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and functions of various government agencies and instrumentalities, private institutions and civic organizations for the protection and preservation of life and property during disasters and emergencies. It serves as the operating arm and secretariat of the national disaster coordinating council and maintains the National Disaster Management Operations Center. Governing Laws for OCD’s Existence The Office of Civil Defense is existing on the basis of Letter of Instructions No. 19 and Presidential Decree No. 1566. Its mandate emanates from Presidential Decree No. 1, series of 1972 as implemented by Letter of Instruction No. 19 of 1972. This law stipulates that during times of war and emergencies, the OCD is the principal agency responsible for coordinating the activities and functions of various government agencies and instrumentalities at all levels, including private institutions and civic organizations devoted to public welfare. This is to ensure that the facilities and resources of the entire nation may be utilized to the maximum extent for the protection and preservation of people’s life and property. The Office of Civil Defense, apart from being an attached bureau of the Department of National Defense (DND), is also the operating arm and the secretariat of the National Disaster Coordinating Council (NDCC), which is the highest policy-making, coordinating and supervising body at the national level for disaster management in the country (Presidential Decree No. 1566 dated 11 June 1978). LOI 19 dated December 31, 1972 mandates the OCD to carry out the following functions: 1. Establish and administer a comprehensive national civil defense and assistance program; 2. Formulate policies for the protection and welfare of the civilian population in time of war directly involving the Philippines or other national emergencies of equally grave character;
3. Estimate the total material, manpower and fiscal requirements for
carrying out the national civil defense and civil assistance program and allocate to the provinces, cities, municipalities and barangays such aid in facilities, materials and funds as may be made available from the national government;
4. Develop and coordinate a program for informing, educating and training the general public and volunteer workers on civil defense and civil assistance measures and activities; 5. Furnish guidance to the various provinces, cities, and municipalities in the planning, organization and operation of their civil defense organizations; 6. Advice the Secretary on matters concerning civil defense and make recommendations from time to time as may be deemed appropriate or as the Secretary may require; and 7. Perform such other functions as may be provided by law. Under PD 1566 dated 11 June 1978, OCD shall have the following additional functions: 1. Coordinate the activities and functions of the various agencies and instrumentalities of the National Government and private institutions and civic organizations to implement the policies set by the National Disaster Coordinating Council relative to Disaster Management; 2. Provide secretariat services to the National Disaster Coordinating Council; 3. Prepare and disseminate disaster control manuals and other publications related to measures on disaster prevention, control and mitigation; and 4. Advise the Chairman on matters concerning Disaster Management. Vision and Mission Agency Vision While systems and mechanisms have been set in place from the national, regional and local levels to address disasters and emergencies, OCD continuously strive to enhance them to be more responsive in dealing with disasters. OCD aims for the following: A service-oriented organization A prepared population A safe nation Mission of the Agency With the above-stated vision, OCD is committed to administer a comprehensive national civil defense and civil assistance program by
providing leadership in the continuous development of measures to reduce risk to communities and manage the consequence of disasters. Implementing Strategies of the OCD Strategic Leadership The OCD has taken the national leadership in the continuous development of measures to reduce risk to communities. This involves providing national strategic leadership by working with stakeholders to identify issues of national importance, develop and implement strategies to address them to include national approaches to disaster mitigation, education, training, research, consequence management and disaster information management. Disaster Mitigation Disaster Mitigation measures such as land use planning, building codes and standards, community awareness, structural measures, warning systems, planning and training prevent or reduce the impact of hazards on communities. Effective mitigation represents an investment, with both shortterm and long-term benefits for the local, regional and national economy, the environment and the community at large. OCD’s role is to strengthen partnership with ever-expanding organizations to promote a greater investment on mitigation and work on projects that will build mitigation capability by, for example, developing and delivering training courses for local government and planners, supporting research to better understand the costs of disaster and