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Chng 1: Nhng cng tc xy dng v bin php cng ngh

trong thi cng ng hm.


1.1. Cng tc khoan l mn trong ng hm.

1.1.1 Cc thit b khoan:


Khoan l mt trong nhng yu t quan trng nht quyt
nh n tin thi cng cng trnh ngm. N ph thuc vo
trnh k thut, tnh cht t . Thi gian khoan chim 15
60% tng thi gian ca mt chu k khoan n. ng thi n
cng l mt cng vic tng i nng nhc ging nh bc d.
V vy tng tin thi cng cng trnh v gim bt
mc nng nhc ca cng nhn th khu khoan l mn cn
c c gii v t ng ho v mi mt.
Cc loi my mc thit b phc v khoan l mn:
- Phn chia theo mc c gii ho ca my c cc loi :
khoan th cng, khoan my.
+ Khoan th cng: thng c 2 cch c l bng ba ng
chong v dng chong. Ni chung phng php ny c tc
chm v chiu su nh nn hin t c s dng trong
thi cng hm hin nay.
+ Khoan my : Da theo hnh thc cung cp nng lng hot
ng c 2 loi ch yu l my khoan dng kh nn v khoan
thu lc.
+ Gin khoan : Khi lp nhiu my khoan trn mt thit b di
ng, cc my khoan ny hot ng ng thi, iu khin
tp trung.
Mi gin khoan c th lp 1 n 4 cn khoan v c 1
cnh tay ch gin cng tc. Phm vi hot ng ca loi my
ny theo phng ngang c th t 10 n 15m v c th vi
n tm cao 7 n 12m.
1

V vy loi gin khoan ny c u im phm vi hot


ng rng nn trn cng 1 v tr ng ca my nn tin
khoan nhanh. Tuy nhin n bt tin khi di chuyn ra vo
trong hang o do c din tch chim dng ln nn nh hng n s di chuyn ca cc loi thit b khc. V vy, loi
ny thng c p dng cho cc ng hm c kch thc gng
ln
C th phn ra loi c xe khoan chy trn ray, bnh lp
v bnh xch.

- Phn chia theo nng lng ca my khoan c cc loi :


+ My khoan chy bng kh nn: loi my ny c u im l
cu to n gin tuy nhin n c nhiu nhc im nh: gy
nhiu ting n ln, tiu hao nhiu nhin liu, tc ca loi ny
thng thp hn my thu lc.
+ My khoan thu lc: My khoan thu lc c u im l t
ting n v c tc khoan tng i nhanh. Tuy nhin n c
cu to tng i phc tp v gi thnh tng i t.

My khoan thu lc Boomer-352 chy trn bnh lp

1.1.2 T chc khoan l mn trn gng o:


- nh du l mn trn gng: Vic nh du l mn trn gng o thng c thc hin bng chm sn trn mt gng.
2

Thng thng cc cnh tay c gn sn cng tc ca cc my


khoan s h tr cho vic xc nh bin hang o v v tr cc l
khoan.

(Nu cch nh du bin hang v v tr cc l khoan trn gng


bng th cng v my lazer)
- Tin hnh khoan cc l mn trn gng: trnh t khoan,
cc bin php gim ting n v bi khi khoan...
1.2. Cng tc n mn trong thi cng hm.

1.2.1. Vt liu n.
Cc yu cu i vi cc cht n s dng trong thi cng cng
trnh ngm:
- Thi ra lng kh c ti thiu.
- An ton trong ch to v vn chuyn v cha kho.
- Hiu qu kinh t cao.
a. Tnh nng n:
N l 1 qu trnh phn ng ho hc tc cao, khi
thnh phn ca thuc n hnh thnh khi khi ln phng thch
nhit nng rt ln c tc dng xung kch, p co, ph hoi v bn
tung cc gii cht xung quanh. Vic nm vng cc tnh nng n
ca thuc n c ngha rt quan trng i vi vic vn chuyn
v cha cht an ton, s dng chnh xc v nng cao hiu qu
n ph.
Cc tnh nng n ca thuc n gm: nhy, tc n,
sc n, mnh,
- nhy: th hin kh nng pht n ca thuc khi c tc
ng kch thch bn ngoi. C cc loi nhy chnh sau:
+ nhy vi nhit .
3

+ nhy vi ngn la.


+ nhy c hc (va p, ma st).
+ nhy vi sng n.
(Tham kho cc bng thng k nhy n trong cc bng thng
k trang 37 - Nguyn Xun Trng)
- Tc n: L tc chuyn sng ca sng n trong ni
b thuc n. Thng thng tc n t l thun vi mt ca
thuc n, trong cng 1 loi thuc n n chnh l mc cht
khi np thuc n.
- Sc n: L kh nng sinh cng i vi cc gii cht xung
quanh n, ni chung sc n cng cao th kh nng ph hoi v
phm vi ph hoi cng cao.
- mnh: th hin mc ph hoi cc b i vi gii cht
rn xung quanh. N th hin mc vn nt v phm vi ph
hoi ca gii cht rn.
- Cc tnh nng khc: tnh n nh, ng knh ti hn (ti
thiu) ca gi thuc, cht tt nht, hiu ng ng ng, c
ly n theo, tnh an nh...
b. Cc loi thuc n thng dng trong thi cng hm.
Vi cc yu cu nh trn, kt hp vi xu hng s dng rng ri
hin nay trong xy dng cng trnh c cc loi thuc n ph
bin sau:
+ Amonit: thng s dng loi c s hiu No 1 v No 6- WB (s
dng cho ng hm khng c kh mtal).
+ Thuc n dng tng (keo nc): c s dng rng ri trong
khong 10 nm tr li y. Loi ny c tnh chng nc cao,
cht cao, sc n mnh, nguyn liu sn c, gi thnh h, thng
c dng trong nhng trng hp n l thin di nc.

