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ACADEMIA DE ~TIINTE A REPUBLICII MOLDOVA

Institutul de Arheologie

VESTIGII ARHEOLOGICE
DIN MOLDOVA.
ARCHEOLOGICAL ANTIQUITIES
OF MOLDOVA

"Tipografia Academiei de ~tiinte RM"


Chi~iniiu

1997

czu 903 (478.9) (082) = 590 = 82


V-51 .

In

ln culegerea, realizata de colaboratorii InstitutuIUi de Arheologie a A.~. a R.M. sunt


reprezentate studii ~i materiale arheologice, referitoare la diferite perioade din arheologia spatiului
dintre Nistru ~i Prut ~i a rejiuriilor limitrofe. Sunt prezente arti):Ole, referitor la paleolitic, mezolitic,
i:ieolitic, eneolitic, epoca bronzului ~i cea timpurie a fierului, antichitate ~i evul mediu timpuriu ~i
iardiv. Volumul prezinta interes pentru arheologi, paleontcilogi, istoricieni, precum ~i pentru toti
cei pasionati de arheologia ~i istoria veche a Moldovei.

Vsevolod I. Marchevici
Institutul de arheologie

a Academiei de ~tiinte
a Republicii Moldova, 1997

M--88

ISBN 9975-62-015-9

Autorilor le revine responsabilitatea de redactie


cea ~tiintifica a lucrarilor publicate

~i

(1917- 1997) .

memoria arheologului
Vsevolod Marclzevici

I. Borziac

Colectiv~I ~e redactie:

Valentin Dergaciov - respons~bil,


ll~e Borziac
_ adjunct,
Victor Sorokin, Larisa Ciobanu.

Recenzenp oficiali:
doctorii in istorie
Nicolae Chetraru, Ion Tentiuc

UNELE CONSIDERA Jll CU PRIVIRElA EVOLUJIA


PALEOLITICULUI SUPERIOR TIMPURIU
iN SPAJIUL DINTRE CARPAJI ~I NISTRU

Du pa opinia noastra, in spatiul dintre Carpatii Orientali si Nistru, pana in


prezent, au fost depistate ~i , p~rtial studiate p~ste 20 stati~ni ~i puncte cu
materiale, care, intr-un mod s-au altul documenteaza fazele timpurii de
dezvoltare a palf!oliticului superior. insa, printre ele doar 9 statiuni au furnizat
materiale, care pe depjin pot fi utilizate in studiul acestei perioade.
Pana in prezent, in spatiul amintit au fost definite 3 tipuri de industrii. Primul
tip include industriile de tranzitie de la musterian la paleoliticul superior ~i, care
cu probabilitate mai mare sau ipotetic; au fost atribuite culturii Branzen1 1 in
cadr'ul acestei culturi, in prezent, cu m<1;i multa siguranta pot fi incluse statiunile
nivefolui inferior de locuire din grota Branzeni, statiunile Bobule~ti VI ~i Scoc.
Statiunea din grota Ciuntu, anterior inclu.sa in aceasta cult~ra, dup,a datele de
radiocarbon capatate recent 2 denota una din fazele timpurii. de dezvoltare a
gravetiaaului.
1n cadrul culturii Branzeni sunt incluse industrii cu structuri similare ale
inventarului litic, dar, care au t:ontinutul procentual al tipurilor de unelte diferit,
cat ~i un ~ir de tipuri de unelte, specifice pentru fiecare din ele, particularitate,
care, posibil , este in dependenta de varsta lor diferita in cadrul acestei culturi,
de specificul statiunii, durata ei de existenta, etc.
Complexele iitice ale acestei culturi den~ta 3 grupuri de unelte: a) musteriene;
b) szeletiene ~i c) aurignaciene.
Ui;ieltele musteriene sau substratul IIJ.USterian din aceste coleqii este
reprezentat de varfuri tipice musteriene eyi Levalios, piese denticulate ~i de racloare
de diferite tipuri, care au o prelucrare a lamelor eyi o morfologie ti pica muste\iana.
Substratul szeletian este reprezentat de forme bifaciale, caracteristice mai' mult
sau mai putin pentru cultura Szelet. Grupul aurignaciana este reprezentat de
gratoare carenate, au musea}l, burine unghiulare, diedre, poliedre, lame retu~ate
abrupt. La toate statiunile' atribuite culturii Branzeni au ,fost depistate unele
l,ame ~i lamele abord abattu, care reflec~a, de.acum, oinfluenta a gravettianului .
Grupul de piese musteriene ~i szeletiene este mai reprezentativ in nivelul
inferior de locuire din grota Branzeni. La statiunile Bobulesti VI si Scoc toate
trei grupuri de unelte sunt prezente in masuri aproximativ ~gala, dar in aceste
industrii sunt mai pronuntate influentele aurignaciene.
Faptul ca in nivelul inferior de locuire a grotei Branzeni sunt mai pronuntate
elementele muster.iene ~i ceie szeletiene au permis unor autori3 sa includa a~est
nivel de locuire in aeya numita "cale szeletiana de dezvoltare" . Insa acum este
clar, ca industriil.e incluse in cultura Branzeni reprezinta o modalitate locala de
- 5-

tranzitie de la musterian la paleoliticul superior". Procesul de tranzitie este static


~~nu ~~te i~ca clara modalitatea reala de trecere, influentele ~i si1-r{biozele mu!~
trple fund lasate in umbra evolutiei locale a industriilor
In prezent consideram, ca i~ cadrul culturii Branz~ni, nivelul inferior din
grota. ~ponima esle tn:ai timputiu, cu toate ca datele exacte inca nu ne dau
pos1b1htatea de a. afirma cu .certitudine acest lucru 5 Insa, gratie prezentei in
mventar la acest mvel de locmre, a multiplelor forme tipice musteriene dovedesc
aceasta presupunere.

Statiunile Bobule~ti VI ~i Scoc sunt mai tardi\re, in inveritarul'lor' stint mai


pronuntate elementele musteriene, do ar in ceea ce priveste racloarele si unele
'
'

varfuri elementele aurignaciene predomina. "


. Cronologia acestei culturi este incii nedefinita. Arhaismul vadit al
mventarului nivelului inferior de locuite a] grotei Branzeni nu este deocamdata
indreptatit de datele exacte capatate,-care variaza intre 14700 ~i J2000 mii ani'.
Ult1ma datare este mai reala 6 Majoritatea datelor au fost capatate ]a Oxford
pe baza mostrelor osteologice, ~i ele la momentul actual inca nu permit clar de
a inc\ldi'a i1: timp aceasta iJtdustrie, care prin arhaismul ei este mai aproa'.pe de
cele must.e nene, de~at de cele ~in paleoliticul superior. Nu este exclus faptul, ca
oasele, fund depoz1tate in grota intr-un mediu extrem de carbonizat nb dau
. posibiJitate de a capata date reale.
'
Statiunea Climauti I, nivelul careia de locuire a fost depistat in 1989 sub un
strat de sol fosi'l (posibil ~tilfried B), datat cu varsta de peste 24 mii ani BP7
poat.e fi datata cu vatsta de 27-28 mii ani A. Chr. Inventarul statiunii este d~
traditi~ aurignaciana, insa cub cafacteristici specifice, c~re se trag de la faciesu!
8
n:uster~an. St~n~a . In c?nsecutivi.tatea dezvoJtarii grupuJ Stinca I, niv. supenor, ~hmaut1 I ~1.ZelenyJ Hu tor I ~1 II pare a fib cultura specifica din paleoliticul
superior de
N1stru, ins a nu avem nici date exacte ~i nici suprafete mai mari
cercetate, ~I la etapa actuaJa de studiu nu este inca clara nici varsta reala a
statiunilor, nici determinarea culturala mai adecvata
' Materialele stapunii Gordine~ti 9 , preliminar au fost determinate 'c a
apartin~nd unui tacies specific al paleoliticului 's uperior din zona dintre Nistru
~1 Prut. Acum, odata cu publicarea integra a materialeJor statiunii
pluristratigrafice Ripiceni-Izvor 10, este necesar de mentionat ca statiunea
Gordine~ti, statiunile
nivelelor 1a, '1b, 2a de
Ripiceni-I~vor ~ot fi at;ibuite
11
culturii Prut . Posibil, la aceasta cultura adera si materiaJele al tor 2 statiuni ~
Corpaci-niv. inferior ~i nivelul 2b a ktatit'.mii Rip!ceni-Izvor la care ~e vom
referi in' continuare. Oricum, structura inventarului statiunil'or amintite este
similara~ i q.~ diferentele prbcentuale dintre diferite grupe de unelte poate fi
e:pbc~ta pnn ~aptul" ca la ele au fost studiate suprafete diferite sau prin faptul
ca au fost stuclrnte d!fente zone function ale ale statiunilor. Din punct de V:edere
cr?n0Jog1c, ~entru acest facies ~>ri cultura dispunem de o singura dat\lre exacta
(mv. 1b, R1p1cem-lzvor-BIN-809-28 420400 BP), capatata pe baz~ unei mostre
de carbune12de Jemn ~i cenu~a, colectata de pe o vatra. de foe, situata intre nivelele
1b ~i 2a (?)

'

ye

la

- 6-

Daca aceasta data este corecta, atunci putem presupune, ca aceasta cultura
a evoluat intre 28-25 mii ani A. Chr. Posibil, la aceasta cultura pot fi atribuite
si materialele nivelului inferior al statiunii Corpaci ~i al nivelului 2b al sta\iunii
Ripiceni-Izvor. In inventarul acestor statiuni, paralel cu racloarele, .diversele
forme bifaciale, unele tipuri aurignaciene de unelte (mai frecvente gratoarele de
forme inalte si lamele retusate semiabrupt, precum si unele burine), sunt prezente
si unele forrn'e gravettien~, printre care lamele a do~ ~i unele segmente de cerc cu
;etuse abrupte (4 in nivelul 2b de la Ripiceni-Izvor ~i 22 in nivelul inferior a
statiunii Corpaci) 13 . In nivelul inferior de laCorpaci piesele bifacialk sunt de
pr;portii mai mari, mai numeroase fiind piesele gravettiene, p~ c~~d niv~lul
de la Ripiceni-Izvor are mai multe tanjente cu inventarul statrnnu Gordme~tl.
La ambele au fost depistate varfuri bifaciale de fo.rme triunghiulare cu baza
concava ..Nu este ex cl us, ca nivelul de locuire de la Corpaci sa fie mai tar div in
cadrul acestei culturi. Despre aceasta ne convinge ~i datarea exacta a acestui
nivel de locuire - 25 250300 BP (GrN-9'.758). Nu este exclus, ca aceasta
cultura cu numeroase forme bifaciale sa constituie o derivata a musterianului
cu forme bifaciale postmichochian, intalnita in mai multe nivelmi de locuire de
la Ripiceni-Izvor 14 Una din principale!e inovatii tehnologice in cadrul. ace~tei
culturiieste utilizarea segmentelor de cerc ca elemente ,ale uneltelor compoz1te,
elemente care au rasp an dire ~i in alte colturi ale Europei- Italia (cultura Ulutto),
Franta (cultura Perigord), Moravia (cultma Pavlov}, etc. Aparitia u?or astfel
de piese in coritextul paleoliticului superior timpuriu in valea Prutulm vorbe~te
despre unele legitati comune in dezvoltarea paleoliticului superior din Eurnpa.
lnsa noi suntem cleparte de a reanima ideia stadializmului, mentionand ca in
aceasta idee . ori conceptie au fost ~i ram.an v~abile unele momente pozitive.
Toate cele spuse ne permit sa afirmam, ca cultura ori faciesul Prut al
Pa:leoliticului superior are origine locala, are radacini in musterianul tar\fiv.
Doar unele influente neansemnate ea le-a suportat din partea aurignacianului,
care a patruns ante~ior 15 in zona dins pre sud-vest ~i vest 16 Nu putem sa fim de
acord cu A. Paunescu, care atribuie nivelurile 1a, b ~i 2a, b, a statiunii RipiceniIzvor aurignacianului. Elementele aurignaciene din, aceste complexe variaza doar
intre 3 30 si 6,50%, pe cind elemehtele locale (bifacialele, denticulatele, piesele a
coche)'.su~t.mult mai numeroase ~i mai reprezentative. Aceste consideratii n11
permit sa determinam ~i mai lesne cultura Prut.
Dacii ramane sa identificam aurigna<;;ianul din spatiul dintre Carpati ~i
Nistru, atunci eel mai vadit exemplu poate servi statiunea Mitoc-Malul Galben,
uncle 4 nivele inferioare au un vadit caracter tipic pentru aurignacian ~in ele
lipsesc formele bifaciale, cele cu caracter gravetian 17 .

.
Posibil, mai tarzie in cadrul aurignacianului local, este statiuriea Corpac1Mis. Aici a fost depistat un material litic tipic aurignacian, insa ~i cu doua piese
bifaciale .. ~i la Mitoc-Malul Galben, ~i la Corpaci-Mis au fost depistate varfuri
din os de tip Mlade8, care sunt cunoscute la unele statiuni din Moravia 18 In
inventarul acestei statiuni lipsesc formele gravetiene ~i pe larg sunt reprezentate

2?

--'-7-

,,.

piesele de tip burin diedru. Nivelul de locuire este plasat intr-un sol fosil, apreciat
de 0. Adamenco ca eel de tip Dofinovca (~tilfried B) 19 Judecind dupa pozitia
geologica, varsta acestei statiuni este, nu mai tarzie decat varsta superioara a
acestui sol fosil (24-25 mii A. Ch.) Pe terasa de la Corpaci, acest sol fosil a fost
datat prin intermediul nivelului inferior de la statiunea Corpaci, mentionata,
mai sus. Dupa opil1ia noastra, aceasta statiune reprezinta al doilea val de
patrundere a aurignacianului in zona dintre Prut ~i Nistru, primul fiind
documentat de catre materialele nivelelor inferioare a statiunii Mitoc-Malul
Galben.1 La prima etapa de dezvoltare a aurignacianului Inca nu erau prezente
foi;m'ele bifaciale. Posibil, ca la prima etapa aurignacianul a venit dins pre sudvest (Baco-Chiro?), la etapa a dol!ia - dinspre vest. Despre aceasta ne
marturise~te similitudinea materialelor de la Corpaci-Mis cu cele ale
aurignacianului din Moravia. Este destul de dificila problema explicarii prezentei
~i la Mitoc-Malul Galben, ~i la Corpaci-Mis a varfurilor de tip MladeC'. Posibil,
ca inca la etapa initiala de patrundere a comunitatilor aurignaciene in Europa
de Sud-Est, astfel de varfuri erau de acum in arsenalul lor. Varful de la MitocMalul :Galben este, judecand dupa forma ~i prelucrarea lui, mai archaic, pe
oand cele de la Corpaci-Mis sunt mai ,perfecte ~i corespund celor din Europa
Gentrala. Evident, statiunea de la Corpaci-Mis este mai tarzie, decat cea de la
Mitoc-Malul Galben.
Tot in linia aurignaciana de evolutie
, se inscriu si
, doua nivele de locuire a
statiunii Climauti II. Nivelul inferior de locuire este plasat nemijlocit de-asupra
solului fosil Dofinovca21 . Nivelul de locuire este datat cu varsta de peste 24 rnii
ani A. Ch. Nivelul superior de locuire, mult mai bogat ~i mai reprezentativ este
plasat in lesul de-a:supra nivelului de sol fosil ~i este datat cwvar.sta de 20 350230
(LU-2481). In nivelu1 superior de locuire a fost depistata .o locuinta, la
constructia careia au fost pe larg utilizate oasele mari de mamut 22 . Aceasta
locuinta pare a fi cea mai timpurie ~i cea mai de sud din ~irul descoperirilor de
acest jen din Europa de Est~Mejirici, Dobranicevca, Mezin, etc. 23 Inventarul
litic nu contine forme bifaciale ~i, practic in el lipsesc piesele gravetiene tipice.
Au fost depistate cateva fragmente de varfuri din filde~, insa ele, probabil, nu
apartineau pieselor de tip Mladee. lnventarul este aurignacian. Posibil, aceasta
statiune reprezinta unul din cele mai tardive faciesuri ale aufignacianului,din
Europa de Sud-Est. Avand in vedere prezenta locuintei din oase de mamut in
nivelul superior al acestei statiuni, se poate admite ipoteza, ca acest nivel de
locuire reprezinta una din fazele timpurii ai gravetianului, reprezentat in
continuare la statiunile susnumite.
'Gravetianul timpuriu din zona dintre Carpati ~i Nistru este reprezentat de
un ~ir de statiuni, printre care mai reprezentative ~i mai bine studiate sunt
nivelurile de locuire 10-'-'-7 de la statirunea Molodova V (care au vars ta intre 28
~i 23 mii ani A. Ch.) ~i statiunea Ciutule~ti. 24 Formele bifaciale in contextul
gravetianului timpuriu sunt foarte rare. In nivelul 10 a statiunii Molodova Va
fost depistata o piesa bifaciala, care probabil a fost recuperata de locuitorii de
aici de la alta statiune ~i transformata in strapungator. In nivelul 7 a susnumitei
- 8-

statiuni sunt doua fragmente de piese bifaciale, care, insa nu pot fi determinate
ca ~arfuri. Li statiunea Ciuntu 25 a fost depistat un fragment de piesa bifaciala
de forma triunghiulara26 ln inventarul nivelelor 10-7 a statiunii Molodova,
in nivelele 4- 1 a statiunii Mitoc-Malul Galben persista tipurile pur gravetiene.
Practic, lipsesc form;le caracteristice pentru aurignacian. Datele exacte, c~patate
pentru nivelurile de locuire de la Molodova V, credem, in viitorul apropiat vor
ficompletate , datorita cercetarilor reincepute la aceasta statiune27 . Speram sa
cap a tam date exacte ~i pentru materialele descoperite la Ciutule~ti28 . Materialele
acestei statiuni, dupa particularitatile tehnico-tipolojice, se incadreaza in
gravetianul timpuriu de tip Molodova. Nivelul de locuire este plasat in partea
inferioara a unui sol fosil (credem Dofinovca, ~tilfried B), similar cu solunle
fosile din sectiunile de la Corpaci ~i Corpaci-Mis. Daca ipoteza noastFa se va
adeveri atun~i va fi posibila corelarea culturala ~i cronologica a acestor statiuni
~i incadrarea tor mai exacta in sistemul paleoliticului superior din zona ~i din
regiunile limitrofe.
Este necesar de amintit, ca nivelurile de locuire gravetiene de la mitoc-Malul
Galben se incadreaza, efectiv, in cadrul evolutiei gravetianului nivelelor 10- 7
.
de la Molodova V.
Care ar fi modelul posibilei evolutii ,a paleoliticului superior dintre Carpati
si Nistru?
'
' Prima et.a pa de dezvoltare a paleoliticului superior in zona este documentata
de nivelul inferior al grotei Branzeni, care inca n-are date exacte, adecvate
industriei si tipologiei. Industria acestui nivel de locuire, impreuna cu industriile
statiunilo; Cetatica I, Bobule~ti VI ~i Scoc documenteaza faza de tranzitie de la
mu'sterian la paieoliticul superior 29 Paralel cu evolutia fazei timpurii a culturii
Branzeni in zona respectiva patrund primele comunitati aurignaciene,
documentate prin nivelurile inferioare de locuire de la Mitoc-Malul Galben,
datate cu varsta de peste 32 mii ani A. Ch. Complexele aurignaciene timpurii
nu au o origine locala. Aproximativ 29-;-28 mii ani A. Ch. in z,o na patrund
primele comunitati gravetiene. Paralel cu ele, pe baza musterianului de tip_M_icoc
(Ripiceni-Izvor, nivelurile musteriene superioare, abundente in forme b1f ac1 ale)
se dezvolta cultura Prut, reprezentata de nivelurile la ~i b, 2'a ~i b, Statiunea
Gordinesti si, posibil, nivelul inferior al statiunii Corpaci. La etapa initiala, in
aceasta ~ult~ra, practic, lipsesc piesele gravetiene, la etapa finala de evolutie a
acestei culturi (Gordine~ti) apar unele forme gravetiene-piese a bord abattu.
Posibil, segmentele de cerc de la Corpaci ~i nivelul 2b de la Ripiceni-Izvor s ~ nu
fie de orijine gravetiana.

. '
,
Paralel cu evolutia culturii Prut in zona patrunde al doilea val de populatie
aurignaciana, confi;mat de materialele nivelului de locuire de la Corpaci-Mis:
care are o evidenta tangenta cu autignacianul mediu din Moravia 30 Aceleia~1
etape sunt atribuite stati~nile gravettianului mediu' in zona, precum ar fi
nivelurile 7-6 a statiunii Molodova V, statiunea Ciutule~ti. Posibil, ca etapa
final a a gravetianului mediu din zona sa fie reprezentata de materialele statiunii
din grota Ciuntu.
- 9-

Ultimul val de infiltrare a aurignacianului :in zona dintre Carpati ~i Nistru


este documentat de materialele a douii niveluri de locuire a statiunii. Climiiuti
II.
,
,
Astfel, paleoliticul superior , timpuriu din zona Carpati-Nistru este
documentat de statiuni de tranzitie de la musterian la paleolitjcul superior, de
complexele .tehnologice aurignaciene ~i gravetiene timpurii. Graveiianul ~i
aurignacianul au coexitat in spatiul dat timp de peste 8 mii ani. Deci, nu poate
fi vorba despre o consecuitivitate tefitofialii ~i cronologicii intre gravetian ~i
aurignacian. Ambele tipuri de comunitiiti au convietuit paralel, fiirii a exercita
influente vadite unele asupra altora. Dupii limita de aptoximativ 20 mii ani A.
Ch. comunitiitile aurignaciene din zonii ori dispar, ori sunt complet asimilate
de comunitiitile gravetiane. Mai persista. in zonii doar unele comunitiiti de tipul
celor de la Ra~cov VII , care mai piistreazii in inventar unele tipuri de unelte
aurignaciene.

faunoi v Pridnestrovie. ln "Anuarul I'(Muzeul National de Istorie a Moldovei) Chi~iniiu, 1992,


pp. 75- 95.
22 Ibidem, pp . 78.
23 Rogaciov, A., Anicovici, M. Pozdnii Paleolit Russkoi ravnini i Krima. In . "Paleolit SSSR"
(Arheologia SSSR), Moskova, 1984, pp. 162-271.
24 Borziac, I. Chetraru, N. Statiunea din paleoliticul superior Ciutul~ti I. In "Arheologia Moldovei.
XVIII, Bucure~ti , 1995, pp. 95- 113.
25 Borziac, I. Paleoliticul ~i mezoliticul... p. 24.
26 Borziac, I., Chetraru, N. Pozdnepaleoliticeskaia stoianka v grote Ciunt.u. In. "BKICP", N. 48,'
Moscova, 1976, p. 77.
27 Conform unui contract INT AS in 1997 cercetarea statiunii Molodova V a fost reluatii din
nou. Cercetarile de salvare sunt efectuate de o echipa formata din speciali~ti din Ucraina,
Moldova ~i Belgia.

28 ln 1997 au fost recuperate mostre de os pentru datarea statiunii.


29 Chirica, V., Borziac, I., Chetraru, N. Gisements. '. .pp. 195.
30 Oliva, M. L' Aurignacieri ... pp. 104--134.
Summary

NOTE
' Chirica, V., Borziac I., Che.traru N. Gisements du paleolithique superieur ancien entre le Dnibster

et la Tissa.

Ia~i,

1996, pp. 175- 191.

Borziac I., Allsworts-Jones, F., Chetraru, N. Cercetiiri interdisciplinare in grotele paleolitice din
nordul Moldovei. ln "Tirajetia", Nr. 4, Chi~iniiu, 1995, pp. 68.
3
Chirica, V., Borziac, I., Chetraru, N. Gisements ... p. 13-30; Anicovitch, M. Early Upper

Paleolithic Industries Eastern Europe.

The article reviews the complicated issues of the Earli Paleolithic genesis and dev~lopment
in the Dniester-Carpathian area. It analyses and surveys the materials from 'the main stratified
sites- Brinzeni lower layer, Mitoc-Malul Galben, Molodova V, Corpaci, Corpaci-Mis, Ripicenilzvor, Ciutule~ti etc. The author states the existence of the sites of the transitional stage from
Moustie to the Late Paleolithic, sites of the Pruthculture, Aurigniacian and Gravette sites. The
Aurignacian and Gravette sites existed in this area for more that 8 thousand years (from 29- 28
to 20 thousand years B. C.).

1n "Journal of World Prehistory", 1992, 6, 2.

Chirica, V. , Borziac, I. , Chetraru, N. Gise~ents ... pp: 185-190.


5
Borziac, I. The late Palaeolithic in Moldova (1991- 1995). ERAUL, 76, p. 33-40.
4

Conform datelor ciipiitate de Dj. Rink (Canada), varsta nivelului inferior de locuire din grota
Branzeni are o limitii inferioarii de peste 32 mii ani A. Ch.
7
Borziac, I., Golibert, A., Medeanik, S., Motoc, V. Arheologia i paleogeografia stoianki Climiiuti
II. ln "Materiali i issledovania po. arheologii i. etnografii Moldovi", Chi~inau, 1992, pp . 3148 .
8
Anisiutkin, N. Varianty srednego paleolita v Pridnestrovie. In Arheologiceskii sbornik
Gosudarstvennogo Ermitaja. Leningrad, 1979, N . 19, p. 5-21.

9
Borziac, I. Verhnepaleoliticeskaia stoianka Gordine~ti Iv Poprutie. Chi~iniiu, 1984, pp. 3-79.
0
' Paunescu, A , Ripiceni-lzvor. Paleolitic ~i mezolitic. Bucure~ti , 1993, pp. 131- 171.
11
Borziac, I. Paleoliticul ~i mezoliticul i!l spatiul dintre Nistru ~i Prut. ln "Thraco-Dacica, XV,
1- 2, Bucure~ti, 1994, pp. 19-40.
12
Paunescu, A. Ripiceni-Izvor... p. 137.
"Borziac, I., Grigorieva, G. , Chetraru, N. Poselenia drevnecamennogo veca na Severo-Zltpade
Moldavii. Chi~iniiu, 1981.

14
Paunescu, A. Ripiceni-Izvor ... pp. 31-130.
15
Otte, M., Chirica, V. Atelier Aurignacien a Mitoc Malul Galben (Moldavie roumaine). 1n
"Prehistoire Europeenne", V. 3., Liege, 1993, pp. 55- 67.
' ' '
1
6Borziac, I. Paleoliticul ~i mezoliticul... p . 33-34.
17
Chirica, V., Borziac, I., Chetraru, N. Gisements .. . pp. 85-94.
18
Oliva, M. L' Aurignacien Morave dans son contexte geographique et culture!. tn "Le
paleolithique et le neolithique de la Roumanie en contexte Europeen'', Ia~i, 1991 , pp. 104- 162.
19
Borziac, I. , Grigorieva, G., Chetraru, N. Poselenia ... pp. 72.
20
0/iva, M. L'Aurignacien Morave ... pp. 109- 118.
21
Borziac, I. , David, A. , Obada, Nh. Klimiiuti II-verhnepaleoliticeskaia stoianka s mamontovoi
-10 -

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- 14 -

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- 15 -

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NQ 93-1693- ExT.

JllITEP ATYP A

Puc. 2. Hol!(11 "KoCTeHKOBcKoro T11na". 2, 4, 5-cno11 Sa 11 5 CTOJ1HK11 KopMaHh IV; 1-3-cnoif 7


CTOJIHKl1 Mo110.noaa V.
1<oac1<oro nrna'<. (Puc. 3). ,ll;mrna npeAMeTa - 8 CM., mrn6onhillaa llIHprrna '5 CM. JleBhlll Kpaii IIOJ1HOCThlO OTpeTyllIHpOBaH rronyKpyToii peTyUJhIO, rrpaBhIH
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3arOTOBKa Ha 06e11x KOHu:ax HOCHT
cneAhI HeraTHBOB CHlITHH "MpHru:Horo"
T11rra. Co CTOpOHhI 6proliIKa o6a Kottu:a
cTecaHhI crrepaa KpyrrHhIMH CKonaMu, a
3aTeM caMH KOHU:hl "ne3BHii:" IIOAIIpaBneHhI peTyIIIhIO. CornacHo caMhIM cTporuM KaHOHaM '.HOT rrpeAMeT lIBJilleTClI
"tt0)1(0M KOCTeHKOBCKoro" THHa.
IlpuMepHO IIOA06HhIH )[(e i;ipeAMeT
BhrnaneH B cnoe 5 :no ii )l(e CTOlIHKH (puc.

Puc. 3. Holl< "KoCTeHKOBCKoro Tlma" 113


' c110J1 6 croJIHK~ KopMaHb IV.

1, -10). IlpucyTCTBYeT Ta )l(e lIAPHIUHalI


IIOAIIpaBKa Ha KOHu:ax co CTOpOHbl
CIIHHI<H H THIIHtJ:HOe CTeCbIBairne KOHU:OB

-16 -

'Tpuzopbea I'. II. 0THOII!e~me BOCToqHoro rpaBeTheHa K3anaJ1y. B KH.: "BocroqHhiif fpaaeTT",
MocK1Ja, 1997, c. 44-48~
'
'
2
'lepHbnu A. II. IlaneoimT 11 Me30JIHT I1p11J1Hel--TpoBhJ1 (K apThl ii Kaoranor MeCT0HaXOll<AeH11ii),
MocKBa, 1973, c. 68- 75.
, .,
'Poza'!ea A. H., A1-1uKOBU'I M. B. Il03AH11H naneon11T PyccKoif PaBHl1HhI 11 KphIMa. B KH.:
I1aneon11T CCCP . (Apxeonorttll CCCP), MocKBa, 1984, c. 167.
4
Otte, M., Noire!, P. , Tatartsev, S., Lopez Bayon, /. L'Aurignacien de Siuren I (Crimee): fouilles
1994 et 1995. In: The Upper Paleolithic. V. 6, Forti, Italia, 1996, pp. 123-139. Otte, M., Noiret,
P., Chirica, V., Borsiak, I. Rythme evolutif du, Gravettien Oriental. Tot acolo, pp. 213- 227,
5
TaoJooaep M. P. Opy1111J1 co cTecaHHhlMl1 KOHL(aM11 KOCTeHKOBCKo-as11eescKoi1 Kyn&Typhl. B
KH.: "BocTO'IHhiif fpaaeTT" , MocKBa, 1997, c. 31-34.
.
6 'lepHblUI A. II. 3TaJIOHHall MHOfOCJIOHHall CTOJIHKa MoJIOAOBa v. J110J1H Ka.MeHHOro BeKa 11
0KpylKa10maJ1 cpe11a. MocKna, 1987, c. 83- 84.
7 'lepHblW A. II. TaM lKe, c. 83- 85.
8
TaoJooeep M.!(. YK. coq., c. 33.
9 EenReea B. H. OnhIT co311a1-111J1 MeTOA11Kl1 on11caH11J1 "HolKeif KOCTeHKOBcKoro Tl1na" . B KH.:
I1po6neMhI naneon11Ta Bocroq11oif 11 U:eHTpan&Hoif Eaponbl. J1emmrpa11, 1977, c. 117- 126 .
oenJieBa B. H . KpeMHeBblH m-rne1napb KoCTeHOK I. ABTOpecjl. Ka.HA. /111CC. J1eH11Hrp311, 1979,
c. 10- 11.
10
Bradley, B. Kostenkovski Knife: type or technique. In': " BoCToqHbIH fpaBeTT", MocKBa, 1997,
c. 73- 75.
"'lepHblW A. II. MHoroc11oifHaJI naneo1111T11qecKaJ1 CTOJIHKa KopMaHh IV 11 ee.Mecro Bnaneon11Te.
, B KH.: MHorocnoifHaJI naneonHTH'lecKaJI CTOJIHKa KopMaHh IV. MocKBa, 1977, c. 67-68.
Summary

The problem to give a technico-tipological definition to


Gravette" mass is fairly complicated and many-sided. The rr/JUlll~
egory are often united a priori into this categori without the du
IX: , i
materials from thdate-Paleolithic sites of the Dnistef' area,
serve as an evidence in favour of a multifacial and multicu t ~
Gravette" monuments in the Eastern Europe, are prezented in f
"Costenki type knifes", shouldered point which have been discov~~~~s~1~:P1-'}\'l/'~;tt
and Cormani IV and have not .been taken into consideration befo1
!ftS~l~~1t
concluzion that the tipological backgvound <?f the Eastern Gravette mo
.-

17 -

varians flakes and backed blades, vhichdo not reflect in total the cultural originality of lh c monuments, but reprezent a technical innovation, that considerably transformed the tools of these
monuments and opened the new opp'ortunites of using the flint as a rew material for making the
'
'
working tools and weapons.

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I, 11ccne.[(onamroli aa npoTa)[(emrn rrocnemrnx 16 rrer apxeorroroM


4 544 45
Bop3na.I<OM , mn11pyeMoli no C 14 13 . 000~.19.000 JJeT,' co6pmro

Koc3yuh

W. A .

CBhIIlie

30.000

I<OCTeli cenepttoro orre1rn, lJTO COCTaBJrneT OKOJIO

92,4%

OT

OTpOCTKOM.

y KpynHblX poroB caMl{OB BTOpoii OTpOC"I'OK 0'-1.CHh CIIJ!bHO pa3BIIT.


28 cnyqaax. ITepBbIH

06a i-ia.r1rna3HHt.IHhIX OTpocrKa 3apernCTpttposanh1 s

3a.n1111li o'fpocTOK Tie6on&woro pa3Mepa OTMet.IeH seer y Tpex I<pynHbIX 11


qeTbrpex 6onee MenK11x poroB, a B .nnyx crry'!aax Ha ero MecTe Haxo.[(HTCJI
ne60J1bll10i:i rpe6eHh, H.D.YlllHH B,ll,OJib 3a,naeli: t.IaCTl1 CTBOJia. ;[(HCT<WbHaJI '-1.aCTb

1), crnon KOToporo

KOCTHhIX OCTi:lTKOB npOMhICJIOBblX BII.[(OB , Bb!HBJieHHbIX Ha J.(i:lHHOH CTOlIHKe.

coxpammacb TOJibI<O y OJLHOro Kpyrrnoro pora caMua (pIIc.

Ha116cirrhmee KOJIH'-1.eCTBO KocreH: npottCXOiJ.HT 113 rrepBbIX tJeThipex crroen .

o6pe3<UI 3a neps&IM 3a.UHIIM oTpocTKOM rraneonIITMt.IeCKHM c1enoBeKOM (.[(JIHHa

HarrpnMep, H3 crroa 3 (III , IIIA H IIIB) H3BJiet.IeHo 01<orro 12 ThlCl! 11 I<OCTHhIX


OCTi:l'fKOB 52 . B Marepuane Rpe.[(CTaBJieHhI Bee 'IaCTH CKeJieTa, HO OHll 0'-1.eHb

B Kat.IeCTBe opy.nua Tpy.r1a, o creM cn11.[(eTenbcTsy10T oTmrrnqiosaunhre ,c

cliparMer-rrapHbI, ClfJihHO pa3.[(po6rreHbI, 0.D:Hi:lI<O B KpymihIX X035IHCTBer-rno-

naTepanhnorr c-ropOHbI r<oae11naa (nocrre.r1Hne np11Mepno

6bITOBblX KOMITJieKcax 6blJIH 3aperHC'rprrpoBaHbI TI03BOffKH 11 KOCTHI

'-1.aCTb CTBOJla H OTXO,ll,11.lllHe OT aero 4 OTpOCTI<a (KOHU:bI nepBbIX Tpex

KOHe'IHOCTeli B ecTec-rserrnoM coqnenemm . Muorne KOCTH pa3pyrnanttch B

CJJOMaHHbIC).

3TOI'O cpparMCHTa pora .no KOHlJ;a COCTa.BJIJICT npHMepHO

80,0 CM H HCIIOJih30BaH
45,0 CM) ynnorn:emraa

npOILecce paCKOUOK npH HX 113BJieqemrn H3 IIJ10THOro cyrrrHHKa .


.flpIIBO.[(IIM Kpan<yro xapar<TepIIC"l'HKY KOCTHbIX ocnrrKOB.
11,eJibie c1epena OTCYTCTBYIOT, IIMeIOTC51 Jil1illh OT.D,eJlhHbJe ero cliparMeUThI,
B TOM cmcne 3aThIJIOK c MblII.(eJIKaMH. Co6paHO CBbIWe 240 cl>parMeH:TOB poroB,

15 cm

cpe.r1rr I<OTOphrx o6pamaIOT Ha ce6n BHHM aHne 6a3aJ!hHbIC qac-rII c cJlparMeHTOM


rro6HOM KOCTH (OKOJ10

100

3K3eilmJIHpOB). 0Tnanurne pora 0'-1.eHb pe.[(Kl1.

BhrnsneHhI miwh 4 parMer-rra CTBOJra MeJIKIIX poros . 0t.ICBII.[(HO, mo)J.H 3Toli


CT05IHI<H IIX He co6IIpan11, TaK KaK OHH 6bIJil1 B ll306J1JIHH OT .r106bITbIX HMH

15 cm
'-----'

)l(llBOTHbIX.
Pora rrpoucxo)J.nT OT oco6ett. pa3JII1t.IHoro rrnJJ,1rn11.nyanhttoro B03pacra.
10 cm

I1MeJOTCll. Tai< Ha3bIBaeMbie "rrmIIJibKII" II .[(OBOJibHO KpynBbie 3K3eM11JI5IpbI


(puc.

1) ,

npHIIi:1-.[(Jle)l<aI11He H.eCOMHeHHO caMuaM, HO OCHOBH YI-0 Macey

COCTaBJilHOT pora HeOOJlbliIIIX pa3MepOB. CTocne.D,HIIe O<IeHb cna6bre, rnaBHbI H


CTBOJI y HHX TOHI<HH, B OCHOBHOM rrpaMOH llJil1 cna601non1yTbI11:, B OCHOBaHHH
6onee 11Jlll MeHee OI<pyrnbIH, a B MeCTe OTXO)l(.[(emrn Ha.[(rna3HH'-l.Hbl'X OTpOCTKOB
yrrrromeHHblH, y HeI<OTOpbIX 0'-1.eHb CHJibHO. 3rn pora rrp1rna.[(J1e)Ka1 no Bceli
BepOHTHOCT)1CaMKaM11 MOJIO.[(hIM CaMUaM . rnaBHbIJ1: CTBOJI y KpyilBbIX porOB
y OCHOBamrn lf Me)l(J;(y BTOpbIM 1-ra.nrna'.lI-IHl.fHbIM OTpOCTI<OM OKpyrJibii1. B
3aBHCHM0(.,'TII OT B03pacTa )l(HBOTHOro BapbIIpyeT TOJilU,HH a 11 .[(mrn a CTBOJla
OT BTopo r o J-Ia.[(I'Jia3Hl11JHOI'O OTpOCTKa .no rrepsoro 3a)J,Hero OT pOCTI<a.
311atf.nTen&Ho sapbIIpyroT TaK )Ke cpopMa, t.IHCHO, pa3Mephr n pacrroJIO)l(eirne
orpocTKOB. ITepB&IH 11a.nrna3HHt.IHbIH OTpOCTOK np11cyTcTsyeT

y 32 ,poroB;

El

OT.D,eJIMibIX c.rryqanx OH OLJeHb I<OpOTI<IIH, rrpe.n:cTaBJICH He60J1bllIHM 6yropKOM


un11 0'-1.eHb MOll{HbJH (pttc .

1).

'PacrroJio)[(eH o6hrtf.HO Henocpe.[(CTBemrn na.n

p03eTKOH, a HHOr.[(a Ha I-IeKOTOpOM paccTOll.Hlflf OT p03eTKH, 6JIH)l(e KO BTOpOMY


Ha)J.rJJa3HHLIHOMY OTpOCTOKy, o6pa3ya c HHM OCTpbIH rpe6eHh.

y 24

3K3eMnnapOB poroB pa3BHT TOJlbKO BTOpOH r-m.nrrra3HIIlJHbIH OTpOCTOK, HO

-22--

''

4 '
3cm

Puc. J. l - 3 - Mop<j>onor11llecKall 113Me1fiHBOCTb poroB ceBep11b1x one11ei1 113 Koc3yl\b .


4 - A11CTaJlbHblC 3Ul1Cjll13bl Ill!CTHOH KOL'Tl1 cenepHb!X oneHeH 113 npb1H3eHL (A), PaUJKOBa
(B) 11 KOC3Yl\b (C).

