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PHYB5 Energy Under the Microscope

Mark scheme

2455

June 2014

Version/Stage: 1.0 Final

Mark schemes are prepared by the Lead Assessment Writer and considered, together with the

relevant questions, by a panel of subject teachers. This mark scheme includes any amendments

made at the standardisation events which all associates participate in and is the scheme which was

used by them in this examination. The standardisation process ensures that the mark scheme covers

the students responses to questions and that every associate understands and applies it in the same

correct way. As preparation for standardisation each associate analyses a number of students

scripts: alternative answers not already covered by the mark scheme are discussed and legislated for.

If, after the standardisation process, associates encounter unusual answers which have not been

raised they are required to refer these to the Lead Assessment Writer.

It must be stressed that a mark scheme is a working document, in many cases further developed and

expanded on the basis of students reactions to a particular paper. Assumptions about future mark

schemes on the basis of one years document should be avoided; whilst the guiding principles of

assessment remain constant, details will change, depending on the content of a particular

examination paper.

AQA retains the copyright on all its publications. However, registered schools/colleges for AQA are permitted to copy material from this

booklet for their own internal use, with the following important exception: AQA cannot give permission to schools/colleges to photocopy any

material that is acknowledged to a third party even for internal use within the centre.

Mark Scheme General Certificate of Education (A-level) Physics (B): Physics in Context PHYB5 June 2014

COMPONENT NAME:

COMPONENT NUMBER:

PHYB5

Question

Part

Sub

Part

Marking Guidance

Mark

type

Mark

Comments

(a)

(i)

Exhaust waste gases are released into the surroundings (as the piston moves

upwards)

M1

OWTTE

Induction air/fuel is sucked/introduced/drawn into the cylinder (as the piston moves

down)

A1

When compressing air work is done on the air/ energy transferred to the air/internal

energy increased/KE of molecules increases

M1

A1

C1

(a)

(b)

(ii)

e.g.

491.5

1940

869 (870) K

3.0210.9

OR

Calculation of n or the constant

Substitution using their n or their constant

869 (870) K

C1

Condone powers of 10

A1

or Use of constant

volume change data

Gives 867

C1

C1

A1

3 of 14

Mark Scheme General Certificate of Education (A-level) Physics (B): Physics in Context PHYB5 June 2014

(c)

(i)

C1

C1

OR

Calculate N using pV = NkT

n = N/NA

Answer as above

A1

(c)

(ii)

Calculation of N

3

m s

22

23

C1

2

2.45(2.5) x 10

OR

2

3/2 kT =1/2 m<c >

-23

3 x 1.38 x 10

5

m s

cao

10

C1

A1

speed of 496 (500)

B1

cao

2.5 x 10

C1

C1

A1

0.046 x 6.0 x 10

C1

2

C1

A1

B1

4 of 14

Mark Scheme General Certificate of Education (A-level) Physics (B): Physics in Context PHYB5 June 2014

(d)

Or V = 1.5 0.68 or 0.82 seen

Using graph

1.5 0.7

(4910 x 0.82104)

5

(e)

(a)

390 J

U negative Q negative

B1

W zero

B1

The marking scheme for this question includes an overall assessment for the quality

of written communication (QWC). There are no discrete marks for the assessment of

QWC but the candidates QWC in this answer will be one of the criteria used to

assign a level and award the marks for this question.

B1

x6

Descriptor an answer will be expected to meet most of the criteria in the level

descriptor.

Level 3 good

-claims supported by an appropriate range of evidence

-good use of information or ideas about physics, going beyond those given in the

question

-argument well-structured with minimal repetition or irrelevant points

-accurate and clear expression of ideas with only minor errors of grammar,

punctuation and spelling

Level 2 modest

-claims partly supported by evidence,

-good use of information or ideas about physics given in the question but limited

beyond this the argument shows some attempt at structure

-the ideas are expressed with reasonable clarity but with a few errors of grammar,

punctuation and spelling

Level 1 limited

-valid points but not clearly linked to an argument structure

-limited use of information about physics

-unstructured

-errors in spelling, punctuation and grammar or lack of fluency

5 of 14

Level 0

-incorrect, inappropriate or no response

Answer could include:

Suitable diagram showing structure suitably labelled

Ions enter the selector at different speeds

Use of crossed electric and magnetic fields.

Selector designed so that forces produced by the fields are opposite

Magnetic force on an ion is Bqv

Magnetic force perpendicular to both B and v

Electric field produced by potential difference between two plates

E=V/d

Electric force on an ion is Eq

Force in direction of E for positive ions

For one velocity forces cancel so no deflection (and pass through collimator/exit

hole)

F = Bqv = Eq

This happens when v = E/B

Velocity selected is Independent of charge on the ion

Level 3

This will be a coherent response which will include all the important points.

Equations will be explained. Force directions will be explained and terms in the

equations defined. They will be clear that initially there are a variety of speeds and

the and the condition for the selected velocity stated. They may go on to explain

what happens to the unselected ions. There may be a good helpful diagram.

Level 2

This may lack coherence and/or a largely qualitative response with some attempt to

use equations. The condition for the velocity selected should be stated. Terms may

not be adequately defined and some aspects are only inferred rather than stated.

The diagram may be incomplete and lack labelling.

Level 1

This may be a response that will be superficial answer to the question and be largely

descriptive with little attempt to provide explanations. Communication may be of a

poor standard.