+ Thuc n dng sa: loi ny c tnh nng n tt, chng


nc tt, an ton cao, t nhim mi trng. Cc nguyn liu sn
xut rt ph bin nn gi thnh r...Ni chung c th ni loi
thuc n ny khi s dng s tit kim v an ton hn cc loi
thuc Amonit.
+ Thuc n dng keo (Trinitroglycerine): loi ny c tnh
nng n v kh nng chng nc cao nn thng c s dng cho
cc loi rt cng. Tuy nhin n li c nhy vi va p cao
nn km an ton v gi thnh ca n cng tng i t.
Thuc n trong thi cng ng hm thng c ch thnh
dng gi thuc c ng knh ph bin 22, 25, 32, 40mm,
...Chiu di ph bin t 165mm -:- 500mm.
c. Vt liu gy n.
Mc ch ca h thng gy n l nhm chuyn n c ly
an ton.
- Dy chy chm v kp thng:
+ Dy chy chm: nhm chuyn ngn la cho kp thng
gy n.
+ Kp n thng:

Kp thng
1- V kp; 2- M tng cng; 3- Thuc gy n chnh;
4- Thuc gy n ph; 5- lm t nng lng

Kp n loi ny n gin, s dng tng i n gin,


khng b nh hng bi dng in bt thng; nhng d gy n
nu nh c tc ng va chm mnh hoc tia la.
5

- Kp in:
+ Da trn kp thng v c b tr thm thit b pht ho
bng in.

Kp in c th chia ra kp n ngay v n chm. Kp n


chm c thc hin bng cch lp thm thuc n chm vo
trong kp n ngay. Thi gian n chm ca kp c th hin
bng s khong biu th, di y l bng thi gian n chm
ca kp Trung Quc (chia lm 7 khong).
Bng thi gian n chm ca kp Trung Quc
S khong

Thi gian

<0,1

chm li

1,0+0 2,0+0 3,1+0

4,3+0

5,6+0

7+1,0

,5

,6

,7

,8

,9

Trng

Lc

Vng

Xanh

(giy)
Mu ca

Xanh

Trng
6

dy chn

xanh

xm

xm

xanh

xm

en

Ngun in gy n c th s dng ngun in sng 1


hoc xoay chiu iu khin; cng c th s dng loi my
gy n chuyn dng thc hin. Hin nay cc loi kp n
in, h thng gy n bng in t c s dng.
- Mc ni mng li l mn s dng kp n in:
+ C 3 cch lp: Mc ni tip, mc song song v
mc hn hp

a) Mc ni tip

b) Mc song song

c) Mc song song ni tip

d) Mc ni tip song song

Vic la chn cch mc gy n in ph thuc vo


iu kin c th thi cng nh dung lng ngun in hin c,
s lng v cch b tr cc gi thuc trong cc l mn
Ni chung, trong thi cng hm thng hay s dng cch
mc ni tip do n c u im l tnh ton v lp t
u rt n gin, khng cn phi c ngun in ln. Tuy
nhin n c th lm cho c mng li khng n do c 1 on
dy hoc 1 kp bt k no b trc trc.
Mng li mc song song v mc song song ni tip thng t c dng trong thc t do phi c ngun in ln v
tnh ton cng phc tp hn.
+ Kch n kp n in: C th s dng trm pht
in lu ng (xoay chiu 3 pha), cng c khi dng c quy
7

hay hp pin ni chung thng s dng khi n ph mn lng


ln. Khi n ph mn lng nh thng dng my im ho in mt chiu.
- ng dn n bng cht do v kp khng dng in:
ng dn n c dng chuyn sng gy n cho kp n
khng dng in.
ng dn n c u im: tnh nng cch in, chu la,
chng xung kch tt; chuyn n n nh, ngay c khi b tht
nt, ngot 1800 , mt thuc cc b, u ng ni chui vo nhau
vn n tt. ng khng th chc tip gy n cho bao thuc m
phi kt hp vi kp n milygiy khng in. C th xem n
khng nguy him khi vn chuyn.

Kp khng in loi ny do Trung Quc sn xut c th chia


ra 3 nhm chnh: nhm miligiy, na miligiy, v chm giy:
- Cch mc ni mng li l mn c ng dn n v kp khng
dng in:
C 2 cch: C th b kp thnh b tp trung n lin
tip; cng c th qua b phn ni n lin tip:

- Dy dn v kp n tip:
S dng loi dy v kp ny khi mun qu trnh thi cng
n ph c lin tc khng cn ct in kch n m vn c th
ni tip qu trnh np thuc v n tip theo (do loi kp ny
khng b nh hng ca dng in xoay chiu hoc tnh in
khng n nh).
1.2.2. Cc loi l mn trn gng o:
Trong thi cng n ph t cng trnh ngm, gng o
lun ch c 1 mt thong duy nht, do cng tc n ph rt
kh khn v hiu qu n ph rt thp. V vy ngi ta thng phi
c gng to ra mt mt thong na trung tm gng o
nhm nng cao hiu qu n ph. Cc l mn ny c gi l l
mn t khu (l to rnh, l moi, l t ph), cc l mn n
tip theo c gi l n ph, cc l st bin hang o gi l l
vin, nn
a. L khoan t khu(l moi):
- Tc dng ca l mn t khu l to ra mt rnh trung
tm gng o mt mt thong mi nhm nng cao hiu qu
n ph cho cc l ph v vin, nn
- L t khu n u tin ch c 1 mt thong v vy thng phi b tr lng thuc n nhiu hn.
9

- m bo cc l t ph c kh nng ph tung vn
ra khi rnh th chiu di ca l khoan t khu thng di hn
cc l thng thng t 10 20cm v dng cch lp thuc c y
lm.
- Phng thc o rnh t khu chia lm cc loi ch yu:
to rnh bng l mn xin, to rnh bng l mn ng v to rnh
bng l mn r qut xin v ng.
+ To rnh bng l mn xin:

