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(September 6, 2013)

It is a cold-blooded vertebrate animal that is born in water and
breathes with gills. As the larva grows into its adult form,
the animal's lungs develop the ability to breathe air, and
the animal can live on land. The young generally undergo
metamorphosis from larva with gills to an adult airbreathing form with lungs. Amphibians use their skin as a
secondary respiratory surface and some small terrestrial
salamanders and frogs lack lungs and rely entirely upon
skin. The word amphibian comes from the Greek
word amphibios, which means to live a double life. The
noun amphibian has its roots in the words amphi, meaning of
both kinds, and bios, meaning life.
Characteristics of Amphibians Animals
1. Most species of frogs and toads live in tropical and warm
temperate regions, although a few are found at very high
latitudes and altitudes.
2. Salamanders are most diverse in temperate regions, but many
species are found in cool, moist environments in Central American
mountains. Many salamanders that live in rotting logs or moist
soil lack lungs.
3. They exchange gases entirely through the skin and mouth
lining. Most species of amphibians live in water at some time in
their lives. In the typical amphibian life cycle, part or all of the
adult stage is spent on land, but adults return to fresh water to lay
their eggs.
4. Amphibian eggs can survive only in moist environments
because they are enclosed within delicate envelopes that cannot
prevent water loss indri conditions. The fertilized eggs of most
species give rise to larvae that live in water until they undergo
metamorphosis to become terrestrial adults.
5. Some amphibians, however, are entirely aquatic, never leaving
the water at any stage of their lives. Others are entirely
terrestrial, laying their eggs in most places on land and skipping
the aquatic larval stage.

Living amphibians belong to three orders:

Order Gymnophiona the wormlike, limbless, tropical, burrowing

Order Anura:it includes tailess amphibians like the frogs and
Order Urodela:It includes tailed amphibians like the salamanders

They are cold blooded vertebrates that are found in the class
Reptilia. They are characterized by lungs, outer covering of horny
scales and young that are produced in amniotic eggs. Reptiles are
tetrapod vertebrates, either having four limbs or, like snakes,
being descended from four-limbed ancestors. Unlike amphibians,
reptiles do not have an aquatic larval stage. Most reptiles are
oviparous (egg-laying), although several species of squamates are
viviparous, as were some extinct aquatic clades the fetus
develops within the mother, contained in a placenta rather than
an eggshell. As amniotes, reptile eggs are surrounded by
membranes for protection and transport, which adapt them to
reproduction on dry land.
1. Crocodiles and alligators are large reptiles that spend much of
their time on land and in water. They can walk on land using their
webbed feet. They can also use their long tail to swim in water.
Crocodiles feed on large animals they catch on land or in water.
They have powerful jaws and teeth to tear apart their prey.
2. Lizards and snakes are the largest group of reptiles. Lizards are
four legged animals with a long tail. Many lizards can shed their
tail to escape from predators. They can then grow a new tail.
Some lizards, such as the chameleon, can change colors to blend
into their environment. This camouflage helps to protect them
from predators.

3. Snakes don't have limbs. They move by slithering along the

ground. Some snakes are poisonous, or venomous, such as the
rattle snake, cobra, and eastern green mamba. They have fangs
which bite into their prey and inject poison into the victim. Other
snakes, such as the boa constrictor and the python kill their prey
by crushing it. Most snakes can dislocate their jaw, allowing them
to swallow prey much larger than themselves.

They are vertebrates that have a skeleton made of either bone or
cartilage. About 95% of fishes have skeletons made of bone.
These bony fishes have a swim bladder, a gas-filled sac, that they
can inflate or deflate allowing them to float in the water even
when not swimming. Fishes with a cartilage skeleton tend to be
heavier than water and sink. They must swim to keep afloat.
Cartilaginous (cartilage) fish include the ray and the shark. It is a
Class in the Subphylum Vertebrata of the Phylum Chordata.
Characteristics of Pisces:
1. Skin covered in scales
2. Ectothermic
3. Cold blooded
4. Soft shelled eggs that must be laid in water
5. External fertilization
6. All members are fully aquatic
7. Limbs modified into fins
8. Gas exchange through gills
Agnatha - jawless fish

Cyclostomata - no jaw so the mouth cannot close, retractable

teeth - hagfish and lampreys
Chondrichthyes - cartilaginous fish, skeleton made of cartilage
rather than bone, gill slits at the side of the head, urea retained in
the blood for osmotic balance.
Elasmobranchii - no swim bladder, teeth in several series,
heterocercal (vertically asymmetrical) tail - sharks and rays
Osteichthyes - bony fish
Sarcopterygii - fleshy finned fishes (ancestors of tetrapods) Coelocanths, lungfishes
Actinopterygii - ray finned fishes, fins are skin supported by a
number of bony spines or rays
Teleostei - moveable lower and upper jaw, homcercal
(symmetrical) tails - Most living fishes are members of this group

They are feathered, winged, bipedal, endothermic (warmblooded), egg-laying, vertebrate animals. With around 10,000
living species, they are the most speciose class of tetrapod
vertebrates. All present species belong to the subclass
Neornithes, and inhabit ecosystems across the globe, from the
Arctic to the Antarctic.
Characteristics of Aves:
1. Waterproof skin covered in feathers
2. Endothermic, warm blooded
3. Hard shelled eggs that are waterproof (cleidoic - closed egg)
4. Beak or bill rather than teeth
5. Bipedal (walk on two legs only)
6. Forelimbs developed into wings
7. Most members are highly adapted for flight with forelimbs
modified as wings and many weight saving features such as
hollow bones
Anseriformes - waterfowl, web-footed for swimming - ducks,
geese, swans

Apodiformes - "footless" in Latin (they do have feet though), legs

are used for perching and have no scales as other birds do swifts, hummingbirds
Cathartiformes - large scavenging birds, usually have a bald,
featherless head - New World vultures or condors
Charadriiformes - usually found around water, frequently the sea gulls, auks, plovers
Columbiformes - the only birds capable of drinking by sucking
without having to tilt the head back, able to produce "crop milk"
to feed the young - doves and pigeons
Falconiformes - raptors, sharp hooked beak, strong legs and feet
with strong claws - falcons, eagles, hawks
Galliformes - fowl, ground feeding, heavy bodied birds, usually
able to fly but only for short distances, walk to get about chicken, turkey, grouse, pheasant, ptarmigan
Opisthocomiformes - young possess claws on two of their wing
digits (fingers), a very primitive feature - a single species the