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Nucleon observables and axial charges of other baryons using twisted mass fermions

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Constantia Alexandrou

Department of Physics, University of Cyprus, P.O. Box 20537, 1678 Nicosia, Cyprus,

Computation-based Science and Technology Research Center, Cyprus Institute, 20 Kavafi Str.,

Nicosia 2121, Cyprus,

NIC, DESY, Platanenallee 6, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany

E-mail: alexand@ucy.ac.cy

Martha Constantinou

Department of Physics, University of Cyprus, P.O. Box 20537, 1678 Nicosia, Cyprus

E-mail: constantinou.martha@ucy.ac.cy

Kyriakos Hadjiyiannakou

Department of Physics, University of Cyprus, P.O. Box 20537, 1678 Nicosia, Cyprus

E-mail: hadjigiannakou.kyriakos@ucy.ac.cy

Karl Jansen

NIC, DESY, Platanenallee 6, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany

E-mail: karl.jansen@desy.de

Christos Kallidonis

Computation-based Science and Technology Research Center, Cyprus Institute, 20 Kavafi Str.,

Nicosia 2121, Cyprus

E-mail: c.kallidonis@cyi.ac.cy

Giannis Koutsou

Computation-based Science and Technology Research Center, Cyprus Institute, 20 Kavafi Str.,

Nicosia 2121, Cyprus

E-mail: g.koutsou@cyi.ac.cy

We present results on the nucleon scalar, axial and tensor charges, as well as, on the first moments

of the unpolarized, polarized and transversity parton distributions using N f = 2 and N f = 2+1+1

twisted mass fermions. These include an ensemble that yields the physical value of the ratio of

the nucleon to the pion mass. Results on the axial charges of hyperons and charmed baryons are

also presented for a range of pion masses including the physical one.

32nd International Symposium on Lattice Field Theory - LATTICE 2014

23-28 June, 2014

Columbia University New York, NY

Speaker.

c Copyright owned by the author(s) under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike Licence.

http://pos.sissa.it/

Constantia Alexandrou

1. Introduction

We evaluate fundamental properties of the nucleon within the fermion twisted mass formulation of lattice QCD. The scalar, axial and tensor charges are computed using a number of twisted

mass fermion (TMF) ensembles including one simulated with light quark masses fixed to their

physical value. The computation of the nucleon axial charge allows a direct comparison with experiment, while determining the values of the scalar and tensor couplings provide useful input for

searches beyond the familiar weak interactions of the Standard Model sought in the decay of ultracold neutrons.The computation of the tensor charge is particularly timely since new experiments

using polarized 3 He/Proton at Jefferson lab aim at increasing the experimental accuracy by an order of magnitude [1]. In this works we use N f = 2 and N f = 2 + 1 + 1 ensembles of TMF with

lattice spacings smaller than 0.1 fm [2] to compute nucleon matrix elements at zero momentum

transfer. The twisted mass formulation is well-suited for hadron structure calculations since it provides automatic O(a2 ) improvement requiring no operator modification [3]. Our results include a

simulation using the Iwasaki gluon action, and N f = 2 TMF with a clover term yielding approximately the physical value of the pion mass, on a lattice of size 483 96, referred to as the physical

ensemble [4].

Using similar techniques as those for the case of the nucleon, we also compute the axial

charges of hyperons and charmed baryons on the same ensembles. The values of the axial charges

of these particles are either poorly measured or not known and thus lattice QCD provides valuable

input needed for phenomenological models.

2. Hadron spectrum

1.8

1.7

1.6

3.8

BMW Nf=2+1

PACS-CS Nf=2+1

QCDSF-UKQCD Nf=2+1

3.6

3.4

M (GeV)

1.5

PACS-CS Nf=2+1+1

Na et al. Nf=2+1

Briceno et al. Nf=2+1+1

Liu et al. Nf=2+1

4.5

4

3.2

1.4

1.3

1.2

2.8

1.1

2.6

2.4

0.9

N

2.2

PACS-CS Nf=2+1+1

Na et al. Nf=2+1

Briceno et al. Nf=2+1+1

3.5

3

2.5

c

'c

cc

cc

*c

*c

*c

*cc

*cc

ccc

Figure 1: Results on baryon masses using the physical ensemble. Left: The octet and decuplet (the and

were discovered at Brookhaven 50 years ago [7]). Spin-1/2 (middle) and spin-3/2 (right) charmed baryons.