10-20cm

10-20cm

a. D ng nm ng

d. Thp trung tm

b. D ng nm ngang

e. D ng l moi
trn

c. D ng l moi
d i

f. D ng l moi
c nh

Phng php ny c u im l tu theo iu kin thc t


ca t m la chn phng thc v gc xin ca l khoan;
tuy nhin n c nhc im l su ca n b hn ch bi din
tch mt ct gng o v khi c nhiu my khoan hot ng
cng mt lc.
Ni chung l khoan c hiu qu cao nht khi n vung gc
vi mt a tng hoc mt ca vt nt v khi n chy song
song vi mt a tng hoc vt nt th khi kh pht sinh s
chy dc theo cc ng c sc khng yu nht nn lm tht
thot nng lng n ph rt ln. V l do ny m ngi ta thng
dng cc dng l khoan hnh r qut.
10

Dng nm ng: thng dng khi t tng i ng


nht, chiu rng ca hang ln hn chiu cao hang.
Dng nm ngang: thng dng khi t tng i ng
nht, chiu cao ca hang ln hn chiu rng hang.
Dng l moi di: thng dng khi hng ca cc lp hng
vo pha trong gng.
Dng thp trung tm: thng dng khi t tng i
ng nht, kch thc ca gng o l gn nh nhau.
Dng l moi trn: thng dng khi hng ca cc lp hng ra ngoi gng.
Dng l moi cnh: thng dng khi hng ca cc lp thng
ng v cho gc vi trc ng hm.
+ To rnh theo kiu l mn ng: Cc l dng ny c b
tr vung gc vi mt gng. V vy vi loi l ny thng yu cu
lng thuc n ln hn nhiu so vi l t khu xin.

u nhc im ca l t khu thng ngc li so vi t khu


xin.
11

+ Mt s dng l moi khc:


Hin nay ngi ta s dng ph bin cc dng l t khu
thng v kt hp vi mt s l to mt thong (c ng knh
bng hoc ln hn, chiu di bng chiu di l t khu v
khng np thuc).
- L to mt thong kiu Canaa:

L moi kiu Canaa


l lp thuc

l trng

- L to mt thong kiu Coromant Cub (Php): L to mt


thong duy nht gia c ng knh rt ln ( t 100 300mm),
l khoan ny c thc hin bi my hin i chuyn dng.

Ni chung vic la chn mt hay nhiu l trng ph thuc


ch yu vo loi t v chiu su mt ln o; v d nu
trong cng v va, chiu su o l 3,5m th nn s dng 2
l trng, di 3m nn dng 1 l trng, 3,5 5m nn dng 3 l trng.
Hiu qu ca vic n ph lin quan rt mt thit n ng knh, s lng v khong cch t l mn n l trng.
12

Khong cch ny nn t (1 1,5)D (D: ng knh l khoan


trng); khi khong cch ny >2D th n ch lm cho b bin
dng do.
b. L khoan ph:
L khoan ny c vai tr n ph rng thm vng cn o,
tin gn n hnh dng hang cn o, ng thi to thun li
cho l n to bin.

c. L khoan n to bin.
- N mn to bin c cng dng m bo s ph hu khi
bin l nh nht, l bin php n mn vi phng php np
mn phn tn, cc thi mn ng knh nh trong cc l khoan
ng knh gn nhau. V mt cng ngh, n to bin l cng tc
khoan n chuyn dng ng vin cc cng trnh nhm to ra
b mt thch hp ca khi . u im ca n to vin l to
kh nng c mt b mt vin, trnh to khe nt do cc tc ng
ca n mn, gim kch thc o vt; o thiu trong so vi
bin thit k. Lm gim tc ng a chn n n khi sau
bin.
1.2.3. Tnh ton lng n v b tr l mn trn gng o:
a. Tnh s lng l mn trn gng o:
- Xc nh s l khoan trn gng o.
+ Cng thc Ibraep: N = N1. S (ph hp vi gng kch thc
nh)
Trong :
N1 S lng l khoan trn mt n v din tch
N1 = 41.

f kp a. S
b.d b*

d *b - ng knh bao thuc, mm (tra bng).


a H s ph thuc loi ng o v tit din gng:
+ ng hm o ngang, a = 0,25 0.3.
13

+ Ging ng

a = 0.12 0.15.

b H s ph thuc vo kh nng sinh cng ca thuc


n Amonit N0 6B, b = 1,0.
Cng thc Protodjiaconop gn ng N1= 2,7.

f kp
s

=
Chnh xc N1 = (

0,2 f kp

1
s

)2N1 = ..( ci)

+ T gi tr ca N 1, la chn gi tr thch hp
tnh s lng l khoan cn thit N (l).
+ Cng thc VNIIOMSX.

1,27 q.S

N = K .d 2 . (thng s dng cho


d
b

kch thc gng ln).


Trong :
q- Tiu hao thuc n n v, kg/m3.
q

f kp a. s
b

0,75kg / m3 .

Kd- H s nhi:
+ Vi fkp= 1.5 - 6 ly Kd= 0,95.
+ Vi fkp= 7 - 9 ly Kd= 0,9.
+Vi fkp= 10 - 14 ly Kd= 0,8.
- Mt thuc n trong ng, kg/m3;
a: H s ph thuc vo hng ng o v tit din gng:
+ ng o ngang v xin: a=0,25 0,30
+ i vi o ng : a = 0,12 0,15
(Din tch ln ng vi gi tr a nh)
Cng thc ny c th cho lng thuc n tng i nh,
c bit l khi fkp nh v din tch gng o l ln.
Bng mt thuc n ca mt s loi
Loi thuc n

Mt

Tiu tn thuc n trn 1m chiu

(g/cm3)

su l khoan (kg)
(ng hm khng nguy him do hi
14

v bi)

Amnt No1
Amnt No3

1,0-1,1
1,0-1,1

Amnt No6

1,0-1,1

ng knh ng thuc (mm)


32
36
45
1,1-1,25
1,7-2,0
0,7-0,85 1,1-1,35
0,750,62-0,75
1,1-1,35
0,95

ynamit 62%
khng ng

1,4-1,45

0,80-1,00

1,6-2,0

cng

- Xc nh l khoan vin (l khoan to bin).