- 23-

Cpe):(II MHOfOt.J:HCJJeHHbIX OCTaTKOB 3 yforni1 CIICTeMbI ceBepHoro onem1 II3


Koc3yUh

ycTaHOBJJeHbI

5 qiparMeHTOB BepxHetJeJJIOCTHhIX KOCTeli

c IIOJJHhIM

3yfa1bIM PHAOM 11 AeCHTKII cpparMeHTOB c OAHIIM mm HeCKOJihKHMII 3y6aM11,


cpparMeHTOB BeTBeH Iflf)I<HeH t.iemoCTII c IlOJ1HbIM II CBbIIIIe
1-ienoJIHhIM 3y6HbIM PHAOM, a raK )l(e CBhIIIIe

1100

80

Ta6n 111.1a
PaJMepbl (B MM) 'lepena, HHlKHCH 'leJIIOCTH " KOCTCH KOHC'lllOCTCH CCBepuoro OJICHll

6
P. Mon,o;osa

rpparMeHTOB c

HII)l(HHX 3 y60B , HaXO):(HllIIIXCH Ha pa3J111'IHbIX CTa,[(IIHX cn1:paH11H (OT


HeTpOHYTbIX CTIIpaHIIeM ):(0 CTepTbIX AO OCHOBaHHH KOpOHKII II ):(a)l(e ITO):(

'

I<OpeHh, Il:MeIOTC51 MOJ10t.J:Hbie npe):(I<OpeHHhie). qeJJIOCTII TaK )l(e npnHa):(.rie)l(aT


)l(Il:BOTHbIM pa3J1IIt.J:HOro Il:H,[(11BH):(yaJJhHOro B03pacTa (eCTb HII)l(J-Ilfe t.iem-OCTII
c MOJJOt.i:HhIMII npeMOJJHpaM:II ,' Ha: CTaAIIII npope3bIBaHHH

Ml' M 2

YKpamra

Ilpll3Hru<

II30JJIIPOBaHI-Ihix BepxHttx II

MyCToe

Ilo3):(11RH rraneomrr
(KOC3yr(b I')

Ilo3):(11RH naneomrr3

Ha116 Ollblll ee paccroJiuoo


MeJKJzy HapylKHblMH KpaJIMH
3aTblll0'1HbIX Mhlll\eJIKOB

13 58,0-74,3 65,2

6 61 ,5- 68,5 64,58

9 19,5-27,0 23 ,7
11 20,0--- 26,0 24,1

7 24,0-28 ,5 26,2
5 20,0- 25,5 23,3

23 78,0-48,0 26,1
23 15,5--38 ,0 23, 1

5 18,0-23,5 21,2
5 18,0-22,5 19,5

6 94,0- 106,0 97,8

4 98,0- 104,5 100,1

npeMOll'.llpOB

11 48,0-42,0 45,5

6 45,0-48,0 47,58

ptL1MepaM, maBHhIM o6pa3oM caMKaM. BhrnBneHhITaK)l(e oCTaTKH, npnHaAJJe)l(amIIe

.lJ,rrHHa pll,!(a B epxueKopCHHbIX


MOll'.llpOB

r-

10 51,4--58,0 54,4

MOJJOAbIM oneHHM. CpeAH HHx BhID;eJ15IIOTCH KOCTH c OTnaBilll1MII 3nIIcpmaMH: HII)l(HIIH

.lJ,rrHHa ,!(HaCTeMbl HHJKHeH

7 49,5-56,5
'
5 70,0- 78,0
6 14,0- 18,0
6 24,5-31,0

IIOCTOHHHbIMII npe):(I<OpeHHbIMH 11 BCeMM KOpeHHbIMl1 3y6aMH pa3J1IIt.J:HOH


CTerre1rn CTepTOCTII). IlpoMepbl 3y6oB ,[(aHbI B Ta6nm1e

3.

0CHOBHYIO Macey KOCTHOro MaTepIIana COCTaBJJHIOT rpparMeHThI Il03BOHKOB,


pe6ep, nonaTOK, Ta3a, Kocreli KOHet.J:Hocreli. Tpy6t.iaThieKocru o6bit.J:HO pa3Apo6ne1mh1

Ha11Meu1>lllaJ1 lIIHpttHa 3ar1>mo1noro crrnepcrHJI


B1>1cora 33ThlllO'IHOro OTBepcrttll
ITepe.L(ue-JaAHHH ,!(HaMerp neHbKa

pora

Ha MeJIKMe cliparMeH'IlbI ( coxpaHMJJaCh JIHIIIh 0.[(Ha IIOJ1HM 60J1hillaH 6epuoBaH KOCTh) ,

Bo1<oeoii: AHaMerp neu1>1<a pora

B CB51311 c 'IeMB r-rnrneM pacrrop5I)l(eHI111,[(JJH II3yt.ieHHH HMeIOTCH B OCHOBHOM HX BepXHIIe

JJ;rnrna pll.L(a
3y6oe

H HI1)l(HIIe KOHIIhI. CpaBHHTeJJhHO xopoIIIo coxpaHIIJIHCh HeKpyrrHhie Kocrn 1anHCTh5l

II 3 aIIJ1IOCHbI, ciianaHrM rranbIIeB. Ilpeo6na,[(aIOmaH t.iaCTb KOCTHbIX , OCTaTKOB


KOHet.i:I-IOcrerr ceBepaoro OJ1eH51 npHHa,[(JJe)l(IIT B3pOCJ1bIM )l(J1B0THbIM,

KOHeII nnet.ieBOH KOCTII -

9,

30,

Bepxrrnli KOHeII (ronOBKa)

Bi,1cora ,!(HaCTCMbI Bnepe,!(H P~

4 82,0- 87 ,0 $3,6
1114,5-19,0 16,1
12 23,3- 30,0 26,8

BMcora TeJia 'leJI!OcrH Mell\[(y Pm4


HM 1

4 30,0-32,0 31,0

1 30,0

6 16,5-,--20,2 18,2

I 20,5

HII)l(HIIH I<OHeII 60J1hllIOH 6epIIOBOH KOCTl1 -

19, HII)l(HHH

25, BepXHIIH KOHeII cll<DJaHrn I - 17, BepXHHH KOHeII


7. He1<0TOpb1e o6noMKII Kocreli Hecyr cne):(bI o6pa6oTKII 1<peMHeBbIM11

opyA11HMII n IICIIOJih30BaHII51 rrepB06bITHhIM t.ienoBeI<oM4544 .


Pa3Mepbl I<OCTeH B IIeJIOM He OTJ1II'IaI-OTC51 OT pa3MepoB COOT B eTCTBYIOIIIHX
I<OCTeli ceBepuoro oneHH H 3 rraneonHTII'IeCKHx CTOHHOK YKpa11Hh13, B e pxHero
32

,[l,01-ia , CeBepuoro 11 CpeAHero Ypana 23 24 .

M1-1,u;Mntt,u;yaJibHhIH B03pacT MCKonaeMbIX 1wcTeii


cenep1-1oro o.nemi naJieoJIMTa MoJI,u;OBbI
I13yt.ieH11e M opqionorrrt.iecKoro CTpoeu1151 II 11H,LIHB11.rryanhHOro B03pacTa
KOCTHbIX OCTaTKOB ceBepHoro o n eHH, B t.iaCTHOCTH LiepenOB, poroB , t.ieJIIOCTeI1,
1y60B, OT,[(eJibHhIX KOCTeH KOHe'JHOCTeH .rraeT B03MO)l(H0CTh ycTaHOBIITh BpeM51
npe6bIBaH115l, CpOI<H ,.rro6I>I'III II B03paCT )l(llBOTHhIX.
C6porneHHhie pora, a Ta1<)l(e KpynHI>Ie rrx 3K3eMnnHpbI, npot.i:HO coe):(nHeHHhie c neHhKOM, CBII,!leTeJihCTBYIOT 0 TOM, t.J:TO onemi: o6HTaJIH 3,!leCb oceHhIO
11 3HMOH, a ot.ieHb MaJieHhI<IIe pora c ue60JiblIIIIM H Jil1 Boo6me OT CYT CTBYIOIIIH

ToJ1IUma TeJia 1eJ110cr11 ua


ypoBue Pm4 H M
1
,[(JIHna pll,!(3 HHJKHCKOpCHHb!X

46,0:49,2
65,4
24,3-27,2
(n=3)

71,2
18,6
28,5

8 57,0- 110,0 103,8


15 42,0-52,4 46,3
20 56,0-68,0 61 ,3
,76 21,0-27 ,6 ,24,6

2 108 ,5; 119,0


7 45,0- 51 ,0 47,93
3 64,0- 68,0 66,5
7 23,0- 27,0 ,25,43 .

39 30,5- 39,0 34,9


40 25,0-36,0 29,2

13 35,0- 40,5 40, 1


13 25,0-35 ,0 30, 7

53,3

12 40,0-52,0 45,4

5 44,5- 50,5 47,2

JIY'ICBOH KOCTH
lllttpHHa HHJKHero 3IImpa3a

49,3

71 39,0-50,5 44,4

10 43,0-50 ,5 49,9

JIY'!CBOH KOCTH
):(mma ID!CTHOH KOCfH

196,0
38,3
43,3

52 38,6-48,0 43,0
32 29,5--37,2 33,4
107 38,0-45,5 41,1
308,0
6 55,0-60,0 57,7
109 31,2-45,3 39,8

9 39,5-47,5 42,5
-

3y6oB
):(JIHHa pJI.L(a ripeMoll'.llpoe
):(nma pMa MOll'.llpoB
.D,rrttua M 3
Harr60JiblIIHH "'HaMerp cycraBHOH ena,!(HHbl nonaTKH
Ha11MeH1>lIIHH ,!(ttaMerp ee
lll11p1ma HHJKHero :m!ipaJa
nne ie noii KO crH

lllHpHHa BepXHero 3IIHcpa:ia

lllttpHHa eepXHero 3IIHcpa3a ee


llfupttHa HHJKHero 3III1cpa3a ee

ua.rrrna3HHt.J:HbIM OTpOCTI<OM rrpIIHa,!lJie)l(aJrII )l(HBOTHbIM , ):(06h ITbIM BeCHOR II

.lJ,rrHHa 6ollblIIOH 6epUOBOH KOCfI1


lllttpHua eepXHero 31II1cpa3a ee

netoM (pora caMOK H TenHT).

llfup1ma HI1JKuero 3III1cpa3a ee

- 24 -

52,8

'leJllOCfH
HaaMCHhlllall Bb!OOTa ,[!mcreMDI

KOHeII IIJ1I-OCI-I eBOH I<OCTII rpanaHrn II -

):(rmua pJI.L(a Bepxue1<opeHHD1x

14

3K3eMnn5Ipa, BepXHIIH KOHeII nyt.ieBOif KOCTII -

3K3eMIIJ1HpOB, J-III)l(HIIH KOHeII II5ICTHOH KOCTII 6e):(peHHOH I<OCTII -

CYAH no

sepxue1<opeHHD1x

28,0; 36,4
25,0; 34,5

25 -

11 34,5-41,0 37,9

5 58,0- 64,0 61,2


10 38,5-43 ,0 39,8

Ilpooo11:>1cenue ma6!1U!Jbl 3

1
HaH60Jiblll<UI ,ll.JIHHa IlllTO'IHoii
KOCTH
JlaTepaJibHaJI .11JlHHa mpaHHOH
KOCJ'H
lllHpHHa ,!1HCTaJibHoro KOllI~a ee
L(imua nmocueeoii KOCTH
lllHpHHa e'erXHero 3rru<Pa:ia ee
'lllHpHHa HHJKHero 3rru<Pa:ia ee
HaH60Jiblll<UI MHHa

I <Pananrn

IllnpHHa BepXHero 3TIH<Pa:ia ee


HaH60Jiblll<UI MHHa II <Panaurn

* Cne)leHlUI 0 pa3Mepax KOCTHbIX

99,6

22 87,6-102,8 92,3

9 87,5--98,0 92,7

50,4
32,5
280,0
32,5
42,6
50,2- 54,2
52,0 (n=3)
-

136 40,4-53 ,3 45,2


127 23,0- 31,4 27,7

12 43,5-47,8 44,7
14 25,5-29,0 27,4

12 27,0- 33 ,0 30,3
73 38,0-46,0 40,2
32 46,0-54,5 49,2

4 28,0-32,0 29,4
3 38,0-44,5 40,3
34 45,0-55,0 49,45

32 19,0-24,0 20,8
37 33,2-39,5 36,0

33 19,5-23,5 26,15
37 31,0-42,0 36,2

onemr 113 Jlpyrax fl03,l].HcnaneomtTiiq'CCKHX MCCTOHaXOiK,IlCHHti:


(EpMH3CHb I , llyHTy, ,n:ypymoapea Bexe, PawKOB VII, PawKOB VIII) ony6muonaHbI 11 o6o6m,ettoM .nH,.o;e B Jlpyroti pa6oTe'.
OCTaTKOR CCBCpHoro

EonblliOM HHTepee B rrnaHe yeTaHOBneHH5I HI-I,!:UIBHJJ:YanhI-IOro B03pacra


eeBepHoro .one1rn. rrpe.n:eTaBrr5IeT u3yqeH11e 3yforoiI eueieMhI. :Vl3BeeTI-IO, 'ITO
II3MeHeHIUI 3y6HOM eIICTeMbI B OHTOrette3e l103BOn5IIOT yCTaHOBI1Tb B03paeT
)l(IIBOTHbIX TOnhKO .n:o 5 neT 323 33 .

B HallieiI KonneKQIIH HMe10Te5I eBhIIIIe 20 3K3eMmrnpoB HJf)l(HeiI qen10eTH e


MenKHMH ttecrepTbIMII MOJlO'IHbIMH 3y6aMH H rrpope3bIBaIDIQIIMe5I MI' KOTOpb1e
MoryT rrpuHa.n:ne)l(aTh TenHTaM, rnaBHhIM o6pa30M, eaMKaM OT ,D,Byx .n:o 'leTbipex
M:eemieB, y6HThIX B neTHe-oeemmiI rrepll:o.n:. <!>parMeHTbI HH)l(Hei1 t:re.nIOeTH e
Mono'lHbIMH 3y6aMH II e rrpope3bIBaIOIQHMe5I M 2 rrpoucxo.n:HT OT )l(HBOTHbIX B
B03paCTe OT 6.)J.0 10 MeC5I[(eB, y6HTbIX B oceHHe-3HMHHH rrepHO)J.. y HeCKOnhKHX
qemoeTei1 rrpope~bmaeTe5I M 3 H o.n:noBpeMeHHO pa3BHBaIOTe5I rroeT05IHHbie
npeMOn5IpbI, HO OHM eme He rrpope3bIBMIIeh. 3TH qenIOeTH MOryT rrpm-ia.n:Jie)l(aTh oneHHM 16-18 Mee5I'lHoro B03paeTa. 1Ien10cTII e rroCT05IHHbIMII Pm2 II
., Pm3 eBHJJ:eTeJlbCTBYIDT, 'ITO )l(HBOTHbie 6bIJ1II y6HTbl B B03paeTe OT 19 .n:o 22
MCe5IQeB B 3HMHe-BeeeHHee BpeM5I. l1MeIOTC5I HH)l(JJHe qenIOCTH, 3y6Ha5I eueTeMa
KOTophrx rronHoeThIO oqrnpMneHa (rroeT05IHHbie Pm eme He TpoHyThI
cTupaHHeM, M 1 H M 2 HeMHoro eTepT~r, M 3 enema TpoHy~ eT11paHHeM). Y
eeBepHoro O.FieH5I 3TO rrpoHeXO)J.IIT K TpeM ro.n:aM.
Y o.n:Hoii HH)l(Hei1 qen10cTH rronHhIM 3y6ttoii p5I.n:. 3y6br MeJIKIIe, cunhHO
eTepTbie (y Pm Koneu: epe.n:Heii eTa.D.HII, y M - uaqano rroene.n:neii). 0Ha
rrpHHa.n:ne)l(am1 eaMKe, y6uToii B B03paeTe 6- 7 neT. 3aeny)l(HBaeT BHHMaHHe
1
O)J.Ha HH)l(He'!eJJIOeTHa5I BeTBh, y KOTOpoii ITOJIHOeThlO OTeyTeTByeT M3 ( erre.n:oB
aJlhBeOJlbl HeT), HO oeTanbHhie 3y6hI CHnhHO ccr.epTbI (y MOJ15IpOB rroene.n:H5I5I
cTa,D,H5I). MerrKHe pa3MepbI eBH,D,eTenhCTBYIOT, 'ITO oHa rrp11Ha.n:rre)l(ana eaMKe
B B03pacre 8-10 nei. ,[(pyraH HH)l(H5IH qen10eTh e noJIHhIM 3y6nb1M pa.n:oM H e
' O'leHb eHnhHO CTepTbIMH 3y6aMH (noene,D,HH5I CTa.D:H5I, a Ml eTepT no.n: KOpeHb)
Morna rrpHHa.n:Jie)l(aTh )l(l1BOTHOMY B B03paCTe 9- 10 JieT.
Ilo KOeT5IM KOHe'lHOeTeii TaK)l(e MO)l(HO orrpe.n:enHTb HH)J.HBH,D,yanbHbIM
B03paeT oT.n:enhHhIX oeo6eii neKorraeMoro eeBepnoro oneHH, rnaBHhIM o6pa30M

- 26 -

no rroene.n:oBaTeJlhHOCTII epaCTaHH5I 3rrnH30B e .n:11aqnnaMII. TaK, cpananrn I


11 II, a TaK)l(e rr5ICTHaH KOCTh e oTnaBlli,HMH ~epxn11MH 31m113aM11, n~e'leBaH,
60JlhlllaH 6epu;oBaH KOCTb H IlJIIOCHeBaH KOeTh 6e3 HH)l(Hero 3nHcpH3a. KOTOpbie
HMeIOTeH B HalliHX KOnJieKQHHX, rrpoHeXO)J.HT ,OT MOnO)J.blX )l(HBOTHbIX B B03paeTe
OT HeCKOJibKHX Mee5Iu;eB )J.0 1-1,5 ro;:i:a. IlepBbie qianaHrH e qaeTH'lHbl
cpacTaHHeM Bepxnero 31m1i3a, II5ITO'!HaH KOCTb e HeIIOJIH,blM cpaCTaHHeM
IlHTO'lHOrO 6yrpa, IIJllOCHeBaH 6onhIIIa5I 6epu;oBaH H nneqeBa5I KOCTH c HenonHbIM cpacTaHHeM HH)l(Hero 3nHcpH3a, 6e.n:peHHaH KOCTb c o;rrraBlliHM BepXHHM
1rnHpH30M npnHa.n:ne)l(aT oneH5IM B 1303paeTe 2- 3 neT. IlonHoe epacTattne
l1HTO'lHOro 6yrpa y nHTO'lHOH KOeTH H 3nHH3a e )J.HacpH30M y BepxHero KOH[(a
nepBoii anaHrn y eoBpeMennoro ceBepHoro oneH5I HMeeT MecTo K 'leTbipeM
ro.n:aM, a y nOKTeBOH, HH)l(Hero KOH[(a JIY'lyBO.M KOeTH H 6e.n:pa- K IIHTH ro.n:aM,
HO TaK.He OCTaTKH y Hae e,D,HHH'!Hbl.
TaKHM o6pa30M, ey.n:a no cTerre1rn epaeTatt115I 1n11H30B e .n:nacpH3aMH
KOeTeii KOHe'lHOeTeii, KOHeTaTHpyeM, 'ITO oeHOBHOe KOnH'leeTBO KOCTHbIX
OCTaTKOB rroeTKpamrnnhHOro eKeJieTa rmeMCTOQeHOBblX eeBepHbIX oneneli B
Mon.n:oBe OTHOeHTe5I, KaK H no eoeTOHHHIO 3y6noii eHCTeMhI, K )l(HBOTHbIM
cTapllie Tpex 11 qeTbipex rreT.
Ilo qepenaM TaK)l(e MO)!<HO onpe.n:eJIHTb B03paeT )l(HBOTHbIX, BpeM5I HX
rrpe6hrnaHHH B .n:annoii MeCTHOCTH H .n:o6hr'IH. B naIIIeH. KOJIJieKQHH .n:Ba
(l)parMeHTa M03rOBOH qacTH qeperra e OTnaBlliHMH poraMH. 0.n:nn, H3
,[(ypy1noap5I BeKe (sepxHHM cnoii), Kpyrrnhrx pa3MepoB. rrpIIna.n:ne)l(HT
KpyrrHOMY eaMQY B B03paeTe eBbIIiie 6 neT. bbIJl y611T ,B KOHQe oee1-rn -Haqane
3HMbI. BTopoii qepen H3 EpbIH3eHh I (ttH)l(HHM enoii), 6onee MenKHX pa3MepoB,
npOHCXOJJ:HT OT B3poenoii eaMKH (lliBbl He cpOCJIHCb B nonnoii Mepe), .n:o6bITOM
npe.n:noJIO)l(HTeJibHO B neTHee speM5I.

Mopcl>o-cl>yH1~u:110Ham,HLIM aHaJ1113 nocTKpau11a.rrbnoro CKCJieTa

11.CKOnaeMhIX ccnepHhlX OJICHCM


Mop6-cpyHKQHOHanhHbie 11eene.n:osaHHH oen0Bhrna10Te5I na aHanH3Y
eMeH5IlOI[(HX .n:pyr .n:pyra HeKorraeMhIX cpopMMeTpnqeeKHX H MOpcponomqeeKHX
H3MeHeHHH B CTpOeHHH KOeTeii KOHe'lHOeTeM H 6noMexaHH'leCKOM, cpyHK[(HO- '
HaJlbHOM H 3KOnor11qecKOM HHTeprrpeTaQHH nonyqeHHbIX pe3ynhTaTOB 22 5o, 51 .
CTeneH.b Mopo-MeTpH'leCKHX H3MeHeHHM (K) Bbipa)l(aeTe5I KaK OTHOllieHHe
Me)l()J.y a6eOJIIOTHOM pa31rnu:eli anarrorH'lHbIX rrpoMepoB .D:BYX ctinneTH'leeKH
eB5I3aHHbIX HCKOnaeMbIX cpopM H 3Haqe1rneM 3Toro npH3HaKa y 6onee .n:peBnei1
qJOpMbI:
K=(P 2- P 1)/P 1.100%
r.n:e P 1 - 3Haqe1rne MeTpnqeeKoro npH3HaKa 6onee .n:pesHeii cpopMr,1; P2 3Ha'leHne rrpH3HaKa noene.n:y10meii neKorraeMoii cpopMhI )l(HBOTnoro. ,[(na
MOpcpo-yHK[(HOHaJlbHOro anaJIH3a OT6HpanHCb rrpH3HaKH, OTBe'laIOIQHe
cne.n:yIOIQHM KpHTepH5IM:

- 27-

1.

Ba'IKHOe fo.ro -MexattwrecKoe 3Hatremrn rrpII rro1<0MaU:IIII 'IKIIBOTHoro.

2. 0TCYTCTBIIe' 3aBIICIIMOCTII OT rrorrOBOro .D.IIMOpII3Ma H OHToreHeTIItreCKOH II3MeHtIIIBOCTH.

3.

Y.n.oBrreTBOpIITerrbHa coxpaHHOCTh II KOrrIItreCTBeHHa rrpe.n.CTaBrreHHbcn npII3HaKa B' IICI<OnaeMOM MaTepIIarre, 'ITO Henocpe,D.CTBeHHO BrrII5leT Ha
,D.OCTOBepHOCTII pe3yrrhT<\TOB.
Mopo - cj.JYHKU:IIOHarrhHOMY attarrII3Y rro.n.Bepr'HYThI MaTepIIarrhI II3
MeCTOHaxo){(.n.ettIIil: Bphrn3eHh-I (Bo3pacT oKorro 40000 rreT), PaIIIKOB-VII

1<pynHhIX ceBepHhIX orreHeli l13BeCTHhI tt1 ByTellITh n Bphrn3eI-Ib I, caMhie MerrKIIe


uaii.n.eI-IhI B MeCTOI-IaXO)l(.IJ.eHIIII Paw1<0B VII. TeMa He MeHee ocTaTKl1 R. tarandus
II3 CTapbIX ~ypy.1nop (BTopoll. cnoii), reorrorntrec1<11il: B03pacT K,OTOpbIX He
HaMHOro MeHbllieB03paCTa paIIIKOBCKIIX oneHeH (npIIMepHO 3000 neT), 3aMeTI-IO
1<pynHee nocne.n.HIIX. Ha Halli B3rrr51.D., 3TOT cpe:H.oMeI-I o6b5ICH5leTc51 pa3nutrHhIMH
MexaHH3MaMl1, o6ycnaBnHBaIDII(l1MH pa3MepbI Terra )l(l1BOTI-IOro: Ha npOT5l){(eHIIl1 BCero BIOpMCKoro one.n.eHeHH51 ITOCTeneHHOe yxy.n.IIIeHHe I<rrIIMaTa II

(01<brro

COKpmu:eHHe I<OpMOBbIX pecypCOB 51Bn5lnHCb npHtIII~OH yMeHbllieHH51 pa3MepoB


Tena, 'ITO, OtJ:eBII,ll.HO, IIMeno xapaKTep qJeHeTIItrec1<0ro OTBeTa II He 3aTparl1BaJIO

Me<?TOHaXO){(,D.eHIIH HaII6onee xopowo npe,D.CTaBrreH KOrrIItJ:eCTBeHHO, 'ITO

reHeTIItrec1<11e CTPYKTYPhI. B ::inoxy pe3Koro rro3,D.HeBarr.n.aiic1<oro noxono.n.aHII51


cnIIIIIKOM MenKIIe pa1MepbI Tena OI<a3anIICh HHa,D.aIITIIBHhIMII (corrraCHO

Il03BOmieT HaM c.n.erraTb .D.OCTOBepHyID ou:er-my Mopo-MeTpIItreCKIIX npII3HaKOB


nocT1<paHIIarrhHoro c1<erreTa . TaKIIM o6pa30M , y Hae eCTh B03MO){(HOCTh

npaBIIny BeprMaHa); ~orro.n. OKq3arrc51 .n.eCTa6IIrrII3IIpyroII(IIM cpaKTopoM,


KOTOpbIH BI<nIOtJ:Hrr MeXaHII3M reHeTIItJ:eCKOH nepecTpOHKII rronyrrI(HH,

iipocrre,D.IITh qiopMIIpOBaHIIe a.n.anTaI(IIH y IICKOrraeMbIX ceBepHbIX orretteil: I-Ia

Be.IJ.yII(eil: I< yBerrIItreHIIID pa3MepoB Tena ceBepHhIX orreHeii. B KOI-IU:e BrnpMc1<oro


orre.n.eHeHH (3rroxa Ma.n.rreHa) .n.ypyIITopcKIIe orreHII cMeHIOTC51 6orree
MCnKHMII , OTHOCHTenhHO KpynH0 3y6bIMH H OLieHh MHOrOtJ:HCrreHHhIMII

20000 rreT), ~ypyHToap Be1<e (BepxHIIH cnoil:) (01<orro 17000 rreT) II


Koc3yU:h (13000-19000 rreT) (.n.aTIIpOBKa .n.atta rro 45 . MaTepIIan II3 3TIIX

rrpoDr){(eHIIII nepIIo.n.a 30000 rreT, T.e. m:~trTII Bcero BropMcKoro orre.n.eHeHII,


DO.D. BrrII5IHIIeM KrrIIMaTIItJ:eCKIIX II rraH,D.IIIaTiihIX II3MeHeHIIH.
Ha npoT>I){(eHIIII BropMa KrrIIMaT IICDhIThIBarr HeCKOrrhKO cMeHIOIQHX .n.pyr
.n.pyra rrepIIO.D.OB noTenrreHII51 II rroxorro.n.aHII51. Hatrarry BropMCKOro orre.n.eHemrn:
COOTBeTCTByeT frrIIHKOBCKIIH 3TaD pa3BIITII51 rropbl (6411,4 TbIC. neT),
KOTOpbIH corrpOB0)1(,ll.aJIC51 3HatIIITerrbHblM rroxorro.n.ar-rneM KOHTIIHeHTarrII3a1(IIH
KrrIIMaTa29 . TeppIITOpIIa Morr.n.oBhI Haxo.n.IIrrach BO BHerre.n.HIIKOBoil: 06rracn1
II npe,D.CTaBJI5lrra co6oil: ,nepIIrl1511(IIaJibHYIO 30HY co cpaBHIITerrhHO orpaHIItreHHOH nrroma.D.hIO co~HOBhIX rreco:B, npeo6rra.n.aHIIeM cTeneil: II 1<cepororroIIrrhHOH paCTIITerrhHOCThID (MapeBbie II norrhrnII) 29 . Bo BTopoil: rrorroBIIHe
cpe.n.Hero narreorrIITa tta6mo.n.aeTC51 He1<0Topoe rroTenrreHIIe II yBrra){(He1-me
KrrIIMaTa, conpoBO)l(.IJ.aBIIIeeC5I yBerrIItreHIIeM apearra rrecoB, TaK Ha3hrnaeMhIH

ceBepHhIMII-orreHMII (MeCToHaxo)l(.n.eHIIe Koc3yU:h). OtreBU.D.HO, trTO 1<oc::iyu:1<a5l


opMa orreH51 He MO){(eT 6bITb IIneTIItJ:eCKII CB513aHHOH c npe,D.hl.ll.YII(HMII
cpopMaMII .
JIOKOMOmopHbte aoanmaljUU

Jlmnesoii cyCTaB, o6pa30BaI-IHhlH .D.IICTarrhHhIM 6noI<OM nrretreBOH I<OCTII II


npOI<CIIManhHhIMl1 3Ill1II3aMII rrOKTeBOH II rrytreBOH , HeCeT cnO){(HYI-0
cpyHKI(III0 71421 36 : 1) onopHyID cpyHKI(IIIO, KOTOpyID BhIIIOnH5leT B OCHOB.\fOM
Me,D.IIanhHbIH OT,D.err cycnrna; 2) aMOpTII3a1(HOHHYIO qiyHI<I(III-0, 3aI<rrroqaIDII(YI-OC51

3)

BOrr,D.aHCKIIH IIHTepCTa.D.IIaIT. B COCTaBe ,D.eH.n.pocprropbI Il051Brr5IIOTC51 llIIIpOI<OrrII-

B CM5lrtreHIIH IIHepu:IIOHHhIX TOrrtJ:KOB Terra npII Dpbl){(Kax;

CTBeHHhie nopO.D.hI (.n.y6, f!IIrra, KrreH II .n.p.). C. H. Me.D.5IHIII< II K. ~ MIIxail:rrecKy29 paccMaTpIIBaIOT 3TOT rrepno.n. KaI< BeH.n.epcI<IIH nan pa3BIITH51 clmophI

TIIDe 6era B ycnomrnx OTKpblThIX npOCTpaHCTB. Ilp:H 3TOM I<OHetJ:HOCTh IIrpaeT

(408- 501

He porrh aMOpTII3aTopa , a HeceT rrOI<OMOTOpHbie cpyHKI(IIII; OCHOBHa51


.n.11n aMIItrecI<a51 Harpy3Ka.D.n51 TIO.IJ.T5lrIIBaHII51 Terra Bnepe.n. rra.n.aeT Ha pa3ri16aTenII

ThIC. rreT). Kai< y){(e yKa3bIBaJIOCh Bhirne, ocTaTI<H ceBepHoro


orreH51 , .n.aTIIpyeMhie ::JTIIM npoMe)l(yTKOM BpeMeHII , IlOtJ:TII He II3BeCTHbl.

MHor otrIIcrreHHhie 11 .n.ocToBepHbie oCTaTI<II

R.

tarandus

noB~IOTC rrnrnh K

I<O HU:Y cpe.n.1-ieBarr.n.ail:c1<oro IIHTepcTa,D.IIaJ1a (MeCTOHaxo:>K.n.eHIIH Hatrarra


no3.n.i-iero narreorrnTa : Bpbrn3eHh I , Kop){(eyu:h).
~erraKeyTCKIIH 3TaII

(23700320- 3500700 rreT) COOTBeTCTBYeT BpeMeHII

rro3.n.HeBarr.n.ail:c1<0ro orre.n.eHeHmr, Bo BpeMa KOToporo Ha TeppHTOpIIII


Morr.n.oBhI .D.OMIIHIIpoBarrII xorrO.D.Hbie TepIIrrr5IU:IIarrMibie cTenII 2943 . <l>rropa
xapaKTepII30Barrach rocno,D.CTBOM 1<ceporarroIIrrhHOH TpaBHHHCTOH paCTIITerrhHOCTII; pacrrpocTpaHHrrIICh I<ycTapHIII<OBbie BH.D.bl 6epe3bl, HBbI, orrexoBHIII<a. BetrHa51 Mep3rrOTa o6ycrroBIIrra pacnpocTpaHeHHe 6orr o:r, oco6ei-rno ,
OtJ:eBH,D.HO , B rrepIIO.D. paHHeil: KpIIomrpOTIItJ:eCKOH a3hI II03,D.HeBarr.n.ail:cI<o r o
orre.n.eHeHIIH.

lfaMenenun pa3Mepos TeJia.

Ha npOTH){(eHIIII Bcer o cpe.n.Hero mweorrIITa


Ha6rrID.n.aeTc51 yMeHbrneHIIe pa3MepoB Terra ceBepHoro oneH: oCTaT~II HaII6orree
-

28 -

.D.IIHaMHtJ:eCKYIO

qJyHK~III-0, HaII6onee Bbipa){(eHHYIO y I<OilbITHbIX npII BbIHOCnHBO-CKOpOCTHOM

JIOKTCBOro cycTaBa.
Ha npoT5l){(eI-mII no1.n.Hero narreorrIITa OTHQCIITenhHa51 MacqrnHOCTh
rrOJ<TeBoro cycTaBa He yMeHhrnaeTc, Ha6rr10.n.aeTC5l .n.a){(e yBerrIItreHHe CTpy1<Typ,
COCTaBJ15IlOII(IIX cycTaB, 'ITO CBII,D.eTeJihCTBYeT 0 BblCOKOH Har py11<e, rra.n.aIDi.Qeil:
Ha rroKTeBoii cycn rn. Y ceBepHbIX orreHeii II3 Koc3yU:h pa3Mepb1 .D.IICTanhHOro
6noI<a rrn etra II npOKCIIMaJihHOro 3IIIIa3a nytreBOM I<OCTII pe3KO yMeHbIIIeHhl,
trTO MO){(HO o6b5ICHIITh II3MeHeHIIeM cpym(u:IIoHarrhHOii Har py11<II . Xapa1<Tep
Harpy3I<II CTaI-IOBIITC51 5ICHhIM npII paCCMOTpeHIIII MOpcpon oruirecKIIX oco6eHHOCTeii. y OJieHeii II3 Bpb!H3eHb OTHOCIITeJihHa51 nrroma.D.b npoI<CIIMaJihHOro
cycTaBa radius 6orrhme; Ten o n o1<TeBoil: KOCTII, IIrpa1-0mee ponh rpe6H )l(eCTOKOCTII82528, otieHh BhICOKOe II MOII(HOe B cpaBHeHIIII c nOKTeBOM KOCTblO oneH51

2). 3TII np1nnaI<II CBII.D.eTerrhCTBYIOT o 3HatrIITerrhHOM


22 50 51
aMOpTII3aJJ;I10HHOM Harpy11<e , KOTopa51 rrO){(IITC51 Ha cycTaB npII rrpbl){(Kax .

II3 Koc3yU:h (pIIc.

- 29 -

cKopocTHOM 6ere.

cenepnoro oneHH H3 Koc3yU:h rrrnpttHa Me.z:i;11aJihHOH

c\laCeTKH OTHOCHTeJibHO MeHbille (c:M. Ta6n.


CKa1caTe.rtbHhIH cycTaB -

4).

CJIO)l(HaH CTPYKTypa, o6pa30BaHHall .IJ:HCTaJih-

HhIMH 31mcp1I3aMI1 6epu:oaoii H JIO.IJ:bl)l(l<OBOH KOCTett, TapaHHOH H II5ITO'IHOM


KOCT5IMI1. 3a Cl.feT crtt6aTeJihHhIX ,lJ;BmKeHHi-i B 3TOM cycraBe ocyru:ecTBJrneTCll
rrponyJII>CaU:H5I B 3a,z:i:Hett KOHel.fHOC~H.
Ha npOTHieHHH nepxHero rraneonttTa Ha6Jiro.z:i;aeT_CH a6co1mnnoe 11
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):(ncT~JibHbIH

u:e1-npaJibHOe MeCTO B cycTaBe.

3III1CpH3 6epUOBOH KOCTH H

cubonaviculare H3MeH5IIOTCH B COOTBeTCTBHI1 c I13MeHeHIIHMI1 pa3MepoB Tena.


Cne,z:i:yeT oTMeTHTh, 'ITO pa3MepbI 11 rrporropu:1111 TapaHnoif KOCTH ol.fenh
He3Hal.fHTeJibHO I13MeirnIOTC5I y ce.BepHbIX OJieHeli JII1HHI1 "ByTe1IITbBpbnI3eHb-):(ypyHTOapH BeKe-

PallIKOB", B TO BpeMH KaK y oneHeif H3

Koc3yUI> TapannaH KOCTh 3Hal.fIITeJibHO MeHhille c OTHOCHTenI>HO Y3KHM


,lJ;HCTaJlbHbIM 6JIOKOM.
IlHT0'1113H KOCTh 5IBJI5IeTC5I CHJIOBbIM pbI'IarOM 3a,z:i:Hei1: KOHC'IHOCTH,
3 cm

'-

MOIUHOCTb H ,lJ;JIHHa KOTOpoii Herrocpe,z:i:CTBeHHO OTpa)l(aeT BeJIH'IHHY


c\lyHKUHOHaJibl-IOH Harpy3KH.

OTHOCHT~JlbHO

OJieHeli , H3 BpI,>IH3eHh IIHTO'II-la5I KOCTb

yKopo'IeHa, o.z:i;naKO ee ,II5ITO,'IHbJi1: 6yr\)p ,o l.feHb MOll}HhIH , ~

TOnll}HHa,lJ;HCTaJibHOfO KOHU:a IIHTO'IHOrO 6yrpa npHMepHO I-Ia


aHanorH'IHbIH npoMep oJieHH H3 PallIKOBa.
A

Puc. 2.

PR. COR. - processus coracoideum; PR. 0. _ processus olecraniu,m; I. R. - incisura radii.

Y cenepHoro
2)

6% npeBOCXO,lJ;HT

6onee. II03.L\HI1X cpopM oneHett

rI5ITO'II-JbIH 6yrop yTOH'IaeTC5I, o,z:i:HaKO ero OTHOCHTeJibHCl5I .z:i:nmrn B03pacTaeT.


B .z:i:auHOM cJiy'Iae Ha cpopMy rrHTO'Inoro 6yrpa BJIHHIOT ,z:i:Ba qia1<Topa: Macca

Beep xy: coqneHeHHble npOKCHMaITbHble cpparMCHTbl ITOI<TeBbIX H nyeBb1X KOCTeii; n aTepaITbHblH H


aH-repHopHbIH acneKTbI 3K3eMnn~pa H3 Epb1H3~Hb-l (Al H A2} n aHTepnopHblH n naTepanLHbJH acneKTl>I
3K3eMnnMpa H3 Koc3yqb (Bl H B2 cooTBeTcrnenHo).
BHu1y: cyCTaBH~ nosepxHOCTb npoI<CMMaITbHOro 3nmpH3a .~yeBblX KOCTeH H3 EpL!H3eHb-I (A) H KoC3yqL (B).

,(p11c.

oJiemr M3 Koc3yU:h Bbipe3Ka Jiyl.feBOH KOCTM 6oJiee rJiy6oKa5I

'ITO yKa3hrnaeT na 6~Jiee npo'Inoe co~,z:i:11nerrne Me)l(,z:i:y radius tt ulna;

cpopMa .IJ:l1CTClJibHOro 6JIOKa nJiereBOH KOCTM '5IBJI5IeTC5I 6onee Ill1Jimr,z:i:po-

TeJia H nen11'I1rna cHJIOBOH uarpy3KH. KaK H3Becnro, y 6onee T5I)KeJII>IX


8 18
KOilbITHbIX l15ITO'IHa5! KOCTb OTHOCHTeJibHO KOpO'Ie . QqeBH,L\HO, 'ITO 6onee
KOpOTKall nHTOl.fHaH KOCTb y

R. tarandus H3 BpI>rn3eHI> o6ycnoBJieHa KpyrrHI>IMH

pa3MepaMH, B TO BpeMH KaK ee 60Jibllla5l MaCCHBHOCTb HaJibHOH narpy3KOH.

BbICOKOH rPYHKUHO-

oneHeii H3 ):(ypyHTOp MaCCMBHOCTb I1 ,lJ;JIHHa l15ITO'IHOM

I<OCTH B03pacTaeT' 'ITO CBH,[\eTeJibCTBYeT 06 ycHJieHHH a.z:i:arITaU:HH K rrpbI)l(K3M.

oneHeH !13 Koc3yU:b II5ITO'III<l5! .KOCTb OTHOCHTeJibHO Mana, oco6er-mo

A. 11.

o6pa3HOH, 'ITO xapaKTepno .IJ:JIH KOIThITHhrx 06ttTa10ru:ilx n OTKphrrI>rx

c11JII>HO coKparu:aeTCH .L\{1p)KaTenI> TapaHnoif KOCTH. KaK yKa3I>rnan

npocTpaHCTBax. 3Tl1 a,z:i:anTal(MH, Bep05ITHee Bcero, CB5!3aHbI c B03pOC1IIeH

JinxareB 2 5, Y.IJ:JIHHeHHe .z:i:ep)l(aTeJIH Tapa1rnoif KOCTH Be,[\eT I< yBeJIHl.feHHIO

,lJ;HHaMHl.feCKOH narpy3KOH I1 COBep1IIe1rn:eM o,z:i:noo6pa3HbIX ,lJ;Blf)l(eHMH B


napacar11TTaJihHOH IlJIOCKOCTI1 nptt BbIHOCJIMBO-CKOpOCTHOM 6ere2 250

MOMeHTa CHJihI B rny6oKOM crII6aTene rranI>u:eB. fny6oKHH cr116aTenI>

3armCTHO-UHCTHblH cycTaB neceT rPYHKU:MIO onophr, I<OTOpaH JIO)l(I1TC5I B


OCHOBHOM Ha ero Me.z:i;ttaJihHhIH OT,lJ;eJI 627 I1 l.faCTM'IHO neceT cpyttKU:HM
aMopn13au:11tt 16 - 18 28 .