Before discussing the structure of baryons we need to compute their mass. In Refs. [5, 6] the

masses of baryons were investigated using N f = 2 and N f = 2 + 1 + 1 TMF ensembles for three lattice spacings and a range of pion masses the smallest one being 210 MeV. Here, we present results

computed for the physical ensemble. The lattice spacing is a = 0.094(1) fm determined from the

nucleon mass. The strange and charm quark mass are fixed by using the and c mass, respectively. The resulting masses for the strange and charmed baryons are shown in Fig. 1. Although the

continuum limit is not yet performed we observe agreement with the experimental values, as well

as, with the values of other collaborations. Our previous study suggests that discretization errors are

small and this may explain agreement with experiment even at a finite value of a. Assuming negligible cut-off effects, we can give a values for the yet non-measured mass of the charmed baryons.

+

We find for the mass of cc 3.678(8) GeV, for the +

cc 3.708(10) GeV, for cc 3.767(11) GeV and

for ++

ccc 4.746(3) GeV.

2

Constantia Alexandrou

3. Nucleon structure

Results on the nucleon axial gA , scalar gS and tensor gT charges and three first moments hxiq ,

hxiq and hxi q are extracted by computing the forward nucleon matrix element hN(~p0 )OXa N(~p)i|q2 =0 .

a

a

a (x)

2 (x) for the scalar, (x) 5 2 (x) for the axial-vector, and (x)

2

for the tensor charges, with the corresponding expressions for one derivative operators for the first

moments. Here we present results for two ensembles: i) N f = 2 + 1 + 1 TMF on a 323 64 lattice

with a=0.082 fm and m = 373 MeV (referred to as B55). A high statistics analysis is performed including disconnected contributions, using seven sink-source time separations ranging from 0.5 fm

to 1.5 fm, and ii) N f = 2 twisted mass with clover term on a 483 96 lattice with a = 0.094(1) fm

and m = 130 MeV (physical ensemble). A total of 1000 confs are analyzed for three sink-source

time separations ranging from about 0.9 fm to 1.3 fm.

1.6

1.0

0.8

(ts , ti )

isovector

1.2

x q

1.0

R (ts , ti )

1.4

0.8

isoscalar

0.4

1.4

isovector

ts =10a

(ts , ti )

q

ts =16a

Fit w/ excited states

ts =18a

Summation

0.4

isovector

0.3

0.8

ts =14a

isoscalar

0.4

0.2

isoscalar

ts =6a

ts =12a

ts =18a

ts =8a

ts =14a

ts =10a

ts =16a

Summation

0.5

(ts , ti )

0.4

isoscalar

R

isovector

0

2

(ti ts /2)/a

isovector

0.3

R (ts , ti )

1.0

0.6

0.4

0.5

isovector

1.2

R (ts , ti )

0.6

0.2

0.6

9

8

7

6

5

4

3

2

1

0

isoscalar

0.2

0.1

isoscalar

0

2

(ti ts /2)/a

Figure 2: Results on the connected ratio R(ts ,tins ,t0 ) for B55 using 1200 statistics for various ts . Left panel:

axial (top), tensor (middle) and scalar (bottom) currents. Right panel: one derivative vector, axial and tensor

operators. The grey band is the result from the summation method. We also show simultaneous fits that take

into account one excited state (dashed lines) yielding the value for the matrix element shown in light red.

The nucleon matrix element is extracted from the ratio R(ts ,tins ,t0 ) of the relevant three-point

correlator divided by an appropriate combination of two-point functions [8] after identifying the

nucleon ground state. Various approaches are applied to check ground state dominance: i) Plateau

method:

0

(tins t0 )1

R(ts ,tins ,t0 ) M [1 + . . . e(p)(tins t0 ) + . . . e(p )(ts tins ) ]

(ts tins )1

Constantia Alexandrou

2.0

1.0

0.8

(ts , ti )

isovector

xq

1.0

R (ts , ti )

1.5

0.5

isoscalar

0.6

0.4

0.2

isovector

isoscalar

0.0

ts =10a

0.0

ts =14a

ts =12a

(ts , ti )

isovector

x

x q

1.0

Summation

isovector

0.3

0.2

R (ts , ti )

ts =14a

ts =12a

0.4

1.5

0.5

0

2

(ti ts /2)/a

0.0

0.5

isoscalar

(ts , ti )

xq

isoscalar

0.1

isoscalar

0.0

8

R (ts , ti )

ts =10a

isovector

0.4

isovector

0.3

0.2

isoscalar

0.1

0

8

0

2

(ti ts /2)/a

0.0

0

2

(ti ts /2)/a

Figure 3: Results for the connected ratio R(ts ,tins ,t0 ) for the physical ensemble for several ts using O(103 )

statistics. The notation is the same as in Fig. 2.

where M is the desired matrix element, ts ,tins ,t0 are the sink, insertion and source time-slices and

(p) the energy gap of the first excited state; ii) Summation method defined by summing over tins :

ts 1

(p)(ts t0 ) ) + O(e(p0 )(ts t0 ) )]. In this approach

tins

=t0 1 R(ts ,tins ,t0 ) = Const. + M [(ts t0 ) + O(e

excited state contributions are suppressed by exponentials decaying with ts t0 , rather than ts tins

and tins t0 . However, one needs to fit the slope rather than to a constant or take differences and

then fit to a constant [9, 10]. Both procedures generally lead to larger errors; iii) Perform fits

including the contribution due to the first excited state.

