A LIQUID
76

BY POISEUILLES METHOD
Expt. No:
Date:
AIM
To find the co-efficient of viscosity of a liquid by Poiseullies method.

APPARATUS REQUIRED
1. Graduated burette without stopper, 2. Retort stand with clamp, 3. Capillary tube,
4. Beaker, 5. Water
6. Stop watch
7. Meter scale
8. Rubber tube
9. Pinch cock

FORMULA
Co-efficient of viscosity of the given liquid

gr 4 ht
Nsm-2
8lV

Symbol

Explanation

Unit
m/s2

kg/m3

metre

metre

metre3

(h1+h2)/2 - h0

metre

h1

metre

77

h0 = X10-2m
Sl.No.

Burette
reading

(cc)

Time
note
while
crossing
level
(second)

Range

Time
for flow
of 5 cc
liquid

Height of
initial
reading
h1

(cc)

(second)

( X10-2m)

1.

0-5

2.

5-10

3.

10

10-15

4.

15

15-20

5.

20

20-25

6.

25

25-30

7.

30

30-35

8.

35

35-40

9.

40

40-45

10.

45

45-50

11.

50

Height of
final
reading
h2
( X10-2m)

Pressure
head
h = (h1+ h2
)/2- h0
( X10-2m)

( X10-2msecond)

h2

metre

h0

metre

78

ht

## Time taken for the liquid flow

second

PROCEDURE
A clean dry burette is fixed to a stand. A capillary tube is connected to the burette
by means of a rubber tube and is held parallel to the table so that the flow of liquid is
streamlined.
A given liquid is filled in the burette and the level of liquid reaches the zero mark,
the stop-clock is started and the time is noted, when liquid level crosses 0, 5, 10, 15 ...45cc.
The time taken for the flow of 5 cc of liquidt is thus determined. It is seen that as height
h decreases the time of flowt increases. The product ht is a constant. The mean value of
ht is substituted to calculate co-efficient of viscosity of the liquid.
To find the radius (r) of the capillary tube:
The capillary tube is held horizontally. The horizontal crosswire of telescope of the
traveling microscope is made to coincide with the top of the bore of the capillary tube. The
reading in the vertical scale is taken. Again, the horizontal crosswire is adjusted to be
tangential to the bottom of the bore of the capillary tube. The readings in the vertical scale
are taken. The difference between the two readings gives the diameter of the bore.
Similarly, using vertical crosswire, the readings in the horizontal scale
corresponding to left and right edges of the bore of the capillary tube are taken. The
difference between the two readings gives the diameter. The readings are tabulated. The
average diameter and hence the radius are determined.
Using the mean value of ht, the co-efficient of viscosity of the given liquid is
calculated.

79

## To find the radius of the capillary tube (r)

LC = 0.001 cm
Horizontal cross wire
Position

## Vertical cross wire

MSR

VSC

TR

( X10-2m)

(div)

( X10-2m)

Position

Top

Left

Bottom

Right

80

MSR

VSC

TR

( X10-2m)

(div)

( X10-2m)

PRECAUTION
The motion of the liquid must be stream line and care must be taken to ensure that
the flow of liquid doesnt become turbulent.

VIVA-VOCE
1. What is viscosity and define the coefficient of viscosity?
In the presence of a relative motion between two layers of a liquid, an opposing
tangential force sets in between the layers to destroy the relative motion. This property of
liquid is termed viscosity and is analogous to friction. The tangential force acting per unit
area over two adjacent layers of the liquid for a unit velocity gradient is referred to as the
coefficient of viscosity.
2. How does the coefficient of viscosity changes with temperature?
The coefficient of viscosity changes with rise in temperature in case of liquids. But for
gases it increase with rise with temperature.
3. Which quantity requires greatest care in its measurement? Why?
The radius of the capillary tube requires greatest care in its measurement. Since it
occurs in the forth power in the expression of . Thus a small measurement of r, which
itself small, will contribute to a large proportional error in . The tube selected must
therefore be uniform and its radius be measured very carefully.
4. Can you use this method for all types of liquids?
No, this method can be suitably applied for liquids of low viscosity. For highly
viscous liquids, Stokes method can be used.
5. Is there any difference between friction and viscosity?
Friction and viscosity have some similarities and some differences between them. For
liquids at rest, friction works but viscosity doesnt because viscosity arises only when there
is a relative motion between the layers of a liquid.