+ N mn to bin c cng dng m bo s ph hu khi
bin l nh nht, l bin php n mn vi phng php np
mn phn tn, cc thi mn ng knh nh trong cc l khoan
ng knh gn nhau. V mt cng ngh, n to bin l cng
tc khoan n chuyn dng ng vin cc cng trnh nhm to
ra b mt thch hp ca khi . u im ca n to vin l to
kh nng c mt b mt vin, trnh to khe nt do cc tc ng
ca n mn, gim kch thc o vt; o thiu trong so vi
bin thit k. Lm gim tc ng a chn n n khi
sau bin.
+ C hai phng php n mn to bin : trc v sau. Theo
kinh nghim c kt t cc cng trnh ngm thu cng ca
Nga cho thy: N to bin trc thng i hi b tr cc l mn
dy hn, nhng c bng phng cao hn n to bin sau.
S l khoan vin ly theo cng thc : Nv =

PB
1.
b

Trong :
P - Chu vi gng o, m
B Chiu rng gng o, m.
b : Khong cch gia cc l khoan vin, b = 0,5 0.8m.

15

m bo to vin chnh xc ta khoan thm cc l khoan


khng np thuc xen k gia cc l khoan vin.
b. Xc nh tc khoan.
Thng thng trong thit k ch tnh ton s b tc
khoan, cn tc thc t s c xc nh li trong qu trnh
khoan n.
Thi gian khoan:
+ Thi gian khoan trc tip: l thi gian tiu tn trc tip
khoan cc l khoan.
+ Thi gian khoan chung: gm c thi gian khoan trc tip
v thi gian cho cc thao tc ph tr (di chuyn, t my, thay
chong)
Ni chung t l gia hai thi gian ny nn nm trong khong
0,4 - 0,75 ().
Cng thc ca A.F. Xukhanp (thng s dng vi cc loi my
khoan va p) :

Vk= 0,06 k. l. (m/h)

Trong :
l Tc my khoan, mm/pht, s dng my khoan
CBY - 4
c l = 1000mm/pht.
k - H s iu chnh. k = A.B.C.D = 2,4.1,1.1.1,1 =
2,9.
- T s gia thi gian khoan trc tip v thi gian
khoan chung,

c. Xc nh chiu di l khoan.
Chiu su l khoan l mt trong nhng yu t c tnh cht
quyt nh thnh phn cc loi cng tc khoan n trong o

16

hm v n xc nh tt c cc khi lng cc cng tc ch yu,


do n l mt thng s t - chc k tht c bn.
Thc t thi cng cng trnh ngm cho thy rng chiu su
l khoan ph thuc vo tit din gng v loi t ph c
chn. Nu chn t ph vng, chiu su khoan ch yu ph
thuc vo kh nng ca thit b khoan. Cn i vi t ph
p th nu chiu su l khoan nu ln hn 4 m s gy ra
gim h s s dng l mn t ph v nh th c ngha l lm
gim h s s dng l mn trn ton gng. Da trn kinh
nghim

thng

ca

Vin

Orgenergostroi

Gidrospesproek ca Lin X c cng nh cc s liu thc t c


st n tnh nng ca cc loi my khoan hin ti th chiu
su l khoan trong hm c tit din b l 2 2,5m, i vi
hm tit din ln v trung bnh l 3 4 m.
Chn s b theo cng thc :
Lph= 0,5.

(m).

Cng thc tnh chiu di l khoan ph :


l ph

N .t 2
t1 t 3 t 4 )
n
,m.
S ..K n
N*

.
m.Vk
Pbd

Tck (

Trong :
TCK Thi gian mt chu k khoan n ( t chc 3 ca mt
ngy ly
Tck = 8h).
N* - S lng l phi khoan, ci.
N - S lng l c nhi thuc, ci .
t1 Thi gian nh giu l khoan, di chuyn, t thit b,
h ; t1 = 0,4 - 0,6 (h).
t2 Thi gian nhi thuc cho mt l khoan v n, h; t 2 =
0,04 - 0,08 (h).
t3 Thi gian n v thng gi, h; t3 = 0,3 0,5 (h).
t4 Thi gian kim tra v a gng v trng thi an ton, h;
t4 = 0,2 0,3 (h).
17

n S ngi nhi thuc vo n khoan, n= 10 ngi (ph thuc


b tr thit b).
m S my khoan ng thi lm vic trn gng.
VK Tc khoan, m/h.
- H s s dng l mn.
S Din tch gng, m2.
Kn H s tha tit din.
- H s phn phi lm vic gia khoan v vn chuyn,
khi dng dn khoan ta c = 1.
Pbd- Nng xut bc d, m3/ h.
- Kt hp gi tr tnh ton trn vi kinh nghim chn
chiu di l khoan ph lph.
- Xc nh chiu di l khoan t khu: khi s dng t khu
xin c th tham kho bng sau y:
Fkp

Gc nghing gia

tng chiu di l

36
8-16
>16

cc l t khu ()
40
50
60

khoan (%)
10
15
20

d. Xc nh ng knh l khoan.
ng knh bao thuc d0.
ng knh cui cng ca l : d = d0 + 2-3mm.
ng knh chnh lch gia u v cui ca l khoan ly
trung bnh bng 5mm : dc = d + 5mm
e. Xc nh trng lng thuc n.
- Trng lng thuc n ca mt ln n ; Q = q.S.1K (Kg)
Trong :
1K chiu di trung bnh ca l khoan, m;
q tiu tn thuc n n v, kg/m3.
- Trng lng thuc n trung bnh ca mt l khoan
qtb =

Q
kg .
N
18

- Trng lng thuc n l khoan t khu.


