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TCP/IP Frequently Asked Questions in various TCP/IP Protocol Interviews asked by the
interviewer.SolearnTCP/IPwiththehelpofthisTCP/IPProtocolInterviewquestionsandanswers
guide and feel free to comment as your suggestions, questions and answers on any TCP/IP
ProtocolInterviewQuestionoranswerbythecommentfeatureavailableonthepage.

21 TCP/IP Protocol Questions and Answers:


1 :: Explain Does IP Protect Data On The Network? (Answer.php?
a=Explain_Does_IP_Protect_Data_On_The_Network)
IPitselfdoesnotguaranteetodeliverdatacorrectly.Itleaves
allissuesofdataprotectiontothetransportprotocol.BothTCP
andUDPhavemechanismsthatguaranteethatthedatatheydeliver
toanapplicationiscorrect.
UsingtheIPlayerthecorrectdestinationofthepacketisidentifiedanddelivered.TheTransport
layerprotocols(TCP/UDP/SCTP)checkifthedatadeliveredarecorrectusingChecksum
mechanism.HoweverifthedestinationIPisnotalive,thepacketishoppedbydecrementingthe
TTLfieldandwhenitbecomeszero,thepacketislostandundelivered.IftheTransportlayeris
UDPthesourcedoesn'tknowofthefailureindeliveryofthepacket

Is This Answer Correct? 59 Yes

3 No

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2 :: What is TCP/IP? (Answer.php?a=What_is_TCPIP)


TCP/IPisanamegiventothecollection(orsuite)ofnetworkingprotocolsthathavebeenusedto
constructtheglobalInternet.TheprotocolsarealsoreferredtoastheDoD(deeohdee)orArpanet
protocolsuitebecausetheirearlydevelopmentwasfundedbytheAdvancedResearchProjects
Agency(ARPA)oftheUSDepartmentofDefense(DoD).

Is This Answer Correct? 47 Yes

1 No

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3 :: Explain What is the data unit of "Transport layer"? (Answer.php?


a=Explain_What_is_the_data_unit_of_Transport_layer)
Thedataunitoftransportlayeris"Segment".

Is This Answer Correct? 65 Yes

1 No

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4 :: Explain How is data send by IP layer? (Answer.php?a=Explain_How_is_data_send_by_IP_layer)

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IPlayerPDUis"packet".So,dataissendaspacket.

Is This Answer Correct? 43 Yes

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5 :: Explain How can we detect that the other end of a TCP connection has crashed? Can we use
"keepalives" for this? (Answer.php?
Management
a=Explain_How_can_we_detect_that_the_other_end_of_a_TCP_connection_has_crashed_Can_we_use_keepalives_f)

DetectingcrashedsystemsoverTCP/IPisdifficult.TCPdoesn'trequireanytransmissionovera
connectioniftheapplicationisn'tsendinganything,andmanyofthemediaoverwhichTCP/IPis
used(e.g.Ethernet)don'tprovideareliablewaytodeterminewhetheraparticularhostisup.Ifa
serverdoesn'thearfromaclient,itcouldbebecauseithasnothingtosay,somenetworkbetween
theserverandclientmaybedown,theserverorclient'snetworkinterfacemaybedisconnected,or
theclientmayhavecrashed.Networkfailuresareoftentemporary(athinEthernetwillappeardown
whilesomeoneisaddingalinktothedaisychain,anditoftentakesafewminutesfornewroutesto
stabilizewhenaroutergoesdown)andTCPconnectionsshouldn'tbedroppedasaresult.

Is This Answer Correct? 27 Yes

1 No

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6 :: Explain What is the full form of OSI and TCP/IP model? (Answer.php?
a=Explain_What_is_the_full_form_of_OSI_and_TCPIP_model)
OSIOpenSystemInterconnection
TCP/IPTransmissionControlProtocol/InternetProtocol

Is This Answer Correct? 28 Yes

0 No

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7 :: Explain How many hosts can be on each network? Consider a fixed subnet partition of a class B
InterviewQuestionsAnswers
network number that will accommodate at least 76 networks.? (Answer.php?
Like
a=Explain_How_many_hosts_can_be_on_each_network_Consider_a_fixed_subnet_partition_of_a_class_B_network)
2^6=64and2^7=128
asperquestion,weneedtoaccommodate76networksthroughfixedsubnetting(ieVLSMisnot
askedfor)soweneedtouse/23maskwhichgives128subnets
No.ofhostspersubnet=(2^9)2=510

19,967peoplelikeInterviewQuestionsAnswers.