3aUHH BO BpeM5I 6era, IIOCI<OJlbKY pa3rtt6aHHe nanI>u:eBbIX cycTaBOB 5IBJI5IeTC5I

Y pallIKOBrnttx oJieneif B cpaBHeHMH c R. tarandus H3 BpbIH3eHb yMeHhilleHa

OKaH'IHBaeTC5I Ha KOIIbITU:eBOH cpaJiaHre I1 HrpaeT Ba)KHYIO pOJib rrpH aMOpTH-

'

rrepBbIM 3BeHOM aMopT!13aUHH rrpH rrp113eMJieHHH KOHe'IHOCTH rrpH

ere

25,30

3TOT enoMeH o6b5ICHHeTC5I KaK MeHb!lieH Maccoii KOCOYUI<HX OJieHeii, TaK H


OTCYTCTBHeM Bbipa)l(eHHblX a.z:i:arrTaU:HH K npbl)l(KaM.

lllttpttna aepxnern 3nttcpa3a MeTaTapca, 'ITO o6b5ICHHeTcH yMeH:bllletttteM aeca

l1cxo,z:i:H 113 MopqJO-rl.>YHI<llHOHaJibHbIX oco6eHI;IOCTeii rIOCTKpaHHaJibHOrO

Tena . Me.z:i;naJihHaH cpaceTKa rrpoKCHMaJihHOtt cycTaanoii nonepxnocn1 nHCTHOtt

CKeneTa HCKOmi'e MbIX ceaepHbIX onerrnif, Mbl MO)KeM KOHCT<1TI1pOBaTb

VII

OTHOCHTeJibHO 6oJih1IIOH. QqeBH.IJ:HO,

coxpaHer-me a,z:i:anTaU:HH K npbI)KKOBO -CK OpOCTHOMY 6'ery: OTHOCHTenbHO

onop1rne 3Hal.feHHe 3aII5ICTHO-IlHCTHOrO cycTaBa He yMeHhlllaeTC5I , 'ITO CKOpee

MaCCHBHbIB JlOKTeBOM cycTaB c BbICOKHM TeJIOM JIOKTeBOM KOCTH, yaeJIH'IeHHbie

BCero CBH3aHO c yc1rnem:IeM qlyHKU:l111 aMOpTM3aU:HI1 nptt npbl)l(KOBO-

Me,L\HaJibHbie 'IClCTH cycTaBHblX IIOBepxHocreif JIOKTeBoro H 3aITHCTHO llHCTHOro

I<OCTH ocTaeTCH y oJieHH H3 PaiuKOB

cycTaBOB, Y.IJ:JIHl!eI-IHan rI5ITO'IHa5! KOCTb, OTHOCHTeJlbHO MOll}HbIH CKaI<a-

30 -

31 -

_
Mopt>o-<!>ynKUHOHaJibHblH auam13 HeKOTOpblX KOCTeii KOHe'IHOCTeii HCKOnaeMblX ceBepHblX o.11eueii

Ta6Jinua4
(* -

cpaBHllBaeTCll MaTepuaJI 113 Kooyl.lb II PalllKOB-7)

Epb1roe11b-l

Pauuw&-7

Tipo MepbI Kocreii

liJn , 1\1;

lim, M 1

46,5-48, 1-' 49,4


34,0--35,5-36,7

13

42,4---46,3-51,4

13

22,6--23,3--24, 1

12

31 ,4-34,1-37,7
19,5-22,3--24,0

Humerus
IlIHp1rna JJ;llCTa'lbuoro 6JioKa
MaKCHMaJihHblli JJ;llaMeip JJ;llCTa'ThHom 6JIOKa
MaKCHMaJihHblli JJ;llaMeip IUICTaJibHom 6JIOKa

5
5

Radius
IlIHpnHa rrpoKCHMMbHOro 3ITHCpH3a
lliHpHHa npOKCHMaJibHOH cycraBHOH noBepxuocrn
Tiorrepe'!HHK_rrpoKCHMaJibHoro 3rrmpn3a

41, 7--44,5-47,2

6
'9

41,2--42,7-45,6
22,2-25,2- 27,0

11
7
9

40, 7--45, 6--49,5


39,5-43,5-46,8
23,0--26,0--28,5

Metacarpus
IlIHpnua npoKCHMaJibuoro 3nmpH3a

33,0--36,0--38,5

33,5-34,1-34,7

4
4

20,3-21,6--24,4
23, 3--25, 3--28,5
38, 5-43,2-47,3

3
3

21,0--21,3-21,8
24, 1-24,3- 24,6

13

39, 7--41,2-45,0

37,8-39,4-41,0

26,8-29,7-30,0
29,0--34,3--31,5

(.,;

tv

IlIHpnHa Me,11naJibHoii cycraBHoii noBepxuocrn


Tionepe<ffiHK npoKCHMaJlbHOro 3TI!f4>H3a
IlIHpnHa JJ;llCTaJibHOro 3TIHCpH3a

12

Tibia
IlIHpnHa JJ;llCTa'lbHOro 3ITH4>H3a
IlIHpnua JJ;llCTaJibHOH cycraBHOH TIOBepXHOCTH
Tionepe'!HHK JJ;llCTaJibHOro 3nn4>n3a
Talus
M aKCH!VnJlbHaJI BbIOOTa Kocrn
IlIHpnHa JJ;llCTaJibHoro 6rroKa

17

36,8--41,3--45,0

17
17

26,8- 29,7- 32,0


29,8-32,5-35,0

16

41,2--46, 1-49,8

16

26,6--28,7-31,0

9
-

16

40,5-46,2-49,7

16

25,7-28,8-31,0

JJpoooJ1:>1Ce1me ma6, 4
KoC3yub

/J:ypyRTo apl! BeKe


TipoMepbl Kocreii

41,8--45,3--49,8

-3,7

2,6

--4,6

24

31,0--33,5-36,6

-3,9

7,0

-8,2

24

21,2-23,1-26,0

--4,3

8,5

--4,5

47, 4---49,2~ 52, 3

24

41,0--44,4-48,7

2,5

7,9

-9,6

43,5-45,3--47,7

24

38,2--41,5-44,6

- 1,9

4,0

-8,4

24

22, 4-24, 8-26,9

3,2

-2,3

-2,3

17

31, 0--33,5- 36,0

-1iJn,M4

II1Hp1-rna JJ;llCTa'Thnoro 6rroKa

45,0--47,5-49,4

24

MaKcHMaTJbHbIB ,11naMeTp IUICTaJibHom 6JIOKa

33,5-36,S..::-37,8

23,4-24,2-25,0

6
6

MaKCHMaJihHbIB ,11naMeTp .U:UcTaJibHoro 6rr OKa

K,

K1

liJn,M3

Humerus

K1

Radius
II1Hp1ma rrpoKCHMaJibHOfO 3TIH4>H3a
lllnpHHa npoi<cHMaJJbHoii cycrasuoii noBepxuocrn

Tionepe'!HHK lljJOKCHMaJlbHOfO 3ITHCpH3a


w
w

25,0--25,4-26,4

Metacarpus
IlIHp1ma npoKCHMa!IbHOfO 3TIHCjJH3a

18

IlIHpnua M(41Ha!IbHOH cycraBHOH TIOBepxuocrn

19,5-20,9- 22,4

:-5,3

_-1,5

-1,4

-3,2

Tionepe'IHHK rrpoKCHMaJibHOfO 3ITH4>H3a

18

23,5-24,3--27,1

---4,0

IlIHpnua JJ;llCTarihuoro 3nmjJH:ia

40, 0--41, 8-46,0

--4,6

--0,8
5,6

_-3,9

--4,4

41,2--43,5-47,7

20

39,0--41,2-45,2

24

36,6--39,4-43,8

--4,6

4,6

27,3--28,3--29,6

24

26, 5-28, 7..,-- 31 ,5

-3,4

-1,4

1,4
-1,3

Tibia
IlIHpnua AHCTaJlbHOro 3TIH4>H3a
IlIHpHHa AHCTaJlbHOH cycraBHOH TIOBepXHOCTH
TI onepe'!HHK JJ;llCTa!Jbnoro 3ITH4>H3a

4
4

29,0--31 ,5-32,5

24

27,2-31, 1- 33,9

-3,1

0,0

43,0--46,9-51,2

25

40,3--44,8- 50,2

0,2

1,5

.--4,5

2,2

~ 10,5

Talus
MaKCHMa!IbHaJl .BbIOOTa Kocrn
IlIHpnua JJ;llCTaJibuoro 6n oKa

27,0--29,4-32,3

25

23,4-26,3--30,5

0,3

11

TeJihHhIH cycTaB. Ha rrepBhIH B3rJI5f.JJ., 3TH a.JJ,arrTaIJHH rrpoTttBope'IaT rrane03KOJIOrH"IeCKHM H3MeHeHH5fM, corrpOB0)[()J,aIOIIJHMC5f UOXOJIO.JJ,aI-meM H
pacrrpoCTpaHeHHeM rrepHrJIHIJHaJibHhIX CTerreif. BepomHo, .ceBepHhie oneim
Ha<rnna BepxHero narreonHTa npe.JJ.IIOtIHTami o6HTaTb B pe.JJ,KHx rrecHbIX
cpopMaI_J:H.ll.X H 6oJIOTHb1X 6HOTorrax. I1o.JJ,o6HbIH KOHcepBaTH3M MOpcl)0 3KOJIOr11qecKHX a.JJ,anTaIJHH, B03M0)[(H0, 06b.ll.CH.lleTC.ll 3cpcpeKTOM OpT0 3BO JIIOIJl1H (sensu

R. Lull (1917),

n.v.

35

, Kor.JJ,a opraHH3M rrpO.JJ.OJI:>KaeT 3BOJIIOIJ:H-

OHH3HpoBaTb B orrpe.JJ,eJieHHOM HarrpaBJieHHH )J,a)J(e B TOM CJiyqae, Korml B CB513!1


c pe3KHMH KJIHMaTH'IeCKHMH 113MeHeHH.ll.MH 3TH rrpI13I-IaKH CTaHOB5ITC.lJ
HHa.JJ,aIITHBHhIMH. YMeHhIIIeH11e KOJIHtieCTBa ocraTKOB cenepHbIX orrer-reif B
MecromlXO:>K.JJ,eHH.ll.X cepe.JJ,ttHhI BepxHero rraneonnrn (TpHHI<a

I, II , III, Bepx1me

CJIOH, ,ll;ypy11Toap.a BeKe, BTOpoif cnoif) otieBH.JJ.HO 060.ac1rneTc5! .JJ,errpecCHBHhIM


COCTO.ll.Hli.ll.M "rrpbI)J(KOBO-CI<OpocTHOH" ,nonyn.al{Ill1 HCKOilaeMoro
oneH.a.

Cy.JJ.H

c~mepHoro

no B03pacTHOH CTPYKType ocTaTKOB oneHell: H3 PaIIIKOBa u

BpbIH3eHh , "rrpbI:>KKOBO-CKopocnrn.ll" JII1HH5! ceBepttbIX oneHell: B Mon.JJ,oBe


I-IaXO)J,HJiaCb B .JJ,errpeccnH,. '-ITO, B03MO)J(H0, H CTaJIO npHqm-roI1 ee BbITecnernrn
6onee a.JJ,anTHpoBaHHOH CKOpocTHOH cpopMoll: onernr H3 Koc3yuh .
PacrrpocTpaHeHtte Koc3yIJCKHx oneHell: ua Tepp11TopH11 Mon.JJ,OBhI
COBIIa.JJ,aeT c MaKCHMaJibHbIM IIOXOJIO.JJ,aHI1eM B 3IIOXY Ma.JJ,JieHa (npHMepHo

17000

JieT Ha3a.JJ,). MopcponorH.a KOHetIHOCTeH 3THX OJieHell: CBH.JJ,eTeJihCTBYeT .

06 a.JJ,anTaIJtt.ax K BhIHOCJIHBO-cKopocTHOMy 6ery: 6onee npocrnoe coe.JJ,HHenHe

IJ~JIIrn.JJ,pH'-IeCKa.a cpopMa
~eI-Ihllla.a IIJIOIIJa.JJ,b onopHh1X H

Me:>K.JJ,y nyqeBOH H JIOKTeBOH KOCT5!MH , 6onee


)J,HCTaJIMIOrO 6JIOKa rrneqeBOH KOCTH,

aMopTtt3HpymIIJHX cycTaBOB, yTOWieHHa.a rr.aTOqHa.a KOCTh. OnwcHTeJihHO


6onee KPYIIHbie 1y6hI
co6neHH:li

J(

R .. tarandus

H3 KOC3YUh CBH.JJ,CTCJibCTBYIOT 0 rrp11crro-

IlHTaHHIO rpy6oll: KCeporanocjJHJibHOI-i paCTHTeJibHOCTbIO.

IlPMME'lAHME
1

AneKceeea JI. 11. Teptto<jlaytta Bepxttero rn1elfcro11etta Bocrornolf EBporrh1. TpyJlhI reonorw1.

HHCTHTyTa, Bhll1 . 455, Moc1rna: tlayKa, 1990, 108 c.


EacKUH JI. M. Oco6eHHOcTH Mop<]ionornH 11 3BOJJ101\HH necHhJX tt TYHJlpOBhJX ceBepHhlx oneHelf
,. H rrpwmHhI Hx B03HHKHoBeHttll II Jiecttolf ceBepHhJH orreHh, IleTp03aBo;:icK, 1989, c. 86- 91.
. EenaH H
TI03JIHCIJJJCHCTOl.leHOBh!H ceBepHhlH OJJCHh TI011Henp0Bhll II BeCTHHK 300J!OrHI! N!
5, Kttee, 1983.
' 2

Eop3UJIK H. A .. Koeane1-1Ko C. 11. HeKOTOph1e ;:iaHHhie o MHoroc11olfnolf rrarreorrHTw1ecKolf crol!HKe


KoC3Yl\hl na Cpe;:iHeM )lHeCTpe II lJ:eTBepTM'IHhJH nep11011. TiaJJeOHTonornl! M apxeorrornll .
KttlllMHeB: llhtt11H11a, 1989, c. 201 - 223.
Eop3UJIK H. A .. Koeane1-1Ko C. H. Tiocerrentte crroll 3 CTOllHKtt .Koc3y11h Ha Cpe11HeM LJ:ttecrpe II
MaTepHaJJhJ H ttccrre;:ioBaHMll no apxeonornH Morr110Bhl. KttlllMHeB: llhttttn11a, 1992, c. 48- 68.
BuCJw6oKoea H. A. l1cKona~Mh1e orrett11 EBpa3HH. Tpy;:ihl TianeoHTorror. micr1nyrn. M .: HayKa,
1990.

I'aM6apJ11-1 JI. JI. Eer MJJeKorrHTaJOfilMX: rrpttcrroco611rerrhHh1e oco6eHnocm opraHoB JIBIDKeHl!ll.


JI:: HayKa, 1972, 331 c.

I'aM6apJ1H JI. II., Cyxa1-1oe B. E. K 6tt0Mexatt11Ke JIBHraTerrhHOfo anrraparn 3y6pa II 3y6p. M.:
HayKa, 1979, c. 292-327.

/(aeuo A. JI. Teptto<]iayna 11J1ei1cro11ena Morr;:iaB1111. KttrnHneB: lllTHHHl\a, 1980.


' /(aeuo A. H. <DopMttpoBaHHe Tep11~iayHhI Morr11ae1111 B aHTponorene. K11rn11neB: lllnmrn.1a, 1982.

34-

aeuo A. H. OcraTKH M11eKorrHra10U1HX H3 rpoTOB y c. :rPHHKa 11 IlepB06bn11h1lf qerroBeK B rpornx


Tpmma I- III (H.K. AnttcJOTKHH, 11. A. Iop3Hl!K, H . A. Kerpapy). KHIIIHHeB: lllTHHHl\a, 1986,
c. 113- 123.
.
12
f{aeuo A. H., Kempapy H. A. <Dayiia MrreKOllHTaJOlllHX narreorrHTa Morr11aBHH II Teptto<]iaytta
KattH030ll Morr;:iamm. Km1rnne0: lllTHHHl\a, 1970, c. 38- 43.
13
ppypu H.B. LJ:ttKHH cesepHhJH onenh coBCTCKolf ApKTHKH 1o1 Cy6apKTHKH . M ,.: rnaBceBMorryrh,
1949, c. 10- 33.
.
.
14
Ezopoe 0. B. 3KOJJOfHll c11611pcKoro ropnoro K03JJa)/TpyJlhl 300JJ0rl!"l. HHCTHTyra, T. 17, 1955, c.
134.
'
15
EpMonoea H. M. TeJ?Ho<]iayna ;:iorrHHhl AnraphI B n03JIHCM AHrponorette. HoBoc11611pcK: HayKa,
1978, 220 c.
'
16
Kacbflfle1tKo B. r <l)yHKllHOHaJJMlhIH ananu3 t--ronhI napHoKorrr,nHhlX II ~ npHcrroco6HTenhnh1x
113MeHeHHllX B cyt-'TaBax KOHC'lHOCTeH M.~eKOllHTa!OlllHX. KHeB, 1952 a, c. 68- 79.
l 7 ](acbJlfleHKO B. I' IIonhITKa CHHTC3a HCKOTOpb!X BHyrpHcycraBHh!X KoppeJJlll-IHH Ha 11pHMepe
cycra.13013 KOHe'lHocrelf napHOKOrrhlTHhIX II AoKJJa):lhl AH CCCP ., T. 82, N2.5, 19526.
18
J(acbJIHellKO B. 3aKOHOMepHOCTH rrpttcnoco6HTeJJhHh!X npeo6pa30BaHHH cycraBOB KOHC'lHOC!'eH
MJICKOnHTaIOlllHX II 3oorror. ll<ypna.'I, 1956, T. 35, Bhll1. 3, c. 321 -344.
!9 J(empapy H. A. TiaMl!THHKH narreoJJHTaMoJJJ1aBCKoro TioJ1HecrpOBhll II <DayHHCTH'ICCKHe KOMl1JICKChl,
6ttocrp. 11J111011ena. H 11J1elfcrol{e11a MoJJJ1al3HH. KHl!lHHeB: lllTHHHI.la, 1982, c. 26--27.
2ll Kempapy H. A. TiaMl!THHKH 311ox narreomna 11 MC30JJHTa. Mon11an11H II Apxeonorn'leCKall I<aprn
MCCP, Br,m. 1, KttittneB, 1973.
21 101.t.zKoe B. lf. Mau.m a C rt;_K Mop<]io-cpyHKl\HOHaJ1hnoMy anarr113y 110KTeBoro cycraBa KOllhlTHhlX
II KonhITHhie cjlaynh1 CCCP. M.: HayKa, 1980, c. 347-348.
22
Kpoiimop P. MopcjJo-cjJyHKl\HOHaJ1bHbJH a.HaJJH3 rroKTeBoro cycra.ea HCKonaeMhJX ceeepHhJX orreHeii
MOJJJIOBbl II IIa.Mllrn ,npo<]ieccopa. A. A. Epa~Hepa.. Q11ecca: Acrporrpmn, 1997, c. 165- 168.
21
J(y3bMUIW H. E. <DopM11poBa.ime Tepi.io<Ji.ayn1>1 Ce13epHoro Ypana 13 no3;:iHeM auTponorene II
MaTepHaJJbJ no cjJayHaM aHrponoreHa. CCCP. Tpy11r,1 30011orn'I. 11ncrHTyTa, T. 49, JI.: HayKa,
1971.
' .
4
2 KyJt,MuHa JI. E. HeKOTOph1e11aHnhIC o MrreKonHTaJOll.(HX Cpe;:ittero Yparra.B no3111-1eM rmelfcro11eHe
II Eiorrrr. KOMHCCHH rro H3Y'L '!CTB. rrepuo11a, J\\! 43, 1975, c. 63- 77.
,
2s Jluxa<tee A. lf. Jioc11 3ana.;:iHolf Ctt6HpH (Mop<jlo-<]iyHKL{HOHarrhHhJe 11 3KorrorH"1ecK11e
11ccne;:ioBaHl!ll) II TpyJlbl CerrbcKoxo3. HH-ra, T. 18,,HoBoCH6HpcK, 1959.
26 MaiJp 3. Ilonyrrlll{HH, BHJlbl H 3BOJllOlll!ll. M .: M11p, 1974, 460 c.
21 Ma;iJui~ C <P. 3anllcrhe HeK0Topr,1x Selenodontia, ero crpoeHHe H cjJy1-tKl\Hll II 0 np11cnoco611TeJJbHb1x H3MCHCHHllX B cycraBax KOHC'UIOCTCH MJJCKOnl!T3IOllll!X. K11es, 1952, c. 18- 119.
28
Meinua C <P. Mopo3 B. <P. Mop<JJo-<]iynKL{HonarrhHhIH aHaJJ H3 rpyJIHhJX KoHe"IHOCTelf
MJJeKomna1-0U1HX. KHeB: HayKoBa LJ:yMKa, 1978.
29 MeoJ111uK C. H., MuxaiJnecKy K. p. TiarreoreorpacjJw1ecKHe narrhI pa3BHTHll c]lrrophl Mon;:ioBhI B
aHTporroreHe. ,KHIIIHHCB: IIITHHHl\3., 1992, 130 c., ,,
.
Jo PaounoecKaJI P.
<DyHKl\HonaJJbHhJH aHaJJH3 narrhIJCB HeKOTOphIX MJJeKorrttTa10m11x II
3oorrorn'lecK11lf ll<ypttan, T. 32, Bhm. 5, 1953, c. 979- 986.
" PeBu1-1 lfJ. lfoTopw1ecKaJ1 611oreorpacjJHll ceBepHor6 orreHll B BocTo'lnolf Ctt6ttpu II I
MelKJ1YHapo11ttoe MaMOHTOBoe coBeU1an11e, Cil6., 1995, c. 636.
.
n Ca6nuu M . B .. Ky3bMUHa 11. E. TI03J1Henrrelfcro11en0Bh!H ceBepHhIH 011eHh (Rang1fer tarandus)
Bepxnero LJ:ona II McropHll KpyrrHhlX MJJCKOIJHTaJOUIHX H rrTHl\ CeBepHolf EBpa3HH, TPYJlhJ
3oorr. HH-Ta, CTI6., 1992, T. 246, c. 72- 80.
33
CeMe1-1oe-TJ11-1-lllm1cKuii 0. 11. CeBepHhJH oneHh. M.: HayKa, 1977.
34
CeMeHoe-TJ1u-lllw1cKuii 0. 11. l13MCH'IHBOcrh 3KorrorHH JIHKoro ceBepHoro orreHll no <]ia3aM
L{HKJJa Korre6aHHH "1Hcrren1-1ocrH II KorrhITHhJe <]iaynr,1 CCCP, M.: HayKa, 1980, c. 42-43.
35
CuMncou, /{:>IC.
TeMllhl H <]iopMbl 3BOJll01\l!I!. MocKBa, 1948, 330' c.
" CoKonoe 11. 11., Kne6a1-1oea E. A .. CoKonoe A. C. MopcjJo-cjJyHKl\HOHaJJhHhie oco6eHHOCTH
opraHoB JIBHlKeHHll calfm H ):llKelfpaHa II Mop<]iorrornll no3BOH0'1HhIX lKHBOTHhIX. Tpy11r,1
3oorrorn'1. HH-Ta, T. 33, M. -JI.: HayKa, 1964, c. 319- 347.
.
37
CoKO/l08 A. 3KOcjJH3HOJJOl'Hll cesepHoro OJlCHll H03J1Hero HJJCHCTOL{eHa B cncre COBpeMeHHh!X
11aHHbJX II I MelK;:iyHapOJIHOe MaMoHTOBoe coBelllaHHe, CTI6., 1995, c. 639-640.
3
s Cy myna B. A. A;:ianTHBHOe3Ha'len11e rrponop11Hlf orropHO-JIBHraTerrhnoro arrrrapaTaKOHhlTHhJX
II Mopcjlorromll MJJeKorrHTa1-0U1HX H npo6rreMbl 1roK0Mo111111. TpyJlhI 3oorrorn'1. HHCTHTyTa, T.
215, JI.: 1990. '
/(

r.

r.

-35 -

39

<P11epbe k. 1<. KonhITHhie (Ungulata) a.pKT11:1ecK11x CTpaH II 3nep11 ApKTHK11. JI.:


fJiascesMopnyn, 1935, c. 107-'.-263 .

<P11epoa K. K. Mopc]loJiorn51 11 3KOJIOf115l oJic11eo6pa3Hb!X B npo11ecce 11x 3somo111111 II


MaTep11aJ1b1 no 'IeTBeprnrnoMy nep110,1w CCCP. M.-Jl.: AH CCCP, 1950, c. 50-69.
41
<P/iepoo K.K. Ka6aprn 11 oJien11 II <l>ayna CCCP. M11eKon11Tam1i(ue, T. J, Bbm ... I, Moc1rna,
1952.
'
'
' '
'
'
42
<P11epo8 K. K. 06 OCHOBHblX HanpaBJieHH5lX 3KOJIOrH'IeCKOH 3BOJil0ll1111 lKllBOTHblX (Ruminanta)
II IlaJieOHT. lKYPHaJI, 1962, .N2 4, c. 31-42.
43
Xomu11cKui.i H. A . IlpHMeHCHHC llpHHllHila aKryaJI113Ma npH peKOHCTPYKllH11 paCTHTCJ1bHOCrH
Il03AHeJieAHHKosoro speMeHH 11en-rpaJibH.hIX pai1onos PyccKoi1 paBHHHbI II C11cTcMa:mKa n
MCfO):IHKa H3y>IeHH5l HCKOilaCMblX IlblJibllbl H cnop. M.: I-layKa, 1964, c. 158-166. ;'
44
Borziac l A. Quelques donnees prealabiles 's ur !'habitat tardipaleolithique pluristratifie de
Cosseuotsy sur le Dniestr Moyen II Le Paleolithique et le Neolithique de la Roumanie en
Contexte Europeen. Ia~i, 1991, p. 56-71.
,

' .
. '
45
Borziac I. Paleoliticul ~i mezoliticul in spa\iul dintre Nistru ~i Prut II Thraco-Dacia, L XV, N
1- 2, Bucure~ti, 1994, p. 19-40:
'
'
'
'
46
Bonchud I. Essai sur le renne et la clima:tologie du' palaolithique moyen et superieur. Paris,
1966, 300 p.
'
,
47
Chetraru Nicolae. Contribu\ii la cunoa~terea paleoliticului inferior in Moldova // Anuarul
Muzeului National de Istorie a Mokfovei, II. Chi~inau, 1995, p. 93-'.138.
,
48
Chirica Vasile, Borziac Ifie, Chelraru Nicolae II Gisements du Paleolithique supel-ieur ancien
entre le Dni<;str et Ia Tissa. Ia~i: Helios, 1996; 332 p. '
,
49
Churcher C. S., Parmalee P. W., Bell G. L., Lamb I. P. Caribou from the 'l ate Pliocene of
northevestern Alabama II Canadian I. on 'Zoology, v._ 67, n. 5, 19.89, p. 12'10-1215.
,
so Croitor R. Morpho-functional analysis of elbow joint of fossil reindeer// bibliographical giude
"Deponirobanye nauchnye raboty", Moscow, No 10, 1997a.
51
Croilor R. Plio-Pleistocene deer of Moldova, theii" stratigraphical and plilaeogeographycal
significance. Anchor's abstract of Ph.D. thesis. Kishinau, 1997b.

52
David Anatolie. N. N . Moro~an - cer~etiitor al faunei de mamifere cuaternare in Basarabia I
I Stud ii ~i cercetiiri de istorie vryche ~i arheologie. 3, t. 45, Uucure~ti, Editura Academiei Romane.
1994, p. 245-250.
'
'
53
Dumitrescu M., Samson P., Terzea .E., 'R,adulescu C, 'Chica l'vf. "Pe~tera la Adam"- statiune
pleistocenii II Lucrarile Institutului de speologie "Emil Racovitii", v. I~II, 1962-1963,
Bucure~ti, p. 229-281. '
'
'

Sunimary
40

o6CJie,nomu:ra rpyrrna crreu:nanHCTOB B COCTaBe H . A. KeTpapy' r .B. fpIIropheBOH


11 B. H. BepIInoli. HecKbJ1hKO ~03)Ke C. H. KoBanenKo 1aJIO)K,HJI rrepBhIH
CTpaTIIrpacpwieCKIIH rnypcp, a B ,1994 r. HatJ:aJ1 CTaU:IfOHapHbie IICCJ1e,noBanmi: Ha
rrnoma.nn B 50 KB. M.
.
CT0am<a pacrronaraeTca rro neBoMy CK[IOHY ,nonIIHhI p. CapaTa, ne6onhrnoro
neBo6epe)KHOro rrpuToKa p . IIpyT (puc. 1). feoMopcponorntJ:ecKII ona rrpIIypo'-Iena
K TeppaCOBH,D:HOMY ycTyrry, BhICOTOM 25-30 M OT ypoBH~ peKII. EJIH30CTh K
KPYTOMY cKnony ,nonuHhI npe,nonpe,nenuna cpaBHHTeJJhHO 6h1cr.poe naKorrneHue
IlOKpOBHhIX OTJJO)KCHHH, tJ:aCTHL!HO BhIITOJJa)KUBaI-Oll_\HX ero IIOBepxHOCTh.
He<:;KOJihKb rny6oKIIx ,npeBHIIx oBparoB, rrpope1aioll_\Hx cKnon ,nonunbI, co1,naroT
BITetJ:aTJICHIIe paCtIJ1eHeHHOCTH peJibecpa. Ha Kparo O,D:HOro II3 HIIX, B6J1H3H
061rnBHh1x pomrnKOB, tta6nm,naerca Konu:errTpau:ua Haxo,noK. IInow:a,nh ux
1
pacrrpocrpaiienIIa cpaBHHTeJihHO Mana. Ona He rrpeBhirnaeT 4~0 ~B. M.

For the first time, the osteological material of reindeer from the late Palaeolithec fossilifdous
site 'Cosauti is described. The generalization bf the results of the re.s earch of distribution, individual age and ecology of the fossil R. tarandus is pr~sen ted in tlie arti~le. i 'i1e morpho -functional analysis of so'm e postcranial bones elucidated' some ecological peculiarities and the locomotion strategy of the fossil reindeer, as well as some 'e volution mechanisms of the species under
study.
'
'

C. M. KosaneHKo, H. A. Kerpapy
HOBblE AAHHblE o ME3onMTHllECKOM croslHKE
:
: CAPATEHbl B HM>KHEM nonPYTbE

.,

IIepBbie CBe,nemrn 0 6oraTOM MCCTOHaxo:>k,nemrn: r<peMHCBhIX II3,D:eJ1IIH y c.


CapaTeHhI JieoBcKoro paliotta rrocTyrrIInII OT H. A . )];IIM9 II H. 'M. CyxoBa B
1952 r . IIoCJie rrpoBe,neHIIa o6BanoBKII orron1tteBoro CKJJOHa 1-ra MecTe
rraMaTHHKa, 11. M. CyxoB II H. A. KeTpapy B 1965 r. oTo6panII na rroBepxuocrn
6onee O,D:HOH ThICWrn MHKpOJIIITl1'-ICCKIIX Haxo,nqK 1. B 1970 r. CTOJIHKY
0

0
Puc. 1. PacnoJioJKeHHe CT05!HKl1 CapareHbI.

37--

CTpaTHrpaqmt.J:eCKMH pa3pe3 (pMC. 2), no.nrOTOBJieHHhlH Ha 3arra,[(fIOH 'IaCTil


rraM5ITHI1Ka, II03BOJII1JI OIIIlCaTb CJie,D;yrou.iym rrocrre.noBaTeJibHOCTb HarrmlCTOBam1i1: (rrry6m-ra B CM):

BhIKJIHI-IHBacTcn B HanpaBrrer-rnu oBpa){{HOro noHH){{eHirn, IIO'ITH rroJIHOCThI-O


HHBenupyn YKJIOH ..... ........... .................... .... .............. . .......... ........ ......... . .44-70
II IlA 'q](A. fmrnHCTbie rron11Mopcjn-1h1e OTJIO){{e1mn. ll;Ben1h1e, n JIOTHhie n
BH3I<ne, 6e3 Bblpa){{em-roii CTPYKTyphI mmnacToBannH:. I1ocT05IHHO rrepecnanBar-0mnecn, c pa:iao o6pa3HbIMH pa3BeTBITeHHll.MH, BblKJlllHHBcq-r neM H
1<apManaMtt.
3 CJIOU. ,LJ:enI-OBHaJibHb!H <(YrJIHHOK TeMHOCeporo UBeTa, 06h1qHO 3eMJIHCTOro
OTTeHKa . I1pOHH 3aH H3BeCTI<OBbIMH HHTCBH,/J;HbIMH o6pa30BaHH5IMH H
noTeMr<aMH OT crycTKOB BTopnqHoro rremnoMopqrnoro KaJiblJ.HTa: Ero mneirn
11 I<OMO'IKH rr03BOJill.I-OT pacrro3HaTh 1- 2, pe){{e 3 ypoBHn pa3Mhrna. Hatt6onee
r yCTOH TOH 3THX OTJIO)KeHIIH COIIOCTaBIIM H c ero nOBblllTeHHOH IIJIOTHOFTbI-0 .
0TMe'LfeHo uecKOJihKO BKparrneimii .D:peBecuoro yrrrn. HeKOTOpbie KpOTOBnuir
113 Bepxneii '-JaCTH co,D;ep){{aT B :iarronHemrn KycoqKn o60){{){{ettuoro rpy1-na.

,I I
0

Puc. 2. CTpaT11rpacJi,m1 CTOJIHKH: 1 - rono11euo1Jh!e OT!lOJKeHJrn; 2 - rnHHHL'Thie OTJJOlKeHHll'


3 - TeMHOCepble cyrnHHKH co crycrKaMH KaJihllHTa; 4 - KpOT013HHhI; 5 - HHOpOt\l-lblC rnH~
HHCrhJe BKJlIO'leHHll; 6 - KpeMHeBb!e H3.X0/1KH; 7 - HJITHa OXpbl.

1 IlA qKA. fonouelioBbie OTJIO)KeHM5f . TeMHhre, ryMycMpoBaHIIhre,


rrpoHH3aHHhre KOpHexo,D;aMH, c TperuHHaMM ychrxaHuJI . Pe,D;Ko c MeJIKHMH
KpeMHeBbIMM, MeJIOBblMI'i MJIM rreci'IaHHKOBblMH OJ_(aTbIIUaMH.
I CJIOU. qepH03eM pbIXJibIH, omropO,D;HbIH ITO COC'raBy, 6e3 rrpM3HaKOB
CJIOHCTOCTH. Ha KOHTaKTe c HH){{eJie)KamuM cnoeM 1-iapyIIIen l<poTOBHHaMtt, B
3arromremrn KOTOpbIX BCTpe'IaI-OTCH tfaCTH'IKH o6o){{eHI-IOrO rpyHTa ...... 0- 44

2 CJIOU. CyrnunoK 6ypb1u, ryMycnpoBairnhIH, IlJIOTHhIH tt KOMKOBaTbIH.


Pact.J:ne1-ieH MaccoH: Tperu1rn ych1xamrn. B BepxneH: 'tfaCTH IIMeeT cepoBaTh1i1:
OTTe,HOK (6JIH30CTb K IIO,D;30Jiy), Kinny - CBe,ThOKOPil'IHeBbII1:. BepXH5!5l
rpaI-mua rrotJTil Be3,D;e 'IeTKaH, nm-reH:HaJI rrpephrnaeMaH JIHIIIh He6oJihlilllMI1
.D:eqiopManunMu. HH)KHJI5I rpanh uarrpoTHB --'-- c pa3phrnaMn, BOJIHHcTan, B BH.D:e
rryqer-mH . T1pocJie)KHBaeTCH no 6eJieCbIM pa3MhIBaM KOMKOBaTbIX BKJII-OqerrnH:
rreJIHTOMopctmoro Kap6onaTa KaJibl(MH, HaIIOMHHaI-Omero rrpn ~O,D;CbIXaHHH
rropoUIK006pa3uyr-0 Macey. BcTpe'IaI-OTcn KpoTOBHHhI, rnaBHhIM o6pa3oM
KHII3y, :iarrOJIHeHHhie 'IepH03eMOM, HHOr,D;a c 060){{)KeI:JHbIM cyrmn-IKOM.
-

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B HH){{eJie){{amne OTJIO){{eHirn HJIH BblCTyrraeT BHYTPI1 HHX B BH,D;e OT,D;eJibHblX
npocnoeB. Ha rrpoqmne rmrrnoii cTeHKI1 pacKorra ero nOJIHOCThIO Bbnec1:rneT
CJIOH pbl){{eH rnITI-IIICTOH rJIIIHbl, xorn II co.nep)!(aruei1: cryCTKI1 I<aJibUHTa ... 70-90
,LJ:anee BHH3 no pa3pe3y OTMetJeHhI ){{eJITO-KopnqHeBbie cyrnnmm,
O,D;HOpO,nHbie 110 COCTaBy, 6e3 Bbipa)!<eHI-IOro nepecJiaHBC1HHJI. 061-Ia){{eHHiT
HannacToBaHaii no rrpmrerar-0meMy QBpary II03BOJiaroT npe.nrronaraTh nx
MOuiHOCTb B 6 M.
Ha6m-0,D;emrn Ha.D: ycnOBHl!MII 3aneraHMir 6oJihlllHHCTBa apTeqiaKTOB
CBH,D;eTeJibCTBYI-OT 0 CHJibHOM HapyllleHHH KyJihTyp1-1 0ro CJIOiT, OCTaTI<H
KOTOporo npocJie)KJ1B~lI-OTCH y JIHI-IeHHOl'O KOHT<U<Ta qepH03e~a c 6ypb!M
cyrJIHHKOM.
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3cUI0){{CHHOM BBepx no CI<JIOHy OT CI<OfIJieHHll apxeOJIOrI1'IeCKOro MaTepnana.
Ha ero pa3pe3e cpHKcnpyeT'c n noCTene1-moe H3MeHer-me UBeTa rpyr-na OT
qepHo3eMH Oro cnoir I< HH){{eJie)Karue111y 6ypo111y cyrmumy. B TO )Ke Bpe111a, 11x
pa3rpaHH'-IeHHe B03M0){{H0 no H3BCCTI<OBHCTbIM o6pa30BaHirnM OT I<OpHemni.J,
B BepirneM cnoe 11 yc11ner-moii Tpemm10BaTOCTH B 1rn)1rne111 . 3TH I-rn6nr-0,D;emrn
noMoraI-OT onpe,D;eJIHTh xapaKTep Hapyrne1rnii OTJIO){{eI-mi1 6yporo cyr.riHHKa
Ha pac1<0ne.
Y'-IHThIBair rroJIO)KeHIIe KYJihTYPHhIX ocTaTKOB B rnypc]le B Bepx1-1ei1: qacTH
3Toro cyrJIHI-IKa H npHypo'IeHHOCTb OT.[(eJihHhIX Hec111emeHHbIX HaXO,D;OK Ha
pacKorre K JIHHeHHOMY KOHTaKTY Me){{,ny qepH03eMOM 11 cyrnHHKOM, ,D;OnyCTHMO
yTBep)K.1J:e1-me o TaKOM HapymeHIIII JIH!llh B KpOBJie 6yph1x cyrJIIIHI<OB. CBJI3h
60Jihlill1HCTBa KYJihTYPHhlX OCTaTKOB Ha paCKOIIaHHOM y'laCTJ<e l1MeHHO c 3TOH
KpoBnei1 npe.nonpe.nenHJia ax cy.nh6y.
,
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HapymeHII5l, OT rrnaHTa){{HOH BcnamI<H .n.oCTHraroT 35 CM, 'ITO 6nn3KO I<

38-

-39 -

ecTei::;TBCHHOH MOll.{Hocnr tJ:eptto3eMHhIX HaKonrrem1if. Ha :noM yqacTKe


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no Kpaw ospara. Ha cesepHoM ytJ:aCTKe CTOHHKH pa3rpaHHl!HTeJihHaH JIHHHH
MC)l{.[(y l!CpH03CMOM H 6yphIM cyrrrHHKOM CTaHOBHTCH npepbIBHCTOH H HCtfe3aeT.
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peJKe scipeqaroTc51: 113,D,emrn na yl)opoqen~hrx rrnacTuttax n 'd rmerrax cpe,D,Hrrx

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5:17, 18, 28; 6:35, 38, 39). KaK npasm10, s:p~nyKno~ ne1sIIe q<.pe6KOB
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H B MeHbllleII CTenenu -- OTIIIen (32%). Pacnpe,D,eJieni1e IICITOJ1b30BaHHbIX
3afOTOBOK no pa3JIHqHbIM KaTeropII5IM opy,D,IIH OTpaJKeHO B Ta6JI. 5.