qdk = 1,25 . qtb kg .
- Trng lng thuc n l khoan ph :
qph = 1,1 . qtb = kg .
- Trng lng thuc n l khoan vin.
qv = 0,85 . qtp = kg.
Kim tra thuc n theo mc y ca l khoan ph:
1d Kd.1ph
Trong :
lph: Chiu di l khoan ph
ld: Chiu di b tr thuc trong l khoan
Kd : H s y ln nht
+Tra bng sau vi db = 32 36mm:
TT
1
2
3
4

fkp
4-6
7-9
10-14
15-20

Kd
0,55 - 0,60
0,60 - 0,65
0,65 - 0,70
0,70 - 0,75

Vi l khoan t khu : h s y Kd = 0,65 0,75


Nu lng thuc tnh ton ra khng m bo iu kin v
mc y th phi tin hnh tnh ton li v tng s lng l
khoan.
Tng chi ph thuc n cho mt ln n chnh xc;
Q = qdk.Npk+ qph.Nph + qv.Nv
f. Cu to lng n.
Tu theo cch b tr cc ng thuc n trong l khoan, ngi
ta chia ra cc loi:
- Dng hnh tr (dng ct) (a): cc gi thuc c b tr st
cnh nhau.
- Dng lm (b): C u im nng cao hiu qu n ph,
c bit trong cng.
19

- Dng phn on (c): thng b tr cho cc l n vin,


khong cch gia cc on thng thng l 5 30cm.
(a)
1

(b)
4

(c)
1

1: ng thuc n
2. Kp n

3. Nt

4. Hnh lm
5. Khong trng

Vt liu nt mn: nt mn c nh hng nhiu n hiu


qu n ph, chiu du nt mn thng t l thun vi ng
knh ng thuc (vi cc ng thuc loi 40-42mm th chiu du
nt khong 0,6 0,8m.
Thng thng ngi ta s dng t st trn ct t l 1:4, hin
nay cn s dng cc loi nt mn tylen dng ti nc loi ny
theo thng k to ra hiu qu n ph ln hn t st trn ct.
g. Xc nh thi gian khoan v bc d t .
Thi gian khoan: gm nh du l khoan, th

my khoan, di chuyn my, khoan cc l, lm sch l khoan


tk

N .l
m.Vk

(h)

- N: s lng l khoan trn gng


- l: Chiu di trung bnh l khoan (m)
- m: S lng my khoan ng thi lm vic trn gng.
- Vk: Tc khoan (m/h).
Thi gian bc d t :

Cng thc tnh ton :


tbd =

w .S .K N .l
nbd . p

(h)

Trong :
20

V= w .S .K N .l. : khi lng t cn bc d trong mt


chu k sau khi khoan n - m3
+ w: H s ti ca t sau khi n, thng ly
= 1,11 1,15
+ KN: H s tnh n s thay i tit din gng
o sau khi n (h s tha tit din): i vi tit
din gng ln v trung bnh: KN=1,1-1,15; tit
din gng nh KN = 1,15-1,25.
+ S: Din tch gng o (m2)
+ l: Chiu di mt bc o (m)
+ : H s phi hp (theo thi gian kt hp gia
khoan v vn chuyn t )- thng ly = 1 khi
khoan v my bc d thng l cc my c lp.
+ nbd: S lng my bc d ng thi lm vic trn
gng.
p- Nng xut bc d (m3/ h).

h. Lp biu chu k khoan n.


Thnh phn cng vic ca mt chu k khoan n g:
1.

Cng tc chun b: nh du l khoan, di chuyn v


nh v thit b khoan, thi gian ca cng tc ny
k hiu l t1 = 0,4 0,6h.

2.

Khoan cc l khoan (tk)

3.

Thu dn thit b- ly theo nh mc


21

4.

Np thuc v tin hnh n (t2 = 0,04 n 0,08h cho


mi l khoan)

5.

Thng gi ti gng o, t3 = 0,3 0,5h

6.

Kim tra gng v a gng v trng thi an ton,


t4=0,2 0,5h.

7.

Bc xc v vn chuyn t , tbd

8.

Chng tm.

Thi gian ca mt chu k ; Tck = t1 + t2 + t3 + t4 + tbd+ tct + tk


Trong :
t1 : Cng tc chun b (nh du l khoan, di chuyn
v t thit b.
t2 : Thi gian np thuc v n.
t3 : Thi gian thng gi.
t4 : Thi gian kim tra v a gng v trng thi an
ton.
tk : Thi gian khoan
tbd :Thi gian bc d
tct :Thi gian chng tm
tph :Thi gian d phng
Biu chu k khoan n.
TT

Cc cng vic

Khi l-

Thi

ng

gian

Thi gian 1 kp
1
2
3
4

(h)

22

Cng vic

chun b

303,75

Khoan

Np thuc v

135

(l)

Thng gi

Kim tra gng

Bc d t

164,2

Khoan,cm neo m3
Phun b tng

26
(neo)
2.5 m3

i. Tc o hm.
S b xc n theo cng thc:
U = .l.n
: H s s dng l khoan.
l: Chiu di l khoan
n: S chu k trong 1 ngy hoc thng.

j. nh gi hiu qu ca cng tc khoan n.


Cc ch tiu nh gi: H s s dng l khoan, h s tit
din, vng nh nht ca t , mc p vn.
- H s s dng l khoan:
lk

l hq
llk

+ llk: Chiu di l khoan (m)


+ lhq: Chiu di l khoan hiu qu (thc t) (m).
Trong thit k thng ly lk= 0,8 0,9. tng hiu qu s
dng l khoan ngi ta s dng thuc n dng lm y l, vic
ny c th lm t lk= 1 1,1.
- H s tha tit din:
23

c nh gia thng qua cc h s: H s tha tit din , h


s khng ph ht 1, h s khng trn chu 2:

S t max
;
S tc

S t min
;
S tc

2 (1 1 )

+ Stc: Din tch tit din thi cng (yu cu)


+ Stmax: Din tch tit din thc t (k n phn ph
tha thm)
+ Stmin: Din tch tit din thc t (k n phn
cha ph ht)
- t vng xa v p vn nh: y l yu t nh hng
ln n cng tc bc d v vn chuyn t .
+ t vng xa khi gng hm s lm tng thi gian
dn ng bc d, ngoi ra n cn nh hng n cc
yu t khc: cn ch vic i li ca cc my mc khc, tc
rnh thot nc, hng ng thng gi v cc thit b khc trong
hm gim vng xa ca t ngi ta thng s
dng cc dng l moi p vn.
+ Mc vn nt lm nh hng n nng xut bc d
v vn chuyn.
1.3. o ng hang bng my o.