CALCULATION
81

## Co-efficient of viscosity of the given liquid

gr 4 ht
Nsm-2
8lV

= .. kg/m3
g = .. m/s2
r = ..x10-2m
ht =. x10-2m-second
l = x10-2m
V =.. metre3

= --------------- newton-second/metre2

82

RESULT:
The co-efficient of viscosity of a given liquid = .Nsm-2

83

## DISPERSIVE POWER OF A PRISMSPECTROMETER

84

Expt. No:
Date:
AIM
To find the dispersive power of the material of the prism using spectrometer.

APPARATUS REQUIRED
1.
2.
3.
4.

Spectrometer
Mercury vapour lamp
Glass prism
Reading lens

FORMULAE

## Refractive index of the prism

A D

A
sin

sin

(No unit)

v
r
Dispersive power of the material of the prism 1 (No unit)
y

## Explanation of the symbols

Symbol
A
D

v
r
y

Explanation
Angle of the prism
Angle of minimum deviation
Refractive index of the prism for violet line
Refractive index of the prism for red line
Refractive index of the prism for yellow line

Unit
degree
degree
-

PROCEDURE
The initial adjustment of the spectrometer namely adjustment of eye piece for
distinct vision of cross wires, adjustment of telescope for the distant object and collimator
for parallel rays are made as usual. The slit of the collimator is illuminated by the mercury
vapour lamp.

85

## To find the angle of minimum deviation (D) Spectrometer readings

TR = MSR + (VSC X LC)

S. Refracted
No.
ray
readings
Lines of
the
spectrum

LC = 1'

Vernier A

Vernier B

MSR

VSC

TR

MSR

VSC

TR

( deg)

(div)

( deg)

( deg)

(div)

( deg)

Angle of
minimum
deviation (D)
Ver A Ver B
R1~R2 R1~R2

Violet-I

2.

Violet-II

3.

Blue

4.
5.

Bluish
green
Green

6.

Yellow

7.

Orange

8.

Red

unit)
2

(deg)
( deg)

1.

Mean D =

( deg)

## (i) Determination of angle of prism (A)

The given prism is mounted vertically at the centre of the prism table with its
refracting edge facing the collimator. Now the parallel rays of light emerging out
from the collimator falls almost equally on the two faces of the prism ABC as
86

shown in fig. The telescope is turned to catch the reflected image from one face
of the prism and fixed in that position. The tangential screw is adjusted until the
vertical cross-wire coincides with the fixed edge of the image of the slit.
The readings on both the verniers are noted. Similarly the readings corresponding to
the reflected image of the slit on the other face are also taken. The difference
between the two readings of the same vernier gives twice the angle of the prism.
Hence, the angle of the prism A is determined.
(ii) Determination of angle of minimum deviation (D)
The prism table is rotated so that the beam of light from the collimator is incident
on one face of the prism and emerges out from the other face. The telescope is
rotated to catch the refracted image of the yellow slit. The prism table is rotated in
such a direction so that the refracted image move towards the direct beam. The
telescope is rotated carefully to have the image in the field of view. At one stage,
the image stops momentarily and turns back. This is the position of the minimum
deviation (fig)
The telescope is rotated and made to coincide with the violet slit. The
telescope is fixed in this position and refracted ray reading of the telescope is noted.
The experiment is repeated for red slit. The prism is removed and the direct reading
of the slit is taken. The difference between the direct reading and the refracted ray
reading corresponding to the minimum deviation gives the angle of minimum
deviation D. The dispersive power is calculated using the given formula.

PRECAUTION
1. All the initial adjustments of the spectrometer must be done before starting
the experiment.
2. During rotation of the telescope, if the vernier zero crosses the zero mark of
the main circular scale, then the latter should be considered as 360 and
calculations should made accordingly.
3. The polished faces of the prism should not be touched.

87

## To find the angle of prism (A) Spectrometer readings

TR = MSR + (VSC X LC)

Reflected ray
Lines of the
spectrum

LC = 1'

Vernier A

Vernier B

MSR

VSC

TR

MSR

VSC

TR

( deg)

(div)

( deg)

( deg)

(div)

( deg)

Readings of image
reflected from one
face (left)
(R1)

(R1)

(R2)

(R2)

Readings of image
reflected from one
face (right)
2A= R1~R2

2A= R1~R2
Mean 2A =
Mean A =

VIVA-VOCE
1. What is a spectrometer?
It is an instrument used for analyzing the spectrum of a source of light.