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1
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- 50 -

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- 51 -

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lllOMy .D,BOHHOMY CKpe6Ky c 'IelllyttqaTOM o6pa60TKOH, JIOKpbIBaIOlll,eH BCIO


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no Kpamv1 .D.BYMH BhieMKaMH. Eorree KpyrrHan H3 3THX BhieMoK cpopMttpyeT
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eJIKOM nepBHqHoM onene c rraMerrnpHbIM ocpopMrreHHeM rrorryoKpyrrroro
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CKpe6Ka c IIJIOCKOH BeHTparrhHOH IIO.D,TeCKOH, CXO.D,HOH c oqiopMJieHI1eM
BKJia.D,hillleH KyKpeKCKOro THna. B O.D,HOM crryqae; 3TO KOHIIeBOH CKpe6oK Ha
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(pttc. 5:13).
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KpyTOii qelllyifqaToH: perylllhIO.
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O.D,Horo cpe,n:HHHOro H .LJ:BYX 6oKOBhIX pe3IJ:OB Ha yKopo<IeHHbIX 3arOTOBKax
(pnc. 9:8, 13), OCHOBHYIO Macey COCTaBJI5IIOT yrrrOBhie cpopMbl Ha H3JIOMe
nrraCTMHOK (pttc. 9:9, 11 , 12, 14).
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rrpwTynrrnIOll(an .n:opcarrhnan peTylllh, cpe3aIOll(an 3aroTOBKY Ha BCIO ee
TOJilll,ttHy. B O.D.HOM crryqae BeHTparrhHan peTylllHan cpa6oTaHHOCTh 06pa3yeT
Koponwe )Karro.
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MHKporrrracTHHKax cp CI<OllleHHhIM peTylllhIO KOHIIOM (3 3K3.) MITH KpaeM (7),
MHI<porrrraCTHHKe c rrpttTyrrrreHHhIM KpaeM H CKOllleHHhIM KOHU:OM, nrraCTHHKe
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o.n:noro u3 KpaeB (pnc. 8:31).
'
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0.n:HanrracTHHI<a ttMeeT npoTnBoJie)!(alll,IOIO peTylllh, .n:pyran - rro.n:pa6oTKY
Ha KOHIIe.
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(pttc. 8:25-'
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8:5-27).
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-54 -

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npott3BOL\CTBeHHh1x npouecca~ . Ilpe:>K,ne Bcero, 3TO npamrnhHO orpaHeIIHbie
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or 11x ucnoJib30BaHHH B Ka'IeCTBe pe3'IHKOB. Ha 3TO :>Ke yK<DhrnaeT 06pa30BaH11e
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,
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cvopMa l13,nen11i1 Bapb11pyeT OT cpe.n.HeBhICOKHX .n.o HeCKOJihKO y.n.mmemrhIX. K
co6CTB,e mro BbICOKHM OTHOC,HTC.ll TOJibKO )].Ba 3K3eMnrnrpa Im nnaCTHHax (p11c.
7:30). AcHMMeTpl1t.IHhIX rpaneurdi cpaBHHTeJibHO Mano (17 3K3.; puc. 7:20, 21,
25). Bh1co1<a5! daH,napT113aUH5! o6ycnoBJieHa H3Hat.JaJibH.hIM Bh16opoM
ncKiIIOt.JHTeJihHO npaBHJihHO orpaHeHHhIX ceqeH.Hii nnaqHH (15) 11 nnaCTHHOK
(106). 06pa6oTI<a HX KOHUOB npeHMymecTBeHIIO pOBHa5! HJIH ' C H.e3naq11TeJihHOH Bor1-1y:rocThIO, qacro coqeramII.i;a51c51 Ha o,nHOM o6pa3ue. B necKOJihKHX
cnyqa51x ua6mo,naerc.H Mo.rienirp0Ban11e .D.BYX BhieMl.faThIX KOHUOB Ha 6onee
KpynHhIX 3Cl"FOTOBI<ax. :PeTyrnHa5! OT,nenKa - KpyTa5! ,nopcanMra.H, ,L\OUOJIH5!eMa5! OTBeCHOH, rj:JopMnpymmeii oqepTaHH5! KOHUOB. HeT HH O.D.HOro o6pa3ua
c nonoroii, BCTpet.IHOH HJIH BeHTpanbHOH no;npa6oTKOH. y L\BYX Tpaneu11ii
OTMe'-reHa peryruHaH o6pa6o~Ka aeprn11Hhr, nnaBno nepexo,n51meii na
np11neramm11ii 1<orreu (p11c. 8:45). MnI<pOl13HOC 11 Bb1IUep6ne1rnocTh
npo,nOJihHhIX KpaeB MHOr11x rpaneu11i1 CBH.D.eTeJihCTByeT 06 nx ynoTpeforemrn
B Tpy,nOBhlX o:nep.aUH5IX. Pa3MepbI 3TOH rpy1111h1 MHKpon11~0B BapJ>11pymT OT
13x8 MM ,no 24x12 MM. Pactrpoc1'paneHhI 113.D.enmr rn11pnnoii B 10 MM.
Cne.n.y1-0ma51 ne Menee cneIJ;Hrj:JHt.JHa5! 1<areropm1 opy,nHiinoro na6opa H3Aemm c DJIOCKOH DOATeCKOH 6ptolUl\a (p11c. 9: 10' 15- 21). <I>opMa II xapaI<Tep
pacnOJIO:>Kemrn qeruyiit.JaTbIX cjmceroi<, a TaK:>Ke cocTOHI-me pe:>Kym11x rpaneii,

- 55 -

.11:onycKaeT npe.11:noJIO:>Ke1nre 0 YHKIJJ10HaJibHOM npOHCXO)KJJ;eHirn TaKIIX


npe.D;MeTOB. Oco6etttto 3TO 3aMeTHo Ha MeJIKIIx ce'IeHm.1x nnaCTIIl'IOK (12 3K3.).
Ilpe.D;HaMepeHHOCTh Hattecemrn no.11:TeCKII .11:onyCTIIMa m1111b y 'IeThipex II3.D;eJIIIH.
ConocTasneHIIe 8 HaII6onee Bh1pa3IITeJihHh1x II3.D;errIIH: c KyKpeKCKHMH
BKJia:[lbilllaMII BilOJIHe nptteMJieMo, eCJIII 'IlOJJ; IlOClJie.D;HHMII IlOHIIMaTb mo6h!~
ce'Iettm.1 nnacTIIHOK co CTecaHHhIM 6pIOUIKOM, oopMJieHHhIM y.11:n11aenHhIMH,
nonepeqHo opuenni:po~aHHhIMH qlaceTKaM11.

qernyfiqaTaa cpa6o1'aHHOCTh c 6pmrnKa, onpe.11:emi:eMaa neKOTOphIMII


HCCJie.D;OBaTeJIHMII KaK IlOJJ;TecKa, OTMe'IeHa JJ;JIH JJ:BYX JJ;OJIOTOBIIJJ;HhIX
IIHCTpyMeBTOB (pHC. 9:24, 25). 0HH npe.D;CTaBJieHbl Ha OTIIIenax, y KOTOpbIX
HCilOJih30BaHhl. o6a KOHIIa. ,[(na 6onee KpynHoro II3.D;eJIHH Ha .YTOJIIIIeHHOH
3arOTOBKe B03MO:>KHO BTOpttqHoe npttMeHeHHe B KaqecTBe CKpe6Ka.
Ilocne.D;Hett pa3HOBHJJ;HOCThIO opy.D;MHHOrO KOMilJieKca BhICTynaeT rpynna
03,nenuif c peTymupoBauu1>1Mu BhieMKaMu. Cpe.D;II tt11x MOII<HO BI>meJIHTh
CKo6eJIH Ha nepBH'IHhlX OTmenax c lliJ:iPOKOH BhieMKOH (4 3K3.), aHKOIIJIIpoBaHHhie nnaCTHHI>I (3) II nnacTHHKII (13), YIIleMJieHnI>re ruiaCTIIHhI (2) 11 cepttm
KpynH03y6qaTI>rx nnacTHH (2), nnaCTHHOK (4) H MHKponnaCTMHOK (1). Ona:Th
:>Ke 6onhIIIHHCTBO npe.D;MeTOB 1-1aH:.11:eHO B ceqeH11ax MJIII 06JI0Ma1-10. B OTJIII'IHH
OT CKo6ene:H:, 'Ihe pa6oqee ne3BIIe no.11:roTOBJietto 1<pyTo:H: KpaeBo:H peTyIIIhI-O,
OCHOBHaa 'IaCTh aHKOUIHpOBaHHblX H3.D;eJIHH copMIIPOBaHa B npou:ecce
3KcnnyaTaU:HII (pIIc. 9:2). CBoeo6pa3He ymeMneHHI>rx nnacTIIH (pIIc. 9:26)
onpe.11:eneHO CIIJihHOH BeHTparrhHOH cpa6oTaHHOCThl-O B cpe.11:tte:H: 'IaCTII.
KpynHo3y6~raTI>IH Kpa:H: nnaCTIIH'IaThIX tt3.D;emr:H:, o6pa3oBaHHI>IH cerMeHTOBIIJJ:HhIM BI>IJiaMhIBaHIIeM KpOMKII (p11C. 9 :1, 7) , HJJ;eHTmpIIU:IIpyerca c
xapaKTepHI>IM II3HOCOM CTporaJihHbIX HO:>KeH (6) H IlIIJIKH (1).
06oco6rremrnro paccMo:r pettmr 3acrry:>KIIBaIOT II3.D;emrn II3 .npymx nopo.n
KaMHH. }fa ceMII npe.D;MeTOB, II3rOTOBJieHHbIX HX qepHoro .TOHHTa, 6e3 CJie.D;OB
BTOpIIqHOH o6pa60TKH, npe.D;CTaBJieHbI. l.feIIIyHKa, MeJIKIIH OTII{en, ce'IeHHe
MHKponnaCTIIHKII, JJ;HCTaJihHJ?IH ,11 'npOKCMMaJibI-lhIH KOHU:hl nnaCTIIHOK .
.11:orrorrH11TeJihHOH oT.nerrKoli Hau,L(eHI>I nnacTHHKa co c1<0IIIeHHhIM peTyIIIhI-O
KOHU:OM II MIIKponrraCTHHKa c npIITynrreHHbIM KpaeM H ycel.feHHbIM KOHU:OM. B
o6ottx cnyqaax IICI10Jih30BaHa peTyIIIh, yceKa1-0n1aa 3aroTOBKY Ha BCIO .ee

"!

Puc. 9. CapaTCHbl. l13ACJU!ll co BTopwrnoii o6pa6o~Koii H pcTymttoii cpa6oTaHHOCTblO.

-56-

TOJllllIIHY.
Bcero JIHIIIh OJJ;HO H3.D;eJine H3 HIIIMO-KBapu:HTa HBJIJieTCH MeJIKHM
aMopcpnI>IM oTmenoM, OJJ;Ha H3 pe:>KYlllHX rpane:H: KOToporo IIMeeT Merrbqa:H:rn11:H:
peTyIIIHbIH H3HOC. 06cne.D;OBaHHe ceqe1nrn MHKporrrraC'rHHKH H3 o6CHJJ;Hana
TaK:>Ke II03BOJIJieT BbI.D;eJIIITh MeJih'Ia:H:rnyro BhlKpOIIIeHHOCTh KpOMKII 0,L(Horo
Kpaa H MeJIKYIO BeHTpaJibHYIO no.11:pa60TKY BTOporo.
Ilecqanm<OBI>Ie rrpe.D;MeThl BKJIIO'IaIOT MeJIKHH OKaThIIIJ, o6JIOMOK
paCKOJIOTOH raJihKH II OT60HHHK Ha npo.11:onroBaTOH raJihKe c JJ:BYMH 3a6HTbIMH
KOHU:aMII . KpoMe Toro, Ha:H:.11:eua HaKOBaJihJ-JH Ha KpynHOM o6JIOMKe
rrecqa:nttKOBo:H: rarrhKII pa3MepoM 180x108x66 MM. Ha o6ettx ee eCTecrnenHo
ynrromeHHbIX IIOBepxHOCTHX rrpocne:>KeHI>I MHOrO'IHCJieHHhie CJie.D;J:il-BbI60m-Ihl
OT pacKarrhrnaHHH. Ha yqaCTKe mraMeTpOM .no 5 CM TaKoro po.11:a cpa6oTaHHOCTh opMttpyeT yrny6neHHe .no 7 MM.
OrrttcaHHe MaTepttanoB co CTOHHKII CapaTeHI>I npe.nrronaraeT rroCTaHOBKY
Tpex B3aHMOCBH3aHHbIX Me:>K,ny co6o:H: npo6neM. K HMM OTHOCHTCH ycTaHOBrrenIIe roMoreHHOCTII 1<peMHeBoro KOMrrrreKca, BI>rnBneHtte o6mttx H oco6h1x
qepT IIH.L(YCTPIIII rraMHTHIIKa Ha oHe rpe6eHHKOBCKOH o6m:nOCTII CTeIIHOH
30HhI Cesepo-3arra,nHoro IlpttqepnoMopI>H.

-57 -

06ttapy)J(eHHe B 'Ieptto3eMHhIX OTJIO)J(ettmrx CTOHHKH tteCKOJihKMX


<jJparMeHTOB paHHeHeOJIHTM'IeCKOM KepaMMKM M o6CM):U-IaHOBOro BKJia):(hUUa
rrpaBOMepHo IIO):(HMMaeT Borrpoc 06 O):(HOpO):(HOCTM BCero KOMrrrreKca
KpeMHeBhIX HaXO):(OK. 0.nttaKo, y)J(e rrpe.nBapMTeJ1hHOe COITOCTaBneHMe
opy:zi;HMHhix ua6~poB H3 CapaTeH M3BeCTHhIX rraMHTHMKOB KynhTyphr KpMur,
rro3BOrraeT rrpMHTH K o.n;r-I03Ha'IHOMy yTBep)J(,n:eHMIO 06 Mx cymecTBeI-n-IOM
pa3J1H'IMM.

B CTpyKType KpMUieKMX KOMrrneKCOB Be,n:yur;ne n03MUHH 3aHHMaIOT


HO)J(eBM.D:Hhie nrraCTMHhI, npeBOCXO.D:HUI;He no pa3MepaM COOTBeTCTBYIOll(He
H3,n:errna H3 CapaTeH, umpoKo pacnpocTpaneHhI pe3l!hI tta aMopqlI-IhIX OTUJenax,
BCTpe'IaIOTCH CKpe6na c BhIITYKJihIM rre3BMeM Ha MaCCHBHhIX OTI.Qenax H
YKOpO'IeHHhIX nnaCTHHax, HaKOHe'II-I HKH CTpen Ha nrraCTHH'IaThIX CKOrrax .
Cpe.n:n TpanetiueBH.D:HhIX BKna.n;hIIIIeif 06pama10T Ha ce6n BHHMa1rne BhICOKHe
cpopMhI. KpoMe Toro, .n:nn i<pulllcKoro ua6opa 3aMenry10 ponh urpaI-OT
IllnucpoBaHHhie TonophI, Teena H .n:orroTa. MHoro 113,n:enuif BhmorrueHo H3
o6cu,n:uaHa, orrarra n aH.ne3MTa-6a3anhTa.
Pe3KHM KOHTpacT no COCTaBy H npe.ncraBM;eJihHOCTH opy.nHMHhlX ua6opoB
KpHillCKHX naMHTHHKOB H CapaTeH, CBM,n:eTenhCTByeT 06 OTCYTCTBHH CKOJihKOHH6y,n:h Bbipa)J(eHHhIX npHMeceif B KpeMHeBOM KOMnneKce rrocrre.nuero. 3To
TaJ<)J(e .no;:rrnep)J(.n:aeT cpaBHHTeJibHhIM aHaJ1H3 KonneI<l!HH MaJIOCMeI.QeHI-IhIX
Haxo,n:oK M3 6yporo cyrrrmII<a (25% OT o6ur;eil. MaCChI apTecpaKTOB) H OCTaJihHhIX
rro,n:Beprurnxcn nepeoTJIO)J(eHMIO MaTepManoB.

B TO )J(e BpeMa, nu.nycTpua CapaTeI-I BnonHe BnHchrnaeTcn B Kpyr


naMHTHHKOB rpe6eHHKOBCKOM KYJ1hTyphr. 3To npOHBJDieTCH I<aI< ITO THnH'II-IOMy
na6opy u3.z:1errnif co BTOpH'IHOM o6pa6oTKoif, TaI< n no cTpyI<Typnoif
ynopH):(O'IeI-IHOCTH CaMOM I<OJIJieI<IIHH. Ilo.nqepKHeM HaH6onee xapaKTepHhi e
<IepThr rpe6eHHKOBCKOM o6UIHOCTH, rrponBHBIIIHeca B MaTepnarrax CapaTeH :

1. CoBepllleHCTBb TeXHHKH rraparrnenhHOro CI<aJ1hIBaHHH, OCHOBaHI-IOH Ha


orvrnc'ropoI-IHeM, TII~aTenhHO rro.n:ro;roBneHHOM HyKneyce c yrrrrour;eHHhIM
clipOHTOM CI<aJ1hIBaHHH, npn MHHHMaJibHOM npucyTCTBHH Kapatt.n;allleBH.D:HhIX
cpopM;
2. 5Ip1<0 Bhipa)J(eHHan MMKpOJIHTH'II-IOCTb HH,n:ycTpHH, onpe.n:emreMaa
ynoTpe6rreHHeM He6orrhlllHX nnaCTHH'IaThIX 3arOTOBOK H MeJIKHX OTUI;enoB
3. PacnpocTpaHeHHOCTh rrpe,n:I-IaMepeHI-IO no.n:roToBrreI-IHhIX ce'leH~if
nnaCTMHOK rrpnMoyronhHOM H 'TpaheuHeBH.D:HOH cpopMhl, c MHKpOH3I-IOCOM OT
ucrro:Jih30BaHHH B TPY.D:OBhix orrepaD;Hnx;
4. Ba)J(HaH ponh CKpe6KoB B opy,n:HifHoM Ha6ope. Hann<IHe oI<pyrrrhix,
nonyoKpyrrrh~X, 60KOBhIX cpopM, npH Be,n:ymeM 3I-Ia'IeI-IHH MHKpOCI<pe6I<oB;

5. Hn3KHH rrpoueI-IT pe31IOB, KaK npaBuno, yrrrOBhIX pa3I-IOBH.D:HOCTeif;


6. 0.nHoo6pa3He reoMeTpH'leCKHX MHKpOJIHTOB, npeHMyI.QeCTBeHHO
npe.ncTaBneHHhIX cpe,n:HeBhrcoI<HMH nnn crrerna y.n:rrHHeHHhIMH Tparre11naMH;
7. He3Ha'IHTeJihHan npe,n:cTaBHTeJihHOCTh ocrpnif, nrraCTHHOI< c npuTynrreaHhIM I<paeM HJ1H

~
110.[(TeCKOH

6pIOIIIKa.
"Z

BMeCTe cTeM, nenh3H OCTaBHTh 6e3 BHHMaHHH opnrnHaJihHOCTh paccMaTpnmieMOH KOJIJieKIIHH. Ona naxo,n:HT cBoe Bhipa)J(eHHe B 3Ha'IHTeJihHO 6onhIIIeif
pacnpocrpaHeHHOCTH nnaCTHH'laThIX 3arOTOBOK, B TOM 'IHCJie MHI<porrnaCTHHOK
(11,9% oT o6m:ero 'IHCrra naxo,n:oK H3 6yporo cyrrrHHKa). I1x 1HCnOJih30BanHe B
Ka'leCTBe 3arOTOBOK oco6eHHO 3aMeTHO cpe,n:H MMI<PO.OCTpMH H nnaCTHI-IOK c
npHTynneHHhIM KpaeM (10,8% OT o6ur;ero KOrrH'IeCTBa opy,n:H:H:). TaK)J(e,
crre11mjJH'IHa 6orree CKpOMHaH porrh CI<pefaoB B opy,n:HHHOM Ha6ope (29 ,5%, B TO
BpeMH KaI< B fpe6ettHI<ax nx 58, 7%, - fHp)J(eBo --45,2%, a B MMpHOM - 49%) ,
a BHYTPH 3TOH rpym1h1 - B03pOC1IIee 3Ha'IettHe uoneBH.D:HhIX cpopM. Cpe,n:H
reoMeTpH'IeCKHX MHKPOJIHTOB OTMe'IeHbl ,n:Ba naparrrrerrorpaMMa, a B rpynne
1n.n:err11i1 co CTecaHHbIM 6pI-OIIIKOM - cep1rn KyKpeKCKHX BKna,n:bJIIIeH.
Ilpo,n:OJI)J(eHne HCCrre,n:oBaHHH Ha Me30J1HTH'IeCI<OH CTOHHKe CapaTeHhl
npe.n:norraraeT yTO'II-Ierrne ee KyJihTY.PI-IO-xpoI-Ionoru<Iec1<oro nono)J(eJ-I1rn.
IlepcneKTHBHO pa,n:Hoyrnepo,n:J-Ioe .naTHpOBamre no KOCTI-IbIM OCTaTKaM H
KOMnneKCHOe H3y'Ier-rne OTJ10)J(eHHH Ha JO)J(HOM y'laCTI<e naMHTHHKa, r.n:e
B,03MO)J(I-Ja ny<IlllaH coxpauuocTh KyJii;Typuoro CJIOH.

IIPHME1-IAI-UUI
1

Kempapy H A. IlaMITTHHKH : mox rra.rieomrra H Me'.lOJJITTa. Apxeonorw1ecKM 1<ap-ra Mon.QaBCKOH CCP.


Bbm. l. Kmmll-leB, 1969. '
2 )J,aeuo A. JI. Pe:JyJJbTllTbl orrpeueneHllil KOCTHbJX ocraTKOB )l(}IBOTHbJX HX apxeonorwiecKHX pacKorroK
Me'.lOJJHTH'IecKoro rrOceIIeHllil y c. Ca.paTeHbJ. lfp11J1o)l(eHHe KOT'leTY Ng 384. ApXHB MA3. Kun.n-rneB,
1995.

The article presents the outputs of the many-year surveys on the Late Mezolithic site of
Saraten i attributed to the Grebnikovo complex of sites. The data on stratigraphy, planigraphy,
used ra~ materials, which have mot been known before, are presented in detail, the extensive
characteristics of'lhe flint tools are given.

Viorica Pascari
MICROTERIOFAUNA DE LA ST AJIUNEA
PLURISTRATIGRAFICA_GRAVETIANA COSAUJI
DE PE NISTRUL MIJLOCIU
Microteriofauna, in special rozatoarele, sunt unimportant indicator al climei.
Teritoriul Moldovei este destul de reprezentativ in resturi fosile de mamifere, ~i
fiind, din punct d~vedere geografic, situat intre Carpatii Orientali ~i Campia Rusa,
joaca un rol important in e!ucidarea problemelor specifice de studiere al fosilelor, al
procesului Ior evolutiv ~i, nu in ultimul rand, pentru determinarea paleocli~ei in.
zona 1
Fauna mamiferelor si in special a rozatoarelor in majoritatea cazurilor; a fost
descoperita

- 58 -

~i studiata '1~ statiunile preistorice din Moldova,


-59 -

datate cu diferite

perioade ale paleoliticului ~i mezoliticului. Insa nu intotdeauna, in procesul de


studiere al a~ezarilor paleolitice s-a acordat atentie microteriofaunei, punanduse accent pe studiul macromamiferelor2
Un rol important in studierea paleoliticului superior din Moldova revine'
statiunii Cosauti, cercetata d_e catre doct.orul in istorie I. Borziac timp de 16 ani.
La aceasta statiune au fost depistate ~i studiate 21 niveluri de locuire grav~tiana,
datate cu virsta de 21- 13 mii ani A. Chr. Aceasta statiune are nivelurile de
locuire bine conservate, este extrem de bogata in materiale arheologice ~i
paleontologice3
Statiunea Cosauti este plasata la 500 m spre nord-vest de satul C0sauti,
raionul Soroca, pe terasa a doua a Nistrului. Nivelele de locuire sunt incorporate
in depuneri argiloase, de nisip fin cuartitic, de la adancimea de 2,2 pana la
adancimea de 10,6 m. Grosimea depunerilor cuaternarului tardiv pe locul
statiunii este de peste 17 m. In contextul depunerilor terasei a II a Nistrului, pe
locul statiunii au fost depistate peste 60 niveluri litologice, impartite de ciitre
geologul P. Hesaerts in 7 cicluri de evolutie a paleoclimei in intervalul de timp
amintit. Majoritatea nivel~lor de locuire coincid cu orizonturi de soluri fosile
embrionare4 .
Fauna mamiferelor mari la statiune este reprezentata, in special de renul
polar (Rangifer Tarandus L.), care constituie intre 65 ~i 90% din numarul total
al fosilelor . Mai modes ta este fauna mamiferelor mici, a rozatoarelor. Ins a ele
sunt prezente in majoritatea nivelelor de locuire.
In anii 1989-1997 la statiune au fost colectate piese osteologice de
Lagomorphia ~i Rodentia . In ace~ti ani :rpaterialul din nivelurile 1- 4 a stathmii
au fost spalate ~i , prin flotatie au fost depistate numeroase oase de micromamifere.
Mai variata este microteriofauna din nivelele 3- 4 ale statiunii, care, de
altfel, sunt cele m_ai reprezentative ~i din punct de vedere arheologic. In nivelele
d_e l_ocuire au fost depistate, in special din ti ~i maxilare de micromamifere, care
sunt mai u~or de identificat. Nu este exclus, ca unele oase de micromamifere sa
fi nimerit in nivelele de locuire intamplator, altele, insa, precum cele apartinand
speciei Lepus au nimerit in nivelele de' locuire .datorita activitatii diurne ale
omului.
I~ acest articol prezentam datele prealabile, in ~pecial, cele referitoare la
speciile intalnite ~i cele cantitative dupa care va urma un alt studiu, aparte despre
fauna mica de la aceasta statiune.
Microteriofauna de la statiunea gravetiana Cosauti.
In rezultatul cercetarii microteriofaunei din nivelele de locuire de la statiunea
gravetiana Cos au ti, am constat~~' ca in procesul depozitarii, in aria de activitate
- 60-

Nivelele de locuire
Specia'

Lepus Tanaiticus Gur.


Lepus europaeus L.
Lepus sp.
Ochotona spelaeus Owen .
Citellus suslica Guki.
Spalax leucodon Nord.
Dicrostonix guilielmi Sanf.
Lagurus lagurus Pall .
Arvicola terrestris L.
Microtus arvalis Pall.
Microtus gregalis Pall.
Microtus ooconomus pall.

II

III

IV

31

12
1
13

67
2
16

314
15
6
4
4
7
I
17

33

+
+

+
+
+
7

I
9

4
5

30

1
.3

'

6
62
19

"

' Uncle materiale din cercet~rile anterioa~e au fost fumizate de cltre doctorul tn biologic A. David, clnua i-1 multmnesc ~1
pe

aceast~

cale.

a omului ce a locuit aici pe parcursul _a peste 5 mii ani, a persist~t o clima


periglaciara, un land~aft de stepa rece. Datele no~st~e sunt c?nfm_nate ?~
cercetarile malacofaunei de la a~ezare 5 , de rezultatele capatate conform htolog1e1
'

.
.

depunerilor 6
Majoritatea pieselor paleontologice de micromam1f~re .ne md.1c~ u~ spatm
de silvostepa rece , fapt incontestabil, dovedit de cercetanle mterd1sc1plmare cu
privire la aceasta statiune7

NOTE

David A. J. Teriofauna pleistotena Moldavii. Chicinau, 1980.


Ibidem, pp . 39-45.

.
.
.
.
t "Th. o ' , " XV
' Borziac I. Paleoliticul ~i mezoliticul In spatrnl dmtre N1stru ~1 Prut. n
raco- ac1ca ,
,
1- 2 Bucure~ti, 1994, pp. 19--40.
.
.
.
.
4D
b,l F l:hesaerts P. Van Der Plicht, J. New datmgs and cons1derat10ns on the Chronolam on, " ..
' ' '
'
I "PREHISTOIRE
ogy of upper Paleolithic sites in the Great Euroasiat!'c Plam. n
.
EUROPEENNE" v. 9 Liege, 1996, pp. 177- 231.
'
.
s Borziac, I, Kremen~tki,
Prepelifa, A . Paleoecologia sto\anki Cosauti. ln "Izvest1,a A. N. n. 2,
1990, pp. 35- 39.
'
.
Damb/on, F., Haesa erts, P., Van Der Plicht, J. New datmg ... p. 213.
7 Ibidem, ... pp. 177- 231.
1

K.,

Summary

The species composition of the multilayered Palaeolithical site Cosa_iiti is described in the
present paper. The absolute dating of some layers (the first-forth_ ~nes) 1s quote~. The fauna!
analysis alowed to reconstruct the landscape and ~he climate cond1t10n of that penod.

- 61 -

0.8. nap11Ha, K.-n~ Bexnep, B.A. Aepra'leB,


c.~. KoBaneHKO, B.M. 611K6aeB
HOBblE nonEBblE '1CCnEAOBAH'1SI
nAMSITH'1KOB ME30J1'1T A 11 HEOmn A MOnAOBbl

I1po6rreMa aeomnM3a~1rn H pacrrpocTpaaeamr rrpOH3BO,D:lIII~Hx rpopM xo3ailcTBOBaHHa n BocTO'lHOM Enporre rrpo.D.OJJ)KaeT ocTaBaThCH O.D.HOH H3 aau6orree CJJO)KHbIX H aKTyaJihHbIX 3a)l.a'I conpeMerrnoil apxeonornu u .D.pe~aeii
HCTOpmi Enpoa3HaTCKoro KOHTHHeHTa.
0.D.HO H3,KJUO'leBbIX 3Ha'leHHM )l.J1H peweHHH '.HOM npo6rreMhi BI-le COMHeHHH
HMeroT uccrre.D.onamrn naMaTHHKOB Me3orr11Ta 11 aeomna pecrry6m1,r<11 Morr-,
.D.OBa. OfrbacrrneTca 3TO TeM, '-ITO TeppuTopmr Morr.D.OBhI, nMecTe c corrpe.D.errhHbIMH paifor-rnMH BocTO'lHoil PyMhIHHH u IOro-3arramroii Yr<paHHhI, 6bm.a cnoero po.D.a 30Hoii rrepBH'IHOro aerrocpe.lJ,c'TBemwro conpur<ocaoneaua u B3aHMO.D.eilcTnirn BCTYIIHBIIIHX y)l{e B :moxy I-JeOJJHTa parme3eMJ1e)l.eJ1b'leCKHX 06'IT(eCTB Bam<aH H KaprraTo-Ilo.D.yaanha c OTCTanaBIIIHMII B cnoeM pa3BIITIIH '
Me30JJHTII'!ecniMII o6rn;ecTBaMH IOra BocTO'lHOM EBponhr. HMemro 'Iepe3
3eMnH Mon.D.OBhI, Kar< ceii'Iac 1xoporno H3BeCTHO, peanu30BhrnanIICb B 3noxy
Me3o- aeonttTa ocHOBHhie nrrHaaua 6arrr<aacr<oro tjlarnopa, r<OTOpbIH, OTliaCTH
caMOCT05!TeJibHO, O'D'la<;:TH BO B3aHMO)l.eiicTBHH c 3ar<a!3Ka3CKHMH HJIH 6onee
OT.D.arreHHbIMH - 3ar<acnHilcr<HMH KYJihTYPHhIMH HMrryrrbcaMH, co)l.eiiCTBonarrH
pacrrpOCTpaHeHIIIO u OKOHliaTeJibHOMy yTBep)l{)l.e1rnro paHHHX tjlopM 3eMrre)l.eJ1II5I II )KJiBOTHOBO)l.CTBa Ha BCeM npOT5!:iKeHIIII necoCTeI!HOll, a 'IYTb I103)l{e Ii
CTemroil 301-I. BocTO'lI-IOeBporre11:cr<oil pam-rHHbI.
On<pbITIIe H Hccrre.D.oBaHIIe neonHTa Morr.D.OBbI OTI-IOCHTCa KO BTopoil norroBHHe 50-x Ii 70-bIM rr. HaIIIero CTOJieTirn, I<Or)l.a 6bIJJH Bbl5!BJ1eHbI Ii H3y'leHbI
nepBbie naiviaTHHKII r<ynhTyphi JJHHeilHo-rreHTO'lHOil r<epaMHKH (KJIJIK)i, n
;lJ:HeCTp~ncr<oro. napHaHTa Byro-):(HecTponcr<oil r<ynhTypbI (BJIK:)2.
Me)K.lJ.Y TeM, Ma:repnarrhI TaKnx rraMJITHIIKOB KaI< CerrnIIITe I n Car<apoBI<a I
OI<a3aJIHCb Heo6ocaonaauo OTHeceHbI B. If. MapI<eBn'IeM I< B):(K. HMeHno no3ToMy rrpe.D.crnnnenIIa o pauueM ueorrnTe MoJJ)l.OBhI, Bblpa6oTaHHbI eme B I<omre 60-x
rr., rrpO)l.0J1)KaJJH 6b1TOBaTb B o6o6maf(>IIJ;J1X Tpy.ri;ax BIIJIOTb )l.0 He)l.aBHHX'rrop3
fnaBHblM HTOrOM Ha'IaTbIX B KOHIIe 80-x rr. pa60T Heo~HTH'leCI<Oll 3I<CIIC.D.HIIHH (H3) ua nocerreHHH Car<apOBr<a I ( 1989-1991 , 1995-1997) 6bmo rrpH3HanIIe O'leBH.lJ.HOro y)l{e .D.JIH Hae rpaKTa, 'ITO ueoJIHT Mon.D.OBbI rrpe.D.CTannaeT
ropa3)l.O .6orree CJJO)KHOe H MHoroo6pmuoe anrreHHe, BI<mo'!arou1ee B ce6a, I<po~
M,e paHHee Bhl)l.erreHHbIX :_____'._ 'B):(K n KJIJIK, e~e c~o~o6ptm1yro rpyrrrl:y rraMaTHIII<OB - I<YIThTypa CaKapoBKa, opraHH'leCKH.cna1a1rnyro c r<yrrhTypH:oil o6ri.(uocTbIO Kpmn-KepeIII4 : Tar<nM 06pa10M, 6rraro.D.apa MHororreTHHM rrorreBhIM H
auarrHTII'IeCKIIM II3bICKaHH5!M, .\< :HaCT05!IT(eMy BpeMeHH )l.J15! Tepprnoprrn
Morr.D.OBI;>I orrpe.D.erreHHO 1arpH.KCHpoBaHo TPH caMoc,-roaTeJJhHhie aeorrHTn'IeCr<He
KYITbTYPbI, OTJJH'laIOIIJ;Heca Kar< no .CTerrerm )l.OKyMeHTHpOBaHI-IOCTH, Tar< Ii
ypOBHeM pa1pa60TaHHOCTH OCHOBHbIX, CB5!3aHHbIX c HX pa3BHTHeM BOIIpOCOB.
-62-

Ha .D.aHHOM 3Tarre rna:nI-Iirn rrpo6rreMa )l.aJJhI-IeilIIIero oCMbicrreI-Ina ua'larrhHbIX 3Tarron rrpouecca Heon11T111aIIHH Ha TeppuTopIIH Mon,.D.OBb~ yrrupaeTca B
rrepnyro O'lepe.D.b BJieo6xO)l.HMOCTb pacurnpeHH5! cyrn;ecTByIOIUeH IICTO'IHHKOBe)l.'leCKOll 6a3bI, 'ITO, ecTeCTBeHirn, B03MO)l{H0 JJHIIlb rrpu ycrro~~II rrp~pe.p,eHH5I
HOBbIX, xopoIIIO )l.OKyMeHTHpOBaHHbIX .ITOJieBbIX uccne)l.OBaHIIH. 3ro KacaeTC5I
r<aK co6cTneH:fIO a orrnTH!.J.eCI<HX naMaTHHKOB, npe)l{)l.e Bcero Byro-):(:necTpon
11
cKoil r<yrrhTYPhI n KYJihTYPhI KpnIII, Tar< u, B '!aCTHOCTH, rraMaTHHKOB rr?3.D.Hero
Me3orrnTa, KOTOpbie ern;e r<paiine crra6o 113y'IeHhI u 6e1 KOTOpbIX ocneme:nue
rrpo6neMhI ueorruTu1au1111 ocTaueTca uerroJ1HbIM.
,
HucTHTYTOM Apxeorronrn AH Mon.D.OBbI conMecTHO c CeMuHapoM no
)l.peBHeilIIIeil II ,npenneil 11cTop1111 Cno6o.D.HOro Yunn,epcnTeTa. Beprrm-ra ():(p.
Krrayc-IleTep Bexnep) opraH111bnar-rn apxeonoru'lecr<aa 31<crre.D.IIIIHH1 na'laJihHbIM 3TaIIOM pa60Tbl KOTOpoil CTaJIH pa3Be)l.KH II IIOHCK naMHTHHKOB B cenepI-IOH u u:eHTpanbHOll 1ouax Mon,nOBbI (pailoHbI: Cbrn)l{epeil, ):(poKua, CopOKH,
):(oH)l.IOIIIaHbl), r)l.e no Ii3BeCTHbIM .z:i;aI!HbIM cocpe)l.OTO'leHbl uau6orree ,D;OCTOnepHbie II IIHTepeCHbie KOMTIJICKCbI MC30JIHTa H ueonuTa (pHC. 1).

Pailou Singerei
Jia10J3cK, cooTBeTCTBCHHO nee rraMaTHIIKII,
nbI.Brnee ua 3naI-Ine
H3BeCTHbIC ITO)l. 3THM Ha3BaHHeM, nony'laT HOBOe ~603Ha'leHHe Cbrn)l{epeii.

',

1. Sacarovca IV, com. Dragae~t1(4741 26'.' c.rn. 28 13 35" B..lJ.., BbICOTa

220 M) (1). OTKpbITO n 1989 r. H3. OrneceHo rrpe.D.BapHTeJibHO K M~3onHTy.


Haxo.D.IITCH B 2 KM K IOB oT cena CaKapoBKa, K C3 OT BbICOTHOH OTMCTKII
237,3, BIIJIOTb ~o rpaHHI~ He.onHTH'leCKoro rrc:JceneHHJJ: Car<aponKa I. Pacnonaracrca ua y3KOll IIOJJOCKC MbICoo6pa3HOrO BO)l.Opa3)l.ena, opHeHTHpOBaH_~oro
no JIIIHHH C3-IOB, MC)l{.ll.Y .ll.BYM5! o6urnpttbIMH KaHhOHaMII. KpeMHeBbIH MaTepHan co6pan.Ha rrnoma.D.H 1OOxl5 M Ha rpe6He BO.D.opa~erra (PHc. 2, 1).
Ha6mo.naeTca CMbIB u pa1pyuieuHe rorroueuoBbIX OTJIO)l{eHIIH. Ilo,nnaa ~-onor-i_~
Ka rrpocne)l(eHa nIIIIIh B IOB '!aCTH CTOHI-IKH (PHc. 3, 1) . 1. tfopHo3eMHbIH crrou
_() - 30-40 cM (rro'IBa A); 2. Cnoil 6yporo cyrnIIuKa - 30-40 - 44--55 CM
(no'!Ba B); 3. )KeJITO-KOpH'IHCBbIM cyrnHHOK - OT 44--55 CM (no'IBa C). Illypqi
,noBe)l.eH .no rny6HHbl 60-80 CM .
.
.
3 1 KpeMueBhIX H~XO)l.OI<, o6Hapy)l{eHHbIX B wyprpe, IIIeCTb rrpe,nMeTOB
Hatt.D.CHbI ua KOHTaKTe 'lepHo3eMa u 6yporo cyrnmrKa(no'IBhI A II B) II B nepx-

J1 o

Heil '!aCTH 6yporo cyrnHHK~l. '


'

.,
,
Bcero co6pano 1806 I<peMHeBhIX rrpe.D.MeTOB (Puc. 4;,5). Ilo TCXHHKepacmerrneHHa Bbl)l.CJrnIOTC5! cne)l.yIOUJ,He rpyrrnbI II3,nerrHil: 1. farrbKII - 21 B T9M 'IHCJJe
opy.D.IIH _ O; 2. TipeuxKneyc:br- 3/0; 3. Hyr<rreychr - 910; 4. HyKneBH.lJ.Hbre o6rroMKII
-10/0; 5. MeJII<IIe o6noMKH- 72/0; 6. OTrn;enh1cpe,nH11e-48/l l; 7. 0Trn;errh1MerrKHe
- 731/46; 8. tJernyilKH, OCK0JIKII - 22010; 9. IlnaCTHHbl KpyrrHoIC 168/28; 10.
IlnaCTHHbl cpe,nHIIe- 391/27; 11. nnaCTIIHbl MCJIKHe (MIIKPO)-91/14; 12. KpaeBbIC
CKOJihI - 46/1; 13. CKonhI O)l{HBrrenIIa - 25/1. Bcero opy,z:i;IIil 118.
-63-

'V"BYl'o-,llaec'l'jlOBC
KaJ!' KY.llllcypa
o CaKa.PoBCJIUIJI
RY.IIl>cypa

D Jla11eluo-.J1ell'l'O'l
Bair K8,P8JGIKQ

+ B80Jlll'T(Tp~dyeT
Y1'0'IB8Bllll'.}

.n

1000

1 km

LIQ .U QR I

1000

fl1

!ir11rrrl

lkm
I

Puc. 2. TonocxeMhI pa3Me111eHHJ1 naMllTHHKOB: I - CaKapoBKa I, IV, V,VI; 2 - KHpm1eHh IV, IX.
HOH IIJIOCKOCTH -

1 3K3.

(PHC .

4, 24); -

KOHyCOBH.D;Hhie O.D;HOIIJIOIUa,n:oqHbie

.D;JIH nnacTHH H MHKponnaCTHH. Pa6o'IHC noBepxHOCTH IIJIOCKHe, c rrpaBHJI!>HhIM


orpaHeHI-IeM, B O.D;HOM CJ1yqae, Ha orpaHH'IeHI-IOM yqacTKe, B ,n:pyroM -

Puc. I. MecrnHaxoJK,Z1eH11e naW!THHKOB, 06cne.110BaHHbIX B 1996 r .


1. CaKapo~Ka IV; 2. CaKapoBKa V; ~- CaKapoBKa VJ; 4. KHp1meHb IV; 5. KHpWieHb IX; 6. EHnwreHm1 Hoii X; 7.
Emrn:_emrn BeKb XI; 8. EHnHqeHHH BeKb XII; 9. CbIHJKepeii XIII; 10. Cb!Hll<epeii XIX; 11. fp11rop y1<a III; 12.
3
M11xam10BKa VII; 13. KHWK3peHb V; 14. IJ;apHrpa,ZI II; 15. IJ;apHrpa.11 XV; 16. CopoKa I; 17. CopoKa III; 18.
T 3Hp3yKa Hoy3 XIV; 19. T 3np3yKa Hoy3 XV.

Ha pa6o.qeii crn.n;1111 pacKa.lJbrnaHm.1 npe.n;no':!Te1me oT.n;aercH npH3MaTH-

'IecKoii TeXHHKe napamieJII>Horo pacruenneHHH.


'IeTbipe pa3HOBH.D;HOCTH: -

~eIIOB - 4 3K3; -

B rpyrrne HYKJ1eycoB Bhrpa)l(eHbI

no.n;npH3MaTH'IeCKHe 0.D;HOIIJIOIUa.D;O'IHhie .D;JI51 OT-

no.n;npH3MaTH'IeCI<He 0.D;HOIIJIOIUa.n;o':IHhie 0.D;HOCTOPOHHHe

.D;JI51 IIJiaCTHHOK H MHKpOCKOJIOB -

3K3. (Puc.

4, 23); -

npmMaTH'IeCI<HH

1wynnorua.n;o'IHbIH .D;JI51 MHKpOIIJiaCTHHOK, co BCTpe'IHhIM pacruennemreM B

64 -

o.n;-

.D;BYX CMe)J(HhIX -

2 IliT.

(PHC.

Ha

4, 25).

B rpyrrne onu;erroa ( 43%) rrpeo6na.n;a10T Mem<irn 3K3eMIIJI51pbI - .n;o 2,5 CM .


IlJiaCT11HqaTI>1x CKOJIOB 6onee 33%. ,[(onH MHKponHTH'IeCKHx cJ.iopM .n:ocT11raeT 74%, cpe,n;H HHx co6cTneHHO MHKpormacTHHOK - Ka)l(,n;aH .n;ecHTaH. OTMeqeno Kpailne pe.n;Koe yrroTpe6JieHHe TeXHI1I<H pe3ll;OBOI'O CKOJia H lll1:,POKOe
0

pacnp 0CTpanen11e BepTHKaJibHOH rrpHTYIIJIHIOIUeil peTylllH, cpe3aIOIUeH 3aroTOBKY Ha BCIO HJIH 60JihlllYIO 'iaCTh ee TOJIII.(HHhI.
}i3.n;eJIH5I co BTOpH'IHOM o6pa60TKOH H perylllHhIM H3HOCOM COCTaBJ15IIOT
B KOJIJICKU:HH

5,8% -

105

3K3. 0HI-I no.n;pa3,n:eJrnIOTC51 :

- 65 -

1.