Khi thi cng mt cng trnh hm xuyn ni, a s cc trng


hp v hu ht cc cng on thi cng u c thc hin
trong cng. Tuy nhin do c th v a kin to nn
a hnh v a cht cc khu vc ny thay i rt phc
tp. V vy, lun xut hin nhng on, khu vc hm i
qua vng a cht mm yu. Trong nhng on nh th
khng th s dng phng php n ph mn c m phi s
dng phng php o hang bng cc thit b o t
thng thng nh: th cng, my o dng gu
1.4. bc xc v vn chuyn t .

1.4.1. Bc xc t .
24

a. Cc loi thit b bc xc t :
- C th chia ra 2 loi ch yu : bc d th cng - bn c gii
(cng sut thp, khng s dng hin nay) v bc d c gii ho.
- Cc thit b bc d c gii gm c: my bc d, my xc v
thit b cp t .
- My bc d t c th phn chia ra cc loi:
+ Theo nng lng cung cp: my in, my hi p.
+ Theo hnh thc di chuyn: bnh xch, bnh lp, di
chuyn trn ray.
+ Theo nguyn l tc dng: my bc d lin tc, my bc
d chu k, my bc d hn hp
+ My bc d chu k:

My bc d kiu gu lt

+ My bc d lin tc:

25

+ Thit b co t :
b. Tnh nng sut bc xc t :
Nng sut bc d t ph thuc vo nhiu yu t, c
th:
- Cht lng ca cng tc khoan n: mc vn nt
u, mc vng xa ca t .
- La chn phng thc vn chuyn v cch t chc
sn xut : phng tin vn chuyn, b tr ng di chuyn,
tc thay i cc phng tin ra v vo ly t . Thc
t cho thy, thi gian vn chuyn t chim ti 35-60%
tng thi gian bc d vn chuyn.
- Tay ngh cng nhn v kh nng ca cc thit b thi
cng.

b.1. Nng sut bc d ca my chu k:


Nng sut bc d t trc tip:
P

.T2

V: lng t cn bc d trong 1 chu k (m3)


V= w .S .K N .l : khi lng t cn bc d trong
mt chu k sau khi khoan n - m3
26

+ w: H s ti ca t sau khi n, thng ly


= 1,11 1,15
+ KN: H s tnh n s thay i tit din gng o sau khi n (h s tha tit din): i
vi tit din gng ln v trung bnh: KN=1,1-1,15;
tit din gng nh KN = 1,15-1,25.
+ S: Din tch gng o (m2)
+ l: Chiu di mt bc o (m)
T2: thi gian bc d t trc tip bng my
T2= TI + TII + TIII + TIV .
+ TI : thi gian bc d t bay vng trn gng
o sau khi n;
TI

.V .t1 .k 0 .k p
q .q

(pht)

- : phn t vng ra sau khi n (thng


ly = 15-20%V)
- t1: thi gian mt chu k lm vic ca my
bc d t bay vng (=0,3 0,4 pht, tu
tng loi my c th)
- ko: H s ti ca t sau khi n
+ TII : thi gian bc d phn t chnh;
T II

[1 ( )].V .t.k 0 .k p

q .q

(pht)

- : phn t fi bc d, p v bng tay


(10-15%V)
- q: th tch gu (m3)
- q: H s y gu, khi t p vn
<100mm q= 0,6-0,7; khi kch thc >100mm
q= 0,75-0,8.
- t: thi gian ca 1 chu k bc d t
trong

iu

kin

bnh

thng

(0,15

0,25pht).
27

+ TIII : thi gian ngng tr do vn chuyn trong khi


bc d t (thi gian thay th gong hoc xe).
T II

(1 ).V .t 2 .k 0 .k p

(pht)

v .v

- t2: thi gian dng my thay i thng


vn chuyn
- v: h s y ca thng vn chuyn (0,95
1).
- v: th tch ca thng vn chuyn (m3).
+ TIV : thi gian dn t bng th cng.
T IV

.V .k 0 . p
(pht)
n

- n: s ngi lm vic.
- p: nh mc dn t , xc vo phng tin vn chuyn 1m3 t :
b.2. Nng sut ca my bc d lin tc (co v):
+ Tin hnh bc d t bng my bc d lin tc (co
v)
Nng sut k thut ca my c tnh theo cng thc:
P = z.n.Vtg

(m3/pht)

Trong :
z : l s thanh gt , thng z = 2 thanh
n : s lng bc ca mi thanh gt trong mt pht , vi t
nng
n = 20 -:- 25 , vi nh : n = 30 .
Vtg : khi lng t cho mi bc ca thanh gt (m3)
Vtg c tnh theo cng thc : Vtg

B.d t .hdd
2

(m3)

Trong :
B : l chiu rng bn (m)
28

dt : khong cch gia cc qu o ca thanh


gt , c th ly dt = d , vi d l ng tnh ca
a ch .
hdd : Chiu cao trung bnh ca lp t d c
co
vi t cng : hdd = (1,2 1,5).htg
vi t mm : hdd = (0,7 1,0).htg
ta c htg = (1/3 1/4 ).d (m)

dt
B

Cc thng s ca my bc kiu lin tc


Nng sut khai thc ca my bc d c xc nh theo cng
thc :
P

V
.(T1 T2 T3 )

Trong : V: Ton b khi lng t cn dn m3.