the benefits of mitigation, and developing best practice guidelines. Planning for Emergency and Disaster Response The ability to respond to emergencies requires careful planning. Contingency plans shall be in place to meet LGUs’ request for national government assistance arising from any type of disaster. This plan details procedures for provision of national assistance in the event of a major disaster. OCD maintains a number of hazard-specific contingency plans. It has the responsibility to develop a process of soliciting feedback from LGUs on the utilization and effectiveness of their contingency plans, and to review the Implementing Plans of all NDCC member agencies in accordance with the National Calamities and Preparedness Plan. Consequence Management Consequence management is a developing concept and is about protecting public health and safety, restoring essential government services and providing emergency relief to businesses and individuals affected by the consequences of natural, technological and human-caused disasters. International Engagement
OCD is responsible for interfacing with international stakeholders assisting in emergencies, and in maintaining close links with emergency management agencies throughout the world. Through international linkages, assistance in the field of training and capacity building, as well as planning for postdisaster are extended to the country. In addition, the country’s membership (through OCD) in international organizations such as ADRC, ACDM, UNDAC and UN-ISDR is providing the avenue wherein concerted effort in disaster risk management is being achieved in international and local fronts. Response Coordination OCD is responsible for the coordination of disaster assistance provided by the national and foreign governments. In times of disasters of great magnitude, when the local government units are unable to cope, the OCD, through its regional offices, works in close collaboration with other government and non-government agencies for the efficient provision of relief and financial assistance and optimum utilization of available resources. Coordinated response in order to save lives, protect properties and deal with the immediate damage/impact of disaster is this Office’ primary concern.
Emergency Management Research OCD takes an active lead in disaster/emergency management research in coordination with NDCC member agencies. The Bureau also maintains its partnership with the UN-OCHA, UNDP, UNHCR, UNICEF, WB/WBI and other research organizations to attain research results that can be utilized by disaster risk managers. A nationally-agreed disaster/emergency management research agenda focuses on emergency management and communities, costs of disasters, and government decision making in planning for and managing emergencies. OCD is involved in applied research including post disaster impact studies, hosting/sponsoring of specialist seminars, and facilitating consultancies. Education and Training The OCD’s role includes development/enhancement of standardized training methods and information materials for effective multi-agency training, identification and development of best practice in emergency management, and development and delivery of accredited education and training activities. In partnership with PAGASA, PHIVOLCS, MGB and other specialist agencies, OCD produced publications which provide background information and practical advice on preparing for, reacting to and coping with, major hazards including typhoons, floods, earthquakes and volcanic eruptions. Community-Based Disaster Management
Community-Based Disaster Management (CBDM) is one of the approaches provided by the country’s Disaster Management Law (Presidential Decree No. 1566). CBDM is about “people empowerment” down to the barangay level in order for communities to be resilient to disasters. This is also a paradigm shift, from disaster response to disaster risk management. Various organizations in the country, government and non-government alike, have already ventured into CBDM-related initiatives following different frameworks and focusing on different areas. The OCD plays a key role in the formulation of a CBDM Framework at the national level that will serve as the working guide of all local government units as well as communities throughout the country to ensure complementation and synergy of initiatives. Emergency Management Innovation Innovative project proposals addressing risk management, mitigation, preparedness, response and recovery strategies are being supported and considered for funding. Local communities are encouraged to come up with projects/programs aimed at improving the safety and sustainability of communities. This Office also promotes best practices and approaches in disaster risk management by specific groups for adoption by other stakeholders. The institutionalization of annual Gawad Kalasag Awards which recognizes and promotes excellence, innovation and achievement in disaster/emergency management is one way of enjoining all players to excel in the field of disaster risk management. Information and Knowledge Management Knowledge networking is an important part of enhancing the country’s disaster/emergency management capability. Advances in communications systems are so important in terms of warning capability and public reaction that they should be given immediate priority. On the other hand, all available information on disaster risk management/emergency management (DRM/EM) obviously needs to be monitored in order to ensure that relevant data can be assessed and, where appropriate, utilized. The OCD is at the forefront of exploring knowledge frameworks and tools for DRM. Currently, the Office is now evaluating the feasibility of developing an internet portal to further promote the sharing of information and knowledge pertaining to DRM/EM. Vital/Core Functions of the Office of Civil Defense (Reference: PD 1566 and LOI 19) Under the proposed rationalization plan, OCD shall carry out the following functions:
1. Formulate policies and prepare plans for the protection and welfare of
the civilian populace in time of war directly involving the Philippines or other national emergencies of equally grave character;
2. Formulate policies and prepare plans and programs for disaster risk
management, policy, planning and administration;
3. Establish and administer a comprehensive national civil defense and
4. Develop and coordinate program for informing, educating and training
the general public and volunteer workers on civil defense and civil assistance measures and activities;
5. Prepare and disseminate disaster control manuals and other
publications related to measures on disaster preparedness, prevention and mitigation;
6. Furnish guidance to the various LGUs in the planning, organization and
operation of their civil defense organizations;
7. Advise the Secretary on matters concerning civil defense and disaster
management; and make recommendations from time to time as may be deemed appropriate or as the Secretary may require;
8. Coordinate the activities and functions of the various agencies and
instrumentalities of the national government and private institutions civic organizations to implement policies of the NDCC relative to disaster risk management;
9. Provide Secretariat services to the NDCC; 10. Strengthen linkages with local and international partnership and
institution building like membership in professional organizations, participation in local and international conferences, fora, seminars and workshops to enhance capacities. Key Concepts of Civil Defense Civil Defense is self-protection
Civil defense is everybody’s responsibility
Civil Defense is a collective endeavor
Civil Defense is a total system
Civil Deputization Program Role of Divil Deputization Coordinator
Initiates and coordinates programs, projects and activities on Civil Protection and Disaster Management via multi-sectoral approach.
Serves as the Executive Officer and Secretariat of the Local Disaster Coordinating Councils (LDCCs).
Duties and Responsibilities of a Deputization Coordinator 1. Spearhead the implementation of civil defense and disaster management programs at the local government level.
2. Act as Executive Officers of local DCCs.
3. Initiate programs, projects and activities along emergency preparedness and response, vulnerability and risk reduction, human resource development, public information and advocacy for civil protection, among others. 4. Establish networking/linkages with regional and national OCD offices and other concerned government and non-government organizations operating in their respective areas. 5. Perform other related works.
The National Disaster Coordinating Council The establishment of the National Disaster Coordinating Council is embodied in Sec. 2 of PD 1566. The Secretary of National Defense heads the NDCC with the heads of 18 departments/ agencies as members. These include the Chief of Staff, Armed Forces of the Philippines; Secretary-General, Philippine National Red Cross; Philippine Information Agency; Executive Secretary and the Administrator, Office of Civil Defense who is the Executive Officer of the Council. It is through the NDCC member-agencies that disaster preparedness, prevention, mitigation and response carry out its corresponding tasks and responsibilities under the NDCC system.
The NDCC, unlike other department coordinating bodies, does not have its own regular budget to disburse. It operates through the member-agencies and its local networks, which are the regional and local disaster coordinating councils. The members of the council are the following: ○ Secretary, DND Chairman ○ Presidential Executive Secretary Member ○ Secretary, DILG Member ○ Secretary, DBM Member ○ Secretary, DPWH Member ○ Secretary, DOJ Member ○ Secretary, DOTC Member ○ Secretary, DOH Member ○ Secretary, DSWD Member ○ Secretary, DA Member
Secretary, DepEd Member
○ Secretary, DOF Member ○ Secretary, DOLE Member ○ Secretary, DTI Member ○ Secretary, DENR Member ○ Chief of Staff, AFP Member ○ Secretary-General, PNRC Member ○ Director, PIA Member ○ Administrator, OCD Member & Executive Officer NDCC Functions At the national level, the NDCC serves as the President’s adviser on disaster preparedness programs, disaster operations and rehabilitation efforts undertaken by the government and the private sector. It acts as the top coordinator of all disaster management and the highest allocator of resources in the country to support the efforts of the lower DCC level. In the discharge of its functions, the NDCC utilizes the facilities and services of the Office of Civil Defense as its operating arm. Tasks of NDCC Chairman and Member-Agencies The Chairman and members of the Council have the following tasks, namely:
a. Chairman - Convenes the Council as often as necessary and calls on all other departments/bureaus/agencies, other instrumentalities of the government and the private sector for assistance when the need arises. b. Administrator, Office of Civil Defense - Coordinates the activities, functions of the various agencies and instrumentalities of the government, private institutions and civic organizations to implement the policies and programs of the NDCC; disseminates materials relative to disaster prevention, control and mitigation; advises the Chairman on matters concerning disaster management. c. Secretary of Interior and Local Government - Oversees the organization of DCCs, the establishment of Disaster Operations Centers of all local governments, and the training of DCC members in coordination with OCD, DSWD, PNRC, and other appropriate agencies. d. Secretary of Social Welfare and Development - Extends relief assistance and social services to the victims as necessary. e. Secretary of Health - Provides health services during emergencies as necessary, and organizes reaction teams in hospitals, clinics and sanitary and other health institutions. f. Director-General, NEDA - Responsible for the determination and analysis of the effects of disasters and calamities on the socio-economic plans and programs of the country, and development of damage assessment scheme. g. Secretary of Labor and Employment - Provides emergency employment opportunities to disaster victims, implements the industrial civil defense programs and measures, and organizes and trains Disaster Control Groups in all factories and industrial complexes. h. Secretary of Education, Culture and Sports - Provides assistance in the public education and campaign regarding disaster preparedness, prevention and mitigation, makes available school buildings as evacuation centers, and organizes and trains disaster control groups and reaction teams in all schools and institutions of learning. i. Secretary of Trade and Industry - Maintains normal level of prices of commodities during emergencies, and organizes Disaster Control Groups and Reaction Teams in large buildings used for commercial and recreational purposes, maintains normal level of prices of commodities during emergencies. j. Secretary of Agriculture - Undertakes surveys in disaster areas to determine the extent of damage of agricultural crops, livestock and fisheries and renders technical assistance to disaster victims whose crops or livestock have been destroyed. k. Secretary of Budget and Management - Releases funds required by the departments for disaster operations.
l. Secretary of Environment and Natural Resources - Responsible for reforestation and control of areas which tend to cause flooding, landslides, mudflow and ground subsidence, provide seeds, seedlings and saplings and technical assistance regarding mines, forests and lands, formulates rules and regulations for the control of water and land pollution. m. Secretary of Finance - Issues rules and regulations with the relevant agencies concerned for the funding by local government of the requirements for organizing, equipping, and training of their disaster coordinating councils and reaction teams. n. Secretary of Public Works and Highways - Restores destroyed public structures such as flood control, waterworks, roads, bridges, and other vertical and horizontal facilities/structures and provides heavy and light equipment for relief, rescue and recovery operations. o. Secretary of Tourism - Organizes and trains disaster control groups and reaction teams in hotels, pension houses, restaurants and other touristoriented facilities. p. Secretary of Transportation and Communications - Restores destroyed communication and transportation facilities such as railroads and vertical structures, and organizes emergency transport services from the national down to the barangay level; and restores destroyed communication and transportation facilities such as railroads and vertical structures. q. Director, Philippine Information Agency - Provides public information service through dissemination of disaster mitigation measures. r. Secretary-General, Philippine National Red Cross - Conducts disaster leadership training courses, assists in the training of DCCs at all levels; and assists in providing emergency relief assistance to disaster victims. s. Chief of Staff, Armed Forces of the Philippines - Responsible for the provision of security in disaster area and provision of assistance in the reconstruction of roads, bridges and other structures and transportation facilities for rapid movement of relief supplies and personnel and for the evacuation of disaster victims. History Commonwealth to Post-Commonwealth Era During the Commonwealth days, two (2) executive orders were issued by the late President Manuel L. Quezon, namely, Executive Order Nos. 335 and 337. Executive Order No. 335 created the Civilian Emergency Administration (CEA), which was tasked primarily through the National Emergency Commission (NEC) to formulate and execute policies and plans for the protection and welfare of the civilian population under extraordinary and emergency conditions.