CKpe6Kn: -

65/55%;

n-Q D-Qll D-3.i-t4 ~5

2. Pe3U:bI M MMKpope3U:bI - 4/3%; 3. Tpaneu:1rn M ux 06.rloMKU - 19/16%; 4.


nrraCTUHKM c npMTynrreHHblM KpaeM - 10/8%; 5. MuKpOOCTpI-rn c npmynneHHbIM KpaeM - 1/1%;6. Yn~eMneHHaH nrracTMHKa - 1/1 %; 7. CeLJCHH)I nn acTMH c IIOJJ;TeCKOM - 4/3% . .8. nrracTUHbl c peTylllblO - 8/7%; 9. OTmenbI c
. peTylllblO - 2/2%; 10. 06JIOMKH opy.null: - 4/ 3%.

~~ ~-~

1I

17

Puc. 4. CaKapOBKa IV. KpeMHCBbJe H3Aenm1.

:. .,

IM
Puc. 3. CTpa:rttrpaqn1'1ecKHe pa:ipe3bl: l - CaKapOBKa IV; 2 - oHJIHLieHIDi BeKb XII; 3 - U:apttrpa,n; II.

Be.nymue no3uu:un B opy.nnll:aoM mrn e1nape 3attnMaIOT CKpe6Ku (Puc. 4,


1- 21; 5, 30-40, 42- 50) . K pe3u.aM orneceHhl Tpu npe.nMeTa (Puc. 4, 22; 5, 10,
11). reoMeTpui.reCKHe MHKpOJIHTbl npel(CTaBJieHhl UCKJII-OL!HTeHbHO TpaneUH5IMI1
(P11C. '5, 14- 26). E.n11ncrnenHaH Tpaneu:11H BhICOKOM ~opMhI npe.ncTaarreHa B
o6nOMKe (Pn:c. 5, 16). IlnaCTHHhl C aepTHKaJibHOM npI1TYHJI5IIOIQeM peTylllbIO,
cpe3aBllleM 3aroTOB.KY Ha BCIO 11JIH 6onhllIYIO i.raCTb ee Tonm11Hhl, Hali.neHhl B
-

66 -

67 -

o6JIOMKax (Pnc. 5, 1-7): fh!Tb MHKpOJII1TOB 5JBJI5IIOTCH T11I1IlqHblMM rpaBeTT011.D:HbIMM cpopMaMM (P11c. 5, 8).

2 .. Sacarovca V, com., Draganeeyti (47 42 40" c.rn., 28 13 12" B.,n:., o6c.


BbJCOTa 135 M) (Kap1'. 1). OTKpbITO B 1996 r . B. A. ,Uepra~reBbIM. OrneceHo K
KnnK.
Haxo,n:HTCJJ. B 1 KM K C-B (65?) OT u:epKBH cerra. PacrroJIO)!(CHO Ha norroroM
MbICY,' o6pa30BaHI-IOM CJIHJJ.HI1CM 6e3bI)\1HHHOrO .PYqbJJ.,, m:ia.n:aromero c rora B
peqKy Solonet. BbICOTa Mb1ca 3- 6 M 1rn.n: ypoBHeM peKn. 3I<crrott11poBaHo rm
ceBep (P11c . 2, 1). C noBepxHOCTH rrocerremrn co6paHo ,n:Ba (lJP<trMCHTa I<epaM11K11 KnnK (P11c. 6, 8) 11 7 I<peMHCBbIX 113:n;e.Finii:: 5 oTmerroB 11 1,n:Be nrracTHHbI.

- - - - - -

--

--

---- -~ .

- -

----\\
7

'

Puc. 5. C3:KaponKa IV. KpeMHeBhle H3.L1enm1

Orrpe.n:errerme KYJibTYPI:lO -xpottorrorn<iecKoro rrorro)!(eHH51 CT05JHKH Ca1<apOBKH IV Hy)!(.,n:aeTCH B .n:onorrmnerrbHOM yToqHernrn . Be1 COMHemrn B KOMnrreKce rrpHCYTCTByeT Heom1TnqecKaJJ. rrp11MeCb. TeM J-Ie MeHee, rrpe,n:Bap11TeJiblIO
MO)!(HO orOBOpHTb ll03.D:HeMe30JIHTHqecKHi1 B03pacT rraM51TJ-ll1Ka H ero 6.1JH30CTb K rpe6eJ-JHKOBCKOMY coo6mecTBy.
-

68 -

Puc. 6. Ma.TepHa!lhl naMllTHHKoB: 1- 6 -

CaKapoBKa VI; 7, 9 - KHpH!leHb IV; 8 - Ca.KapoBKa V.

- 69 -

3. Sacarovca VI, com. Dragane~ti (47 01 33" c.w. ,. 28 13 56" B.,IJ,., o6c.
BhICOTa 210 M) (Pr1C. 1). OrrcpbITO B 1996 B. A. ,ll,epraqeshIM. OTHeceHo K KJIJIK.
Haxo,IJ,HTCll B 1,5 KM re B-IOB (103) OT u:epKBH ceJia. PacrroJIO)l(eHo Ha crcrroHe H BhICOKOM rrJiaTo, cpopM11pyromeM BO,IJ,opa3,IJ,eJI peK Sol onet 11 Ciulucul Mare . BhICOTa rrJiaTo OKOJIO 75 KM OT ypoBHll P. Solonet B 1,2 KM K rory OT Hee
(Puc. 2,1). CnoBepxHOCTH co6parrn 24cliparMeHTaKepaMHKH KJIJIK: 13 CTOJIOBOH (Puc. 6, 5,6), ocraJihHhie -- KyxoHHOH rrocy,IJ,hI. .
B KpeMHeBoil I<OJIJieKu:1rn (20 3I<3.) BhI,IJ,eJilIIOTCH qeTb1pe OTmerra c JIIOCTpa)KeM (Ha O,IJ,HOM H3roTOBJieHo CKpe6Jio (Pttc. 6, 3). Cpe,IJ,n HeOJillTirqec1rnx H3,IJ,eJim'1:Tpn HYI<Jieyca (P11c. 6, 4); wec1:h MeJ11<nx OTmerrOB (ua,IJ,Byx 1nroTOBJieHhI
CKpeforn) (Pnc. 6, 1, 2) H TpH IlJiaCTlU!bI. I1MeIOTCll e,IJ,HHH'IHble MeJIKHe cpparMeHThI 1<epaMn1<11, no BH,IJ,HMOMy, 3rrox11 6poH3hI 11 .qepHlIXOBC1<oi1: KYJihTYPhI.
4. Chirileni IV, com. Dragane~ti. (47 41 03''., c.w., 28 41 08" B.,IJ,., o6c.
BhICOTa 130 M) OTKpbITO B 1979 r . B. M. Bn1<6aeBbIM (Puc. 1). OTHeceHo K KJIJIK.
Haxo,IJ,HTCll B 2 I<M I< 3-103 (244) OT u:eHTpa ceJia, Ha JieBoM 6epery nc1<ycCTBem-roro 03epa, B ,IJ,OJIHHe " La Mardari". 3aHHMaeT OTHOCHTeJibHO rrcmoryr-0
roro-3arra,IJ,HYIO qacn MbICa, o6pa30BaHHOrO CJIIUIHHeM ,IJ,BYX ,IJ,OJIHH (Puc. 2,
2). HeoJIHT11qecKne MaTepnanh1 BCTpe1ra10TCll Ha rrJioma,IJ,11 60 x 70 M. ITpa mypqioBI<e ycnlHOBJieHO, 'ITO I<y.TihTYPHhIH CJIOH noceJieHHH pa3pymeH rrry6ttHHOH
BCmlWI<OH Ii JUiillb OT1 IaCTH coxpaHHJICll Ha rrry6mre 0,6- 0,7 M.
Co6paHo 13 qlparMeHTOB 1<epaMu1<11 KJIJIK (Puc. 6, 7, 9). KpeMueBhie M3,IJ,emrn: (Puc. 7, 1- 3): CKOJI y,IJ,apHOH IlJIOil(a,IJ,KH, TilITb OTIIleTIOB H MeJIKaH nnacTHI-Ia. Ha O,IJ,HOM H3 onu:erros H3rOTOBJieH KOHU:eB0-60KOBOH CKpe601< (Puc. 7,
1). I1011:1MMO MaTepmmoB KJIJIK BCTpeqaeTClI KepaMHKa KYJihTYP Hoya, Lfep1-rnxoBo H II03,IJ,l-IeMOJI,IJ,aBCI<Oro cpe,IJ,HeBeI<OBhll:
5. Chirileni IX, com. Dragane~ti (47 4140" c.m., 28 10 33" B.,IJ,., o6c. BhlCOTa
160 M) OTKpbITO B 1995 r. B. M. BttK6aeBhIM. I1pe,IJ,sapme.TihHO OTHeceHo K
HeOJIMTY (KapT. 1).
Haxo,IJ,HTCll B 1,25 KM 1< 3 - C3 (2n) OT ceBepuoii: or<paMHhI ceJia, y rrpo cenoLnoii ,IJ,oporn:, s rny6Irne ,IJ,OJIHHhI " La Mardari", no,IJ, rpe6HeM BO,IJ,Opa3,IJ,eJia. 3aHHMaeT Kpali TeppaChI y ITO,IJ,HO)l(Hll pa3pyweHHOro OfJOJI3HlIMM CKJIOHa (P1Ic. 2, 2). Co6pauo ceMh KpeMHeBhIX rrpe,IJ,MeToi:i: cKon y,IJ,apHott rmoma,IJ,KM
Hy1rneyca, TpH onu:erra M ,IJ,Ba ceqeHMH 11:1enK1IX rrm1cTHH (Prrc. 7, 4, 5), omra M3
KOTOphIX c YTIIJIII3npoBam-rhIM H pe)l(yJ.QHM KpaeM. KepaMnKa He o6Hapy)l(eI-Ja.
l13-3a 11:1anoqHc.11eHHOCTH KOJIJieKU:MH KYJihTypHalI aTpH6y1.lHlI rraMlITHHKa HeB03MO)l(Ha.
6. Bilicenii Noi X, com . Bilicenii Noi (47 41 54" c.m., 28 03 46" B.,IJ,., o6c.
BhICOTa 140 11:1) OTKphITO B 1977 r. B. M. 01IK6aeBhIM . On-1eceHo K KYJihType
Ca1<apOBKa (KapT. 1).
.
.
I1oceJieHne Haxo,IJ,HTCll B 1,25 KM K CB (67) OT 1ma,IJ,611ma cena . 3aHHMaer
ITOHOrHH MbIC, o6pa30BaHHhIH CJ1H51HIIeM ,IJ,Byx pyqheB, 6epymnx Ha'laJIO B CKJJOHax BO,IJ,opa3,IJ,ena peK Solonet 11 Ciulucul Mare 11 srra,IJ,aromnx B 9 KM K rory B p.
Bonhmoii: Lfynyrc. BhrcoTa MhICa y Kpall rroilMhI 0,5 11 rrocTerre1rno B03BhmraeTC51
re cesepy (Puc. 2, 3). I1ocenettne 31<crrott11p0Batto Ha roro-3arra,IJ,, qacTnqao pa3- 70 -

. 4-5 K:ttpIBieHb IX 6-13 - EMJJ11<IeHID1 Hoi1 x.


Puc. 7. MaTep11anb1nawrrHHKOB:1- 3- I(11pIBieHb JV ,
,
-

pyrneI-IO . I1o~epXHOCTHbie MaTepHaJihl BCTpeLaIOTClI .ITO BCeM TpeM CKJlOHaM


MbICa Ha npOTll)l(eHHOCTl1 .n:o 100 M (3-B) H 80 (C-IO) M.
no u:eHTpaJihHOH OCH MhICa 3an0>KeHa TpaHIUelI 9xl M (C-IO). B rrpocprrne,
na ypoBHe qeptto3eMa, rrocTenentto rrepexo,IJ,nmero B cyrJIHHOK, 3acjmrccnposaHhI OCTaTKH ,IJ,BYX KYJlhTYPHblX ropH30HTOB: TpHilOJlbCKOrO - 0,3 - ~ , 35 M H
.K
o,35 - o' 47 M B IO)l(HhIX
KBa.n:parnx Tpattme11, Ha rny6HHe
~
.
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KYJlhTYPhI pnw 0 6 M BbrnnneHhI ocraTKH ueon11T111IeCKOH 5!MbI. Orm HMena oKpyrJihie o'Iep
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' 6 e 0 3- 0 36 MOT ypOBI-151 o6Hapy)l(eHHbIX KOHTypoB. 3arrorrHeHHe
rrpH n1y HH
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COCT05!JIO 113 ryMyc11po'saHHOfO rrepeMeIUaHHOrO cyrnHHKa c BKJIIOtJeHHlIMH
Memrnx' yrOJibKOB, rre'IHHhl , KOCTeH )l(HBOTHblX H 21 o6JIOMI<a rcepaMHKil.
- 71 -

Bcero c rroceJieHmr co6patto 66 <lip. KepaMHKH Kpmu. Jimuh O.L\HH u 3 rrax


OTHOCHTCH K CTOJIOBOM rrocy,L\e (Puc. 8, 3). Bee OCTaJlhHhie CO,L\ep:>I<aT rrpHMeCb
paCTI1TeJ1'bHOCTH If HMeIOT rpy6oo6pa6oTattHyIO IIOBepxHo'c n (P11c.
1- 2).
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8, 2), rrpoLiep:erJHhie J1HHI1H, ceTKOBH.[\Hbie yrny6JICHHH. 06paru;arcJT BHHMaHne
6 c}iparMCHTOB 1<epaMnKH E)J:K c rrpHMeChIO rrecKa n pacTHTeJihHOCTH. OpttaMeHTHpOB<UihI LiaCTbIMH yrny6JICHHhIMH napamICJihHblMH JIHHHHMH Hal10,L\0611e
KaHHCJIIOp B COLJ:eTaHHH c HaJierraMH-ynopaMH .

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Co6paHnhre MaTepuaJibl rro3BOJIHIOT co Bceii orrpe.L1eJieHHOCT~IO OTHeCTH


HeomITw1ecKoe noce.r;ieHHe Bilicenii Noi X K rraMHTHHKaM, HH.L\CHTHLJ:HhIM rroceJieHHIO Sacarovca 1. .
7. Bilicenii Vechi XI, com. Bilicenii Vecbi (47 44 2~ " C.llI .., 28 08 30" B..L\.,
o6c. BhICOTa 95 M) OTKphITO B. M. EHr<.6aeBhIM B 1974 r ~PHc. 1) .,Ilpe,L\BapHTeJihHO orrpe,L\eJieH I<aK MHOrOCJIOMHhlM naMHTHHK, CO.L1ep))(am11ii MHKpOJIHTHLJ:CCKHe KpCMHeBhlC 113,L\eJIHH 11 cpparMeHThIKepaMHKlI HCOJIHT.HLJ:ecr<oro 06n11r<a 5
CTaMHTHHK HaXO.L\lITCH B 2,3-2,5 KM K JOB (130) oT u:epKBH ceJia Irn rrpaBoM
CKJIOHe .L10mrnh1 p. Ciulucul Mare, Ha BbICoTe 25-30 M. 3aH11MaeT ycTyrr BTopoii
ua,L\rroi1:MenHoii TeppachI, o6pametttthrii fra ceBep (P11c, 9, 1). Pe.L1KI1e rroBepxHOCTHhre MaTCpHaJibI (KaMHlI, KpeMHH, KepaMlIKa), npOCJIC))(CHbl Ha npOTH))(CHlIH
65 (B-3) x 45 (C-IO) MCTpOB. B BOCTO'IHOH 'nlCTH IIJIOIUa,L\H Ha yLiaCTKC ,L\HaMCTpOM OKOJIO 20 M npOCJIC))(CHa KOMnaKTHaH KOHIJ;C!Upau;11H MHKpOJIHTOB.
Ha MecTe cr<onJICHHH MHKpOJilITOB 3aJIO))(eHa Tpamuea 1 (20xl M) c B na 3.
CTpani:rpaqn1LJ:eCKH yciaHOBJieHo, ~no p~IXJihIH tiepno3eM, nepeMelliaHHhiii c
paCTI1TCJibHbIM11 OCTaTKaMH; CMCHHCTCH Ha rny6mrn 0, 18 M 6ypblM rrepeyBJia))(H<1HHbIM cyrJIHHKOM - 0, 18 - 0,27 M, HH))(C KOTOpo;ro CJie.[\OBaJI ))(CJ1TO-KOpHLIHCBblH cyrnHHOK c MCJ1KHMH H3BCCTKOBhIM11 BKJIIOLie.HlIH~H (Pttc. 10,2). B
3aml,L\HOH LiaCTH TpaI-IllICH, npCHMelll,eCTB,e mro B' BepxHCM L!Cpii03CMHOM CJIOC
H B KpOBJie 6yporo cyrmn-IKa o6uapy))(CHO BOCeMb MCJJl\HX o6nOMKOB HCOJIIiTH'ICCKOH r<epaMHKH. BMec:re c noBepxuoCTHbIM MaTep11anoM co6pan 81 r<peMHeBI>Iii rrpe,L\MCT (P11c. 11, 20-30).
.
.
flo TCXUHKC paCIUC11JICHI1H.BhmCJIHIOTCH:, ay1rneyc --- 1, 06JIOMOJ< uyKrreyca
1, OTIUe11hl cpe,L\HUC - 6, OTII~eIThl MeJIKHe - 22, nnaCTHHbI r<pyrrHI>Ie -- 9,
rrnaCTl1Hhl cpe,L\HHe - 29' 1maCTUHhI MCJII<I1e - 7' KpaeBble CJ<OnbI - 4, CKOJihI
0))(UBJieHH:H - 2. 06pauJ,aIOT BHHMa!rne o6nOMOK HYKJieyca, 6JIU3KUIT J( H.L\pHll(aM c r<pyrOBOM CHCTeMOM p<anhrnamrn (Puc. 11, 30) H CKOJibI 0))(HBJieHH:H y,L\apHhIX nnoma.L\OK, rrpemronararomae nam1rme 1<apa1-mameBH.L\HhIX qiopM. OTmenoribIX 3arOTOBOK ~ 34%, rrnacnmLiaThIX - 55. Bhmerre1rn 9 H3,L\enui.f co
BTOpU'IHOH o6pa60TJ<OH: nJiaCTHI-Ia c 11JIOCJ<OH peTylllHOH 110,L\pa60TI<OH
6prollIKa (Puc. 11, 25), ceLieH11e ' rmaCTH!-IKH c pe-ryllIHbIM H3HOCOM (PIK 11,
24), o6JIOMOJ< nJiaCTHI-IKH c 3aTynneHHhIM J(OHU:OM (PHC. 1, l, 27) l1 IJJeCTb CI\'.pe6KOB I-Ia OTmenax. Cpe,L\U CKpe6KOB (Puc. 11, 20-22, 26, 28): .[\Ba 6oI<OBbIX, KOHu;eB0-60J<OBOII, OKpymhIH, o6JIOMOK co c:rpeJib'laTb!M Jie3BHeM.
B 30 M K C3 o:r rpanllleH N2 1 6b1Jrn pa36HThI eme .L\Be napannenhHhie TpaHme11 pa3MepaMH 7x,1 M. B HHX npocJie))(eI-ra cxo,L\Haa cTpaTurpacjJHH. HaxO,L\KlI
3aJieranu npeHMymecTBeHHO B BepxHeM LiepH03eMHOM H nepeXO.[\HOM CJIOe 6yporo cyrnunJ<a (PHC. 10, 2). 06Hapy))(eHO 10 MeJII<HX qiparMeHTOB neOJil1TH~1ecJ<OH KepaMHJ<lI 6e3 opHaMeI-ITa, KOTOpble O,L\HaKO, KaK 11 paHee ynoMHHYTbie,
no, cTp)'.KType BHe, coMHem~a. C:BH3J?IBa~T,'fK_ c K)1JIK.. Qp~411 1,1 c;o6pam1~1x B
3THX Tpamueax If Ha 110BepxHOCT11 KpCMHeBhIX HaXO.[\OK, LJ:eTbipe Memq1x OT-..
iena, .O.L\H<il;LifiIYIJI<\1, ,1;rnT1111Jiq9'f!1H0l< ~ O.P,\:IO C<:tLJ:eHHe MI1KPOllJI<).q-mHhI. ty1HKponnacrn::uK.~ u .[\Be qm~.Cl)HHKlI HOCHT CJie,L\hlYTHJI113a,u;1rn.. ' ; '. '
I

Puc. 8. E11rr11'!eHHH Hof! X. KepaMHKa . .

. KpeMneBaH KOJI.fieI<IJ;HH n~mo~raeT (Puc. 7, 6- 13) .L\Ba uy1rneyca, o6JIOMOI<,


18 11JiaCTHH (4 KpymihIX, 9 cpe,L\HHX, 1 MaJlaH) H 13 OTIIJ;CllOB (4 cpe,L\HHX 9
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- 72 -

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Kyro ll KJIJIK.

8. Bilicenii Vechi Xii, com. Bilicenii Vechi (47 38 2" c.rir., 28 04 40" B..n;.,
o6c. BhI~. 110 M) o:rKphITO B. M. EttK6aeBhIM B 1974 r. (KapT. 1). OTHeceH K
Me30JIMTy.
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MeHHOM Teppace OilOJI3HeBoro xapaKTepa BbICOTOM 25-27 M Ha.n; ypOBHeM IIOMMbl, B 240 M or ee KPO.MKH (Puc. 9, 1). floBepxHOCTHhie MaTeparrhI Bcrpe11arrnch
Ha nporn)!(eHnn 45 (3-B) x 70 ( C-IO) MeTpOB. 3arro)!(eHo t!eThipe pa3HhIX IIIypcpa.
B npocpnrre Han6orree pe3yJihTaTHBH,o ro pa3pe3a (Pnc: 3, 2) y,craHoBrr_eHo, 'ITO
KpeMHeBhie Haxo.n;Kn 3arrerm1 rrraBHhIM o6pa30M B crroe 6,y poro cyrrrnHKa Ha
rrry6nHe 0,4-0,5 M.
Bcero co6paHo 155 KpeMHeBhIX (Pnc. 11, 1-19) npe.n;MeTOB (98 n3 IIIypcpoB).
Ilo TexHnKe nepBn~rnoro pacru:em1eHn.a Bhr.n;err.aroTc.a crre.n;yroll~ne rpyrn1h1: OTmerrbr cpe.n;Hne - 8/ B TOM .qHCJie co BTOpH'IHOM o6pa6oTKOM-'- 31, OTI.QeIIhl
MeJIKHe -- ~217, 'ICIIIYMKH, o6JIOMKH - 610, nrraCTllHbI KpynHhie-41/4, nrracTHHKH cpe.n;Hne- 39/2, MHKpormaCTMHKll - 14/2, KpaeBbie CKOJibI --4/0, CKOJibI
0)!(MBJieHH.ll - 1/0.
rpynna OTlliCITOB (32%) B OCHOBHOM npe.n;CTaBJieHa MeJIKHMI1 HCCTaH'.n;apTHbIMH 3aroTOBKaMn. B rpynne nrracTnH (60%), Hao6opoT, MHOro npaBnJibHO
orpaHCHHbIX ll3.D;CJIHM, BCTpe11aIOTC.ll K.11accn11ecK~1e:rpaneI1HeBH)~Hbie ceqefIM.ll.
P.a.n; nnacnrn11aTbIX CKOJIOB HMeeT MeJih'lalilliyIO Bb!KpaIIICHHOCTh KpOMKH (Pttc.
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CKpe6KH - I<OHIJeBbie Ha OTmenax -- 2, KOHIJOB0-60KOBbie Ha o:rmenax - 2,
6oKOBbie O.D;HHapHbie Ha OTI.Qenax - 2, 60KOBOH .D;BOHHOH Ha o:rmenax - l '
o6JIOMOK co CI<pe6I<OBbIM rre3BlleM - 1, I<OHIJeBOM Ha y1<opo11eHHOM UJiaCTHHe
- 1; TpaneIJHeBH.D;HbIM MHKpOJIHT - .1, OCTpHe Ha IIJiaCTHHKe - 1, MllKpOIIJiaCTllHKM C'l:aCTH'IHbIM IIpHTYIIJieHHbIM KpaeM - 2, Ce'ICHHe IIJiaCTllH CIIpHTYIIJieHHbIM KpaeM - 1, o6rroMKH nrracTnn c peTyrnnhIM KpaeM - 2.
Crre1Jncptt11Hh~ .n;Boiinoij, KOHI1eBo-601<oab1e n HOITeBM.n;Hbie cKpe6Kn. O.n;nH
H3 IIOCJIC.D;HMX (Pnc. 11, 5) H3I'OTOBJieH Ha MHKpooTmerre, no.n;pa6oTaH co CTOpOHbl 6proIIIKa KpynHoii norroroli peTyillhIO. MnKpoocrpne BbIIIOJIHeno Ha
rrpOl<CHMaJihHOM KOHIJe IIJiaCTHHKH, c BeHTparrhHOM rrpHTYIIJilll011JeM rro.n;pa6oTKOM no .D;BYM KpaHM, cpopMnpyromeH: BbIT.lIHYTOe CHMMeTpH'IHOe )!(aJIO (PHC.
11, 8). MHHllaTIOpHa.ll TpaneIJH.ll Ha rrrraCTMHKe (Pnc. 11, 3) OTHOCHTC.ll K acHM-75 -

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Puc. I I. KpeMHCBble H3Ae.nllil. 1- 19 - E1111w1c1-111i1 BeK1> XII; 20- 30 --fo1J1H1em1i1 BeKb XI.

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- 1, nyKJJeychI H Hx o6JJOMKH - 3, HYKJJeBHnHhIH o6JJOMOK - 1, Mem(ue 06JIOMKH - 7. CpenH oTmerroB: cpenHHx - 15, MeiiKHx - 75, qeIIIyttKH - 8.
Cpenn rrnacTHH: KpynH1>1x - 1, cpen!lttx - 34, MHKponJJaCTHHKH - 14. JJ:anee,
KpaeBi:.Ie CKOJihI c HYKJJeycoB - 9' CKOJlhI 0)1{HBJieHHH ynapHhIX IlJJOW:anoK HyI<JieycoB - 3. l1MeIOTCH Hnpttw;a c HeraTHBaMH CKOJIOB cpenHHX rmaCTHH H
MHKporrnaCTHH. 0HH rOBOpHT 0 conepmeHCTBe TeXHHKH napanJJeJihI-IOrO CKaJlhIBaI-IHH, OCHOBaHHOM Ha rrpH3MaTHqecKHX ttyKneycax, rrpno6peramnl:HX B
rrpouecce cpa6aThrnaeMOCTH yrrJJometIHhIM cppoHT cKan1>rnaHHH (Puc. 13, 19, 20).
OnuerrhI (45%) rrpencraBJieH1>1 B ,ocHOBHOM q<oJJaMn tte6on1>IIIHX: cp,opM
6e3 rrpaBHJihHOro orpaHttqeHHH. Cpentt rrnaCTHH (38%), KaK rrpaBHJJO c rrpaBHJJhH~IM orpatteHHeM,, MHOrO yceqeHHbIX cjlOpM . 06paw;aI-OT BHHMaHHe TparreuHeBHnHhie ceqeHHH IIJJaCTHH c MHKpOH3HOCOM no OCTpbIM pe)l{ylQHM KpaHM
(Puc. 13, 2, 3). 3arOTOBKaMH nmi: opynuH: C rrpenHaMepermorr peTyIIIHOM rron- 78 -

Puc. l3. Ci,rnJKepeii XIII . KpeMHeBhie H3JJ.eHllil.


roTOBKOM ne3BHH CJIY)J(HITH OTIQeIIhl cpenmi:x (4) H MeJJKHX (4)' pa3MepOB, a
.
KO oqeHHbie rrnaCTHHhI (4) H O):(HH CKOJJ O)J(HBJieHHH.
TaK~~~):(H~3p;emi:li co BTOpHqHOH o6pa6oTKOM (13 3K3.) rrpeo6JJa):(aIOT CKpe6KH - 9 HMeeTCH onna TparreIJHH, CKpe6JihlIIIKO, :nonoTOB~):(~Oe H3):(enu,e H CKOJI
. '
(P' i l3 1 5- 12 1-18). CKpe6irn : KOHIJeBOH Ha_onIJene_ - 1,
C 'peTyIIIhlO HC.
' '
'
..
, . . ,,.
.
_; 4
i<oliueBo-6m<.oBoii na' o1'II.~erre .,.:J- 1; HOITe~HnHhie Ha MenKHX oTmerrax . ..
( op;HH H3 HHX c OI<pyrni>1M :rie3BHeM:}, KOHUeBhie ua yI<opoqeHHhIX imacnrnax

CO CilpHMrleHHhIMH Jie3BH5!MH -

2.
- 79-

fio OCHOBHbIM xapaKTepHCTHKaM OIIHCaHI-Ihlll KpeMHeBblll HHBeinaph 6onee


BCero COOTHOCHTCH c KJIJIK, I<aK 11 06irnpy1KeHHhie Bhillle no CKJIOHY cpparMeHTbl KepaMnKH . CoBepmeuo onpe.nenei-rno MO/KHO yTBep)!(,ttaTh, qTo nccne1
.nomurnh1ii naMHTHHK r~o cyTu cocraBJIHeT 30HY nepeoTJIOIKemrn mm60J1ee nerKHX 1-iaxo.noK ,c y1Ke ynoMHHyToro Heomu11qecKOFO nocene1rnH KJIJIK, 0603,
1rnqem10ro KaK ny1-rKT-Ci:m'>Kepeii XVI.
1
TaKHM o6pa3oM . c1111TaeM, 'ITO orrpe.neneHI-IhJe rrepBonaqaJihHO KaK ,nBa
caMOCTOHTeJihHhrx rraMHTHHKa - MecT01rnxo'>K,nemrn Singerei XIII u S~ngerei
XVI - cpaKT11qecKn cocrn~JIHIOT e.nirnoe nocenentte KJIJIK.
10. Singerei XIX, or. Singerei (47 38 25" c.lll., 28 05 23" B..n., o6c. BhIC. 90)
oTKpbITO B. M. EH1<6aeBhIM 1974 r. (KapT: 1). MrrnrocnoiiHhiii naMHTHI1K KYJihTYPhI Kpmu u KJIJIK.
.
Haxo,nHTCH B 4 KM K 3-C3 (278) OT L(eHTpa ropo.na, B 0,75 KM K 3 OT nepeKpecTKa .noporn Ha Chm'>Kepe10 n o6be3,nHoi1 TpacchI B::im~h - Kttlll11n::iy ,
KOTopaH nepeceKaeT ceBepHym 11acTh nocenennH.
,,
3aHrrMaeT neBhIH rronon1~ CKJIOH .nommhI p. Ciulucul Mare. ITpoTH)J(eHHOCT:b noceneHHH B,nOJih TpacchI 150- 200 M a no cKnony Ha I 00 M rro caM. oro
~
'
' ,u,
KpaH noiiMhI. 3~cnoHnpoBano na ror (Pnc. 9, 1).
ITOBepxI-IOCTH co6paI-IO 6 ct~parMeHTOB HeOJIHTI11IeCKOH KYXOHHOif KepaMlfKH c npnMCChIO pacTnTeJihHOCTH KYJibTYPhI Kpnlll 11 KJIJIK . KpeMneBbIH
KOMTIJieKC BJ(JIIOqaeT 29 npe,nMeTOB. l13 1-IHX: 2 nlJibKH, 3 I-Iy1meyca, 19 OTW:eITOB,
2 ce11eHHH rmacTirn, H no O.IJ;HOMY KpaeBOMy CKOJiy 11 CKOJIY 0)J(HBJieHirn .'06paw:aeT BH11Ma1rne o.n1-rormow:a,noqJ:Ih1ii np113MaT111ecr<nii HyKrreyc c o,nHOCTopoHIIHM CKaJihrnarmeM .nmi: nrracrnH (Pnc. 14, 9), a TaK)J(e rpynna. cr<pe6KOB Ha
oTw:enax (Pnc 14, 1- 7). CBoeo6pa3Hh1 ,nBoih-roii 6oKOBoii cKpc6oK-.norroTo (Puc.
14, 8) H ,nBa OKpyrnhIX OT60iiHnKa (P11c. 14, 10) .
.[(arrhHeiirrme 11ccne.n0Bamrn rraMHTHHI<a rrpe,ncTaBJIHIOTCH oco6em-ro HHTepeCHhIMH.
q. Grigorauca III, com. Copaceni (47 36 42" .c.m ., 28 12 40" B..n., o6c.
BhICOTa 75 M) OTI<phITO B 1975 B. M . Emc6aeBhIM (KapT. 1). ITpe,nBap1neJihHO
OTHeceHo I< ueomny.
Haxo,nHTCH B 0,2 KM K mry OT IO-B olcpanHhI cena, Ha npaaoM 6epery p. Ciulucul Mare, B 0, 7 I<M K BOCTOKY OT MOCTa ,Liepe3 peLIKY. 3aHMMaeT rrepByIO I-Ia,nnoiiMeHHYIO Teppacy BbICOTOH 7- 10 M. 31<crro1mpoBaHO Ha ceBep (Puc. 9, 3) .
Pe.nI<He Haxo,nKH co6paHhl aa CI<JIOHe TeppaCbl ,D;JIHHOM .no 150 M H BBCpx no
CKJIOI-ry .no 20 M.
KonrreI<IJHH KpeMHeBbIX H3/(eJIHM BKJII-O<raeT (Pnc. 15, 5- 7): 30 OTII~enoB
(l<pym-rhIX - 2, cpe.nHnx - 2, MeJIKHX - 15). Ha y1<opoqeauoii rn1acTirne
ocl)OpMJieI-1 KOHIJeBOM CKpe601< (Pnc. 15, 5). l1MeeTCH KpynHaH nn aCTHHa H ceLJ,eHne OT BTopoii \)e.3, c.11e.n9B o6pa6qTK11 .HJII;I MCfIOJih30Bamrn. Hai1,nyHO ,nBa
M<pihlx,.rl)I?~r~yH;ra ~~paMnp1. ,O.nm~ p~ ~mx,eJITOJ3 ~Toro l1BeTa.co cqrnlKY.f i,Hii1 ,
MJirKop: ,npBcpxI-JOClj h~o., pe3 p pH111ecerr. Do cTpyr\Type i;rn1101111rnaeT cTono.Bym ,
nocy.ny-,KJI,J l,I<;. )3Top9it -;-.11enomror 9 091KJ;1 ra,_TeY'fO ~~CTKoe c npHMyCJ:,l?

-lli

Puc. J4_ C&IHlKepeil

XIX. KpeMHeB&Ie H3)1emrn.

rrec1<a c necq1rnKaMH CJIIO)J;bl H MliHiiaTI-OpHbIMH nycTOTaMH c BbirOpeBll!e:ii pacTHTeJihHOCTblO.


KyJihTypttaJI aTpu6yum1 H coCTOJIHHe KYJihTypaoro crroJI Tpe6yroT .nonorrHMTenI.'ttoro 06crre,n.0BaH115l.
.
.
12. Mihailovka VII, com/ Mihailovca (47 35 23" C.lll., 28 16 21" B..D.., o6c.
BhICoTa 70 M). 0TI<pbITO B. M. BHK6aeBhIM 1975 r. (KapT. 1). 0Ttteceno K KYJihType Kpulll.
.
Haxo.nnTC5I B 0, 75 KM K BOCTOI<Y OT BOCTO'IHOH OKpaHHbI cena. 3aHHMaeT
BOCTO'IHhIH CKJIOH ocnoBaHHH MhICa rrpaBoro 6epera p. Ciulucul Mare aa
BhICOTe. 20 M tta.n ypoBneM. noiiMhI (Prrc. 9, 2). EhIJIO 3aJIO)Ketto TPH lllypcpa.
B ,nByx Ha rrry6Htte 0,2-0,3 M 3acptt:KcHpoBaH KYJihTypttbI:ii cnoif, BKJIIO'laBllIHM
o6rrbMKH o6Ma3KH c OTIIe'laTKaMH )l(ep.nei1 H rrrrax, Kepa.MHKY' OT,D;eJih!-Ibie KpeMHH .

- 80.-

-81 -

-D
3

~- ~-ftl ~-[Ej,
.

'

Puc. .15. MaTepHaJJhl noceneHHii: 1-4 - MHxaiinoBKa VII; 5- 7 - I'pHrop 3yKa III.

KepaMHKa -

26 qiparMeHTOBB KyxoHHoii nocy.n:h1 c TOHKHMH npoqep'IeH-

HhI~H JIHHHHMH (Puc. 15, 1-4). Cpe.n:u KpeMHeBbIX JI3t1em1ii: TPII oTru;ena (cpe.n:HHH H .[IBa MeJIKHX) B Ce'IeHHH KpynHOM nnaCTHI-IbI H cpe.n:HHH IlJiaCTHHa 6e3
CJie.[IOB o6pa60TKH H MCilOJib30BaHmI.
Cy.n:.ii: no MaTepMaJiaM, noceJieHHe onpe.n:eneHHO OTHOCHTCH K :i:IaMHTHHKaM
THna Sacarovca 1 KYJihTYPhI Kpmu H nepcneKTHBHO .n:n.a: crnu:noHapHbix pac-
KOnOK.

13. Chi~careni V, com. Chi~careni (47 33 06" c.III., 28 02 04" B ..n:., o6c.
BbICOTa 135 M) OTKpbITO B 1978 r. (Kaprn. 1) B. M. Em<6aeBbIM II HHTepriperupoBaHo HM KaK 'IaCTH'IHO nepeKpbIBaIOJ,UHMCH MHOI'OCJIOMHbIM naMHTHHK c
MaTepuanaMu Me30JIHTa H KJIJIK. HoBbIMH uccne.n:oBaHHHMH OTHeceHo K
KJIJIK.
.

Haxo~MTC.a: B 1,25 M K 10-IOB (135) oT u:epKBII cena; B 0,4 KM K IO OT


Boc_:o'IHOM OKpaMHbI cena. 3aHMMaeT BbICOKMM noKaTHbIM MbIC, orpaIIM'IeHHbIJI CC~ M 103 rrry60KMMM .[IOJIHHaMJI, Bna.n:aIOIIJ;MM B npaBo6epe:>Khe pe'IKH
Cpe.n:ttMJI "lJynyK. Bb1c0Ta Mhica tta.n: ypoBHeM nottMbI 35- 45 M (PIIc. 9, 4).
IloBepXHOCTHbie !"faTepHaJibI BCTpe'IaJIMCb no Bceii IIIMpMHe cpe.n:HeM 'IaCTM
MbICa - 100 MM BHH3 no CKJIOHy .n:o 200 M. Bcero 6bmo 3aJIO:tKeHo 8 IIIypqJOB.
-82-

KyJihTYPHbIH CJIOM 3a!lJIIKCI1pOBaH B Tpex M3 HMX Ha rny6ttHe 0,3-0,5 M Ha norpaHII'Ihe qeptto3eMa II 6yporo cyrnlIHKa (P1Ic. 12, 3, 4).
Co6patto 275 KpeMHeBbIX M3.n:en1Iii (Pttc. 16; 17). Ilo TeXHMKe pacru;enneHMH
Bbl.[leJI.a:IOTCH: ttyKneychI M Mx o6noMKM - 17; oTru;errhI Kpyrrtthie - 6; cpe.n:Htte
- 39, MeJIKIIe - 17; 'IeIIIyttKM - 2; nnacTMHhI KpyrrtthJe - 5; cpe.n:H1Ie - 15,
MIIKponJiaCTMHbI - 1; KpaeBhie CKOJibI - 9; CKOJibI 0'.ll<MBJieHMH - 2. ,[(mr ~aro
TOBOK ucnOJih30BaJIIICb 0.[IHOnnoma.n:O'IHbie rrpH3MaTII'IeCKIIe 0.[IHOCTOpOHHI1e
HYKJieychI c BhIIIYKJihIM pa6o'IMM itJpoHTOM c HeraTIIBaMM rrnacTMH M ue6onhIIIMX oTru;enoB. lfa pa3MepbI He npeBbIIIIaIOT 5,5 CM. Cpe.n;H onu:erroa (64%)
npeo6na.n;aIOT MerrKMe 6e3 rrpaattrrhHOro orpaueHIIH. Cpe.n:JI rmacTMH'IaTbIX CKOrroa (.n:o 25%) npeo6rra.n;aIOT rrmicTMHhI cpe.n;HIIX pa3Mepoa.
,[(rr.ii: BTOplI'IHO!f o6pa6o-~KII IICIIOJib30BaJII1Ch rnaBHbIM o6pa30M MeJIKJie
Mcpet1H1Ie oTru;errbI (.[Irr.ii: cKpe61<0a), pe:tKe rrrracTIIHbI (.n:rr.ii: BKrra.n:h1IIIeii). lfa.n:err1I.a:
co BTOpM'IHOH o6pa60TKOH BKJIIO'IaIOT: CI<pe6KII - 30; CI<pe6rra,- 2; pe3U:bl
~ 2; TparreU:IIM - 2; ceprr - 1; nrraCTIHibl c peTyIIIHbIM 113HOCOM _:._ 1, co CI<Oru;eHHbJM peTyIIIttpoaaHhIM I<OHU:OM -- 3; OTru;errbI c peTyIIIhIO - 4. K rpyrrrre
opy.n;Mii OTHeceHbI peTyIIIepb! - OT6oii:Irn1m Ha Hy1<rreycax - 8. 0CHOBOH opy.[llIMHOro IIHBeHTap.ii: 5IBJIHIOTCH CKpe61<M rrpettMyIIJ:eCTBeHHO Ha onu:errax. Bb1.n:errHIOTC5l 11 pa3HOBJI.D:HOCTeii; KOHU:eBhle, KdHU:eBble c o6rrOMaI-JHblM OCHOBaHMeM, KOHU:eBbie Ha KpaeBbJX CKOrrax, KOHU:eao60KOBbie, BblCOKOH cpopMbI, HdrTeBII)J;Hbie, 6oKOBbie H rrp. --- 29 3K3. (PIIC. 16. 2- 13, 15-22; 17, 7- 13). 11HTepeCHbI: JJ:BOMHOH CKpe6oK Ha Kp,aeaoM CKOJie, OKpyrrrbIH CKpe6oK c ue60JihIIIHM
1<paeBbIM BblCTYllOM (Pttc. 17, 11), CKpe6KII co crra6o np0pa60TaHHbIM Jie3BIIeM
(Pttc. 16, 3- 5). Pe3I~hI HeBhrpa3ttTeJibHhI (P1Ic. 16, 14; 17, 5). Cpe.n:II Tpaneu:1Ii1:
O.n;Ha (P11c. 17, 1) 6JIJI3I<a I< CJIMMeTpH'IHbIM BbICOKHM rpopMaM, BTOpa5I MMHJIaTIOpirnH, HMeeT OT.[leJIKy, 6JIII3KYIO K CKpe6KOBOH (PIIc. 16, 1).11MeeTCH o6rroMOI< rrrraCTMHbI-cepna c CHJihHOH yrJIOBOH 3aROJIHpOBKOM.
Hn3KHH rrpou:eHT rmaCTHH'IaTbIX CKOJIOB, cpaamnerrbHO Manoe qncrro M1IKponnaor m1'IaThIX c1<onoa a rpyrrne rrnacTHH, He3Ha<mTeJihHOe npe.n;cTaBJITeJihCTBO Tpaneu:HeBH.[IHbIX H rrpHMOyroJibHbIX Ce'IeHHM rrrraCTMH c MMI<pOM3HOCOM, HaJIH'IHe Hy1rneycoBJI)J;HbIX peTyIIIepoB, OT60ttHHI<OB M omroro ceprra,
cna6a5l CTeIJeHb MHKpOJillTIBaU:HM MH.[lyCTpMH B u:erroM, co6pa1-rnoi1 c pa3JIM'IHbIX y'IaCTKOB rraM5ITHIII<a, fI03BOJI5II-OT OTHeCn! KOJIJieI<u:mo 1<peMH5l K e.n:MHOMY
Heon1IT11qec1<0My 1<0Mrrrre1<cy, CB5I3aHHOMY c KJIJIK.
KepaM111<a rroceneHH5l rrpe.n:crnBrretta 117 cpparMeHTaMM, M3 I<OTOpbIX 94
OTHOC5ITC5l I< I<aTeropHH KyXOHHOH nocy.[lbl. Ona MMeeT 0611JlbHYIO paCTIITeJibnym rrpuMeCh, TOJICTOCTenHa5l, opaH:tKeaoro IIJIII cepoBaToro u:aera II rrpo1IcXQJJ:HT rrpeHMymeCTBeHHO OT cocy.n:oB IIIapOBMJJ:HbIX q)OpM (PIIC. 18; 4, 11). 06JIOMI<H CTOJIOBOi1 rrocy.n;hI HMefOT cepyIO OKpacKy, xopOIIIO 3arrra:tKeHHYIO 110BepxHOCTb M xapaI<TepHblH HOTHblH opHaMeHT (Puc. 18; 1- 3, 5- 10).
Ta1<11M o6pa30M, BonpeKH rrepBo:ffaqarrbHOMY orrpe.n:erreHttIO, ttccrre.n;oBaHHhrii naMHTHHK 5IBJI5leTC5l o.n:nocrrottHhIM, CBH3aH c KJIJIK u rrepcneI<THBeH JJ:JI5l
CTaU:HOHapHbIX paCKOITOI<.
- 83 -

~~i a-~2 ~-G13 Vf!J a-~

D-1 - .