Let us first examine the isovector combination, which has no disconnected contributions. In

Fig. 2 we show the ratios from which gA , gT and gs are extracted. As can be seen from analyzing a

number of sink-source separations for the B55 ensemble, gA shows no detectable excited states and

gT behaves similar to gA [11], while gs has severe contamination from excited states. The case of

gs illustrates nicely that the plateau, summation and two-state fits all give consistent results. When

this happens we have confidence in ground state dominance extracting a value that corresponds

to the desired matrix element [12]. A similar analysis is performed for the first moments: hxiq =

R1

R

R

where

0 dx x [q(x) + q(x)]

q(x) = q(x) + q(x) , q(x) = q(x) q(x) , q(x) = q(x) + q(x)> for the one derivative vector,

axial-vector and tensor operators respectively. Results on the three lowest moments obtained in

the MS at 4 GeV2 are shown in Fig. 2 for B55. As can be seen, there is noticeable excited state

4

Constantia Alexandrou

contamination, especially for the isoscalar. Again consistency of the results extracted using the

plateau and summation methods, and the two-state fit gives confidence in the final value. In Fig. 3

we show the corresponding analysis for the physical ensemble. Although the statistics is similar to

that for B55 i.e. O(103 ) the errors are larger as expected, requiring more statistics to extract final

numbers. Thus our results for the physical ensemble are to be regarded as preliminary.

Figure 4: Nucleon isovector charges gA , gT and gs (left) and first moments hxiq , hxiq and hxi q (right)

versus m2 . TMF results at the physical point are preliminary. For gT and gs we include a comparison with

the results of other collaborations. The orange asterisk and cross for gs at m = 373 MeV and 130 MeV

respectively, is for ts t0 1.5 fm, while the rest of the data are for ts t0 1.1 1.2 fm.

, gu+d

and gu+d

one needs the discons

T

A

nected contributions. For B55 these were computed for all local and one derivative operators using

about 150,000 measurements on GPUs [13, 14, 15, 16, 17]. We found that disconnected contributions to gu+d

are of the order of 10% while for gu+d

are consistent with zero.The disconnected

T

A

contributions to the gu+d

arising

from

the

light

quark

loops

are larger than 10%, while from the

s

strange are smaller by a factor of about three. From this study, it is clear that we need to include

the disconnected contributions in order to extract reliable results on gu+d

and gu+d

.

s

A

In Fig. 4 we collect our results for the nucleon isovector charges and first moments for ts t0

1.0 1.2 fm, which may be sufficient for quantities like gA but not for others such as gs where

excited state contamination requires ts t0 > 1.5 fm. Indeed the agreement of gA at the physical

5

Constantia Alexandrou

pion mass with the experimental value indicates that such lattice artifacts are small. Given that gT

shows similar behavior to gA the value found at the physical point can be taken as a prediction for

the tensor charge of the nucleon. For gs one needs to increase the sink-source time separation to

1.5 fm to ensure ground state dominance. Therefore, the results shown in Fig. 4 using ts t0

1.1 fm are only preliminary and we need to study gs as we increase ts t0 . Similarly hxiud and

hxiud approach the physical value for bigger sink-source separations. In order to finalize their

value one would need an equivalent high statistics study as the one performed at m = 373 MeV.

0.25

1.2

ETMC Nf=2+1+1

Lin et al. 0712.1214

Erkol et al. 0911.2447

0.15

SU(3)

gR

A,BB

0.8

0.6

0.1

0.05

0.4

0.2

0

ETMC N f = 2 + 1 + 1

Lin et al. 0712.1214

0.2

0.1

0.2

0.3

-0.05

-0.05

0.4

Physical Point

0

0.05

m2 (GeV2)

0.1

0.15

0.2

0.25

0.3

0.35

0.4

Figure 5: Left: Axial charge for the and baryons versus m2 . Right: SU(3) breaking SU(3) = gNA gA +

gA versus x = m2K m2 /(4 2 f2 ).