SubnetAddress=172.16.0.0
Subnetmask=255.255.254.0
Validsubnets=256254=0,2,4,6...254
SubnetExample:forSubnet0.0
FirstHost=0.1
LastHost=1.254
Broadcast=1.255

Is This Answer Correct? 13 Yes

1 No

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8 :: Explain What is the PDU of "Network layer" and "Data link layer"? (Answer.php?
a=Explain_What_is_the_PDU_of_Network_layer_and_Data_link_layer)

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PDUforNetworkLayeris:"Packet"andPDUforDataLinkLayeris:"Frame"
128bitintcpip

Is This Answer Correct? 12 Yes

1 No

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9 :: Explain How do applications coexist over TCP and UDP? (Answer.php?


a=Explain_How_do_applications_coexist_over_TCP_and_UDP)
EachapplicationrunningoverTCPorUDPdistinguishesitselffrom


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otherapplicationsusingtheservicebyreservingandusinga
16bitportnumber.Destinationandsourceportnumbersareplaced
intheUDPandTCPheadersbytheoriginatorofthepacketbefore
itisgiventoIP,andthedestinationportnumberallowsthe
packettobedeliveredtotheintendedrecipientatthe
destinationsystem.

Is This Answer Correct? 12 Yes

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10 :: Explain How Is IP Carried On A Network? (Answer.php?


a=Explain_How_Is_IP_Carried_On_A_Network)
IPreallyisn'tveryfussyabouthowitspacketsaretransported.
ThedetailsofhowanIPpacketiscarriedoveraparticularkind
ofnetworkareusuallychosentobeconvenientforthenetwork
itself.Aslongasthetransmitterandreceiverobservesome
conventionthatallowsIPpacketstobedifferentiatedfromany
otherdatathatmightbeseenbythereceiver,thenIPcanbeused
tocarrydatabetweenthosestations.
Ipisjustaprotocolwhichusedtocarrydata,packetsoverthenetworkinthemannerwhichthen/w
componentscanunderstand.
ipisaidentityofn/wdevices

Is This Answer Correct? 13 Yes

1 No

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11 :: Explain What is the Role of TCP/IP in data transmission from source to destination?
(Answer.php?
a=Explain_What_is_the_Role_of_TCPIP_in_data_transmission_from_source_to_destination)
TCP/IPisaprotocolstackusedfordatatransmissionfromsourcetodestination.
InthephysicallayerallthephysicalconnectionslikeLANcards,cablesetcwillbtherewhichwill
senddataintheformofbits.layer2operateswithframeswheretheswitchescomesintopicture.
inthenetworklayerwhichoperatesonpackets.routingtakesplaces,routersarethedevicesused
forthis.
transportlayerisabovethenetworklayeranditusesmainlyTCP/UDPfortransportofdata.
theapplicationlayersisontopofthislayer.
applicationlayer
|
transportlayer[tcp/udp]
|
networklayer[routers]
|
datalinklayer[switches]
|
physicallayer[NetworkInterfacecard,cablesetc]
foranytransferofdatabetween2systemsthisTCP/IPstackcomesintopicture,whetheritisfile
transferoruploadingsomething,sendinganemailetc.anyapplicationbasedonwebwilluseTCP/IP

Is This Answer Correct? 11 Yes

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12 :: Explain Which layer is closer to the user? (Answer.php?


a=Explain_Which_layer_is_closer_to_the_user)
Thereisonlyanapplicationlayerwhichisclosertouserandalsoprovidesmanyapplicationwhich
userdirectlyconnected.forexamplewebbrowser

Is This Answer Correct? 13 Yes

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13 :: Explain How can we measure the performance of an IP link? (Answer.php?


a=Explain_How_can_we_measure_the_performance_of_an_IP_link)
Youcangetaquickapproximationbytiminghowlongittakesto
FTPorRCPalargefileoverthelink,butbearinmindthatthat
measurementwillbeskewedbythetimespentindealingwiththe
localandremotefilesystems,notsimplywiththenetworkitself.
Andremembertomeasurethetimeittakestoreceiveafile,not
thetimeittakestosenditthesendercanreportcompletion
eventhoughlargeamountsofdataarestillbufferedlocallyby
TCPandhavenotyetbeendeliveredtothedestination.