88

## 2. What is the function of a collimator in a spectrometer?

The main function of the collimator is to produce a parallel beam of light.
3. What is the condition for obtaining minimum deviation
The deviation is minimum when the angles of incidence and the emergence are
equal.
4. Define refractive index
The ratio of the sine of the angle of incidence of the sine of angle of refraction is
constant for any two media, i.e.,

sin i
a constant known as refractive index.
sin r

## 5. How does refractive index change with wavelength of light?

Higher the wavelength, smaller is the refractive index.
6. Does the deviation depend on the angle of the prism?
Yes, greater the angle of the prism, more is the deviation.
7. Define dispersive power of a prism.
Dispersive power indicates the ability of the material of the prism disperse the light
rays. It is defined as the ratio of the angular dispersion to the derivation of the mean
ray.

CALCULATION

89

Refractive index v1

v
2

A D

=
A
sin

sin

A D

=
A
sin

sin

A D

A
sin

sin

A D

A
sin

sin

A D

A
sin

sin

## Dispersive power of the material of the prism

90

v r
y 1

RESULT
1.
2.
3.
4.

Angle of prism
= .. degree
Angle of minimum deviation
= .. degree
Refractive index of the given prism = . (No unit)
Dispersive power of the prism
= . (No unit)

91

## YOUNGS MODULUS UNIFORM BENDING

92

Expt. No:
Date:
AIM
To determine the Youngs modulus of the material of the beam (metre scale) by
uniform bending.

APPARATUS REQUIRED
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

Traveling microscope
Two knife edges
Two set of weights
Pin
Metre scale
Vernier caliper
Screw gauge

FORMULA
Youngs modulus of the material of the beam (metre scale)
E

3Mgal 2
2bd 3 y

newton/metre2

Symbol

Explanation

Unit

kg

Load applied

kg

## Distance between the point of application of load

and the nearest knife edge

metre

metre

metre

metre

m/s2

## (i) To find depression y

Total Reading (TR) = MSR + (VSC X LC)
M = ..x 10-3kg

LC = 0.001 cm

93

Sl.
No.

Load
(x 10-3kg)

1.

2.

W+50

3.

W+100

4.

W+150

5.

W+200

6.

W+250

7.

W+300

Microscope Readings
Loading
Unloading
MSR
VSC
TR
MSR
VSC
TR
(x 10-2m) (div) (x 10-2m)
(x 10-2m) (div) (x 10-2m)

Mean
(x 10-2m)

Mean y
Mean y = x 10-2m

PROCEDURE
The given beam is symmetrically supported on two knife edges and weight hangers
are suspended at equal distance from the knife edges. A pin is fixed vertically at the mid
point of the beam. A suitable dead load W is suspended from each hanger.

94

Depress
y for M

(x 10-2m

Using traveling microscope, the reading corresponding to the tip of the pin is taken.
The load is increased in steps of 50 gram up to 250 gram and the readings of the
microscope are noted.
Readings are also taken when the load in each hanger is decreased in the same step.
The readings are tabulated and the mean elevation is determined.
The length l and a are measured. The breadth (b) of the scale is determined using
vernier caliper. The thickness (d) of the scale is determined using a screw gauge. From the
observations, the Youngs modulus of the material of the scale is calculated.

95

(ii)

LC = 0.01 cm
Sl.No.

MSR

VSC

(x 10-2m)

(div)

## Zero error = div

Zero correction = cm
TR = MSR+(VSC X
Correct
LC)
reading =TR
(x 10-2m)
ZC
(x 10-2m)

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Mean b = x 10-2m

PRECAUTION
1. The beam must be kept horizontal

96

2. Since the value of thickness (d) is small and it occurs in the third power, it must
be measured carefully with a screw gauge.
3. While taking readings, the microscope must be moved in the same direction, so as
to avoid the back lash error.
4. After loading or removing weights, some time must be allowed before taking the
readings.

97

LC = 0.01 mm

S. No.

PSR
( 10-3 m)

## Zero error = div

Zero correction = mm
HSC
(div)

Observed Reading =
PSR + (HSC LC)
( 10-3 m)

Correct Reading =
OR ZC
( 10-3 m)

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

## Mean (d) = 10-3 m

VIVA-VOCE
1. What is elasticity?
The property of the body to regain its original shape or size, after the removal of
deforming force is called elasticity.