,4

IO

-B

14

'I5

1-ll:[ firs'

17

Puc. 16. KHIII1<3peHh V. KpeMHeBh1e H3.I:\eJUIJI (ccBepo-3ana,11HaJ1 'IaCTh n-Ka).

Paifou .LJ:pornrn

14. Tarigrad II, com. Tarigrad (er. na1BaHHe fnaBan) (47 01' 33" c.llI., 27 43'
09 B..JJ.~, a6c. BhICOTa 120 M) (KapT .. l). OTKphIT B 1995 r. cTy,n:eHTOM C. Bo.r:vrny.
11

Onpe.nemreTcH rrepno.noM nepexo.na OT Me30JJHTa K neonnTy.


PacnOJJO:>KeH B 3 KM K JOB OT cen'a. 3aHHMaCT KpaH. HH3KOH IIOIJMeHHOH
Teppach1 na neBoM 6epery .D.OJJHHhI p. PeyT, 6nH3 u1nytIHHhI (PHc. 19, I).
-84 -

Puc. 17. KHIIIK3peHh V.

KpeMHe~b1e

H3,!leJIHJI: 1- 12, 14 (mro-BOCTO'IHaJI 'IaCTh n-Ka); 13, 15-17


( ceBepo-3ana,11HaJ1).

Ha rroBepxnocrn rrpocne:>KeHa n0Kamnau1rn Haxo.noK Ha yqacTKe, np11nermomeM K Kpa10 TeppaChI c Ha1169nhllieii KOHI(etITpauaeH. Ha 1moma.nKe pa1MepoM 50 x 30 M.
BBepx no CKnony naxo.nnTCH IT03.D.HeTpHIIOJJhCKoe (3HeonnT) nocene1:me, c
KOTOphIM, BepoHTHO, MO:>KHO YBH3aTh pH.D. Haxo.noK, Bh1m1.D.a10mnx 1a paMKH
o6Il(ero o6mrna KpeMHeBoro KOMnner<ca l(apurpa.n II.
-

85 -

Pa6oTaMn 1996 r. rrpon3Be,D,eHhI ,D,ononHnTeJihHhie c6o phi Ha rroBepxHOCTH


(127 Kp. rrpe,D,MeTOB) H 3aJI0)l(CHhl ,D,Be Tpamue11 -B,D,OJih H rronepeK TeppaChl.
CTpaTnrpamrnynue Bcero n'pocJie)l(eHa no JOB (KB. JI/6-7) rronepe'!HOi1: CTeHKe Tpamuen (Pnc.

3, 3).

1. PbIXJibIH rrax,OTHbIH CJIOH '!CpH03CMa c OTHOCHTeJibHO '!eTKOH HI1)l(HCI1:


rpattttueii. Hapyruettne pacrraruKoii Bepxtteii 'la CTR cJioa 6yporo cyrnnHKa nptt- .
BCJIO K OCBeTJieHHIO OT,D,eJibHblX y'!aCTI<OB -

.0-0,4 M; 2. CBeTJio-6ypbIH H 6y-

poBaThlH cyrmrnoK (no'!Ba ,B), noCTeneHHO rrepexo.D.amnii B HH)l(CJie)l(amnii

)!(CJITO-KOpH'!HeBbIM, npOHI;13aH KpOTOBHHaMn. Bepxttaa 'laCTh erb co,D,ep)!(HT

,,

~~

OCTaTKH KYJihTypHoro CJIOH (KpeMHCBbIC npe,D,MCTbl 6e3 rraTHHbI)- 0,4- 0,7 M;


3. )KeJITO-KOpH'!HeBhIC cyrnHHKH c MHOrO'lHCJieHHhIMH MCJIKHMtt H3BCCTKOBHC-

~-u

TbIMH H MeJIOBhIMH BKJIIO'!CHHJ!MH, c B63paCTairneM HX ITJIOTHOCTH KHH3y. OTMe'leHhI BCpTnKaJihHbie KpOTOBHHhI -

7
'

II

OT 0, 7 M. )KeJITO-KOpH'lHCBbie cyrJIHHKH

npocJie)l(CHhI ,D,O rJiy6HHhI ne Mettee 11eM 1 M.

,[(oCTaTO'lHO onpe,D,eJICHHO ycTaHOBJICHH?, 1.JTO OCHOBHaH Macca KOJIJieI<UHOHHOro MaTepttana rronana B CJIOH '!CpH03CMa H Ha IlOBepxHpCTb B pe3yJihnne rny601<.oii nponaruKn, napyrunBrueii KpoBJIID 6ypoBaThIX cyrnmrKOB. OT,D,eJihHhie KpeMHeBhIC npe,D,MeThI H3 OCTaTKOB HH)!(Heii 11aCTH KYJihTypnoro CJIOH
3aqmKcnpoBaHhI B Bepxax 6ypoBaToro cyrnanI<a .D.O r:rry6nnh1 50 CM. c'DparMeHT
JICITHOH KepaMHI<H c paCTHTCJihHOH npHMCC)>IO Haif,D,CH B HH)!(HCH 'laCTH naxoTHOro CJIOJI, B6JIH3H rpaHHUbl c 6ypoBaThIM cyrnHHI<OM. 06JIOMKH KOCTeii H
paI<OBHHhI TaK)l(C npttypo11eHbIJIHIIIh I< 11eptto3eMHOMY cno10. Bcerb npH pacI<OrrKax B TpaHIIICJ!X 6bIJIO co6patto 219 npe,D,MCTOB, BMCCTC c IlOBepXHOCTHbIMH
c6opaMH (808) KOJIJICKUMH KpeMtteBbIX rrpe,D,MeTOB COCTaBJIJ!eT 1027 3K3. (Pnc.
20- 22). CblpheM )J,JIH H3rOTOBJieHHH opym1ii IIOCJIY)l(HJI CBCTJIO-cepbIH I1 CBCTJIO1000 m
t;;; w +4

0
0

I
2

I<OpH1IHCBblll rronynp03pa1IHblM KpeMCHb )!(CJIBa'lHOro npOHCXO:>K)J,CHI15I (.D.o 7


CM B norrepe11ttHKe). HecKOJihKO pe)!(e npHBJie1<aJIC5I pe11ttoii rane11ttbIM (.D.o 5
CM B ,D,Jinny) , a TaK)l(e HH3KHM no Ka'lecTBy oKpeMeHeJibitt H3BCCTJI5IK.
Ilo TCXHHKe pacmerrJICHI15I Bbl)J,CJI5IIOTC5I CJie,D,y10mne rpyrrrrhI I13,D,CJII1M:
1. f'aJihKH o6noMKH -

3; 2. IlpettyKneychI -

2; 3. Hy1rneycb1 -

12; 5 . MeJII<Me o6JIOMKH -

Cpemrne oTmerrhI ---. 118; 8. MeJIKHe 0Tmerrh1 17; 10 . IlJiaCTHHbl O'lCHh KpyrrHhIC (M<l,Kpo) 189; 12. IlnaCTHHKH cpe,D,HHe KpaeBbie CKOJihI -

33; 4. HyI<neBM.D.Hbie

15; 6. KpyrrHbie _O TmerrhI -

5; 11. IlnaCTHHbI I<pyrrHhIC -

107; 13. IlnaCTMHhl Memrne {MHI<po) -

60; 15. CKOJihI O)!(HBJieHHH -

21; 7.

406; 9. qeruyiiI<H, ocI<OJIKH - 13; 14.

23; 16. Pe3UOBhie CKOJihI -

3.

TexHHKO-Mopcponor1111ecI<ttii anaJIH3 nyI<neycoB rr03BOJI5IeT cy,D,HTh o .D.Byx


rnaBHbIX narrpaBJICHI15IX B paCKaJihIBaHHH KpeMH5I . IlepBoe, OCHOBamrne Ha
IOOO m

....._,__,.,

IlO,D,I1p113MaTH1ICCKOM 51,D,pttme, OTpa)!(eHO B IIOCJie,D,OBaTCJihHOM CMCHe Tpex CTa-

J km

,D,HM. BTopoe, CB5I3aHHOC c MCilOJih30BairneM KpyroBoii CMCTeMhl CH5ITI1H, npeH-

Myni:eCTBeHHO rrpe,D,CTaBJICHO 0,D,HOIIJlOIIIa,D,O'!HbIMH KOHYCOBH)J,HhIMM q)OpMaMH


H .D.Bynnoma.D.01IHhIMH rrpn3MaT1111ecKHMH. B nocne,D,neM cny11ae tta6n10,D,a10TC5I

Puc. 19. TonocxeMbl naMllTHHKOB" 1 - U:ap1.ffpa11

II., 2 - "apttrpa
.._.,
.,,n XV, 3 - T3T3p3yKa H oy3

XIV, XV; 4 - C opoKa I, III.


- 86 -

)],BC CTa)J,HH pacmerrJICHH5I (P11c. 20, 10- 13).


BTopH'lHOM o6pa60TKe ITO,D,BepmyTO 75 H3,D,eJIHH , eme 31 rrpe,D,MeT HMCCT
CJJC)J,bl YTHJIH3aUHH B BH.ne MCJIKOM HeperynapHOM peTyIIIH no KpaIO. Ilo Bb16opy

-87-

~
.
I

..
. .

12

Puc. 21. IJ;apHrpa11'II. KpeMHeBhie H311eJIHJI.

Puc. 20. IJ;apHrpa11 II. KpeMHeBbie H3,[(eJIHJI.

-88-

HCXO,UiiOH 3arOTOBKH Bee opy.nmr pacnpe.uemIIOTCH cne.n;yIO:W:HM o6pa30M:


CKpe6KH - 36 3K3 . (26 Ha or:w:enax - 1 Ha KpynHOM 18 Ha cpe,nHHX H 7 Ha
MeJIKHx); 7 3K3. Ha nnacnrnax: 1 Ha KpynHoli H 6 Ha cpe.n;Heii; 3 3K3. Ha KpaeBhIX
CKOJiaX. TpH 3K3. CKpe6en mi OT:w:errax - 1 3K3. Ha KpynHOM H 2 Ha cpe,nHeM.
,ll;Ba 3K3. cKpe6en-,noJIOT Ha oT:w:errax -Ha KpynHOM H cpe.n;HeM. O.ulio m.nem1e
,UOJIOTOBH,UHOe Ha cpe.n;HeM or:w:erre. ,ll;eBHTb 3K3eMITJIHpOB,pe3II;OB ~ H3 HHX 3
- 89-

113,l\eJimI c peT ymHpOBaHHbIMH BbieMKaMH merre H

1-

1-

Ha KpyrrHOM OTI1Jerre,

KpaeBOM CKOJie). 0T60HHHKH

1 3K3.

Hbie il:3,l\emur OTru;errax,

I3

Ha KpyrrHOM OT-

3K3. na cpe.L\HHX rrnacTHHax . PeTymepbI-OT>KHMHHKH -

HyKneyce,

~-~

2 3K3 . (1 -

KpymIOITIIJiaCTHHe). flJiaCTHHbl CO CKOUJeHHbIM peTyUJbIO KOHU:OM

2-

3K3.

(1 -

Ha

1-

Ha

Ha r<pyrrHbIX rrrraCTHHax ,

- 2 3K3 . Ha raJibKax. )J;ByCTOpOHHe o6pa6oTaH 29

Ha nyKrreyce. l13.L1errmr c peTyIIIbIO -

3K3.

(13 -

Ha

1 Ha KpyrrHOM, 6 Ha cpe,l\HHX H 6 Ha MeJIKHx; 15 - Ha IIJiaCTHHax, 14


1 - Ha cpe,l\Heii; 1 3K3. Ha CKOJie 0)KHBJiemrn:). B HTOre ,

Ha KpyrrHbIX H

pa3JIH'IHOro BH,l\a 3<lrOTOBKH HCIIOJib30BaJIHCh CJie,l\yIOII.J;HM o6pa3oM:

2 HyKrreyca, 50

OTiri:errbI,

44 rrrracTHHbI, 5 R:paeBbie CKOJibI, 1 CKOJI

2 raJIJ>KH,

O)KHBJieHmI.

Be,l\yru;He II03HUHH B Bbr6ope HCXO,l\HOH 3aroTOBKH 3aHHMaIOT OTII.J;eIIbl H


rrnacTHHbI Kpymrnrx pa3MepoB . HecKOJibKO MeHbIIIe MeJIKHX oTru;erron H

cpe,l\HHX rrnaCTHH, 'ITO HCCOMHeHHO CBH,l\eTeJibCTByeT 0 HC,l\OCTaTO'IHO


pa3BHTOH MHKpOJII13aU:HH opy,l\HHHOro KOMIIJieKca.

21)

B rpyrrrre CKpe61<0B (Puc.


KoHueBhie na oTmerrax --

I4

16

BhI.L\CJUIIOTCH cne.L1YlOI1JHe 3aKOHOMepHocrn::

3K3 .; KonueBbre na Kpaenhrx CKonax -

TIOJ1YOKpyrnhre Ha OTI1Jenax - - 4 31<3 .; KOHU:eBo-6oKOBhie Ha OTI1Jerrax 6oKOBble ua OTI1Jenax -

3 3K3.;

Ha yr<0po'IeHHbIX rrnaCTHHaX -

1 3K3.;

KOHUeBhie Ha ITJiaCTHHax -

3K3 .;

3 3K3 .;

I<OHU:eBhIC

6 3K3.

Ha6mo,l\aeTcsr TeH,l\CHUHH n rrpenMyru;ecTBCHHOM ncriorrb30BaHHH oTru;enoB


OKpyrnr>rx oqepTaHHH. Memmx CKpe6KOB ):\0

2,5

CM ncero

3 3K3.,

O):\HH H3 KO-

TOpbIX IIOJIYOKpyrnhltt C 06JIOM.aHHbIM OCHOBaHHeM. flOJiyOKpyrnbie CKpe6KH


.L\OCTaTO'IHO 6nH3KH K KonueBo-60KOBbIM cpopMaM. BoKOBbl'.e cKpe6Kn BCTpe'IeHbI JIHUlb B o6JIOMKax. Jle3Blie O,l\HOrO H3 KOHUeBbIX 3K3eMTIJIHpOB BbITIOJIIieHO c BepTHI<aJIBHOH IIOBepxHOCTH. 06paI1JaeT Ha cefo1 BHHMaHne rrpe,l\CTaBIITeJibI-iasr rpyrrrra yr<opo'IeHHbIX CI<pe6KOB Ha rrnaCTHHax . 0,l\HH H3 HHX ua
KpyrrHOH IIJiaCTHHe, BepOHTHO , He CBH3aH c OCHOBHblM KOMITJICI(COM . B e):\HHFl'U:IOM 3K3eMmrnpe BbI,l\eJieH nnaCTHH'IaTbltt CI<pe6oK co cnp.HMJieHHbIM Jie3BHeM, qepe3 rrpHMOH yro'J1 nepeXO.L\HI1JHM Ha enema BbICTyna10ru;iiii 60KOBOH
Kpatt .
Cpe.L\H pe3UOB (Puc.

20 , 1-3, 5, 6) rrpeo6rra,l\aIOT yrnOBbie ciJopMbI Ha nnac-

THHax, ):\Ba H3 KOTOpbIX Ha yrny CJIOMaHHOH :mrOTOBKH. 0TMe'IeHbI Cpe,l\HHHbIC


MaJIOBbipa3HTCJibHbie pe3Ubl
(no

1 3K3 .).

(2 31<3.), nonepe'IHbIH Ii 6oKOBOH KOCOpeTyllIHbltt

CneumpH'IeH .L\BOHHOiI yrmoru;eHHbitt pe3eU.-

CTaMecKa Ha KpaeBoM

CKOJie. Jlnmh O,l\HllM H3,l\eJIHeM rrpe,l\CTaBJieH yrrJIOI1JCHHbIH MHKpope3el~ Ha

Puc. 22. U:ap11rpat1 II. KpeMHeBble ttJAenm1.


3K3. Ha cpe.L\HHX onu:errax,

4 3K3. Ha KpyrrHbIX rrrracTHHax H O.L\HH Ha cpemreif

rrrraCTH~e, 1 3K3 . Ha KpaeBOM CKOJie.

0,l\HHM 3K3 . rrpe,l\CTaBJJeH MHKpope3eu Ha

cpe,l\Hen rrrraCTnHe . Tpn 3K3. oCTpnif H3rOTOBJieHbI Ha cpe.L\HHX rrrracTHHax.


MnKpOOCTpmr c

~l -

~pHTyrrrreHHbIM KpaeM - 3 3K3 . (2 -

Ha cpe,l\HHX rrrraCTHHax

Ha MerrKoH). MnKForrrracTn'm rn H rrrracTHHKH c rrpnTyrrrremrbIM KpaeM


5 3 K 3 . (I - Ha ~pe,l\Hen H 4 - Ha MeJIKHx) . AHKOllIHpoBaHnbre rrrracTHl:Ibr 1 3K 3 . Ha KpyrrHOH rrrracTHHe.

o6noMamroif nnaCTune (P11c.

1<oii npsi:Moro HJIH BbITIYI<JIOro rrpO.L\OJibHOro Jie3BHH.' B J.i:BYX cnyqasrx OTMe'ICHO


HX yrr0Tpe6ne1me n .L\OJIOTOBH.L\HbIX orrepau11srx (P11c.

20, 8).

E.L1HHH'IHoe ;::i:on o-

TOBH.L\HOe 113):\CJIHe MaJIOBbipa3IITCJihHO.


OcTpHH pa3ttopo;::i:HbI. HaH6onee rroKa3aTeJibHO CHMMeTpII'IHoe 0cTp11e tta
n n acTHHe c rrpHTYIIJIHIOII.J;ett peTyillblO no JJ:BYM Kpa5IM ITO'ITH .LIO cepe;::i:HHbl 3arqTOBKH (PHc.
KOHUOM (Puc .

- 90 -

22, 8).

CpamnnerrbHO Mttoro c1<pe6noBH.L\HbIX opy.L\HH c 'Ielliyii'IaToii no.L1pa60T-

22, 17). AMopcpuo ocTpHe Ha rrnacTHHe co cKomeHHbIM peTyIIIhIO


22, 14). CBoeo6pa3HO OCTpHe-cBepno , TaK)KC co CKOilleHHbIM
- 91 -

2. Cpe,nll opy,nHii npeo6rra,na10ui:IIe no3HUilll 3aHMMaIOT pa3Hoo6pa3Hhie

peTyIIIbIO KOHIJ;OM, HO y:>Ke cpe3a1oui:eii 3arOTOBKY Ha BCIO ee TOJIUJ;HHY (PHc.


22, 1&). He IICKJIIOlfeHO H BTOpII'IHOe IIC110J1b30Bamrn nocJie,nnero rrpe,nMe1'a B
KalfeCTBe HO:>KeBII;!J,HOrO Il3;!J,eJIH>I, 0 lfeM CBII;!J,eTeJibCTBYeT IIHTeHCIIBHhIM II3HOC
pe:>Kyui:ero Kpa>I nJiaCTIIHbI.

Oco6b1ii IIHTepec npe,ncTaBJI>IIDT MIIKpOJIMThI c

npl1'Ty~JieHHhIM KpaeM, pe~

TYIIIHa>I o6pa60TKa KOTOphIX cpe3aeT 3arOT OBKY Ha BCIO, IIJIH 60JibllIYIO '-IaCTb
TOJIUJ;MH,bI. Ilpe:>K;!J,e BCero :no 4 o6JIOMKa MllKponrraCTIIH II O;!J,Ha nrraCTIIHKa
(Pllc. 22, 1- 5), HeKOTOJ:?hie co BCTpe'IHOM perymuoii QT;!J,eJIKOM, a TaK:>Ke .T pll
MllKpOOCTpm1. IlepBbie ;!J,Ba MllKpOOCTpll>I BhIIIOJIHeHbl Ha IIJiaCTllHKax, B O;!J,HOM
crrylfae c ~ococpe3aHHhIM KpaeM, B .npyroM -

co QKOIIIem:i;hIM B BM;!J,e Herny6o-

Koii BbieMKll KOHUOM (PllC. 22, 11). TpeTbe MllKpOOCTplle MO;!J,eJillpOBaHO Ha

no !},JopMe CKpe6KI1, rrpll OTHOCill'eJihI-IO, Hll3KOM ,none pe:uoB;


3. 11MeIOTC>I onpe.nerr>IIOUJ;He !},JopMhI - ynrroIUeHHhIH MHKpope3eU H HrrroBII;!J,HOe no,nTpeyrOJihHOe MllKpOOCTpHe.
'
0,nHaKO p>I;!J, rrpli3HaKOB OTJIIItiaIOT 3TOT naM>ITHilK OT Tlll1I1lfHO n03;!J,HeMe30JIIlTillfeCKilX KOMnrreKCo~:
"
. 1. 11cnoJih30BaHIIe rro;!J.rrpH3~aTH'leCKHX II KonycoBH;!J,HhIX >I;!J,pIIIU c neraTHBaMi1CKOJIOB110 60JihlllOM lfaCTil nepHMeTpa, npll OTCYTCTBilll IlJIOCKilX HyK-

..

neycoB;
2. Kpaiiue HH3KIIM npouenT rrJiaCTHHtiaThIJ:' cKonoB B crpYKType KorrneKUIIIl
(30%), cpaBHHTeJibHO Marra>I ;!J,OJI>I cpe;!J,HllX Il MeJIKIIX nJiaCTHH;
3. CJia6oe pa3BllTIIe TCXHHKil ycelfeHil.ll nrraCTHH, COOTBeTCTBeHHO Mana>I

MllKponrraCTHHe c peTyIIIHhIM cpe30M no o6oHM Kpa>IM Il KOcoycelfeHH9MY KOHuy (B03MO:>KHa ero IlHTepnpeTaIJ;ll>I KaK TpeyrOJihHilK) (PHC. 22, 7). 3acrry:>KIIBaIOT ynOMHHaHll>I ;!J,Ba o6JIOMKa nrraCTHHOK c pOBHhIM peTyIIIHhIM cpe30M KOH-

BhI6opKa celfeHIIM f paneuHeBH;!J,HOii H no,nnp>IMoyronhHOii c]..iopM, ynoTpe6n>IeMhIX 6e3 ;!J,OilOJIHHTeJihHOM o6pa60TKil npH pa3BHTOM BKJIM\hIUieBOM TeXHHKe;
4. CpaBHl:l'reJihHO KpynHhre pa3MephI HCITOJih3yeMhIX ;!J,JI>I opy;!J,rur 3aroTo:

ua (PHC. 22, 9, 10), uerrhHa>I nrracTHHa C cepHeii MeJIKHX OTpeTyIIIHpOBaHHhIX


BhieMOK no ;!J,BYM Kpa>IM (aHKOIII) (P,Hc. 22, 19), I1 nrraCTIIHa c ;!J,BYM>I
He60JihlllllMll CllMMeTpII'IHO pacnOJIO:>KeHHhIMll BbieMKaMII y OCHOBaHil>I,
cpopMMpyIOri.\HX He3HalfHTeJihHhIM qepeHOK (nceB;!J,OHaKOHelfHilK) (Pllc. 22, 12).
YBepeHHO c ocHOBHOM Maccoii KpeMHeBoro MHBeH'rap>I Qap11rpa,na

II CB>I3aHh1

5 peTyIIIepoB-OT:>KllMHIIKOB c xapaKTepHOM 3aTyrrrreHHOCThIO -

3arrra:>KeH-

HOCThIO KpOMKll-rre3BII.ll II cpopMIIPYIOIUllX ero clrnceTOK. Cpe;!J,ll HllX


noKa3aTeJibHhl ;!J,Ba MaCCllBHhIX y,nmrneHHhIX KpaeBhIX CKOJia c IlHTeHCilBHOM
lfeIIIyiitiaToii o6pa60TKOM no ;!J,ByM Kpa>IM, xapaKTepHOM .nmr CKpe6eJI, Il odllH
y,nJIHHeHHhIM HYKJieBII;!J,HhIM 3K3eMnrr>Ip, TpexrpaHHhiii B celfeHHH, rra,nheBH;!J,HOii
cpOpMbI.

'

Ifa .npyrHX nopo.n KaMH.ll Haii,neHO HeCKOJihKO MeJIKilX rreclfaHllKOBhIX rarreK


H nJIHTOK 6e3 crre,noB yTHJIH3aUHil. ,n:onorrm~:rerrhHO co6paHa He6onhIIIa>I
KOJIJieKUil>I KOCTeii )KllBOTHhIX 15 o6rroMKOB 3nHcpH30B H

BOK-OTIIJ;eITOB II nrraCTHH cpe;!J,HllX pa3MepOB, CBil;!J,eTeJihCTByIOUJ;Ile 0 Hll3KOil


MllKPOJIIl3al!Illl ,KOMITJieKca. ,n:orr>I MIIKPOJIIlTOB He npeBhilllaeT lfeTBepTH NOJIrreKUilll;
.
5. IlpncyTCTBile B opy;!J,HHHOM Ha6ope cepllII CKpe6err II peTyIIIepOB-OT)KllMHilKOB, KpeMHeBhIX OT60MHHKOB, npll OTCYTCTBilll OKpyrrrhIX Il HOI'TeBH;!J,HhIX C.K'pe6KOB, reoMeTpIItieCKilX MllKPOJIIlTOB (3a IlCKJIIOlfeHHeM IlI'J10BH;!J,1'IOI'O
OCTpmr) Il KyKpeJ<CKilX BKJia;!J,hI!11ei1:.
3TII oco6e!IHOCTII onpe,nerr.SIIOT nono:>KeHMe naM.SITHHKa py6e)l{OM Me3o-HeorrMTMlfeCKOii 3Il0Xll, a HaJIIllfllC KepaMilKil ,na)l{e Il03BOJI>IIOT OTHeCTH ero K
paHHllM HCOJillTillfeCKilM .
15. Tarigrad XV. com. Tarigrad (47 59' 15" c.lll., 27 45' 20" B.;!J,., a6c .
BhICOTa 135 M) (KapT. 1). 0TKpbITO B 1996 r.

55 MeJIKllX !},JparMeHTOB Tpy6lfaThIX CTeHOK,

ocKOJIKOB 3y60B : Bee OH.H .nocTaTOlfHO CHJihHO

pa3,npo6rreHhI. 11x noBepXHOCTh OCBeTrreHHa>I, rrpll yBrra:>KHeHilll pbIXJia>I,


occHrrH3aunH, He . Ha6rr10.naeTc>I. KpoMe Toro o6napy:>KeHo HeCKOJihKO
cpparMeHTOB paKOBilH ;!J,BYCTBOp'IaThIX MOJIJIIOCKOB.
. Oco6eHHO Ba:>KHhI Haxo,nKH cpparMeHTOB KepaMHKil (5 IIIT.). Ha noBepxHoCTII
famo co6paHO 4 cpp., a 1 cpp . Haii,neH B IIIypcpe, B KOHTeKCTe c KpeMHeBbIMil
npe,nMeTaMil, Ha rpaHIIUe 'IepH03eMa II 6yphIX cyrrrHHKOB. IloBepxHOCTh ,IIX
crrra:>KeHa, CBeTJIO-KopH'IHeBoro (6e:>KeBhiii) UBeTa. TeCTo MerrKOCTPYKTypHoe,
M>II'KOe Ha oui:ynh c >IBHOM paCTHTeJibHOM npHMeChIO, B 2-x CJiytia>Ix ,no6aBJieH
MerrKilM UiaMOT. 06)KIII' OKIICJIIlTeJihHhIM, trenOJIHbili. qepenKil B II3JIOMe rpexCJIOMHhI: TOHKIIe Hapy:>KHhie CBeTJibie Kpa>I Il 'IepHO-KOplltIHeBa>I cepe.Ll,HHa. Ha
;!J,BYX cpparMeHTax npocne:>KeHa opHaMeHTaUII>I TOHKilMil Bpe3HhIMil JlllHil>IMII

(?).

Ilpe,nBapIITeJihHhIM aHaJIIl3 KpeMHeBoro IIHBeHTap>I n03BOJI>IeT BhI;!J,eJIHTh


HeKOTOphre oco6eHHOCTH naM>ITHHKa U:apIIrpa.n

II:

1 . B KOJIJieKUHII npHCYTCTBYIOT HyKrreychI c IICKJIIOlfHTeJibIIO npaBMJihHhIM

C. OO;!J,>IHy. 0THOCllTC>I K Me30JII1Ty.

IOB oT cerra, B 1,5 KM Ha 10r OT MOCTa M lllocce ,n:poKH>InpaBOMY 6opTy ,norrHHhI peKM PeyT. Hax~;!J,Kll JIOKa~l:i30BaHhI

Haxo,nMTC>I B 5 KM K
PhIIIIKaHhI, i:;io

Ha rreBOM CKJione BhICOKOro MhICa, o6pa3oBaHnoro KP YT OH M3JIYlfllHOil ,noJIHHhI


p. PeyT n ero npaBo6epe)l{HhIM npHTOKOM (PHc. 19, 2).
Ilpocrre:>KeHhI ;!J,Ba OCHOBHhIX CKOITJieHil>I KpeMHCBOrO MaTepIIarra, y)J.arreHHbie ,npyr oT ,npyra Ha 40- 50 M. Ha HHX 6bmII 3arro:>KeHhI rnypcphI. Haxo,noK He
Haii;!J,eHO.
.
.
Bcero co6paHo 113 3K3. KpeMHeBhIX npe;!J,MeTOB (PHc. 23). Ilo TexHHKe rrep.
BlltIHOI'O pacui:eITJieHH>I BhI;!J,eJI>IIOTC.SI cne)J.y10ui:IIe rpynrrhI 113,nenIIii: 1. HyKJieychI
-

6; 2. HyKneBII;!J,Hhre o6noMI<ll -

Kpymihie -

tiaThie OCKOJIKil 13;

3; 3. MerrKtte o6rroMI<II :-- 3;

4; 5. OTui:enhI cpe,nnHe-11; 6. OTui:errhI MeJIKMe 2;

8.

IlJiaCTIIHhI I<pyHiibie ----: 16; 9. IlrraCTilHhl cpe;!J,Hlle -

10. IIrraCTm-IhI MeJIKIIe (MHKpo) -

2; 11. KpeMHeBhie CKOJihI- 6; 12. CKorrhI

0)l{IIBJieHil>I 1.
TexHIIKa pacKarrhmaHH>I 6a3IIpyeTc>I na o,nnorrrroIUa.nolfHOM rro.nrrpH3MaTH'!eCKOM HyKrreyce. 11MeIOTC.SI ;!J,Ba BTOpII'IHbIX >I;!J,pIIIUa c neraTIIBaMII MHKpO.

orpaHeHHeM ;!J,JI>I MHKponrraCTIIH;

- 92 -

4. 0Tui:en~1

46; 7 . qernytt-

-93-

TOMy, HeCMOTpil Ha IllITeHCHBHhie.. nOHCKH, c 60J1bllilIM TPY.LIOM y.[laJIOCb HH.[leHTHcjmu:upoBaTb J1Illllb .[(Ba Il3 pairnee ll3BeCTHblX naMilTHilI<OB.
16. S0roca I (48 08' 00" c.UI., 28 19' 00" B..LI., a6c. Bhrcorn 70 M) (KapT. 1).
OrnphITO B 1957 r. B. 11. MapKeB11qeM. 11ccrre.[IOBarroch HM II<e B 1957-1962 rr.
PacrroJIO)l(eifO B 0,5 KM BHH3 no Teqenmo p. ,[(uecTp K IOB OT Ber<11p0Ba
MOCTa. I1p11ypoqeno K noliMeHHOMY MbICY uaneBo6epe1I<HOH OKOHe'-IHOCTI1 BO.[IOHOCHOrO OB para, nepexo;:v1ru:ero BBepx no 1<pyT0My CKnony B y 31mii KaHhOH
c o6pbIBHc;rhIMH 6eperaMH (P11c. 19, 4). ITonepeK CKJlOHOBhIX OTITO)l(eHHH 6bmH
3aJ10)l(eHhI 4 rnypcpa (HyMepau:11n c JOB Ha C3), op11eHTHpoBam-1h1e no JlHHHH
CB- JOB (npo(pHm rnypcpa 3 CM. Puc 24).

Puc. 23. U:ap11rpa.11 XV. KpeMHeB1>1e 113.llej!HJI.

nnacTm:~<ian1x cm1T11ii: no Topu:y .(P11c. 23, 9). E.[lmrcTBeHJ.thIH er< on OII<HBJiettmr


Y.L1apH011 n_~oru:a.L11<11 ~BM.LleTenhCTByei o BepOilTHOM ynoTpe6neH1111 uyr<JieycoB
c I<pyroBOH CHCTeMOH CKOJla.
.
rpynna OTIIIenOB (.LIO 54% OT o6ru:ero <JHCJla KpeMHeBblX 113.[leJIHH) noqTH
B .LIBa pa3a npeBOCXO.LIHT I<o;rnqecrBo nnacTHH<iaThIX cI<onoB. Cpe.LIH nocne.[lttHx .
.[IOCTaTO'IHO MHOro MHKpOJlHTH<JeCI<HX (pOpM. llinporw pacnpocTpaHeH npMeM
yceqemrn KOHU:OB nnaCTHH, HeKOTOpbie c npH3HaKaMI1 MHI<pOM3HOCa no r<pailM
(P11c. 23 , 1).
113.[lenrrH: co BTOpM<iHOH o6pa60TKOII - 8 3K3. 3TO 4 CKpe6Ka, Bee Ha' OTru:enax Ii npe.[ICTaBJleHbI KOHU:eBbIM, rronyoKpyrnhIM, HOITeBH.[IHbIM ll .[IBOI1HhJM
60I<OBbIM (Pnc. 23, 2-4, 6); 2 pe3I~a - - 0.[llII-I aMopcjmhIH BOrnyTopeTyWHhIH Ha
OTru:erre, BTopoH: - 06n0Mo1< nnocKoro 6oI<oBoro (P11c. 23, 8); 1 ceqeHHe nnacTHHhI c MeJlKOH Kpael3oii: peTyllbIO (Pnc. 23, 5) H CKpe6nOBll.[IHOe H3.[lenue napa.rrneJlbHO lICI1~0Jib30BaHHOe Kai< peryrnep-OT)l(IJMHIII< (PHc. 23, 7).
,
KpeMI-IeBhrn KOMnrreKc IJ.apnrpa.L1a XV npe.L1Bap11TeJ1bHO .LlaTnpyeTC}J no 3.LlHeMe3orrnT11qec1<11M BpeMetteM.

Pauou Soroca
3Kcrre.[IHIJ;Heii: ~po~e.[leHbl o6~Jie.[IOBaHWJ. OT.[leJibHhJX ytiaCTKOB no6epe1I<bil
,[(ttecTpa y cc. Cosautr, Ma~caut1, I<OTOph1e O.[II-IaKo ue yBelfqarrrrcb ycnexoM.
OmwBpeMemrn 6bm11npoBe.[leHbI11ccrre.L10Barrrr51 no BhrnBrreunr-o p<lI-Iee OTKphIThIX H uccrre.[loBaHHhIJ<. B. 11. MapKet3H'leM naMilTHHKOB CopoKcKoii rpynnhI.
COII<aJleHHeM npHXO.[IHTCil OTMeqaTh, 'ITO 3a HCTeKUIHe.30-40 JieT, B CBil3H c
HeO.[IHOKpaTHO nOBTOpilIOIIIHMHCil pa6oTaMrr no oprattrr3au:rrw: 30Hbl OT.[lhixa,
Ben nprr6pe1I<Hail Teppaca ,[(rrecTpa HHII<e r. CopoK, r.[le panee 3aqmKc:upoBaHo
cocpe.L10T0'-1eH:ue rraMHTHIIKOB B,[(K, K HaCTOilll!eMy BpeMerra npaKTaqecKa norrHOCThIO H3Memma CBOIO HCXO.[IHYIO I<OHCpHrypau:mo H peJlhecjJ. l1Me1mo 1103-

- 94 ' -

Puc. 24. Copo1<a l. Pa3pe3.

B ruypcpax II Ha UOBepxHOCTH CTOilHKH o6napy)l(eHO .157 KpeMHeBhIX npe.[1MeTOB. .LIBYMil BepXHHMH ropH30HTaMH rrepBoro KYJibTypttoro CITOil CBn3aHa
JIHIIIh 1/6 ilx <iacTb. Tmwrroruqecrrn Bee H3.[lemrn BhHIOmieHbI B rpy6onpH3MaTHqecKorr TeXHHKe CKOJia, COBepUieHHO He HMeIOT BTOpH'IHOH o6pa60TKH (3a
HCKmoqeJIHeM Tpex cnopHbIX rrpe.[IMeTOB). B Texm~Ke nepBHqI-JOro CKOJia Bbl.[leJIIlIOTCil crre.L1y10iu:ue rpynnhI H3.L1err11M:: 1. )KerrBaK - 1, 2. HyKrreychI - 2; 3.
Hy1<JieBH.L1Hhie o6JIOMKH - 3; 4. MerrKne o6rroMKH - 15; 5. KpaeBhie CKOJihI
-- 8; 6. Cr<OJihI 01I<nBrre1rnn 7. Kpynuhre oTru;enhr - 68; 8. Cpe.LIHHe mru:enhr 36; 9. MenK11e oTru:enbI - 13; 10. I1JiaCTHHhII<pynuh1e - 9.
KorrrreKU:Hil H3.L1en11:U: n03BomreT roBopHTh JIHIIIh o narrpaBrreHHOCTH KpeMHeBoo6pa6anrnar-oru:ero rrpoH3BO.LICTBa TOJihKO na rrepBnqnyro o66ttBKy II<eJI,
l
BaKoB. Cne.[lhI peTynm:oro H3Hoca HMeJIH TPH KpynHhIX npe.L1MeTa. 3To rrnacTnHqaThIH CKOJ1 c rny6oKOH 6erroM: naTHHOH H npH3HaKaMH BhIBeTpnBaHHil,
rpy6b1H: MaCCHBHhIH OT.w;err c B~IlIYKJibIM BhIIIIep6neHHbIM KpaeM H 601(0BOH

- 95 -

A - A'

11CeB,D,Ope3eU: c tJ.eIUyHtJ.aTOH 110,D,pa60TKOH Kpa5I II IIIIIpOKIIM pe3U:OBbIM CKOJIOM


Ha nepBIItJ.HOM OTIT(ene. '
'

-~

IlOMIIMO KpeMHeBbIX II3,D,eJIIIH o6Hapy)f(eHbI MeJIKIIe OKaTaHHbie q)parMeHTbI KepaMHJ(II, 0HII 6rre,D,HO -p030Boro u:seTa. lfaroTOBJieHbI II3 MeJIJ<OCTpyKTypHOH TJIHHbI 6e3 KaKIIX-rrII6o npIIMecew. 06)f(IIr norrHbIH. OpHaMeHTa HCT.
qe1:Ka5I r<yrrbTYPHaJ1 aTpII6yn;IIJ1 IIX HCB03MO)l(Ha. Ho 5ICHo, 'ITO OHII He xapaKTepHbI ,D,JIH E,[(K.