The NEC, which was established to administer the CEA, was composed of the following official members: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Philippine National Red Cross (PNRC) Manager Director of Publicity and Propaganda Food Administrator Industrial Production Administration National Welfare Warden Director of Communications Fuel and Transportation Administration Other officials as may be appointed from time to time
Local emergency committees from the provincial, city and municipal levels were likewise organized with the following structure: Chairman - Provincial Governor/City/Municipal Mayor Members - Provincial/City/Municipal Treasurer Ranking Teacher or Principal Chief of Police Sanitary Officer Provincial/City/Municipal Agriculturist Representative of the Municipal Council Local Units Volunteer Guard Air-raid Protection Protection of Utilities and Industries Food Administration Evacuation Public Welfare and Morale Transportation and Fuel Administration Medical and Sanitary Publicity and Propaganda Other services as may be authorized from time to time
The organization and training of volunteer guards and air-raid protection units were given much emphasis by the government during that time with the issuance of Executive Order No. 337 which empowered the volunteer guards to assist the maintenance of peace and order in the locality, to safeguard public utilities and to provide assistance and aid to the people during natural or manmade disasters. Japanese Occupation During the Japanese occupation, the puppet government under President Jose P. Laurel issued Executive Order No. 36 which created the Civilian Protection Service (CPS) which was empowered to formulate and execute plans and policies for the protection of civilian population during air raids and other national emergencies. The Civilian Protection Service functioned through a Civilian Protection Administration (CPA) which was composed of
three members, namely, the Civilian Protection Administrator, the Chief of the Air Warden and the Chief of the Medical and First Aid Service. Executive Order No. 36 also provided for the establishment of the Provincial, City and Municipal Protection Committee with the Provincial Governor, City and Municipal Mayor as Chairman, respectively. Members of the local protection committees included the highest local official of the Treasurer's Office, Justice, Engineer's Office, Schools, Health and the Police. It should be noted that the above executive orders had mandated the formulation of plans for the protection of the people during a national emergency but literatures on this regard were absent which revealed the sad state of the country's disaster preparedness program even during those times. This could have also been one of the reasons why we were caught unprepared on December 8, 1941. 1954 - 1968 Our experience during World War II, the country's vulnerability to all types of disasters particularly typhoons and floods, and the nuclear arms race of the three superpowers in the 1950's, have prompted the government to promulgate a law - Republic Act 1190, otherwise known as the Civil Defense Act of 1954. Under this law, a National Civil Defense Administration (NCDA) was established which was tasked primarily to provide protection and welfare to the civilian population during war or other national emergencies of equally grave character. To support the NCDA in carrying out its mission, RA 1190 also provided for the establishment of civil defense councils at the national and local levels, namely: the National Civil Defense Council (NCDC) and the provincial, city and municipal civil defense councils, respectively: The NCDC was composed of the following: ○ NCDC Administrator-Chairman ○ Chairman, Committee on National Defense and Security of both Houses of Congress-Member ○ Chief, Philippine Constabulary-Member ○ Commissioner of Social Welfare-Member ○ Manager, Philippine National Red Cross-Member ○ Manager, Philippine National Development Company-Member ○ Manager, Price Stabilization Council-Member On the other hand, the organization of the local civil defense council was not specifically provided for in the locality but designated the Provincial Governor, City and Municipal Mayor as the Provincial, City and Municipal Civil Defense Director, respectively.