98

## 2. What are elastic bodies?

Bodies which regain its original shape or size, after the removal of deforming force
is called elastic bodies.
3. Define Youngs modulus of elasticity?
Within the elastic limit the ratio of longitudinal stress to longitudinal strain is called
the Youngs modulus of elasticity. It is denoted by the letter E
longitudinalstress

## Youngs modulus of elasticity (E) = longitudinalstrain

Unit: newton/metre2
4. What are the factors affecting elasticity?
5. Stress
6. Change in temperature
7. Impurities
8. Hammering, rolling and annealing.
9. Crystalline nature
5. What is uniform bending?
The beam is loaded uniformly on its both ends, the bent beam forms an arc of a
circle. The elevation in the beam is produced. This bending is called uniform
bending.

CALCULATION
Youngs modulus of the material of the beam (metre scale) E
Load applied

3Mgal 2
newton/metre2
2bd 3 y

M = .kg
99

g = 9.8 m/sec2

## Distance between the point of load

Application of load and the nearest
Knife edge

a = x10-2m

l = x10-2m

b = x10-2m

d = x10-3m

## Depression for load applied

y = x10-2m

E = N/m2

100

RESULT
Youngs modulus of the material
of the beam (metre scale) = newton/metre2

101

## DETERMINATION OF BAND GAP IN A

SEMICONDUCTOR USING A REVERSE BIASED
pn-DIODE

102

Expt. No:
Date:
AIM
To find the width of the forbidden energy gap in a semiconductor material taken in
the form a pn diode.

APPARATUS REQUIRED
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

0 15 v dc power supply
Heating arrangement to heat the diode
Thermometer (0C to 100C)
Micrometer (0 50 A)
Germanium diode.

FORMULA
The width of the forbidden energy gap is given by Eg = 0.198 x slope eV

Circuit:
The circuit diagram for conducting the experiment is shown in fig. 6.1. The diode is
reverse biased with the help of dc voltage obtained from a dc power supply and the current
that flows through the reverse biased diode is measured with a micrometer. A heating
system (heating coil or oil bath) helps to raise the temperature of the diode. The circuit is
available in a ready-to-use training board form also.

PROCEDURE
Sufficiently long wires are soldered to the diode terminals and diode is connected in
to the circuit as shown in fig.6.1. The diode is immersed in an oil bath which in turn is kept
in a heating mantle. A thermometer is also kept in the oil bath such that its mercury bulb is
just at the height of the diode. The power supply is switched on and the voltage is adjusted
to say 5 volts. The current through diode and room temperature are noted. The power
supply is switched off. The heating mantle is switched on and the oil bath is heated up to
65C.

## Reading of temperature vs. reverse saturation current

103

104

Sl.No.

Temperatur
e (T)

Temperature
(T)

1000
T

(C)

(K)

(K-1)

Resistance
P
()

Q
()

RT

R
()

PR
Q

()

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.

The heating mantle is switched off when the temperature of oil bath reached 65C.
The oil is stirred and time is allowed. The temperature of oil bath stabilized say at 75C.
The power supply is again switched on and the voltage is kept at 5V. The temperature (say
75C) and corresponding current through the diode are noted. The oil bath is allowed to
105

log RT
()

cool slowly. As its temperature falls, the current through the diode decreases. As the current
falls through steps of 2 A the corresponding temperatures are noted down in the table. The
calculations are completed. A graph is plotted taking

1000
on X axis and log Io on Y
T

axis. A straight line such fig.6.2 is obtained. The slope of the straight line is determined and
using it in the formula, the band gap Eg calculated.

VIVA VOCE
1. Define Fermi level.
Fermi level is that state at which the probability of electron occupation is
1
at any temperature above 0K and also it is the level of maximum energy of the
2

## filled states at 0K.

2. What are intrinsic semiconductors? Give examples.
Intrinsic semiconductors are semiconductors in pure form. These materials
are having an energy gap of the order of 1 eV. Charge carriers are generated due to
breaking of covalent bonds. Geand Si are some examples of intrinsic
semiconductors.
3. What are extrinsic semiconductors? Give examples.
A semi conducting material in which the charge carriers originate from
impurity atoms added to the material is called extrinsic semiconductor. The
addition of impurity increases the carrier concentration and hence the conductivity
of the conductor.
Phosphorous, arsenic or antimony added to either germanium or silicon
gives n-type semiconductors, while aluminums, gallium or indium added results in
p-type semiconductors.

106

107

RESULT
The width of the forbidden gap in germanium semiconductor is = ------------eV

108

109

110

111

112

113

114