~
--IM

17. Soroca m,r . CopOKa (48 07' 58" c.b.r., 28 20' 15" B.,D,., a6c. BbICOTa 60 M)
(KapT. 1). OTKpbITO B 1964 r. B. 11. MapKeBIItJ.eM, IIccrre,D,osarroch IIM )f(C B
1965 r. BcKphITaH 11rr01u:a,D,1> cocTaBIIJia npIIMepHo 30 KB. M. 0THeceHo B III
c1Ja3e E,[(K.
IlaMHTHIIK HaXO,D,IITCH B 2,5 KM K JOB OT EeKIIpOBa MOCTa BHH3110 TC'ICHIIIO
peKII ,[(HecTp, Ha ero rresoM 6epery HanpoTIIB ocTposa. Cnpasa OT acclJarrI>Tosow ,D,oporII CopoKa-TpIIclJayu:b1, B caMOM HatJ.arre KypopTHOH 30HI>I c,D,oMaMII
OT,D,hIXa II ,D,eTCKIIMII rrarepHMII (PIIc. 19, 4). 3aHIIMaeT o6phIBIICThIH Kpali KOpemroro 6epera peKII, paCilOJIO)f(eHHOro Ha paCCTOHHIIII 15 M II Ha BhICOTe 7- 8 M
OT JieTHero ypoBHJI BO,D,hI.
IIocerreHIIe Haxo,D,IITCH B caMOM HatJ.arre II3.iiytJ.IIHI>r peKII, r,D,e HatJ.IIHaeTc~
pacIIIIIpeHIIe npIInoliMeHHoro yqacrKa ,D,O 70 M c C Ha IO II Ha 600 M c 3 Ha
(Puc. 19,4). KymTypHI>IH crroli 61>m npocrre)f(CH B 06p1>rne 6epera Ha npOT5I)f(CHIIII 16 MK BOCTOKy OT KOHyca Bhittoca ,D,peBHero OBpara (PIIc. 25, 1). CoxpaHIIB-
IUaHCJI qacT!> 6epera, ,D,OCT,YilHaH ,D,JIJI paCKOilOK, HC npCBhIIIIaeT B ,D,JIIIHY 20 M
(no TCtJ.CHIIIO perm) , a srrry6b He 6orree 6- 8 M. B 1, 6 Mr< socror<y OT o6ber<Ta N2
1 Ha CKaJihHOM BhICTyrre 6bm 3aJIO:>KCH paCKOIT pa3MCpOM 12 x 1-4,5 M, opIICHTIIpOBaHHhlH ,D,JIIIHHoli CTopdHoli c CB Ha I03 (73), nrroru:a,D,I>IO 28 KB. M. IIo
lO)f(HOH CTCHC pacKona rrpOCJIC)f(CHa CJIC,D,y10ru:aa CTpaTIIrpaclJIIH (PIIc. 25, 3): 1.
3a,D,epHOBaHHbIH CJIOH c BKJIIO'ICHHHMII HaMhIBHhIX rpaBIIH, raJihKII II petJ.HOro'
necKa, CMI>IToro c o6otJ.IIHI>I ,D,opom - 0- 0,10 M; 2. CepaH rrecHaH rrotJ.Ba c
BKparrrrCHIIHMII MCJIOBhIX II II3BCCTKOB~IC1:hIX OKaThIIIICH II I<pOIIICK. IlepecrraIIBaCTCH JIIIH3aMII HaMhIBHhIX rarreK, rpaBIIH II petJ.HOro rrecr<a, O,D,HOpO,D,HOro 110
COCTaBy II BII,D,y c IIOBepxHOCTHhIM. Bero HII)f(HCH II cpe,D,HCH tJ.aCTII npOCJIC)f(CHa
npocrroliKa petJ.Horo IIrra TOJIIUIIHoli 2-4 CM. B 3arra,D,Holi qacTII pacr<orra OH.a
JIC)f(IIT Henocpe,D,CTBemro Ha nocrreti;y10'ru:eM crroe, co,D,ep)f(aru:ll:M oyraTKII KYJII>TypHoro crroa E,[(K - 0, 10- 0, 36- 0,6 M; 3. CBeTrro-KopIItJ.HeB1>1li cyrrrIIHoK,
tl;OCTaTo~rno IlJIOTHhIH, rrepexo,D,HID:IIH B OCHOBaHim B JICrKIIH paCChIIItJ.aThIH
6orree CB.eTrrI>rli rreccoBH,D,HhIH cyrrrIIHOK . KyrrhTYPHhie ocTaT~II ~O~HOCTh~
0,1-0,4 M npHypotJ.eHhI K BepxHeli qacrn: :noro crroH - 0,36- 0,6-1,0 M. Cy.n.H
no npHMhIM H KOCBCHHhIM ,D,aHHhIM, CTpaTHrpaclJHtJ.CCKOH CHTYclU:IIH, MCCTO noCCJICHIIJI HCO,D,HOKpaTHO 3aJIIIBaJIOCh BOtJ;aMH pCKII.

KyJII>TYPHhIH CJIOH npe,D,cTaBJICH B OCHOBHOM HaXO,D,KaMH npe,D,MeTOB II3


KpCMHH, KaMHJI pa3JIII1:J.HhIX rropo,D,, petJ.HbIX rarrer< II HC60JibIIIOro KOJIIItJ.CCTBa
KOCTeli )f(IIBOTHhIX H clJparMCHTOB KepaMIIKII. B pacnpe,D,erreHHH M<hepIIarroB
rro nrroru:~,D,II Ha6rrJ-0,D,aeTc5I IIx oco6aH :KomteHTpau:ua B npe,D,errax o6ber<Ta 2
(KB. 3- 6/B- r; 7/, B , r II 8/B), KOTOphIH tJ.CTKO OKOHTypIIBaeTC5I C 3aIIa,D,HOH
-- 96 -

Puc. 25. CopoKa III. 1 -

KynhTYPHhlii cnoii n pa3pe:ie 6epera. 2 10xrna.ll creHKa pacKona.

KYllbTYPHblii cnoii. 3 -

CTOpOHhI B KB. 3/B-r, BhiphIThIM B rpyHTC yrny6JICHHCM ri ui 0,4 MOT ti;peB:nero


ypoBHJI. MaTepHarrI>r c CB Ha I03 (40). B I03 tJ.aCTII (KB. 3-5/r) o6bcKT yxo,D,IIT
no,D, IO)f(HYIO HepacKorra:n:ny10 CTCHKY. B rrpe,D,enax :noro o6bCKTa o6Hapy)f(CHhI
1101:J.TII BCC (KpOMC C,D,IIHHtJ.HhIX) opy,D,IIH Tpy,D,a II3 KpeMH5I, KaMHH, KOCH! H clJparMCHThI KepaMHKII E,[(K.

.

. KpeMHeBaH tJ.aCTI> KorrrreK1~HII npe,D,CTaBrretta 513 3K3. (PIIc. 26; 27). B ocHOBHOM IICI10Jih30BaJIC5I cephIH 110Jiynpo3patJ.HhIH )f(CJIBatJ.Hhlli KpeMCHh, 0,D,HaKO
B 3HatJ.IITCJII>Holi creneHII 11epepfl60Ta:n:n1>1i1: per<oli. Pe'IH1>1e rarrhKII He6orr1>IIIoro
pa3Mepa 'ICpHO-KOpH'IHCBOrO U:BCTa H OKpCMCHCJibIH II3BCCTH5IK BCTpe'IaIOTCH
pe,D,KO.
' Ilo TCXHIIKC nepBIItJ.Horo paCIU:CilJICHHH Bbl,D,CJIHIOTCH CJIC,D,YI-OID:IIC rpyrrnhI
II3,D,CJIHH: 1. rarrhKII II KpCMHCBhIC KOHKpCUHII - 37; 2. '0cKOJIKH KpCMHH - 28;
3. IIpeHyr<rreyc1>1 - 5; 4. Hyr<rreyc1>1- 15; 5. HyKrreBII,D,HhIC o6rroMKH - 20; 6.
Merrr<He o6noMKII - 6; 7. MaKpooTru:en1>1 - 22; 8. Kpyn:n1>re 0Tru:e111>r - 44; 9.
Cpe,D,nIIe 0Tru:e111>I'- 118; 10. Menr<He OT11teni.1~113; 11. MaKponnacTIIHhI
- 8;12. Kpy11H1>1e nnacTIIHhI - 25; 13. Cpe.[(HIIC nnaCTIIHhI II IIX ceqenua 26; 14. MenKHe(MIIr<po)rrnaCTIIH1>1 - 6; 15. KpaeBI>recKOJIDI - 26; 16. CKOJihr
0)f(HBJICHH5I - 4.
!fexHHKO-MopclJonorH'ICCKHH aHaJIH3 KOJIJICKI.(IIH npe.[(CTaBJIHCT ,D,BC TCXHHKII cr<ona: y,D,apHaa H OT)f(HMHaH. RBirn npeBannpyeT nepBaH. Oc:noBy cocraBJIHIOT no,D,npn3MaTII'ICCKIIe O,D,Horrrroru:a,D,OtJ.HhIC o,D,nocTopoHnHe HyKneycbr,
He6pe)f(H0 orpaHCHHbIC, c HeranmaMH CKOJIOB rpy6bIX OTIUCilOB H ITJiaCTHH.
y ,D,apHbIC nrroru:a,D,KH BC3,D,C CKOIUCHhI, TbIJihHaH CTOpoua coxpaHHCT OCTaTKil
)f(CJIBa'IHOH KOpKII, Ha BCCX BhIIIOJIHCHO pe6po - 11 3K3. BbI,D,CJIHIOTCH JIIIIIIh 2
3K3. 110,D,nprnMaTH'ICCKIIX ,D,Byrrnoru:a,D,O'IHhIX HyKneycoB c yITJioru:eHHhIM clJpoHTOM 'BCTpC'IHOro CKaJihIBaHHH. Pa3MCpbI HYKJieycoB KOJIC6JIHTC5I BbICOTOH OT
9,0 ,D,O 4,3 CM, npeHMYIUCCTBCHHO 6,5-5,5 CM . JlHIUh .[(Ba HyKrreyca CBII,D,CTCJibCTBYIOT 06 IICI10Jib30BaHHII OT)f(IIMHOH TCXHIIKII. '.:ho ,D,Bynrroru:a,D,O'IHhIH Il0.[(npil3aTII'ICCKIIH HyKneyc c ynnoru:eun1>1M clJpoHTOM s'cTpeq:noro cKan1>1BaHm1
-97 -

Ha 3/4 nepnMeTpa, c HeraTMBaMM CKOJIOB MeJIKHX H cpe.n:HMX ITJiaCTHH (urnp.


0;3- 1,0 CM). Pa3Mepb1ero 6 x 4 x 2,5 CM (Pnc. 27,2). BTOpOI1 o.n:Honnow:a.n:oqHblli
KOHyCOBMJJ:HbIH, c ynno:w:eHHbIM qlpOHTOM CKaJibIBaHmI Ha 3/4 nepMMeTpa, ueCY:W:HH HeraTMBbI CKOJIOB MeJIKHx n cpe.n:HHX nnacTnH (0 ,3- 1,2 cM). Pa3Mepb1 5
x 3,5 x 3 CM (Pnc. 26, 13). TaK )Ke cpe.n:H CKOJIOB O)KHBJieHmr y.n:apHbIX nno111a.n:oK
(Bee OHM cpe.n:HHe OT:W:eIIbl) MMeeTCJI 0.D:HH c KpyrOBOH CHCTeMOH CKOJia.
Cpe.n:H norryi1eHHb1x 3aroTOBOK npo11eHT oTw:erroB .n:ocTttraeT 58% (297
IIIT J frraBHbIM o6pa30M, :no MeJIKHe H cpe.n:Hne 3K3eMIIJI5!pbI 6e3 rrpaBMJibHOro
orpaaeHHH. TpeTbH qacTh Bcex OTW:eHOB - nepBHqHhie, T. e. OTXOJJ:bI B qHCTOM
BHJJ:e. IloJIOBHHa Bcex OT:W:eIIOB HMeeT oqeHb MaCCHBHhie rpy6b1e OCHOBaHHJI,
o6pa30BaBIIIHeCJI npH y.n:apHOH TeXHMKe CKOJia. IlnaCTHHqaTbIX CKOJIOB 13%
(63 IIIT.). Be.n:y:w:tte II03HI(MM 3aHHMaIOT cpe.n:Hne 11 Kpymibie. TexHnKa yceqemrn
KOHI(OB 3arOTOBOK JIBHO Bbipa)KeHa JIHIIIb .D:JIJI cpe.n:HHX IIJiaCTIU-I - 10 3K3.
Maorne H3 HHX MMeIOT MHKpOH3HOC (Pttc. 26, 1-2).
BTopnqHoi1p6pa6oTKe no.n:BepmyTo 11 n3.n:enn:il:, ew:e 27 nMe1-0T crre,abI MGIIOJib30BaHMH B Bn.n:e MeJIKOH HeperynHpHOH PeTYIIIM H Bbiw:ep6mm. Ilo BbI6opy
HCXO~HOH 3arOTOBKH opy.n:nH pacnpe.n:enJIIOTCJI cne.n:yIOII(HM o6pa30M: Bee CKpe6Kn
- 7 3K3. -u3rOTOBJieHbI Ha oTw:enax: 3 Ha MerrKnx, 3 Ha cpenmix, 1 Ha 1<pynHoM.
lfa HHX 4 3K3. KOHI(eBo-60KOBbie (Pnc. 26, 3- 5, 7), 6oKOBOH (Pttc. 27, 1) H KOHI(eBbie
(Pttc. 26, 6, 10). Bee CKpe6KH, KpoMe o.n:Horo, c OKpyrnblM pa6oqMM KpaeM. ToJibKO
o.n:Ha cpe.n:HHJI IIJiaCTMHa BTOpnqHo o6pa6ornHa MeJIKOH PeTYIIIblO co CITHHKH H
6pIOIIIKa (PHC. 26, 1). ~Ba OJ:w:ena nompeyrOJibHOH oFJMbI (cpe.L(HHH H KPYIIHbIH)
HMeI-OT peTylimyro no.n:pa6oTKY 6oKOBbIX KpaeB - ocrpnH (Pnc. 26, 8, 9). BbmeneH
TaK)Ke JJ:BOHHOH yrnOBOH pe3e1( Ha rpy6oM KpaeBOM OCKOJIKe (Pnc. 26, 11).
06Hapy)KeHO 169 KaMeHHbIX npe.n:MeTOB. 3TO rrpenMyw:ecrBeHHO o6pa60TaHHbie peKOH yIIJIO:W:eHHOH opMbI H3BeC'fHHKOBbie H rrecqaHHKOBbie IIJIHTKH, a TaK!f<e
peqab1e raJihKH pa3noo6pa3HOH c]lopMbI. Ha1160JihIIIee KOJIHqecrBo TaKnx
npe.n:MeTOB co6paHo B npe.n:enax o6beKrn NQ 2. Btt3yanhno .cpe.n:H HHX BbmeneHbI
oTnenbHbie 3K3eMnJIHpbI y.D:JIHHenno-oBanbHO,H MJIH 01<pymoi1 c]lopMbI co crre.n:aMH
3a6MTOCTH H BbIKpOIIIeHHOc;TH no Y3KHM KOHI(aM (PHC. 30 , 3.4) HJIH no
BbICTynam:w:HM rpaHHM rrepm4eTpa (Pnc. 30, 5). Cpe.n:H naxo.n:oK no.n:o6noro po.n:a
BhmenHeTcH necqanHKOBaH ranhKa y.n:nnnenno-oBanhnoH: rpopMbI, na yIIJiow:ennoH'
ITOBepxHOCTH KOTOpoH: coxpaHHJiaCb BbeBIHj:lHCJI 6op.n:6BaJI oxpa (Pttc. 30, 2).
Ee3ycJIOBHO ceHcaI(HOHHOH crana Haxo.n:Ka .n:Byx .n:onoT-Tecen n3 TeMH0-3eJieHoii
MpaMopoBHJJ:HOH nopo.n:hI. Omi nnocKO-Bhmy1<noro rronepeqnoro ceqeHMJI. c
3aOCTpeHHbIM c TbIJibHOH CTOpOHbI Jie3BHeM H Cy)KaIOW:UMCJI o6yIIIKOM.
IloBepxHOCTb HX B HH)KHeH pa6oqei1: qacTM OTJinqno 3aIIIJIH0BaHa, a BepXH5!5!
qacrb H oco6eHHO 6oKOBbie rpaHH coxpaHHJIH OCTaTKH IIHKeTa)Ka, BbIW:ep6neHHOCTb (Pm;. 29).
Ha rrocenemrn co6pano 30 p. cocy.n:oa E~K, noJIOBllHa M3 HHX Memme
OCKOJIKM 2 x 1 CM. KpaH H noBepxHOCTh HX cnnhHO 01<aTaHbI H crml)KeHbI. OcTaTKH CTeHOK H BeHqHKOB .D:OCTaToqHo TOHKMe - 0,5-0,8 CM. IlpH.D:OHHhie qacTH
1,0- 1,5 CM. ll;BeT IIOBepXHOCTH npe11Myw:eCTBel-IHO CBeTJIO-KOpnqHeBbIH, )l(eJITOBaTbIH, HO BCTpeqaeTCJI H qepHO-KOpnqneBbIH H KpaCHO-KopnqHeBbIH. Bee
- 98 -

~-n t-W ~~ .~4 tri-a


I

Puc. 26. CopoKa Ill. KpeMHeBhie H3Aemui.


OHM HeIIOJIHOrO o6)1(Hra, TpexCJIOHHbI B H3JIOMe: TOHKMe, CBeTJibie CHapy)KH H
qepHo-KopHqHeBaH cepe.n:ttna. Tecro Bcex parMeHTOB conep)K~T npnMec~ pacTHTeJihHOCTM. EonhIIIaH qaCTb (26 p.) MMeeT OTneqaTKH TOHqanIIIHX JieHTOq~K
JJ:MKOpacTyw:eH: TpaBhI, MeJibqaHIIIMe ToqeqKM OT BbirOpeBIIIero Bew:ecTBa .
CTpyKTypa nx cnoHCTO-KOMKOBaTaH, )KeCTKMe Ha o:w:yrrh. 11 p. n 3 HMX co.n:ep)l(aT rrpHMech .n:po6neHbIX paKyllleK; 2 p. - ue6oJiblllO: KOJIF!qe~Bo MeJIKoro KBapueaoro rrecKa; a 4 qlp. -rrp11MeCb KOMOqKOB cyxon rnnI-IbI (.) aMoprp-

- 99 -

-\
.

-~
8

Puc. 27. CopoKa III . KpeMHeBhJe H3AeJIHll.


HbIX O'IepTam1il. I1o'ITH Bee parMeHThI opttaMeHTHpoBaHbI

(20

H3

26).

Hatt-

6onee pacnpocTpaHeH yrny6neHHbIH (Bpe3Hbie JIHHMM pa3HOH umpttHbI) qlp. (Pttc.


parnoii,

28, 4, 6), pe)Ke BCTpe'IaIOTC1! OTile'laTKM Ii.ITaMTIOB-HaKOJIOB IlO.I(KBa.n;nompey:r:oJibHOH (Pnc. 28, 1- 3; 5) H OBaJihHOH opM (Pttc. 28, 8) .

I1ocne.n;HHH HMHTMPYeT nanhI.i:eBO -HOrTeBOH 3am1m "Konoc" KYJihTYPhI Kpmn.


Cne.n;yeT OTMeTHTb

qlp., OTJIH'laromnxc11 OT Bb1111eomicaHHbIX HaJIM'lrreM B

TeCTe OTile'laTKOB OCTaTKOB KYJibTypHbIX 3JiaKOB. qepenKM 3TM 6onee nerKMe

100 -

Puc. 28. CopoKa III. KepaMHKa.

15
no Becy H M>IrKHe 1-rn omynh. K TOMY :>Ke ,D,Ba M3 Hux 6bmH noKpbIThI c1rnpy)KH
TOHKHM cnoeM CBeTJIOrO aHro6a. OpHaMeHTHpoBaHbI OHM Bpe3HbIMM JIMHHllMH
11 ene 3aMeTHbIMH OTTie'laTKaMH HOIT11 (PHC.

28, 7, 8, 10).

1'.hn.enHll H3 KOCTH rrpe,D,CTaBJieHbl Jililllb o6JIOMKOM opy,D,Hll 110,D,TpeyronbHblX O'IepTaHHH-HaKOHe'IHHK rapnytta

(?).

101 -

Puc. 29. CopoKa III. Tecna-Aonon.

KocTH )!{HBOTHhix cunhuo qiparMeHTHpoBaHHhI _ 54 rnT 06


.

hl'IHhIMH HaXOJJ:KaMH JIB' JI5IJ1HCh crnopKH paKOBHH "U nio" (OT l 0


50 Ha KBa;:i:paT) coco6 v
v
JJ:O
OH KOI-IUeHrpaunen B rrpe;:i:enax o6beKTa' NQ 2. O;:i:Ha u 3 HHX 6bma rrep.-ho'
aaua.
,

'I' pupoMaTepuanh1 CopoKH

III 1996

Puc. 30. MaTep11an1>1 naMSrrHHKOB: '1- T3r3p3yi<a Hoy3 XIV; 2-5-CopoKa III. 1-por, 2-5 - KaMeHh.
CJ1eBa B ,.[(HeCTp . 3aHHMaeT Y3KYI-O B~3BhIIIIeHHOCTh (Ha

r. pa6oT He rrpoTnaope'IaT a eme 6onee

YCHJIHBaI-OT H3BecnryIO XpOHOJIOrH'IeCKYIO lI03HUHIO 3TOro

rra~JITHHI<a B

CHC-

TeMe HeOJ1HTfflieCKHX KOMITJieKCOB r<paJI, a HMeHI-Jo: B3aHMO;:i:elicTBHe H 'KOHTaKT'


c paI-IHe3eMne;:i:eJih'Iecr<HM HaceneHHeM rraMJITHHI<OB nma CaI<aponr<a

I.

Ilpn-

CeperrHHa 6 ThIC rro II 3


IT
,_,,
. ,_..,
. .OJJ:TBep)KJJ:aIOT
HaXOJJ:KH 5IBHO HMIIOpTHPOBaHHhIX JJ:OJIOT crreunqm'leCKOH cjJopMhI M HaJ1HlJHe
cocy;:i:oB car<apoBcI<oro o6nHr<a.
Mep1-roe BpeMJI ero CylL(eCTBOBaI-JHJI -

6:-7 M Ha;:i: BOJJ:OH per<H)

Teppacy y;:i:mrneHHO -TpeyrOJ1hHOH tpOpMhl, IIOCTeneHHO Cy)!{HBaI-OIUYI-OCJI K 3aITa;:i:y . IlpOTJI)!(eHHOCTh TeppaChl ITO JIHHHH 6epera

80- 90 M. c IQ)!{HOH CTOpOHhI

Olla OKOHTyp:irnaeTC5l ITpoceJJOl:J:HOM ;:i:oporoli, 3a KOTOpoli Hal:J:HHaeTC5l I<PYTOH


CKJlOH KOpeHHOrO 6epera ~HeCTpa M IT~TiaTO . TiepeITa;:i: BhICOT JJ:O
TOlJHOH CTOpOHhl Teppaca HMeeT OI<OJlO
Ha

1-1,5

30

160 M.

c BOC-

M IIIHpHHhl II ITOJlOrO orrycKaeTC5l

M. IloBepxHOCTh 3a;:i:epHOBaHa, 6e3 KaKHX-JlH6o BH3yaJlhHO-npocne-

)!{MBaeMhIX II03JJ:HeliIII11x HapyIIIe1mi1: (Puc.

19, 3).

KynhTYPHhIH cnoli 3IIOXH

HeOJJHTa.'IeTKO rrpocJJe)!(HBaeTC5l B BepTHKaJ1hHOM o6Ha)!{eHHH 6epera peKH Ha

Paifou Donduseni
'

18. Tatarauca Noua XIV, com. Tatareuca Veche (48o 19' 27" c III 27 0 ,
58
55" B.JJ:. , a6c. BhICOTa 61 ,5 M) (KapT. 1). 0Tr<phITO B 1996 r H3 (B A. rr"
K. n. Bexnep). 0THeceHo K B~K. '
.
. . ,....,epralJeB ,
Haxo;:i:HTCJI B

1, 6 KM

K C3

(20o)

OT uepI<BH cena, Ha neBOM . 6epery peI<H

~HeCTp, B 200 M BhIIIIe ITO TelJeHHIO OT ycThJI 6e3hIMJIHHoro PY'lhJI, Bna;:i:aromero

rny611He

1,3- 1,5 M

OT COBpeMeHI-IOH JJ:HeBHOH IIOBepxHOCTH MJ1H Ha

Ha;:i:

)!{MBOTHhIX, r<peMHeBhIX 113;:i:enni1:, qiparMeHTOB KepaMHKH. Cnoli rrpocne)!{eH

60-70 M. MecTaMM OH JJ:OCTHraeT TO.TI10 CM , MHor;:i:a rrpephmaeTrn. ITpocne)!{HBaeTcJI HapyIIIeHue KYJihTypHoro

npaKTH'IeCKM Ha BCIO JJ:JIHHY TeppaChI JJ:O


IL(HHhI

CJ105l I-IeOJIHTa rrorpe6aJJhHhIMH HMaMH c OCTaTKaMM TpyrrOIIOJlO)!{eHHH HJlM CO)!{)!{eHHH MOrHJihHHI<a paHHero )!{eJ1e3HOro BeKa.

-102-"

4- 5 M

neTHHM ypoBHeM BOJJ:hI peKH B nu;:i:e cnoJI paKOBHH Unio, c Haxo;:i:KaMH KOCTeu

103 -

.
rnyllleHHOH cepoKopHqHeBOH raMMe. Tecro HMeeT ecTeCTaeHHYIO rrpMMeCh
MeJihqaiillleFO rrecKa M pe,n;KMe 6neCTKM CJIIO,[\hl, a TaK:>Ke rrpHMeCb paCTMTeJibHOCTM ;::(HKOpacrym;ux TpaB, OTrreqaTaBilIMXC5I B BH,[\e TOHqaiillIMX neHTO'IeK.
06)I(Mr 3TMX cocy.n;oB HerroJIHhIH, OKHCJIMTeJihHhIH. B H3JIOMe 'IeperrKM TpexcnoiiHhI c 6onee 'Iepttoii BHyTpeHHeii rroBepxHOCThIO. OpHaMeHTMpoaaHhI .naa

cpparMe~Ta; Ha O,[\HOM COCTaBJieHa KOM6MHa[(H5I M3 0Tpe3KOB (?) .TOHKMX (0,1

CM) Ii cpe.D;HHX

(0,15-0,2 CM) nmrnii, He3Ha'IHTeJibHO yrny6neHHbIX(~MC. 32,9).

BTopoii yKpallleH IllttpOKHMH oaanhHhIMH B ce'!eHHH KaHaBKaMM-yrny6neHH5IMH (KaHHenHpOBH,[\Hbie) (PHO.

32,10).

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Puc. 31. KpeMHeBble H3!1CJIHll: 1-8, 10 -HeonMTHqecKa5I KepaMHKa

T3np3yKa Hoy3 XIV; 9, 11 -

B~K

rrpe.ncraBJieHa

1-ihIMH cpparMeHTaMM CTeHOK M BeHqHKOB;


He rrpeBhIIllaIOT B rrorrepeqHHKe
TeJI5IM (xapaKTep

1 CM.

8 IlIT.

28

.II

T3T3p3yKa Hoy3 XV.

MeJIKHMH TOHKOCTeH-

H3 HHX HaCTOJibKO MaJibl, qTo

Puc. 32. T3T3p3yKa Hoy3 XIV. KepaMHKa.

ITo TeXHMKO-TeXHonorHqecKMM rroKa3a-

li Kaqecrno TeCTa Mero o6pa6oT~a) Bb1qneH5IIOTC5I .nae rpyn-

BTopa5I rpyrrrra -

14

cpp. ITOBepxttoCTh ,RX OTJIH'IHvo

crna)K~Ha M rro.nno-

6 c}lparMem'aMH CTeHOK, IlOBepXHOCTb KOTOpbIX xo-

m;eHa. Hapy)I(Ha5I .z:i;orronHMTeJihHO rroKpI>rnanacb 'IMCTOH rrrHHOM, TaK 'ITO OT-

P.OllIO crJia)KeHa H MMeeT JIHillb He3HaquTeJibHhie BbIIU;ep6JIHHhI. L(Ber RX B rrpH-

rreqaTKH pacTHTeJihHOCTH BH.D;HhI TOJihKO c BHyTpeHHeii cTopOHhI. U:aer VBaph -

IThI. I1epBa5I rrpe.D;CTaBJieHa

ttpyer OT cepo-)KeJIToro .z:i;o KOpH'IHeaoro H cepo-opatt)Keaoro B oxpMCTOH raM-

104 -

105 -

Me. TecTo oo.z:i;ep:>r<HT ecrecTBeHHYIO rrpnMech MeJihLiaihnero necKa, pe.z:i;Kyro ----,CJIIO,ZJ;hI, crre11:i1anhHO .z:i;o6aBJ1enttyro pacnneJihHOCTh - MeJihLiaiirnne Tomme
JieHTO'IKil TpaBhl II .z:i;pofo1ettyIO paKyrnKy. 06:>r<Ilr cocy.z:i;oB HeIIOJIHbIH OKilCJlllTeJihHbIH, B Il3JIOMe ,ZJ;BYXCJIOHHhie, c 6onee TeMHOH .BHyTpeHHeii noBepxHOCTb,I-0. <l>.opMbI peKOHCTpynpyIOTC51 no 4 cpp. BeHtIIlK,OB Il 2 rrpnBeHtIIlKOBbIM
cTeHKaM. Ilpe.z:i;cTaBJI51IOT co6.oii 6attoLHhie cpopMbI co crnH;yrrhIM ycTheM . OT
rrp51MbIX HeBhICOKIIX (0,4-1,0 CM) BeHtIIIKOB CTeHKII nonoro nepeXO)J,51T B OKpyrnoe (?) ,TynoBo. Bepxi-m:ii Kpaii BCHLIHKOB po1mo cpe3an, 3aKpyrnen, mm
3aocTpen, ttapy:arnaa rroBepxnOCTh no.z:i;nomeaa (Pnc. 32, 1-4,6). OpnaMe1-rT aaqnnaeTca cpa3Y, no.z:i; IlJIIl 1m BentmKe. lfame Bpero oJ:l npe.z:i;craBnaeT co6oii BepTHKaJihHO pacnono:>r<eHHhIB 3Hr3ar Il3 KOpOTKilX yrny6neanii mm KOChIX JIIlHIIii
(8 cpp.) (Pnc. 32,3-6). 0.z:i;HllM 3K;leMnJiapoM npe.D,CTaBJieHhl KOpOTKIIe OTneLaTKilyrny6JieHmi:; npIIMbIJ(aIOII(IlC K yrny6neHHOH roptt30HTaJihHOH JlllHilII (Pnc.
32, 11). B .z:i;Byx cnyqaax OTMeLieHhI ocTaTKII aeBhICOKIIX Bhmy~nocTeii:-ynopqn
KOB, 0,ZJ;IlH Il3 HllX c ene 3aMeTHOH OKpyrnoii BM51TllHOH B u:eHTpe, a y BTOporo
nyHoo6pa3HhIH OTnetiaToK no Kparo (H'oroTb?) (Pnc. 32,7- 8). Om1 oT.z:i;aneHHO
HanoMIIHaIOT yrropbI KJIJIK.
;
TipII yqeTe opHaMeHTaU:IIIl {13 Il3 28) HBCTByeT, qTo rrpenMymecTBeHHO
IICnOJib30BaJICJ! yrny6neiIHhIH Bll)J, (11 cpp.), rrpe.z:i;cT~BJIHHbIH II11IpOKIIMil KaHaBKaMII (9 IllT .), TOHKIIMII npoqeptICHHbIMll JIIIHIIHMII (1 IllT .), KOpOTKilMII
HaceLIKaMii-OTTIWKaMII IIO)J, ropnioHT<:lJlbHbIMII JIIIJ-lll}!Mll (1 mt.) II OTneLiaTKaMII OKpyrnhIMII Il ceprroBII,ZJ;HhIMII (2 cpp.). TinacTIILieCKIIH Bll,ZJ; opmlMeHTau:im
pe.z:i;OK - 2 IllT.
Tipe.z:i;MeTOB II3 J<peMH}l - 224 rnT. B KaLiecTBe Chipb}l.IICnoJih30BahcH, rnanHblM o6pa30M, cepbIH nonyrrpo3patIHbIH )KeJIBatIHbIH KpeMeHb, II3pe.z:i;Ka BO~
JihIHCKIIii II raneLilihiij. Ilo Tex!rni<e nepBl:ILIHOro pacmenneHHH Bh1.z:i;eneHhI cne.z:i;yromIIe rpynnhI H3.z:i;ennii: 1.. IlpeHyKneyc - J; 2. HyKneychI - 4; 3. 06noMKII
HyKneycoB - 6; 4. 0CKOJil<II -4; 5. 0TmerrbI OtICHb KpynHhIC (MaKpo)--4; 6 . .
0Tmenhl Kpyrr:m~ie __c__ 18; 7. 0TmerrhI cpe.z:i;HIIe -22; 8. 0TmerrbI MeJIKIIe - 94;
9. qernyiiKII - 2; 10. 0LeHh Kpynnhie nnaCTHHhI (MaKpo)- 1; 11. IlnacTIIHhI
KpynHhie-23; 12. IlJiaCTIIHbl cpe,ll;HIIe- 23; 13. IlnaCTIIHbl MeJIKIIe (MIIKpo)
- 2; 14. KpaeBhie CKOJihI - 5; 15. CKOJihI O)KIIBneHH}l - 5.
YIMeromIIeC}l B HarneM pacrrop}l)Kemm nyKneych1 n nx o6JIOMKII cnII.rieTeJihCTBYIOT 0 rrpttMeHCHHil ,ZJ;BYX TCXHIIK CKOJia: yhapHOM ll: OT)KIIMHOH, 6a3IIpyromeHC}l Ha rro.z:i;rrpII3MaTII'ICCKIIX O,ZJ;HOTIJIOJb;a.z:i;HhIX II ,ZJ;BYIIJIOIUa,ZJ;O'IHbIX (rropOBHY) HyKneycax c rrp}lMhIMII IIJIII cKorneHHhIMH y.z:i;apHMMII nnoma.z:i;r<aMII, c
yrrnomeHHbIM cppoHTOM cKanhrnaHII}l. 0.z:i;IIH II3 .z:i;Bynnoma.z:i;oLIHhIX ttyKneycoB
. BCTpeqaoro CKaJihIBaHil}l B O,ZJ;HOH nJIOCJ(OCTII, a BTOpoii - BCTpetIH0-60KOBoro
CKaJibIBaHil}l, TaK)Ke B O)J,HOH nJIOCKOCTil. KaK rrpaBIIJIO, TbIJlhHa}l LiaCTb HyKneycoB ocpopMJieHa B pe6po II IIMeeT OCTaTKII )KCJIBatIHOH KOpKII. 0HII IICnOJib30BaJIIlCb npeIIMyiu;ecTBeHHO )J,Jl}l OTmenoBbIX CKOJIOB. Tipeo6na.z:i;aIOT cpe,ll;HIIe
no pa3MepaM c BbICOTOH 4,5~5 CM. JlIIIIJb o6JIOMOK OCHOBaHII}l KOHII'ICCKoro
HYKJieyca IIMCCT HeraTilBbl OT)KaThIX MeJIKIIX II cpe.z:i;HIIX nnaCTIIH. Cpe.z:i;Ii no-lOl-

nyq'eHHblX 3arOTOBOK rrpeo6na.z:i;aIOT OTmenhI--'- 62%. IlnaCTIIHtiaTbIX CKOJIOB


OKOJIO 22%.
'
BTOpIIqlio o6p<;160TaHO 9 II3;J:(eJIIIH, a 4 IllT. IIMeIOT CJIC)J,hl IICIIOJib30Bl:l.HII}l'
B BII)J,e MeJIKOH'HeperynHpHOM peryrnII. TIIIIOJIOrIILieCKII Bbl)J,eJI}llOTC}l cne.z:i;yromIIe BII,ZJ;hI opyJJ:IIii: 3 uiT. cKj>e6KII, 3 3K3. cKpe6rra, 1 ll'paneu:II}l, H::erMeHT II
O)J,IIH OTmen c peTylllhl-0. Ilo Bb16opyIICXO):(HOii 3aroTOBKil opy,ll;Il}l pacrrpe:n:eJl}ll-OTC5l CJIC,ZJ;YIOIUIIM o6pa30M: BCC CKpe6KII II3rOTOBJieHI:;I Ha MeJIKIIX OTIUerraX:
- O)J,IIH KOHU:eBOH (Pile. 31,5), O;[\IIH 6oKOBOH c yceqeHHblM KpaeM (PIIC. 31,2),
1 HOITCBII)J,HbIH c pa66LIIM KpaeM Ha 1/2 '!IepIIMeTpa (PIIC. 31,3). )l,JI}l CKpe6eJI
IICIIOJlb30BaHhI cpe,ll;HIIH, KpynHhlH II OtICHb KpyIIHbIH (Ma-KpO) OTIUCnhI (Pile.
31,6-7). 1 3K3. Kpyrinoro oTiu:erra npaBIIJI!.noH. no.z:i;rrp}lMOyronhl-roii cpopMbI
rro.z:i;pa6oTarr' peTylllhIO (Puc. 31,8). Cpe.z:i;n nnac'rm1LaThtx 3atoTOBOK,tiJI}l II3roTOBJICHII}l opy.z:i;IIii IICITOJih30BaHhI nIIllih ceqeHII}l Kpynncirr nnacTIIHhI (Tpaneu:II}l) II cpe.z:i;neii (cerMeHT) (PIIc. 31, 1. 2).
l'.13 KYJihTypnorO CJIO}l HCOJIIITa (C paKOBIIIIaJ14II BbI6paHO 23 KOCTII :>I<IIBOTHbIX. Ilo onpe.z:i;eneHIIIO )l,-r,a C. Becker ( CBo6o.z:i;Hblii Y m1nepcIITeT BepnIIna),
OHII rrpIIHa.z:i;Jie)KaJIII: 6naropo.z:i;HhIH OJieHh (Cervus elaplius); KOCyJI}l (Capreolus
capreolus); .z:i;nKa}l 2BIIHh5l (Sus scrofa ferus); 6o6p (Castor fibrer); co6aKa (Canis
familiaris). 13 o6noMKOB I<bcTeii I<pyrrnhIX ){(BaLIHhIX )KIIB'OTHbIX ne orrpe.z:i;eJIIIMhI
BII,ZJ;a.
Onpe.z:i;eneHIIe MeCTa rraMHTHIII<a B' OTHOCIITCJihHOH rrepIIO,ZJ;II3aU:IIII B)l,K
Tpe6yeT )J,OIIOJIHIITCJlbHblX IICCJIC,ll;CJBaHIIll. '
.
19. TataraucaNouaXV, com. Tatarauca Veche (c.Ill. 4819' 27" c.Ill., 27 8'
6" a6c. BbICOTa 60 M) (KapT. l). OTKpbITO B 1996 r. H3 (B . A. )l,epratieB ,
K.-Il. Bexnep).
.
'1
,

PacrroJIO)KCHO B 1,6 KM K CB (20) OT u:epKBII cena, Ha neBOM' 6epery p.


1
)l,necrpa, B 100 M Bb1I11e 'nrra.z:i;eH1I}l 6e3bIM5lHHoro pyLihH B peKy . 3aHIIMaeT IllIIpoKyro Teppacy, COCTaBJI5II-OIUYIO opraHII~CCKOC rrpo.z:i;OJI)KCHIIe TeppaChl c noCCJICHIICM Tatarauca Noua XIV, HO HeCKOJihKO orrymeHHYI-O Ha 1- 1,5 M no
cpaBHCHIII-0 c HCI-0. IlonepXHOCTb 3a.z:i;epnoBaHa c 6op03.z:i;qaTblMII cne.z:i;aMII n03)J,HCHlIIIIX HapyllleHIIH IIJIII rrnaHTa)KHOii BcnalllKII. KyJihTYl?HhIH cnoii neonIITIIqecI<oro npeMeHII npocne:>KeH B nepT1II<anhm~1x o6Ha)KCHII5IX 6epera Ha rny6IIne
0,5-0,6 MOT C)l,Il, IIJIII Ha 4-5 M BbUile JleTHer6 ypoBH5l )l,necTpa (PIIC. 19, 3) .
IlpII pac'mCTI<e 6eperoBoro o6pbrna I-ia npoTH)KeHIIII 60 M o6napy)Kena
JIIIH3a I<YJihTYPHhIX nacnoeirnii paI<OBIIH Unio BnepeMelllKY cI<OCT}IMII )KIIBOTHhIX, pe.z:i;I<IIX Haxo.z:i;oK I<epa~rnKII II I<peMHeBI>IX npe.z:i;MeToB. TonmIIna nacnoeHIIH paKOBIIH .z:i;ocTIIraeT MecTaMII 15 CM. Cnopa.z:i;IILICCKII BCTpeqaJIIICh cpparMCHThI TpIIIIOJibCKIIX cocy.z:i;oB II pai-mero )KCJIC3a.
HeonIITIItiecI<a}l I<epaMIIKa npe.z:i;cTaBnena 10 cpparMeHTaMII o.z:i;HOTIIIIHbIX
no KatICCTBY II3rOTOBJieHII}l cocy.z:i;oB. 3TO )J,OCTaTO'IHO TOHKOCTCHHbie (0,5-0,8
CM) cpparMeHTbI, )KCCTKIIC Ha omynh, U:BCT IIX sapbIIpyeT B qepHO-KOpIIL[HCBOH
raMMe c I<pacnoBaThIM OTTCHKOM. TecTO co.z:i;ep)KIIT ecTeCTBeHHYIO rrpIIMCCh
MeJibtiaiirnero rrecKa II pe,ll;KllC KPYIIIIHKII CJIIO)J,bl, II3MCJib'ICHHblH IIIaMOT II HC60.TihlllYI-O npIIMCCb pacrnTeJihHOCTII - TpaBhI, OTneqaTaBillCHC}l Ha BHYTPCH-

)J,0

107 -

Hett IIOBepxHOCTH H rrpocne:>ImBaeMyIO B H3JIOMax B Bff,[(e TOHeHhKHX neHTO'IeK .