The municipalities and cities which were directly under the supervision of the Provincial Civil Defense Director relative to civil defense services, were the main basic operating units for the purpose. The operating services of the national and civil defense organizations were as follows: Warden Service; Police Service; Fire Service; Health Service; Rescue and Engineering Service; Emergency Welfare Service; Transportation Service; Communication Service; Evacuation Service; Air-raid Warning Service; and Auxiliary Service. The National Civil Defense Administration, as a planning body under the Office of the President, has been constrained to carry out its functions effectively due to budgetary constraints and the apathy and indifference by the public and the government itself to NCDA's disaster preparedness and prevention programs. But the government's lack of interest to said programs was somewhat reversed when the Ruby Tower building in Manila collapsed in 1968 to a powerful earthquake, and created a National Committee on Disaster Operation through Administrative Order No. 151 issued on December 2, 1968. The composition of the Committee was as follows: ○ Executive Secretary-Chairman ○ Secretary of Social Welfare-Vice-Chairman ○ Secretary of National Defense-Member ○ Secretary of Health-Member ○ Secretary of Public Works and Natural Resources-Member ○ Secretary of Commerce and Industry-Member ○ Secretary of Education-Member ○ Secretary of Community Development-Member ○ Commissioner of the Budget-Member ○ Secretary-General, Philippine National Red Cross-Member ○ Executive Officer - A Designated National Coordinator-Member
Under this Order, the national committee was created to ensure effective coordination of operations of the different agencies during disasters caused by typhoons, floods, fires, earthquakes, and other calamities. To carry out its functions effectively, the Committee Chairman issued a Standard Operating Procedure which prescribed for the organizational set-up for disasters from the national down to the municipal level, their duties and responsibilities and the preparation by concerned agencies of their respective SOPs for the same purpose as the national SOP. Formulation of the Disaster and Calamities Plan (1970) On October 19, 1970, as an aftermath of Typhoon "Sening" which ravaged the Bicol Region, the flooding of Metro Manila for almost three months, a Disaster and Calamities Plan prepared by an Inter-Departmental Planning Group on Disasters and Calamities, was approved by the President. The Plan has provided, among others, the creation of a National Disaster Control Center which was composed of the following: • • • • • • •
Secretary of National Defense-Chairman Executive Secretary-Overall Coordinator Secretary of Health-Members Secretary of Public Works and Communications-Members Secretary of Agriculture and Natural Resources-Members Secretary of Commerce and Industry-Members Secretary of Education-Members Secretary of Community Devt.-Members Birth of Office of Civil Defense (1973) NCDA was abolished and transferred its functions and personnel and those of the NDCC to a newly-created agency - the Office of Civil Defense (OCD), which was entrusted the mission of ensuring the protection and welfare of the people during disasters or emergencies. Under Letter of Implementation No. 19, Series of 1972, the missions and functions of OCD are enumerated. Presidential Decree 1566 and the Formal Establishment of the NDCC, RDCC and Local DCCs (1978) On June 11, 1978, PD 1566 was issued to strengthen the Philippine disaster control capability and to establish a community disaster preparedness program nationwide. Among the salient provisions of the Decree are the following: 1. State policy on self-reliance among local officials and their constituents in responding to disasters or emergencies; 2. Organization of disaster coordinating councils from the national down to the municipal level;
3. Statement of duties and responsibilities of the National Disaster Coordinating Council (NDCC), RDCCs and LDCCs; 4. Preparation of the National Calamities and Disaster Preparedness Plan (NCDPP) by OCD and implementing plans by NDCC memberagencies; 5. Conduct of periodic drills and exercises; and 6. Authority for government units to program their funds for disaster preparedness activities in addition to the 2% calamity fund as provided for in PD 474 (amended by RA 8185). The National Disaster Control Center, which was created on October 19, 1970, is the forerunner of the National Disaster Coordinating Council created under PD 1566. It serves as the highest policy-making body for disasters in the country and includes almost all Department Secretaries as members. The original composition of the NDCC was as follows: • • • • • • • • •
Minister of National Defense-Chairman Minister of Public Works and Highways-Members Minister of Transportation and Communications-Members Minister of Social Services and Development-Members Minister of Agriculture-Members Minister of Education, Culture and Sports-Members Minister of Finance-Members Minister of Labor and Employment-Members Minister of Trade and Industry-Members Minister of Local Government and Devt.-Members Minister of Health-Members Minister of Natural Resources-Members Minister of Public Information-Members Minister of Budget-Members Minister of Justice-Members Presidential Executive Assistant-Members Chief of Staff, Armed Forces of the Phils.-Members Secretary-General, Philippine National Red Cross-Members Administrator, Office of Civil Defense-Member and Executive Officer The disaster coordinating councils (DCCs) from the regional, provincial, city and municipal level, on the other hand, are composed of representatives of national government agencies operating at these levels and local officials concerned.