Level 0

This will contain no relevant physics

parts of the system

6 of 14

(b)

(i)

B1

(b)

(ii)

B1

B1

ionisation

ANY 2

(b)

(b)

(iii)

(iv)

C1

80% cao

A1

leading to =

B1

(b)

(v)

15000

B1

not

-19

1.6 x 10 x 0.11

m =1.171024 B

B1

3 sf required

M1

4.07 (if 1.17 used)

A1

2

value depends on rounding

off

7 of 14

(b)

(vi)

B1

Electrons = 10

B1

(a)

(a)

(i)

(ii)

26

)/(1.671027) = 24

A1

Use of Q = CV

C1

0.18 C

A1

Or calculates mass of

protons, subtracts from

given mass and divides by

mass of neutron.or similar

approach.

or ln(650/1800) =

0.0075/(0.0001R)

M1

Neutrons=12

B1

B1

74 to 77

B1

OR

time to halve = 5.2 0.1 m s

B1

-6

72 to 80

B1

10 but T1/2 must be in

range 5.0 to 5.5 ms

B1

8 of 14

(b)

(i)

Or one energy correct (162 and approx. 20 to 25)

-6

B1

B1

B1

OR

-3

Mean current = (0.18-0.07)/7.5 x 10 =14.7 A

Mean V = 1250 50 V

E = (mean V) x 14,7 x 7,5 x 10

(b)

(ii)

(b)

(iii)

4.80.1 x 10 (s)

-3

= 137 (J)

10 J using given 140 J

-3

substitution in Energy = I Rt

-3

Allow 1 sf

B1

C1

C1

-3

Condone no (10 )

A1

OR

-3

4.8 x 10 (s)

calculates change in charge 60 mC - 32mC = 28mC (allow 28 to 30 mC)

current = 5.7 to 6.4 A

Allow 2 for

Average pd estimate about

450V

Current = 450/75 = 6 A

9 of 14

(c)

(a)

B1

(If discharge times and initial voltage are the same then) capacitors deliver too

much/more energy

B1

or

Need to reduce discharge times for both C1 and C2

B1

B1

B1

3

Nucleus must be

mentioned in one of the

statements

annihilation

ANY 2 PLUS

(b)

B1

B1

(Used externally) to irradiate and kill cancer cells/cancer treatment (allow radio

therapy)

B1

10 of 14

(c)

(i)

-1

-1

Radiation through window = 880 x 100/1.5 min or counts per sec = 880/60 (14.7s )

-1

-1

(58700 min or 978 s )

Total area of sphere at 0.25 m = 4 r (0.785 m ) or 4 (0.25)

2

C1

calculation(forgets to 60)

C1

C1

(Condone attempt using incorrect sphere area)

2

5.5 (5.48 ) 10

sensible early rounding off

A1

(c)

(ii)

-x

-3.5

115=880e

(c)

(iii)

Must be capital B if

abbreviation used

Condone capital if written in

full and allow reasonable

spelling

B1

becquerel (Bq)

or 1.9 = 14.7 e

-3.5

or 115=880e

C1

-0.0355

round for use of

C1

0.58

or 58

A1

cm1

or m1

A1

Only remove box from storage when needed

Handle source with tongs/dont handle with hands

Erect lead shielding between source and observation point

Keep monitoring position as far from the source as possible

Condone not pointing at anyone

with unit for in the

working

2

B1

B1

B1

B1

Too weak given that

question says when setting

up

Washing hands/no eating,

drinking

ANY 2

11 of 14

(a)

(i)

B: 92 and 234

B1

Auto marked

(a)

(ii)

B1

2 max

Lower risk to personnel and equipment outside the RTG (OWTTE)

Less shielding needed (so less mass in spacecraft)

B1

energy/more easily

absorbed

(b)

10

15

Attempt to use A = N (9.44 10 if correct)

Power available from source= A 8.8 10

(c)

13

C1

C1

A1

Use of N=Noet

C1

-1

8

or uses decay constant from 5bi and converts 12 years to s (3.78 x 10 )

C1

N = 3.79 x 10 e0.00784x12

C1

25

constant

C1

W = 8300W

25

numerical equation form

5

convert

Condone power of 10

errors

A1

25

24

3.4 x 10

if correct

B1

Condone 2.9 x 10

early rounding

24

by

assuming activity constant

24

for 12 y (3.6 x 10 )

12 of 14

(d)

Temperature increases

B1

Or Energy produced increases by a factor of 8

OR energy lost increases by a factor of 4

C1

Allow answer in terms of

proportionalities

3

4/3 r

or

Doubling radius increases energy loss by factor of 4 and energy gain by factor of 8

A1

C1

(a)

-10

C1

C1

A1

8 2

-29

Mass defect = 1.7 x 10 kg

-27

-27

-27

this mark =gives 3.222 x

Negative mass defect

Using mixed units so 2 only

kg

Allow 3 marks

-29

Allow 3 marks

Arriving at 0.6 x 10 kg

(due to incorrect rounding off of neutron mass)

(b)

(i)

Momentum p = mv

Substitution and manipulation to give mv

or v =p/m

2

or substitute for v in mv

B1

2

etc

B1

13 of 14

(b)

(ii)

(c)

(d)

(i)

Momentum of alpha =

6

-19

(2 x 6.68 x1027 x 3.56 x 10 x (1.6 x 10 ))= 8.72 x 1020 N s

(2 x 4 x 3.56 = 5.4

B1

Momentum of neutron

27

6

-19

(2x1.68 x10 x 14.03 x 10 x(1.6 x 10 ))=8.68 x 1020

(2 x 1 x 14.03 = 5.3

B1

Appreciation that the momentum changes of the particles are equal and opposite so

still 0 momentum.

B1

B1

(Unstable) nucleus splits into two (lighter) nuclei (and further neutrons)

B1

B1

radioactive

B1

Condone no conversion to

J or eV

or using mass of alpha =

4 mass of neutron

Must be stated

Not atom/isotope

ANY TWO

(d)

(ii)

B1

B1

Addition of fuel to sustain reaction

ANY TWO

14 of 14

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