Is This Answer Correct? 6 Yes

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14 :: Explain What are the networking protocol options for the Windows clients if for some reason
you do not want to use TCP/IP? (Answer.php?
a=Explain_What_are_the_networking_protocol_options_for_the_Windows_clients_if_for_some_reason_you_do_n)
NWLink(Novell),NetBEUI,AppleTalk(Apple).

Is This Answer Correct? 5 Yes

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15 :: Explain How does ARP response the request? (Answer.php?


a=Explain_How_does_ARP_response_the_request)
ARPsenttherequestinbroadcast,responseisunicast
Whenasourcesendsarprequesttheswitchbroadcastthearpreq.ifitdoesn'thavddestination
macaddressinitsmacaddresstable,ifthedestinationmacisknownthenswitchsimplyforwards
therequesttothatparticularhostandthehostsendsthearpresponsetotheswitchandtheswitch
willfurthersendthearpresponsetothesourcerequestingthemacaddress.

Is This Answer Correct? 11 Yes

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16 :: Explain 4 example of application layer? (Answer.php?


a=Explain_4_example_of_application_layer)
DNS,FTP,Telnet,http

Is This Answer Correct? 11 Yes

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17 :: Explain How does TCP try to avoid network meltdown? (Answer.php?


a=Explain_How_does_TCP_try_to_avoid_network_meltdown)
TCPincludesseveralmechanismsthatattempttosustaingooddata
transferrateswhileavoidingplacingexcessiveloadonthe
network.TCP's"SlowStart","CongestionAvoidance","Fast
Retransmit"and"FastRecovery"algorithmsaresummarisedinRFC
Home(../index.php) | InterviewQuestions(index.php)
2001.TCPalsomandatesanalgorithmthatavoids"SillyWindow
Syndrome"(SWS),anundesirableconditionthatresultsinvery
smallchunksofdatabeingtransferredbetweensenderand
receiver.SWSAvoidanceisdiscussedinRFC813.The"Nagle
Algorithm",whichpreventsthesendingsideofTCPfromflooding

Algorithm",whichpreventsthesendingsideofTCPfromflooding
thenetworkwithatrainofsmallframes,isdescribedinRFC
896.

Is This Answer Correct? 3 Yes

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18 :: What is sockets? (Answer.php?a=What_is_sockets)


Asocketisanabstractionthatrepresentsanendpointofcommunication.Mostapplicationsthat
consciouslyuseTCPandUDPdosobycreatingasocketoftheappropriatetypeandthen
performingaseriesofoperationsonthatsocket.Theoperationsthatcanbeperformedonasocket
includecontroloperations(suchasassociatingaportnumberwiththesocket,initiatingoraccepting
aconnectiononthesocket,ordestroyingthesocket)datatransferoperations(suchaswritingdata
throughthesockettosomeotherapplication,orreadingdatafromsomeotherapplicationthrough
thesocket)andstatusoperations(suchasfindingtheIPaddressassociatedwiththesocket).

Is This Answer Correct? 4 Yes

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19 :: What is the port number of Telnet and DNS? (Answer.php?


a=What_is_the_port_number_of_Telnet_and_DNS)
Telnet=23andDNS=53
usingtelnetwecantakecommandmodeinthesystem,itwork'sunderportno23

Is This Answer Correct? 9 Yes

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20 :: What is the difference between flow control and error control? (Answer.php?
a=What_is_the_difference_between_flow_control_and_error_control)
*Flowcontrol:adjustandconfirmdataflowrateforsuccessfultransmission.
*ErrorControl:awaytorecovercorrupteddata.

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21 :: Explain What is the difference between flow control and error control? (Answer.php?
a=Explain_What_is_the_difference_between_flow_control_and_error_control)
*Flowcontrol:adjustandconfirmdataflowrateforsuccessfultransmission.
*ErrorControl:awaytorecovercorrupteddata.

Is This Answer Correct? 7 Yes

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