• • • • • •
Legal Basis Of the NDCC The legal bases of our disaster management system are Presidential Decree No. 1, s-1872, as implemented by Presidential Letter of Implementation No. 19, s-1972, and Presidential Decree No. 1566 dated June 11, 1978. PD No.1 was the Integrated Reorganization Plan of 1972, which was implemented through LOI No. 19. The said LOI defined, among others, the organization, mission and functions of the Office of Civil Defense as a bureau under the Department of National Defense. PD No. 1566, on the other hand, provided for the strengthening of the Philippine disaster control capability and establishing a community disaster preparedness program nationwide. Salient Provisions of PD 1566 Among the salient provisions of PD 1566 are the following: 1. State policy on self- reliance among local officials and their constituents in responding to disasters or emergencies; 2. Organization of disaster coordinating councils from the national down to the municipal level; 3. Statement of duties and responsibilities of the National Disaster Coordinating Council (NDCC), RDCC and LDCCs; 4. Preparation of the National Calamities and Disaster Preparedness Plan (NCDPP) by OCD and implementing plans by NDCC member-agencies; 5. Conduct of periodic drills and exercises; and 6. Authority for government units to program their funds for disaster preparedness activities in addition to the 2% calamity fund as provided for in PD 474 (amended by RA 8185). THE NATIONAL CALAMITY AND DISASTER PREPAREDNESS PLAN The Philippines, being in the so-called Circum-Pacific belt of fire and typhoon, has always been subjected to constant disasters and calamities. The great ocean and seas around her, while providing wide avenues for international trade and commerce and a source of tremendous marine resources also serve as the spawning areas of destructive typhoons and monsoons. In whatever part of the country we are located, the possibility of our experiencing the gloom and the stark reality of disasters such as floods, typhoons, tornadoes, earthquakes, tsunamis, volcanic eruptions, drought, flashflood and man-made disasters such as land, air and sea disasters, civil strife armed conflict, etc., their resultant toll in lives and properties, is always present. Everyone, even in the safety of his home, has not been spared the sight now the feeling of loss by the terrific disasters and calamities, not as an abstract tragedy, but in the pictures of stunned faces of the survivors.
Objectives The primary objective of this Plan is: to ensure effective and efficient implementation of civil protection program thru an integrated, multi-sectoral and community based approach and strategies for the protection and preservation of life, property and environment. Concept This Plan embraces all conceivable contingencies, making use of all available resources, both government and private. It also develops self-reliance by promoting and encouraging the spirit of self-help and mutual assistance among the local officials and their constituents. Each political and administrative subdivision of the country shall utilize their own resources before asking for assistance from neighboring entities or higher authority. While emergency preparedness is a joint responsibility of the national and local governments, its effectiveness will depend largely on the skills and resources and the involvement of private organizations and the general public in the area of disasters. Regular exercises and drills will be conducted at all levels to enhance the people's reaction capability and ensure precision and spontaneity in responding to emergencies.The Regional offices of the departments shall provide similar support/assistance to the Regional Disaster Coordinating Council. This relationship shall be maintained down the line to the Barangay Disaster Coordinating Councils and their respective Disaster Operations Centers.Disaster Councils at the Regional, Provincial, Municipal/City and Barangay levels shall be established to complement the National Disaster Coordinating Council. Each Council shall have staff elements, stationed in their respective operations centers, composed of the following: Damage Assessment and Needs Analysis Unit; Emergency Management Information Service Unit; Vulnerability Risk Reduction Management Unit; Plans and Operations Unit; and a Resource Unit; Each council shall provide operating units for: Communication Transportation Service and Early Warning Service; Health Service; Auxiliary Fire and Police Service; Relief and Rehabilitation Service; Public Information Service; and Rescue, Evacuation and Engineering Service DISASTER COORDINATING COUNCILS: National Disaster Coordinating Council