: H s k n s ngng tr ca my, = 1,12.
T1: Thi gian bc d khi lng chnh,
T1

(1 ).V .k o .k p
Pt

Vi : : Phn t cn dn bng tay, ly bng


10%.
Ko : H s ti ca sau khi n, ko = 1.
Kp : H s ti ca khi bc d, kp = 1,12.
Pt : Nng sut k thut ca my bc d, m3/pht.
T2: Thi gian cn thit bc d t ti chn tng
v p dn vo gng o,
29

T2

.V .k o .k p
.Pt

Vi : H s k n s gim nng sut, ph


thuc vo mc bng phng ca nn, coi nn
phng th = 0,25.
T3 : Thi gian ngng tr do vn chuyn
T3

V .k o .t 2
v .v

Vi: t2 : thi gian dng my do vn chuyn


H s y thng xe, = 0,95
v : Th tch thng m3
1.4.2. Vn chuyn t .
a. Vn chuyn trong ng o ngang:
a.1.Cc phng tin vn chuyn trn ray:
Thng l cc loi gong chy trn ray c u my chy bng
in, iezen hoc ti trn ray.
- Gong:
Theo cu to c th chia gong ra cc loi: gong c nh,
gong lt,
Thng thng th tch ca gong 0,4 - 8m3, c th la chn
loi gong theo th tch v nng sut ca gu xc:
+ Khi th tch gu xc v=0,2m3 th nn chn gong c
VG<1,5m3
+ Khi th tch gu xc v=0,3m3 th nn chn gong c
VG=1,5m3
+ Khi th tch gu xc v=0,4m3 th nn chn gong c
VG>2m3
- ng ray:
+ C ly cc ray thng thng l 600 750mm, khong cch
nh nht gia hai trc ng l 1200mm vi ng kh 600
v 1500mm i vi ng kh 750mm.
+ Vic thay i gong nh hng rt ln n nng sut bc
d v vn chuyn t . V vy trong ng hang ch b
30

tr c 1 ng gong th c 60 100m phi b tr mt


on trnh di 23-30m. Khi tit dn ng o ln nn b
tr hai ng gong i v v.
+ Khi s dngcc thit b bc d t chy trn ray cn
phi s dngcc loi ray tm c chiu di 2-4m m bo
my bc d c th tip cn c st gng o, sau khi
chiu di t ray chnh s thay th.
+ u ko: in, iezen, ti ko (tham kho ti liu)
- B tr ng ray vn chuyn trong hang:
(tham kho Ti liu Thy Trng)
a.2.Cc phng tin vn chuyn khng dng ray:
b. Vn chuyn trong ng o xin v ging ng:

1.5. thng gi trong thi cng hm.

1.5.1. Mc ch ca thng gi trong thi cng v cc s


thng gi.
a. Mc ch ca thng gi:
b. Cc s thng gi:
- S p (y):
- S ht :
- S hn hp:

1.5.2. Tnh ton thng gi trong thi cng hm.


Lng khng kh c cung cp khi thng gi cho cc ng
hm s khng c nh hn 3 m3 kh sch/ pht/ ngi.
H thng thng gi phi m bo rng tc khng kh
trung bnh ti khu vc thi cng ln nht khng nh hn 0,15
31

m/giy. H thng thng gi phi m bo c hai yu cu khi lng kh sch nu di y c tho mn ta mi thi im:
3 m3/pht cho mt ngi hoc mt cng nhn lm vic
trong hm.
6,5 m3/pht i vi mi KW ng c Diesel ca thit b
hoc ng c lm vic trong hm.
Cc khi lng khng kh cn thit nu trn s c tnh cng
dn li v tnh vi gi tr ln nht ca s ngi hoc thit b s
dng ng c Diesel lm vic trong hm ti mt thi im bt
k, khi lng khng kh cn thit s c s dng trong tnh
ton thng gi ca Nh thu.
Cc s thng gi c s dng c th l s thng gi
ht, s thng gi y, hoc s thng gi kt hp (ht y).
a. Tnh lu lng khng kh cn thit cung cp ti gng hm.
Lu lng khng kh cn thit cung cp ti gng hm (Q) c
tnh trn c s cc yu t sau:
Theo lng ngi ti a trong hm .
Theo tc khng kh ti thiu dc hang
Theo lng kh c thi cng trong qua trnh n mn.
Theo lng bi c hi do hn in , do ng c t trong
v do c thit b khc.
- Theo s ngi lm vic ng thi trong hm:
Cng thc tnh ton :
Q1=qn.N

m3/pht

Trong :
qn: l lng cp kh tiu chun cho 1 ngi
theo quy trnh ta c :qn >= 3 m3/pht
N : l s lng ngi ti a c mt trong hm khi thi cng
- Theo tc khng kh ti thiu trong ng hm:
32

Cng thc tnh ton :


Q1=Vmin.S

m3/pht

Trong :
Vmin: l tc gi ti thiu trong hm
Theo quy trnh Vmin = 0,15 m/s = 9 m/pht.
S : l din tch tit din gng o m2
- Theo lng thuc n trong mt chu k:
Cng thc tnh ton :
Q3

6
QTN .S .(75 QTN )
t

m3/pht

Trong :
QTN: l lng thuc n chi ph cho mt ln n khi thi
cng (kg)
S : l din tch tit din gng o (m2)
t : l thi gian thng gi (pht).
- Theo tng cng sut ca cc thit b s dng ng c
Diezen (ch tnh cho thit b ang hot ng - di chuyn):
Cng thc tnh ton :
n

Q1=K. qi.
i 1

m3/pht

Trong :
n: l s lng my ng thi lm vic trong hm khi thi
cng
qi : l khi lng kh thi do mt ngun (mt my) to
kh c thi ra .
qi = W.k (m3/ph)
Vi: k: lng kh c n v (m3/ph.1KW)
k 6,5 m3/pht

cho 1 KW ng c

diezen
k

7,8 m3/pht

cho 1 KW ng c

xng
33

W: Cng sut ca ng c (KW)


K : l h s hiu chnh c ly theo s my lm vic
Khi n = 1 ta c K = 1
Khi n =2 ta c K = 0,9
Khi n = 3 ta c K = 0,85
So snh Q1, Q2, Q3, Q4 ta ly lu lng khng kh ln
nht tnh ton chn qut gi.
Tnh lu lng cn thit m qut gi phi m bo:
Qq = Q x y
y: Q - lu lng khng kh cn thit cp ti cho gng
hm (m3/pht);
y - h s xt n tn tht gi dc theo chiu di ng
gi, c tnh theo cng thc:
1

y k
L
3 m

R 1

Trong : R - sc cn khng kh ca ng gi,


R 0,65.