2.1

gA

1.9

0.9

gA c

c c

1.2

s s

N f = 2 with clover

Nf = 2 + 1 + 1

1.8

-0.4

1.1

2.1

0.85

s s

c c

2.6

c c

gA cc

2.05

0.8

2.3

++

(t s

c c

2.2

2.1

2

2.7

2.5

gA ccc

++

gA ccc

gA cc

gAcc

++

gAc

++

c c

-0.2

tins )/a

10

11

12

2.6

c c

2.5

0

(m2 )phys

0.04

0.08

m2 (GeV2 )

0.12

0.16

Figure 6: Left: Representative ratios from which the charmed contribution to the axial charge is extracted

versus the sink time for fixed tins . Right: Axial charges of the baryons versus m2 .

Having the formalism to compute the nucleon axial charge one can use similar techniques to

extract the axial charges of hyperons and charmed baryons. For this calculation we consider only

connected contributions and use the fixed current method to evaluate the axial matrix elements

hB(~p0 )|(x)

p)i|q2 =0 performing only one sequential inversion per quark flavor for all

5 (x)|B(~

baryons. In Fig. 5 we show representative results for the pion mass dependence of the axial charges

of the and the baryons. As can be seen, the dependence in m2 is rather weak. In the same figure

we also show the SU(3) breaking parameter SU(3) gNA gA + gA . As one moves away from the

SU(3)-symmetric point SU(3) increases reaching about 0.15 at the physical point. In Fig. 6 we

6

Constantia Alexandrou

show results on the axial charges of charmed baryons. The ratio R(ts , Tins ,t0 ) at fixed tins /a = 7

versus ts shows nice plateaus allowing a good determination of the axial charges. The axial charges

of the baryons show a linear dependence in m2 yielding a result in complete agreement with the

direct determination using our physical ensemble which is not included in the fit.

5. Conclusions

Simulations at the physical point are now feasible and this opens exciting possibilities for the

study of hadron structure. In this work we show results on the nucleons charges, as well as, on the

three first moments of PDFs. We find a value of gA that is in agreement with experiment. However,

our results at the physical point highlight the need for larger statistics in order to carry out careful cross-checks. Noise reduction techniques such as all-mode-averaging, improved methods for

disconnected diagrams and smearing techniques are currently being pursued aiming at decreasing

our errors on the quantities obtained at the physical point. Predictions for other hadron observables

are emerging as shown here for the case of the axial charges of hyperons and charmed baryons, as

well as, on quantities probing beyond the standard model physics such as gT and gs from which the

closely related -terms can be also extracted.

Acknowledgements: Partial support was provided by the projects EPYAN/0506/08, TECHNOLOGY/ EI/0311(BE)/16, E/HPO/0311(BIE)/09 and POEKYH/EMEIPO/0311/16

funded by the Cyprus Research Promotion Foundation.This work used computational resources

provided by PRACE, JSC, Germany and the Cy-Tera project (NEA YOOMH/TPATH/0308/31).

References

[1] H. Gao et al., Eur. Phys. J. Plus 126, 2 (2011); Jefferson Lab experiment E12-11-108.

[2] P. .Boucaud et al. [ETM Collaboration], Phys. Lett. B 650, 304 (2007); R. Baron, et al. [ETM

Collaboration] JHEP 1006, 111 (2010).

[3] R. Frezzotti and G. C. Rossi, JHEP 0408, 007 (2004) [hep-lat/0306014].

[4] A. Abdel-Rehim et al., PoS LATTICE 2013, 264 (2013) [arXiv:1311.4522].

[5] C. Alexandrou, V. Drach, K. Jansen, C. Kallidonis and G. Koutsou, arXiv:1406.4310 [hep-lat].

[6] C. Alexandrou, V. Drach, C. Kallidonis, G. Koutsou, PoS(Lattice2014).

[7] V. E. Barnes et al., Phys. Lett. 12, 134 (1964).

[8] C. Alexandrou et al. (ETMC) Phys. Rev. D 88, 014509 (2013) [arXiv:1303.5979].

[9] L. Maiani, G. Martinelli, M. L. Paciello and B. Taglienti, Nucl. Phys. B 293, 420 (1987).

[10] S. Capitani et al. (CLS), Phys. Rev. D 86, 074502 (2012) [arXiv:1205.0180].

[11] C. Alexandrou et al., PoS LATTICE 2013, 294, (2014).

[12] C. Alexandrou et al., PoS LATTICE 2013, 292 (2014) [arXiv:1312.2874].

[13] C. Alexandrou et al., Comput. Phys. Commun. 185, 1370 (2014) [arXiv:1309.2256].

[14] A. Abdel-Rehim et al., Phys. Rev. D 89, no. 3, 034501 (2014) [arXiv:1310.6339].

[15] C. Alexandrou et al. PoS LATTICE 2013, 411 (2014).

[16] C. Alexandrou, V. Drach, K. Jansen, G. Koutsou and A. Vaquero, PoS LATTICE 2013, 270 (2014).

[17] C. Alexandrou, et al., PoS LATTICE 2014, 140 (2015).

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