Regional Disaster Coordinating Council (RDCC) The Regional Disaster Coordinating Council (hereinafter referred to at RDCC) shall be composed of the Regional PNP Director as Chairman, and heads of regional offices and field stations, national agencies and selected Non Government Organizations (NGOs) at the regional level as member.The Regional Governor of ARMM shall act as the Chairman and PNP Regional Director as Vice- Chairman and the OCD Regional Office shall be the Executive arm and secretariat and as such, the Regional Director shall serve as the Executive Officer. Metro Manila Disaster Coordinating Council (MMDCC) The Chairman, Metropolitan Manila Development Authority (MMDA) shall be the Chairman of the Metropolitan Manila Disaster Coordinating Council (hereinafter referred to as MMDCC) with the Mayors of the 17 Cities and Municipalities comprising Metropolitan Manila, the Director of National Government Agencies; and Heads of NGO's situated in the National Capital Region to be determined by the MMDA Chairman as members. Regional Director, Office of Civil Defense, National Capital Region, shall act as the Executive Officer of the council. Provincial Disaster Coordinating Council (PDCC) A Provincial Disaster Coordinating Council (hereinafter referred to as PDCC) shall be composed of the Provincial Governor as Chairman, the Provincial Director of the PNP as Vice-Chairman, and all organic provincial officials, as well as of national officials working at the provincial level, as members.The Provincial Civil Defense Deputized Coordinators shall act as action officer of the council. City Disaster Coordinating Council (CDCC) A City Disaster Coordinating Council (hereinafter referred to as CDCC) shall be composed of the City Mayor as Chairman, the City Director of the PNP as Vice-Chairman and all organic city officials, as well as all national officials working at the city level, as members. The City Civil Defense Deputized Coordinators shall act as the action Officer of the council. Municipal Disaster Coordinating Council (MDCC) A Municipal Disaster Coordinating Council (hereinafter referred to as MDCC) shall be composed of the Municipal Mayor as Chairman, the Chief of Police of the PNP as Vice-Chairman and all organic municipal officials, as well as all national officials working at the municipal level, as members. The Municipal Civil Defense Deputized Coordinators shall act as action officer of the council. Barangay Disaster Coordinating Council (BDCC) A Barangay Disaster Coordinating Council (hereinafter referred to as the BDCC) shall be composed of the Barangay Captain as Chairman and leading persons in the community as members.
NDCC Member Agencies
• • • • • • • • • • • • • • •
Department of National Defense (DND) Department of Social Welfare and Development (DSWD) Department of Science and Technology (DOST) Department of Interior and Local Government (DILG) Department of Public Works and Highways (DPWH) Department of Health (DOH) Department of Education (DepEd) Department of Agriculture (DA) Department of Environment and Natural Resources (DENR) Department of Transportation and Communication (DOTC) Department of Finance (DOF) Department of Labor and Employment (DOLE) Department of Budget and Management (DBM) Department of Trade and Industry (DTI) Philippine Information Agency (PIA) Philippine National Red Cross (PNRC) Office of Civil Defense (OCD) Philippines’ Emergency Management System
refers to the measures aimed at minimizing the impact of a natural or man-made disaster on a nation or community in terms of casualties and damages also refers to measures designed to prevent natural phenomena from causing or resulting to disasters or other related emergency situations Preparedness refers to pre-disaster actions and measures being undertaken to avert or minimize loss of lives and properties, such as, but not limited to, community organizing, training, planning, equipping, stockpiling, hazard mapping and public information and education initiative Response refers to any concerted effort by two or more agencies, public or private, to provide emergency assistance or relief to persons who are victims of disasters or calamities, and in the restoration of essential
public activities and facilities. Consequence Management is the core activity under this phase. Consequence Management •
Comprises essential services and activities required to mitigate damage, loss, hardship or suffering resulting from disasters or catastrophes, either natural or man-made Includes all emergency measures to restore government services to business, communities and individuals affected by life threatening or destructive events Such services include damage and needs assessment, emergency medical service, population evacuation and relief, fire suppression, and search and rescue.
Essential Elements of an Effective Response Operation in Consequence Management
refers to the process by which the affected communities/areas or damaged public infrastructures are restored to their normal level or actual condition prior to the occurrence of the disaster or calamity.