.L
d5

Vi: : H s sc cn khng kh ca ng (ly theo


bng)
d: ng knh ng thng gi (mm)
m: Chiu di mt t ng thng gi (mm)
k: H s ni ng n v;
Ni cht lng tt: k = 0,0005
Ni t yu cu : k = 0,002
Ni khng tt: k =0,005
Tnh p lc cn thit ca qut.
p lc cn thit ca qut:
H = 10.R.(Qq)2
Trong :
34

R - sc cn khng kh ca ng gi
Qq - Lu lng gi qua hm, m3/s
1.5.3. Thit b thng gi trong thi cng hm.
(Tham kho cc ti liu)

1.6. Chng bi, thot nc v chiu sng trong thi cng hm.

1.6.1. Chng bi trong thi cng ng hm.


C th chia ra hai loi bi trong qu trnh thi cng: bi
nguyn sinh v bi th sinh.
+ Bi nguyn sinh: do cc cng on c bn ca qu trnh
o khoan l mn, phun b tng, bc d t , )
+ Bi th sinh: do cc ngun nh giao thng i li, sng n
mn lm cc bi to ra trc bay ln vo trong khng kh.
Tt c cc loi bi trong khng kh c bit n l nh
hng rt ln n sc kho con ngi, n gy ra cc bnh nguy
him cho ngi lao ng lm vic cho con ngi.
Cc quy nh v lng bi cho php tham kho trong ti
liu.
Cc phng php chng bi:
+ Kh bi bng nc; bng khng kh v cht lng; tch bi
bng phng php kh.
+ Kh bi bng thu lc : s dng cho cc l khoan
+ Khi bc d s dng cc kim phun nc.
+ Khi n mn: s dng cc mn chn bng cch phun nc
qua cc kim phun t xung quanh chu vi hang o.
+ Chng bi do giao thng i li ngi ta s dng cch phun
nc ti ng thng xuyn.
1.6.2. Thot nc trong thi cng ng hm.
Cc ngun nc cn phi thot i trong qu trnh thi cng
hm c th phn chia nh sau:
- Nc nh git t nc v vch hang (lu lng <=0,5m3/h)
35

- Ngun nc chy thnh dng dc theo hm (lu lng


<=5m3/h)
- Vng nc cc b v vng ngp nc (lu lng >=5m3/h)
- Ngoi ra cn lng tng i ln nc s dng phc v cc qu
trnh thi cng khc to ra c th t ti 4-5m 3/h.
V vy, tng lng nc thi ra c th t ti 20 25 m3/h, v
vy bt buc phi b tr thot nc trong qu trnh thi cng.
i vi cc ng hang c 1 hng dc ra pha ca hang m lu
lng nc <=50 60m3/h ngi ta thng lm cc rnh t chy dc
theo chn hang o c tit din 0,2 0,25m 2 l . Khi dc
ngc th c th b tr rnh dc v pha gng sau a ra
ngoi bng my bm.
Vic tnh ton c th tham kho trong ti liu.
i vi cc vng bo ho nc thi cc phng php thot nc trn
khng hp l. Ngi ta phi ngh n cc phng php h thp mc
nc ngm; hoc cao hn phi c cc phng php gia c ho hc
nh: xilict ho, st ho, bi tum ho, hoc p keo hu c
1.6.3. Chiu sng v cung cp nng lng trong thi cng ng hm.
a. Chiu sng:
Trong qa trnh thi cng hm tuyt i khng cho php
bt c cng vic no c lm trong iu kin khng c nh
sng.
C th chia ra ba loi chiu sng: Chiu sng c nh thng
xuyn v chiu sng gn gng v chiu sng c nhn.
Chiu sng c nh c thc hin bng h thng in
xoay chiu hai hoc 3 pha in p thng thng l 110V hoc
127V; 220V (an ton).
Chiu sng gn gng c thc hin bng cc ngun sng di
ng nh n c quy, n pha dng pinin p dng cho loi
ny thng di 36V, trong trng hp s dng nhng t hp di ng
bng kim loi, trong gng c nhiu nc ngm th nn s dng loi
c in p khng ln hn 12V.
36

Cc ngun chiu sng c nhn thng l cc loi n m


chuyn dng c thi lng hot ng ca pin trong khong 10h
(m bo thi gian ca 1 ca lm vic).
Cng sut ca cc loi n chiu sng v khong cch b tr
ph thuc v kch thc gng o. Thng thng cng sut n t
40 n 150W, t mt hoc c hai bn thnh hang, chiu
cao t thng thng di 2,5m, khong cch gia chng t 4 n
8m. i vi cc khoang ln hay nhng bung hm ln phi tnh
ton c th. Thng thng i vi ng hm nm ngang phi t
15W cho 1m2 v i vi ging ng phi m bo t 20W cho
1m2 hang o.
Mng chiu sng phi m bo tuyt i an ton v c
cp bi 2 ngun c lp nhau.
b. Cp nng lng:
Nng lng s dng trong thi cng ch yu l in, kh
nn.v vy phi tnh ton c th v b tr cc trm v cc my
cp kh nn thng qua cc ng cao su a vo hang; cc trm
in thng thng l cc trm in xoay chiu 3 pha c in p
380V (Ph hp vi cc loi my thi cng dng in)

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