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# An Elementary Note (2) on Implicit functions and Vector Fields - Images

John Gill

Summer 2015

## Implicit functions of the form ( z , t ) = 0 , t :0 1 can be solved explicitly in the following

way: differentiate

d
dz
= 0 and solve for
= ( z , t ) = F ( z , t ) z , with vector field F ( z , t ) .
dt
dt

## Set t = 0 to find the starting point for a Zeno contour

: zk ,n = zk 1,n + n ( zk 1,n , k n1 ) , n
Then for each value of t there is a corresponding point z(t ) on the contour.

## Example 1 : z + e z (t ) = 0 , (t ) = t 2 + 2it + 1 , (0) = 1 z(0) = 0

dz
2(t + i )
= ( z , t ) = z
= F ( z , t ) z . The green vector field is F ( z , t ) . The -contour is red
dt
e +1
(vector field red) and the z -contour is green. Each point (t ) on the red contour has a
corresponding point z(t ) on the green contour that is its implicit function value. Here
k n1 (1 + i )
, n
z
1 + e k 1 ,n

: zk ,n = zk 1,n + n

For instance, to find z(.5) start at z(0) = 0 and stop at zn/2,n .1798 + .4642i for n

## It is not necessary for the z and the t to be separated:

Example 2 :

zt + e z (t 2 + 2ti + 1) = 0

## z(.5) .278 + .571i

Example 3 :

Sin( zt ) + z (t 2 + it ) = 0

Example 4 :

## zte z z 2 (t ) = 0 , (t ) = t 2 + 1 + it . The TDVF for (t ) is in red.

Non-holomorphic functions:
Example 5 :

( x + e ) + i (e
y

y (t ) = 0 , (t ) = t 2 + 1 + 2ti

dz dx dy
2(t + e y )
2(te x 1)
i
=
+i
=
+

dt dt
dt
1 + ex+ y
1 + ex+ y

## Consider implicit functions of three variables, written ( z , ;t ) = 0 where is independent

and t :0 1 , so that z = z (t ) . The -vector field is time-dependent and requires implicit
computations of vector clusters at each point . Once the field has been graphically displayed,
a (Zeno) contour beginning at an arbitrary 0 must be computed point-by-point , each step
requiring the evaluation of the implicit function:

## : z k ,n = zk 1,n + n Z k 1,n where ( Z k 1,n , z k 1,n ; k n1 ) = 0 , and z0,n = 0

Example 6 :

e z zt = ( z , ;t ) = 0 , 5 Re 5 , -5 Im 5 , 0 = 3 3i

There are imperfections in the implicit value search program (jumping from branch to branch).
Example 7 : ( z , ;t ) = e zt z = 0 , 6 Re 6 , -5 Im 5 , 0 = 5.2 + 3.4i

## Topographical Images of Implicit Functions

The Zeno process can be used to paint images of implicit functions much more efficiently than a
gradient algorithm that must search discretely for each value. Consider the following
expression: e z + z (t ) = 0 where (t ) = t + i , t : 0 1 , : 0 1 . The region outlined
by is the unit square and an algorithm that starts at t = 0, = 0 and advances with
incremental steps of , say .005, and at each step generates a Zeno contour as t :0 1
incrementally , calculating the modulus of z (t ) at each step and coloring the appropriate pixel
in the unit square , will produce an image in the plane that represents the topography of the
implicit function z(t ) over the region bounded by the square, or rectangle in general. The one
major drawback is the primitive nature of the implicit search routine I devised, which goes
haywire for periodic functions.

Example 8 : e z + z (t ) = 0 , (t ) = t + i , t : 2 4 , : 2 2

## Example 9 : z 2 (t ) = 0 (square root of z) (t ) = t + i , t : 0 2 , : 0 2

Example 10 :

1
100

z 3 iz (t ) = 0 ,

(t ) = t + i , t : 2 2 , : 2 2

## U( x(t ), y(t )) + iV ( x(t ), y(t )) (t ) = 0 . Then

dz dx dy
= + i = ( z , t )
dt dt
dt

## Example 11 : ( e x + y ) + i ( e y x ) (t ) = 0 , (t ) = t + i , t : 0 2.5 , : 0 2.5 .

dx
ey
dy
1
ey
1
=
,
=
=
+i
x+ y
x+ y
x+ y
dt 1 + e
dt 1 + e
1+e
1 + ex+ y

Example 12 :

( x sin y ) + i ( x 2 y ) (t ) = 0 ,

(t ) = t + i , t : 2 2 , : 2 2

Example 13 : ( e x e y ) + i ( 2x y ) (t ) = 0 , (t ) = t + i , t : 2 2 , : 2 2