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Criteria (Pauline)

A. Taken from the National Commission and The Fine Arts website:
No law, executive order or proclamation has been enacted or issued officially proclaiming
any Filipino historical figure as a national hero. However, because of their significant roles in
the process of nation building and contributions to history, there were laws enacted and
proclamations issued honoring these heroes.
On March28,1993 , President Fidel V. Ramos issued Executive Order No.75 entitled "Creating the
National Heroes Committee Under the Office of the President".
The principal duty of the Committee is to study, evaluate and recommend Filipino national
personages/heroes in due recognition of their sterling character and remarkable achievements for
the country.
3. Heroes are those who contribute to the quality of life and destiny of a nation. (As defined by Dr.
Onofre D. Corpuz)

Criteria for National Heroes

1. Heroes are those who have a concept of nation and
thereafter aspire and struggle for the nations freedom. 1.
Our own struggle for freedom was begun by Bonifacio and finished
by Aguinaldo, the latter formally declaring the revolutions
success. In reality, however, a revolution has no end. Revolutions
are only the beginning. One cannot aspire to be free only to sink

2. Heroes are those who define and contribute to a system or

life of freedom and order for a nation. Freedom without
order will only lead to anarchy. Therefore, heroes are
those who make the nations constitution and laws.
2. such as Mabini and Recto. To the latter, constitutions are only the beginning, for it is the people
living under the constitution that truly constitute a nation.

3. Heroes are those who contribute to the quality of life and

destiny of a nation.

Additional Criteria for Heroes

1. A hero is part of the peoples expression. But the process
of a peoples internalization of a heros life and works

takes time, with the youth forming a part of the

2. A hero thinks of the future, especially the future
3. The choice of a hero involves not only the recounting of an
episode or events in history, but of the entire process that
made this particular person a hero.

B. Additional Criteria of the reporters

Additional criteria that the group believes to be important in deliberating for a

National Hero
1. Must be a Filipino citizen
Significance: Others might think that this is self-explanatory, but
this actually is a valid consideration due to people of other
ethnicities who have also contributed to the Philippine society. No

economy/politics/social welfare, the Philippine national hero must
be a Filipino or else it would be of great mockery to our own
history which details mostly colonization.
2. Displayed unconditional love for the country
Significance: though this cannot be quantified nor judged, ones
sacrifices may be equated to unconditional love, exhibiting how
much a candidate was willing to give up for his/her advocacy and
3. The group will look into the audience or the receiving ends of the
heros patriotic act in order to see if the he was able to have an
impact on the entire country
Significance: Drawing from the term national hero itself, the
reporters believe that in order to be considered a hero of the
nation, one must have reached and moved people from all walks
of life and all social classes, or at least must have had an impact
on them in particular ways.
4. Significant contribution/s to Philippine society
Significance: in connection to the third additional criteria, what
actually affected the people and the Philippines as a whole should
be considered.
5. Duration of candidate in the Philippines
6. Discuss the negative attributes
Significance: Of course, its not only the positive things that make
a hero. Though no one is essentially perfect, the gravity and
pertinence of the issues/allegations associated with a candidate
should also be examined in light of whether or not these flaws
are grounds for not being appointed as the national hero.


3. Historian Renato Constantino, supported / agreed with Agoncillo, saying that

Rizal was a United States-sponsored hero".

4. Constantino, Renato (1980) [1970], "Veneration without Understanding",

Dissent and Counter-consciousness, Quezon City: Malaya Books, pp. 125
D. President Fidel V. Ramos (1990s)
1. Ramos formed the National Heroes Committee on March 28,
2. The National Heroes Committee recommended the following nine
individuals to be recognized as national heroes on November 15,
1. Jose Rizal
2. Andres Bonifacio
3. Emilio Aguinaldo
4. Apolinario Mabini
5. Marcelo H. del Pilar
6. Muhammad Dipatuan Kudarat
7. Juan Luna
8. Melchora Aquino
9. Gabriela Silang
2. "Selection and Proclamation of National Heroes and Laws
Honoring Filipino Historical Figures" (PDF). Reference and
Research Bureau Legislative Research Service, House of
Congress. Retrieved 08-09-2009.

E. President Gloria Macapagal Arroyo (2000s)

i. Republic Act No. 9256, which declared the Monday
nearest August 21 a nationwide special holiday, called
Ninoy Aquino Day.
ii. Arroyo approved Republic Act No. 9492, which states
that National Heroes Day be celebrated on the last
Monday of August
iii. Bonifacio Day on the Monday nearest November 30
iv. Rizal Day on the Monday nearest December 30.
v. After the death of President Corazon "Cory" Aquino two
House Joint Resolution have been filed proposing her
official recognition as a national hero.