Hapy:>Irna.a rroBepxttOCTh o6Ma3aHa :>I<M.L\KOM nrnHoii 11 IIO.L\JIOIIJeHa, TaK 'ITO
paCTHTeJihH,OCTMiH;e BH.[(HO. Ofo1mr cocy.[(OB KOCTpOBhIH OKHr;JIMTeJihHhIH, B H3JIOMe CT~HKH .L\BYXCJIOHHbI: BHyTpeHH>I>I IIOBepxHOC'"(h 'IepHa>I, a Hapy)l(Ha>I II>ITHHCTa>I. <DopMhI rrpe.[(CTaBneHhI TOJihKO o6JIOMKOM 60'!Ka KpyrJIO.[(OHHOro cocy.[(a. OT cna6oBhmyKhoro .L\Ha .L\HaMeTpOM 4 CM, cTeHKH mmBuo pacurnp>IIOTC>I
uapy)l(y. TonIIJHHa cTeHoK 0,7 CM ; OHM yTonIIJaIOTC>IKO .L\HY .LIO l,OcM. Cttapy)l(H
Ha .[(He HMeIOTC>I nernne OTIIe'IaTKH IIO.[\KBa.[(pan10ii H IIO.[(TpeyroJibHOM opMbI
(Pnc. 33,5). Hq. Tpex CTeHKax rrpocne)l(etto .[(Ba BM.Lia opHaMe1na: yrny6neHHhie
Bpe3Hble JIHHHH (Pnc. 33,2,3) HIIITaMIIOBaHHbIM. II1TaMIIOM OBaJibHO-IIO.L\Tpe-
yronhHoii cpopMbI c 3y6rraToii Hace'!Koii HaHeceHbI napannenbHhie p>I.L\bI 'IaCTbix
OTTHCKOB, BbICOTOH 0,5 CM, pacrronaraBurnec>I Ha Tene cocy.[(a ropH30HTaJib HbIMH H BepTHKaJibHbIMH p>I.[(aMH. lihaMIIOM CJiy)l(HJIH CTBOpKH paKOBHH u nio
(Pnc. 33, 1,4).

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Harr.[(eHO 9 KpeMHeBbIX rrpe.[(MeTOB: l. ramKa - 1; 2. HyKneyc ( o6JIOMOK)


- 1; 3. MaKpoOTmerr -;- .f; 4. 0TIIJerr cpe.z:(HHii - 1; 5. OnuerrhIMenKHe - 3; 6.
MaKpoo:naCTHHa - 1; 7. Cy'!e1rne Kpyrrttoii 1maCTHHhI - 1.
CoxpattHBIIIa>Ic>I nnueBa.ll 'IaCTh ttyKneyca CBH.L\eTeJihCTBYeT 06 HCIIOJib30BaHHH OT)l(HMHOH .TeXHHKH rrapanneJibHOro CKOJia, 6a3npyIOIIJeHC.ll Ha 0,[(HOl1JIOIIJa,[(O'IHOM IIO.L\11pH3MaTH'IeCKOM 0.[(HOCTO po1u1eynnou~eHHOM HyKneyce .
Ha nm:.i;eBoii 'IaCTH coxpaHHJIHCh ueraTHBbI MenKHX H cpe.L\HHX rrnacTHH pa3MepoM OT 0,6 .no 1,3 CM. Pa3MepbI ero 6 x 6 x 2,5 CM (P11C. 31,9).
Hap.a.ny c OT)l(HMHOH BerrnKa BepO>ITHOCTh HCIIOJib30BaHirn y.uapHOH JexHHKH, 0 'IeM orrocpe,noBaHHO CBH,UeTeJibCTByeT CHJibHO H30;f'HYTbIH IIpocpHJih
MaKponnaCTHHbI. K H3,UeJIH.lIM co BT,OpH'IHOH o6pa60TKOH BepO.lITHO OTHOCHTC.ll
MaKpOOTUien, me py6.lIIIJHH Kpa:H: 3aOCTpeH rpy6bIMH BCTpe'IHbIMH CKOJiaMH
(PHC. 31 , 11 ). MaKponnaCTHHa H Ce'!eHHe nnaCTHHhI HMeIOT CJie,UhI HCITOJih30BaHH.ll Ha 0.[(HOM H .L\BYX 6oKOBhIX Kpa.lIX.
llpe,ncTaBneHHhie KpeMHeBhie H3.[(enn.ll, KaK H Ha naMHTHHKe T3T3p3yKa
Hoy3 XIV, HBHO nponcxo,n>IT H3 pa3HhIX KYJihTYPHhIX KOHTeKCTOB . BbrnBneHHe
oco6eHHOCTeli Ka)l(.[(Oro KYJihTypHoro cno>I naM.lITHHKOB .neno 6y.nyIIJero.
llo orrpe.[(eneHHIO C . Becker, H3 28 KOCTeli - 12 IIIT. - 6rraropO.L\HhIH
OJieHb . OcTaJihHhie - KOCTH KpynHhIX H M.eJIKHX MJieKOITHTaIOIIIHX He onpe.neneHbI ,[(0 BH,[(a.
Co6paHHhIX MaTepManOB >IBHO tte.nocTaTO'IHO .[(JI>I nonHOIJ;eHHhIX BhIBO.L\OB
o Mecre H oco6eHHOCT.lIX 3Toro naM>ITHHKa. Ero KepaMnKa OTJIH'!aeTc.ll OT MaTepnanoB B,n:K Cpe,nHero ,z:i:ttecrpa n o6na.naeT cBoeo6pa3neM, Bhipa)l(aI-OIIIHMc.ll B BOCTO'IHhIX BJIM>IHH.lIX.
B na6opaTOpMH pa.[(HOKap6oHa 11HCTHTYTa n3HKH B Gliwice (llomrna)
rrony'IeHhI cny.z:1yroIIJHe ,naThI C 14. ,n:n>I CopoKH III - Gd. 11297 - 8430 90
BP 7510- 7410 cal. BC. ,n:1rn T3T3p3yKa Hoy3 XIV - Gd. 9697 - 5370 BP
4310 - 4070 cal BC. ,n:n.ll T3r3p3yKa Hoy3 XV - Gd. 9693 - 5220 . 70 BP
4170 - 3910 cal BC.
,n:aTa CopoKn III BhIXO.z:IMT 3a paMKM o6IIJerrpHH.lITOH xpottonornH tteonnTa
llpyTo-,z:i:ttecTpOBh.ll. llo 3aKJI~'IeHMIO na6opaTOpHH, npH'IHHa B03MO)l(HOH
OIIIH6KH B HCXO,UHOM MaTepMane - CTBOpKH paKOBHH u nio. Mecro naM.lITHHKa
ycTaHaBJIHBaeTC.ll THIIOJIOI'H'IeCKH ce.pe,nHHOH 6 ThIC . .no H.3. B COOTBeTCTBHH c
,naToii ,nn>I CaKapoBKM I - Bln. 2425 - 6650 50 BP 5480 - 5440 cal BC.
,n:aThI ,nn>I naM>ITHHKOB T3T3p3yKa Hoy3 XIV n XV CHJihHO OMOJIO)l(ettbI
H, no BCeH BH,UHMOCTH, COOTBeTCTBYIOT KYJihTYPHOMY CJIOIO c MaTepnanaMH
Tpnrronh>I cpe,nttero 3Tarra. Bonee TO<IHhie ,naHHbie MoryT 6hITh rrony'IeHhI TOJihKO npn craunottapHhIX pacKonKax.

***
L-....1.-..J

Puc. 33. T3T3p3yKa Ho~3 XV. KepaMHKa.

-108 -

"

B pe3yJihTaTe .ue:H:CTBH>I 3Kcrre.[(HIJ;HH 6bmo o6cne,noBaHo 19 rraMHTHHKOB


Me30JIHTa M HeOJIHTa. llpHMeHHTeJihHO K Me30JIHTY 'Ipe3BhI'IaHHO Ba)l(HbIMH
rrpe.nccraBJI.lIIOTC>I HCCJie,noBaHH.ll CTO.lIHOK CaKapoBKa IV B ChIH)l(epelicKOM p-He H
11,apmpa.LI XV B ,n:poKHeBcKOM p-He. OHM o6ttapy)l(HBaroT crreIJ;HwrecKne 'IepThI, yBepetto aTpH6yTHpyroTC>I K rro3,ntteMy Me3onnTy. BechMa rrepcrreKTHBeH
-

109 -

rraMHTHHK ~apttrpa.n: II .ZJ:JIH peUieHttH rrpo6neM&I KYJihTYPH&Ix TpattcqJOpMau;aii


Ha :narre rrepexo.n:a K TaK Ha3&rnaeMoif "6ecKepaM1P:1ecKoif qla3e" E,[(K.
.06CJie.n;oBaHtteM rraMHTHHKOB KYJihTYPhI KpttUI B Cbnr:>KepeifcKoM p-He cyru;ecrne~Ho p~curnpeH r<~yr KOMrrJieKCOB mrra CaKapom<a I (C&ImKepeif XIX, Errm1qei-m11 Hott X, MnxattJIOBKa VII). Ilpn 3TOM rronyqeHhI HOBhre cBrr.n;eTeJihCTBa
TeCHbIX H ~HOI'OCTOpOHHI1X KOHTaKTOB HOCHTeJieif rrpm1moif KYJihTYPhI Kpttlll
(EHJI11qemrn Hoif X) 11 Mecrnoii E,[(K (CopoKa III). ,[(ottcc)Ie.n;oBaHtte CTOHHKH
Copo1<a III, KaK H HHbIX rraMHTI-IHKOB Eyro-,[(uecTpoBcKoif KYJihTypLr, .n:yMaeTcH
IT03BOJIHT cyru;ecrneHHO yToqHHTb HarrpaaneHHOCTb X03HttCTBeHHo:ii.n:eHTeJihHOCTI1
HOCHTeneii 3Toii KYJJhTYPhI. Bhr.n:eneHHhitt B. I1. MapKeanqeM 3eMne.n:enh'Iecrrn:ii
acrrer<T B MX X03HMCTBe, BIIOJJHe MO)!(eT 6bITh JlHUih pe3y:JihTaTOM BJIMHHI1M M
3aMMCTBOBattnii co CTOpOHbI o6ru;ecra KYJihTYPhI Kpmu (CaKapoBcKaH rpyrma) .
Oco6brM ycrrexoM pa6oT 3Kcrre.n:mruii cne.n:yeT npH3HaTb 06Hapy)!(em1e HoBhrx rraMHTHMKOB Eyro-,[(ttecrpoBcKoii KYJJ&TyphI Ha ceBepe Pecrry6nnKM _
T3T3p3yKa Hoy3 XIV rr T3T3p3yKa Hoy3 XV. IlpeKpaCHaH coxpaHHOCTb rr
5IBI-Ia51 pa3HOBpeMeHHOCTb .n:eJiaeT ux BeCbMa nepcrreKTI1BHbIMM .n:mr o6cT051TeJlhHhIX CTau;nottapHbIX uccne.n:oBaHIIH.
llPHMEqAHHSI
'llacceK T C. HeK0Topr,1e HTOrn B Mon.l{aBHH B 1955 r. KC I1I1MK. Br,m. 70. 1957. llacceK
T.C./ qepHr,1111 E. K. lla.MJITHHKH KYJJLTYPM JJHHei1Ho-neHTomoi1 KepaMttKH .Ha TeppttTOptttt
CCCP. C~M. BMn. El-11. MocKBa. 1963; 0Htt JKe. HeoJJHT CesepHoro llpw1epH0Mopr,J1. C6.
KaMeHHLm BeK HaTeppttTOptttt CCCP. MHA. 166. MocKna. 1970.117- 122.; MapKeBttq B. ll.
llaMllTHHKH HeonHTa H 3HeOJJHTa. AK M. Br,m : 2. 1973. 27-37; MaKaposa JI. H. PacKo'nKtt
noceneHHll KYJJLTYPhl JJHHei1uo-neHT0 1 rnoi1 KepaMHKH y c. PoroJKaHLI: AHM (1973). 1974. 4046; JiapttHa O: B. KyJILTypa JJHHei1Ho-J1eHT0 1rnoi1 KepaMHKH l0ro-3ana.l{a CCCP (MoJJ.l{aBcKM
rpynna). Asrnpecjl . .!{He. KaH.l{. HCT. HayK. Jieum1rpaJJ.. 1988;
2
MapKe1mtt B. H. Ma.TepttaJibl K KapTe ifeonttTH'1ecKttx naMl!THHKOB Ilpyro-.[(HeCTpoBcKoro
MeJK.l{ype'lbl!. KCOrAM. 1962; OH JKe. HeoJJHTHqecKall CTOllHKa CopoK11-Tpttcjlayl.{KHi1 nee.
MHA3 MCCP. 1964. 91 - 101; Ou JKe. Eyro-.[(HeCTponcKall KYJJJ,Typa Ha TeppttTOpHH
MonJJ.aBttH. Kuurnnes. 1974; OH JKe. llaMl!THHKH ueonttra H 3HeOJJHTa ... 8- 25.
3
4 MapKeBu'-l B. H. HeoJJHT. HCTopHll MonJJ.aBcKoij CCP. ToM. I. KttumHeB. 1987. 41- 45;
Dergr~cev VI Sherratt A./ Lanna 0. Recent Results of Neolithic research in Moldavia/ OJA.
10. N l. '9.91. 1- 16; .Dergac!ov V: A. Zorii istoriei. Orinduirea comunei primitive. Istoria
Moldove1 d111 cele ma1 vech1 t1mpun pina in epoca moderna. Chi~iniiu. 1992. 15-16; Larina o.
Neohticul pe tentoriul Republicii Moldova. Thraco-Dacica. XV. 1- 2. Bucuresti. 1994 51 - 63
Oua JKe. Culturi din epoca neolitica. Chi~iniiu. 1994. 1-43.
'
.
.,
5
EuK6aee B. M. lla.MJITHHKH n03JJ.Hero na.J1eoJJHTa-paHHero TpttnOJJbll n Jla.JoDcKoM pai1oHe.
AHM (1974 - 1976) 1981. 191 - 199
6
Ta.M JKe, 197.
7
TaM JKe.
Summary

~he works on revea.lin~ and Surveying the Mesolithic and Neolithic sites in Singerey, Drochia,
Sorok1 and .D~ndm~am reg1011s (19 places) hawe been resumed after o pause ofma.ny years. The
Late Mesolithic sites of Sakbro.vka IV, Bilicenii Vechi XII, Tsarigra.d II, Sakharovka type sites
of the Cney culture (B1hcen11 No1 X), of the. KLLK (Sakharovka V Singerei XIII as w,ell as new
sites, containing BDK materials, Tiitiiriiuca Noua XIV _and XV are of interest..
-110-

A. M.AaBHA
CS>AYHA MnEKbmH AIOW,MX ME30nMU14ECKMX
H HEOnMTMlfECKMX nocEnEHMJit
PECnY6nMKM MOnAOBA
I.f3yqeHrre KOCTHhIX OCTaTKOB MJJe1<0muaI-Oru;ux H3 paCKOilOK Me30JIUTH':leCKHX u tteonrrn1qecKrrx rroceneHnil: I-OrO-BOCTO'IHbIX paiioHOB EBpOIIhI
uMeeT nepBocrenei-rnoe 3Haqe1rne .n:m1 II03Hamrn ucTop1rn opMttpoBaHHH
TepuoqmyHbI u OXOThI B ronou;ene, a TaK)J(e .n:peBH~iirnero CKOTOBO.ZJ:CTBa Ha
3TOM TeppMTOpmI (1 , 2, 12, 13, 23- 25, 29 u .n:p.). 3Ha':IHTeJihHbltt UHTepec J(JIH
npaBHJihHOro IIOHHMamrn H rro.n:xo.n:a K pemeHHIO 3THX 13a)!(HeHIIIHX BorrpOCOB
ecTeCTBeHHO-HCTOpH'IeCKOro IIJiaHa HMeIOT OCTeonortt'IeCKHe MaTepuaJJbI H3
apxeonorrr'IeCKHX pacKOIIOK Me30J1HTHqecrrnx H HeOJIHTU'IeCKHX noceneHMM
Pecny6nur<u Mon.n:oBa.
TepuoayHa Me30JIHTa Mon.n:OBbI H3Becnrn rnaBHhIM o6pa30M rro KOCTHbIM
ocTaTKaM u3 Bepx1-iero (BToporo) cnoH rrocenemrn B rpoTe Epbrn3eHh I (18),
KOTOpbie 6brnM rrccne.n:oBaHbI aBTOpOM .n:aHHOro coo6ureH~51 (12, 13), H
%CTllqHo (rpbI3YHhI) TaK:>Ke M. H. no3aHOM (20) (Ta6JI. 1). B IlOCJiemree BpeMH
apxeonor I1nue Eop3HHK CKJJOHeH ,n:aTnpoBaTh apxeonorn'Iecr<rre u3.n:enu~
rrpoucxo.n:Hru;ue H3 yKa3aHHOro CJIOH, II03.ZJ:HHM fpaBeTTOM, HJlH rrepeXO.ZJ:HOI1
a30tt OT Il03JJ:Hero rraneOJIUTa K Me30JIUTY (,n:aTHpOBKa ITO C 14 - 13.0001000
JleT .n:o H.3.) (?). ,[(nH YTO'IHeHHH crropm~IX BOIIpOCOB B OTHOIIIelmH B03pacTa
apxeonoru'IeCKHX rrpe,n:MeTOB H OCTaTKOB ayHbI CJJOH 2 paccMaTp~BaeMoro
rrocenettm1 Heo6xo.n:nMbI .n:ononHHTeJihIIbie uccne.n:oBaHHH. HaM: cne,n:yeT JJI:IIIIb
OTMeTHTb, ':ITO pa3.n:po6neHHbie KOCTU norna.n:eii, OJleHeil:, 6bIKOB H XUID;HUKOB
- HeCOMHeHHbie OCTaTKH X03HMCTBeHHOM .n:eHTeJibHOCTH rrepB06bITHOro
'IeJJoBeKa. KocTu JIOina.n:rr no pa3MepaM 'rr Mopcponorurr He OTJIH'IaI-OTCH OT
aHanoni.'IHbIX KOCTeM IIIHpOKOilaJIOH JIOUia.n:rr U3 HH)!(eJie)j(aru;ero II03.ZJ:HerraneOJIHTH'IeCKOro CJIOH. B CTpOeHHH nccne.n:oBaHHbIX HaMH KOCTeH norna.n:u
He o6Hapy)J(eHhI MoponoruqecKue npn3HaKu, CBIIJJ:eTeJJhCTByI-Oru;rre o npupyqeHrrrr TeM 6onee 06 o.n:oMaIIIHHBaHun )!(JlBOTHhrx. B 3TOM cnoe BrrepBhre .ZJ:JIH
rOJIOU:~Ha MOJI.ZJ:OBbI 3aperrrcTpupoBaHbI KOCTH (e.n:uHH'IHbie) .ZJ:HKOM CBUHhU H
nepB06bITHOro 6bIKa-Typa. 3Ha'IHTeJihHOe KO.hU'IeCTBO CKeJieTHbIX OCTaTKOB
MenKux MJieKonrrTaIOru;ux, a TaK)l(e nTHU:, pemrrnuii u 3eMHOBO.ZJ:HhIX (9; 12, 13)
npOHCXO.ZJ:HT H3 pa3JIQ)!(HBIImXCH nora.n:oK XUI~HbIX IITHU:, rnaBHbIM o6pa30M COB.
<l>ayHa paccMaTp1rnaeMoro cnoH 2 noceneHuH Ep&rn3eHh I B u;enoM eru;e
COXpaHHeT CMeUiaHHbltt xapaKTep (rrpucyTCTBYIOT CTeIIHbie, IlOJIYilYCTblHHbie,
necocTeIIHhie u ceaepHbie Bu.n:i.1) n03.ZJ:Heil: ,cim3hI rro3.n;Henaneomnw:1ecKoro
KOMIIJleKca (paHrmpepHO-Ka6annon.n;HhIM IIO.ZJ:KOMIIJieKC) ( 12).
He6onhrnoe KonuqecrBo KOCTHhrx ocraTKOB MJJeKorruTar-oru;ux npoucxo,n:uT
H3 per<OrHOCI!UPOBO'IHbIX paCKOilOK Me30JIUTH'IeCKUX nocenerrnii <l>pyMyrn11r<a I, C3p3TeHh, TpHHKa I (BepxHuii cnoii) u .n:p. (rn6n. 1).
-

111 -

BH)lOBOH COCTaB "'IHC.IJCHHOCTb KOCTHblX


(B 'IHCJIHTeJie -

Ta6J11n1a I
oc~aTKOB MJICKOOHTaromux Hl paCKOUOK MC30JIHTH'ICCKHX" HCOJIHTH'ICCKHX noceJieHHH Pecny6JIUKH MoJI)lOBa

KOJIH'ICCTBO KOCTeii, 3HaMeHaTe.1Je -

.K

Me30JIHT

Bll71

-I

'IHCJIO oco6eii)

EpblH3ern. I

Erinaceus europaeus L.
Sorex sp.
Talpa europaea L.
Myotis dasycneme Boil.
Myotis sp.
Lepus europaeus Pall:
L. cf. tanaiticus Gur.
Ochotona pusilla Pall.
Marmota bobac Mull.
Citellus suslica Guld.
Citellus sp.
Castor fiber L.
Alactaga jaculus Pall.
Spalax Jeucodon Nordm.
S. polonicus Mehely
Spalax sp.
Apodemus flavicollis
Melch.
A. sylvaticus L.
Mus musculus L.
-Cricetus cricetus L.
Cricetullus migratorius Pall:
Allocricetull:us eversmanni Br.
Lagurus Jagurus Pall.

Ill

CernnnT<i

<Dpy-

C3p:r
TeHI>

MYIIIH;

CopoKa'1

Copo1<a 2

CopoKa 3

IO

3/2

<Imo-

PoroJKeHl>

pell'.ITI>

(29)

(29)

11

12

..

- ~i;ipa

(29)
13

I
-

111

'

'

111

CaKapOB. ka I

CopoKa 5

Ka I

212

4/2
6/3
5/2
212
8/3

<

HeoJIHT

111

413

4/2

111

!/!

6/2

.,.,

6/2

"

513

1174/227
153/32
1261/436
489/62
211
47/15
158/
158/29
230/10

211
8/3

211

230/10
46/16
14/6
128/29
615/8

3/2

611

5/2

3/1

10/3

..

4/2

2/1

2/1

211

..
- Ill

111

211

44/21
2796/1361

!/!

'

'

"

IIponoJJJKeHHe ra6JJHUhI I .

L. luteus Eversm.
Arvicula tertestris L. _
Microtus agrestis L.
M . arvalis L .
M. gregalis Pall.
M . oeconomus Pall.
M . subterraneus S- Long.
Canis lupus L.
Cani<> familiaris L.
Vulpes vulpes L .
Ursus-arctos L.
Mustela erminea L.
M. nivalis L .
Putorius cf. putorius L.
Martes sp.
Meles metes L.
Lutra Jutra L.
Felis silvestris Sehr.
LynxlynxL.
Equus cf. latipes Grom . .
E. gmelini Ant.
E. caballus domestica L. "
Equussp.
E. (Asinus) hidruntinus
Reg ..
E. (Asinus) sp.
Sus scrofa domestica L.
S. scrofa ferus L.
Cervus e!aphus L.
Capreolus capreol:us L.
Alces alces L.
Rangifer tarandus L.
Bison sp.
Bison aut Bos.
Bos primigenius Boj.
Bos taurus L.
Ovis aries, Capra hircus

IO

13

12

II

56/24
31/20
275/134
1279/467
329/134
27117
9/1
211
6/2
111
7/3
5/3
5/2
2/1

--

2.il

!/I

--

111
111
" 64/1

4/2

--

111

1/1

6,2
8.2
1;3
1/1

111
3/2

6/2

4/1

1/1

513

30/2
_211
1/1

211 (?)

!/!

111

211(?)
-

8/3
3/1

26/2
4/1
7/2
8/2
!/!
237/9
8/3
6/1
211

3/2
4/2
211

4/1
3/1

211
4/1

109/11
14/4
84/1
129/11
2/1

47/1
16/5
170/17
104/12

914

7/2

62/4

10/2

3/1
29/4
43/6
12/3

18/3

4/2
5/2
612

4/1
14/2

1/1

-.

-;,.;

1/1

211

111
6/2
3/2
2il

66/7
513

212/10
135/9

27/4

225/8
4614

3/1
111

1/1
2/1
2/1
11/2
145/3
4/1
4117/108
5415

206/5
37/3
9/1

777/18
79/6

246/6
12/3

98/9
27/3
20/3
785/32

5615

3/1

211
?

!/!

211 .
93/3
1/1

60120
115/9
82/15
20/6

1/1
211

92/8
278/28
24/11

15/1 211

9/1
3/1

3tta'IHTCJibHblH HaytJHbIH mITepec npe.[(CTaBmnoT OCTCOJIOr,H'ICCKHe

cpe.n.Hero Heomna ueHTpanbHOii qacTn

P.

Mon.n.oaa, npoucxoJJ.HT in

1500 O'ICHh CHJibHO pa3.[(po6nem-IblX KOCTeii) H3 paCKOITOK

COOTBCTCTBYIOIIJCfO CJIO.ll MHOfOCJIOHHOfO IIOCCJICHH.ll CeJIHilITC (ypo'IHlll,C

paHtteueonnTtttJeCKHX noceneunii: 6yro-J1.HecTpOBCKoii: KYJihTYPhI (aTopaH

PyrrTypa). Co6paHo cpaBHHTeJihHO He6on11Ioe KOJIH'leCTBO Kocrei1: ( CBbIIlle 900

MaTepnanbI (CBblllIC

nonoBium Vl-:-VTbIC . Jl.OH.3.)y r . CopoKH a Cpe.[(HeM Tipn.[(HeCTpOBbe

21, 22).

(13,17,

53

3K3CMIIJIHpOB OT nptt6JIH3HTeJibHO

0HH CBH.[(eTCJibCTBYIOT, qTo OXOTa B X03.lIHCTBe 3THX nrreMeH Hrpruia

nHTaIOmHx (Ta6n.

I).

oco6ei1) JJ.HKHX H JJ.OMalllHHX MJICKO:

KaK Ha CopOKCKHX ITocerreHHHX I>yro-,ll;ttecrpoacKOH

311aqttTerrhny10 ponh. Ha JI.OHIO oxoTHHtJhe- npoMbICJIOBbIX MJICKOIIHTaIOIIJHX

KYJihTYPbl OXOTHH'lbe-IIpOMblCJIOBbIC BHJJ.bI ITO 'IHCJICHHOCTH KOCTHbIX oCTaTKOB

73% Kocreii: H CBbIIUe 75% oco6eii. TiocrO.lIHHbIMH

H oco6eii npeo6rra.n.aIOT Ha.D. .I(OMalllHHMH, KOTOpblC TaK)J(C npe.n.cTaBJICHbI

npHXO,[(HTC.ll B cpe.[(HeM OKOJIO

o6'heKTaMH OXOTbI )J(HTerreii 3THX p<\HHCHCOJIHTHqecI<HX noceneHHH 6bIJIH


' 6naropO.[(HbIH OJICHb, KOCYJI.ll H .[(HKaH CBHHbH (CM . Ta6rr.

1),

co6aKOH

CBHHbCH H 6bIKOM . .Cpe.n.H .I(HKHX MJICK,OITHTaIOIIJIIX 3acrryxqrnaeT

BHHMaH~ll pe'IHOM 6o6p, eapOITCHCKHH ocen (HMClOTC.ll .n:aa 3y6a H o.n.ua IIepBaH

KOTOpbie,

O'ICBH.[(HO, HBJIHJIHCb uan6onee MHOrO'IHCJienl-IbIMH BH,[(aMH Ha ,[(aHI-I OH

cliamrnra), KPYIIHI>Iii 6bIK-Typ, KOTOpbIH, IIO aceii aepoHTHOCTH, uaxo.n:HnCll ua

Tepp11Top1111. Pe.[(KHMH )J(HBOTHhIMH 6bUIH nolllam1, 6bIKH (ryp 11 3y6p), noch,


MCJl.BCJl.h, pbICh, KYHHUa, 6o6p 11 Jl.p. XttIIJHhie MneKon11Ta1-011~11e, .m lpHJl.Y c

cramrn np11pyqenHH .

Oco6oro BHHMaHHH 3acny)J(HBalOT KOCTHI>Ie ocraTKH MJICKOIIHTHIOIUI-IX,

3aii:ueM H 6o6poM, 6bIJIH o6'heKTaMH nynrnoro npOMbICJia, XOTH MHCO

co6pa~rnbie

HCKOTOpblX H3 HHX HCCOMHCHHO ynoTpe6JIHJIOCb B ITHIIJy.

apxeonoraMH B.

H.

MapKeBHtJeM n B.

A.

,ll;epratJeBhIM npH

06pama1-0T Ha ce6a BHHMaHHe 06ttapy)J(eHHh1e anepab1e n Mon,[(oae Jl.JIH

ttccne.n.oaattHH .n:pyroro tteoJIHTMqecKoro rrocerremrn KYJihTYPhI Kpmn14


CaKapoBKa I (a6cOJilOTHblH B03pacr ITO C -4700100 JICT JJ;O H.3.) (19). 3TH

3TOrO nepHO,[(a KOCTHbIC OCTaTKH ,[(OMauurnx MJICKOilHTa10mux, B raCTHOCTH

JJ.OBOJibHO 0611IttpHblC H pa3HOo6pa3Hbie OCTCOJIOrH'lCCKHC MaTepHaJibl ( OKOJIO

CBHHbH H 6bJKa. Tiepaoe MCCTO no KOJIH'ICCTBY KOCTeii: H oco6err 3aHHMaeT

(29 KOCTeii OT 3 oco6eii) npoHCXO,[(HT H3 caMoro Jl.PCBHero


6ecKepaMH'lecKoro choH (3) nocerreHHH CopoKH II (a6corr10THbIM B03pacT no
C1 4 - 5570 120 neT Jl.O H .3 .) 11 H3 Bcex ocTaJihHhIX cnoeB nocene1mrr CopoKH I,

CBHHbH. Ee OCTaTKH

CopoKH II, CopoKH III u CopoKH V. Hatt6onee Jl.PCBHHe KOCTH Jl.OMalllttero

250

oco6eii) YTO'IHHI-OT H pac11I11palOT

.n.pemreiiiireM c1<0TOBOJ1.CTBe IOro- BocT6qttoii Eapo1Ib1 (rn6i1.

l) (15,16) .

Cpe.n:Ii: .IJ:HKHX )J(MBOTifbIX o6paIIJaeT BHHMattne rrpncyTcrnue TapnanoBHJl.Hoii JJ011Ia.n:M 11 MeJIKOii no11IaJJ;H ocmmoro THIIa . OcHOBHbIM o6'heKTOM oxoThI

cpparMeHTOB OT I oco6H) BbUJ.BJieHbI B 6ecKepaMH'lCCKOM crroe (2)


nocerreHHH CopoKH II (a6comoTHbIH B03pacT no C 14 -547080 rreT Jl.O H .3 .), a

Typ , KOTOpblH qame, 'ICM 3y6p BCTpeqancH B OKpeCTHOCT.lIX noce_:ieHH.ll.

3 nocenemrn

OxoTHJIHCh oHtt TaK)J(e tta KocysrlO H Ka6atta. OxoTa Ha rrynnrhIX 3Bepeu 6brna,

06Hapy)J(eHhI 11 KOCTH Jl.OManrneii: co6aKH, no B Mon.[(oae ona

KaK u y )KHTerrei-1 J1.pyrux neonHTH'ICCKHX ITocerrenuii Mon.[(OBbI, Mano

6bIKa

(8

TbICll'l ocnlTKOB OT IIPMMeptto

npe.n:cTarmeHHH 0 cj)ayue MJieKOIIMTaI-OIIJHX Mon.n:oBhI ,If rnam-rbIM o6pa3oM o

TaK)J(C BO acex CJIOHX BblllIC yKa3aHHbIX noceneHHH (KpOMe CJIO.ll


CopoKH

II).

naMH OTMeqeHa c Konua naneonuTa ( 12).


Haw6onhlllee KOJIIttJeCTBO KOCTeii J1.0Malllneii CBHHbH H Jl.OMaurnero 6b1Ka

y )J(HTeneii _
3 TOrO ITOCCJICHI-Ill 6I>IJIH 6naropO.IJ:HbIH oneHb H 6hIKH, O'lCBl1JJ.HO

pacnpocTpattetta.
~
,ll;oMalllHHC MJICKOilHTaromne IIpe.n.CTaBJICHbI BCeMH OCHOBHblMH eaponeH-

H OTCYTCTBHe KOCTeii Jl.pyrnx ,[(OMaIUHHX KOIIbITHbIX (MeJIKOro poraToro CKOTa

CKHMl:i BHJJ;aMH: co6aKOM, CBHHbCH, KpynttblM H MCJIKHM poraTbIM CKOTOM H

11 nollla.[(11 1) CBHJl.CTCJihCTByeT o TOM, qTo B naqane BTopoii noJIOBHHhI VI TbIC .

noma.[(bIO. Ha nux npuxo.[(HTCH. oKOJIO

Jl.O n.3. c:KoToBOJl.CTBo B X03HHCTBe JIIO.[(eii pauueueonHT1111ecKnx nocenennii

89%

7 TblCHq Kocreii,

HJIH ITp116m13ttTeJihHO

OT o6lll,ero KOJIH'ICC'I'Ba I<OCTHblX OCTaTKOB npOMblCJIOBblX H .I(OMa~HX

80 Yo

cpe.[(Hero IlO.[(HCCTpOBbH y)J(e cymeCTBOBaJIO KaK OT.[(CJihHa.ll OTpacnh, 0,[(HaKO

BI-I.D:OB, KOTOpbie np1rna.n:Jie)J(aT npuMeptto

ouo wrparro He3naq11Terrhuy10 ponh. Ho, cyJ1.H no q11cny oco6eiI, MO)J(HO

o6lll,ero 'IHCJia oco6ei1. 3TO CBHJJ.CTCJibCTByer 0 TOM, 'ITO )J(MBOTHOBO,[(CTBO y

OTMeTHTh, qTo no Mepe rrepexo.n.a OT nan6onee J1.peatt11x cnoeB K 6onee

nneMeH KYJihTYPhI KpIll ITocenemrn CaKapoBKa 3ttatJHTCJihHO npeo6rraJJ;arro

MOJIO,[(blM OTHOCHTeJihHOe KOJIH'ICCTBO oco6eii: ueyKJIOHHO yaeJIH'IHBaeTCH, a

HaJJ; OXOTOii.. TaKoe HBJICHl{C o6biqHO xapaKTCpHO ,[(Jlll: 6orree II03.[(HHX

200

oco6aM, HJIH nopHJJ.Ka

OT

3TO CBH.[(CTCJibCTByeT 0 nocreneHHOM B03pacTaHHH porrH CKOTOBO,[(CTBa B

apxeonont'leCKHX KYJihTYP MoJIJJ.OBbI

X03HHCTBe )J(HTeneli paCCMOTpeHHbIX noceneuuii.

JJ.OMallIHeM nalliaJJ;H H MCJIKOfO poraToro CKOTa B paccMaTpttaaeMOM IIOCCJICHHI-1

OcTeonoruqecKue MaTepuarrhI, xapa1<Tep113y10IIJ11e X03HMCTBeHHy10


2
Jl.CHTCJibHOCTh nneMen KYJihTYPhI Kpulll H oxoTHH'IhIO cpayny MneKOIIHTa101u11x

Mon.[(OBbI H OJJ.HHMH H3 J1.peaneiilllHX B Eapone. 06paiuaeT ua ce6a BHHMamrn

K HaCTOHmeMy apeMCHH llBJIHIOTCll

(13 , 14, 29). HaxoJJ.KH KOCTHhIX ocraTKOB


caMbIMH .[(peBHHMH Ha TeppwropHH

MHOPO'll-ICJICHHOCTb KOCTHblX OCTaTKOB H oco6eii .n:oMaUIHCH CBHHbH H


1Ilo HMeIOUIHMCJI o'craTKaM (OT).leJlhl-lblC pe:lljhl, l}>parMeHThl Tpy6IaTblX H 1-1pyrnx KOCTeH)
onpe1-1enHTb, K KaKOH l}>opMe JIOllla).IH HeB03 MQ)KH0.
2 Apxeonor

J.IHKOH HJIH JIOMalllHeH -

KpyrrHoro poraToro cKoia. CpaaHHTCJibHO Kpyntthie pa3MephI H OTJl.CJihHbIC

OHH npHH3.).IJle)KaT,

oco6eHHOCTI1 B CTpOeHHH KOCTeii IIOCJICJJ;Hero MOfYT CJIY2KHTb JJ.OKa3aTCJibCTBOM

B. 11.

MapKeBH'J

(21, 22),

Hccne1-10BaBIIIHH o6Hapy)KeHHhle HM 3).lech

apxeonorH'IeCKHe npe).IMeTbl , OTHOCHT HX K I>yro-,lJ,HeCTpOBCKOH KYJlhType.


OHH on1ece1-1b1 K KYJJhType KpHIII

(19)

- 114 -

B IlOCJle).IHee BpeMll .

Toro , 'ITO OH, KaK 11 6I>IK noceneHHH CenH11ITe, uaxo.n:ttnca B IIpouecce


npupytieHH.ll.

ll5 -

' <l'>ayHa MJieKonuTaIOrn;ux no3.z:i;Hero HeorrHTa P. Morr.z:i;oBa H3BeCTHa no


He60JihllIOMy ' KOJIHqecTBy .KOCTe:ii U3 paCKOnOK HeCKOJibKHX nocerreHHH
KYJihTYPLI mrne:iiHo-rreHTOqHo:ii KepaMHKH, cpe.z:i;u 'KOTOpbIX OTMeTHM
<l'>rropennh I, IJ;L1pa, PycellITHH Ho:ii I, Poro:>KeHb II, )J;3HqeHh u .z:i;p. )J;aHHaH
a yHa uccrre.z:i;oBaHa B. I1. U,arrKHHhIM (29) u A. I1. )J;aBH.[(OM (13) (rn6rr. J).
B BH,n:y Toro, qTo pe3yJILTaTLI 113yqeHm1 OCHOBHhIX ocTeorrorw-IecKux
MaTepHarroB H3 pacKonoK 6orrhllIHHCTBa HeOJIHTuqecKux nocerreHull: P.
Morr,n:oBa ony6rrHKOBaHbI paHee (13, 17, 27, 29), HH:>Ke oCTaHOBHM.CH JIHlllh Ha
anarru3e HOBhIX MaTepuarroB no JIOllla.[(HM, KOTOphie .n:onOJIHHIOT H pac:Ump.l!IOT
H3BeCTHhie npe.z:i;CTaBrreHHH 06 HCTOpuu HX pa3BHTHH B rorron;eHe EBpon1>1.

JlomaAb AOMamHBB - Equus caballus domestica L.


Borrpoc o BpeMeHH u MeCTe npupyqeHHH, o npon;ecce ,n:oMeCTHK.au;HH .D:HI<Hx
rrollla,n:ell: B BoCToqHoll: EBp.one o6cy:>K,n:aeTcH Ha npoTH:>KeHHH HeCKOJihKHX
,n:eCHTHJieTHM, 0.[(HaKO .[(0 HaCTO.llll(ero BpeMeHH OCT,aercJI .[(HCKyCCHOHHhIM,
IIOCKOJihKY OTCYTBYIOT MITH oqenh He3Ha'IHTeJihHBI Heo6xo,n:HMbie OCTeorror:uqecKHe MaTepuarrhI H3 HH:>Ke- H cpe,n:nerorrou;eHOBbIX OTJIO:>KeHHM, B qaCTHOCTH
H3 paCKOnOK II03.[(HeMe30JIHTH'IeCKHX H paHneneoJIHTJiqecKHX nocerreHHM B
.

'

CBH3H c qeM H COBpeMeHHhie 3HaHHH no 3TOMy Bonpocy O'IeHh orpaHHqeI:J:bl (2,


3, 29). I103TOMY 3acrry:>KHBaeT BHHMaHHJI rrI06aH xopolllo ,n:aTupoaa1rnaH
(apxeorrorH'IeCKH HJIH reorrorul.JeCKH) HaxoilKa KOCTHhIX OCTaTKOB JIOllla,n:ell:.
,D;o ne,n:aBHero BpeMeHH C'IHTarrocb, 'ITO B Espone ,n:oMallIHHH rrollla.[(h
noHBHrracb He paHee KaK K III ThICH'Ierrer:uro .z:i;o H.3. ( 6). 3aTeM KOCTHhie oCT~TKH
ee 61>mH 06Hapy:>KeH1>1 Ha Y KpaHHe a crroHx BTopoll: norroBHHhI IV ThICHqerrermi
.n:o H.3. (2, 3). Hec1<0rr1>Ko no3:>Ke H3BeCTH:b1ll: rrccrre,n:oaaTerrh MrreKonrrTaIOrn;:ux
rorrou:ena B. I1. IJ;arrKHH (29), paccMaTp:nBaJI .z:i;peBHeiillIHe ,n:oManrnue
:>KHBOTHhle BocToqHoll: Esponb1, OTMeTrrrr, 'ITO caM1>1e ,n:peBHHe KOCTH rrollla,n:u
KOTOpbie MOryT 6bITb' OTHeCeHbI K .[(OMallIHell: <tJopMe, nporr'cxo,n:HT H3 crroe~
KyrrI>Typ1>1 rrrrnell:Ho-rrenTbqHo:ii KepaMHKH (py6e:>K V-IV ThICH'IHJieTull: .rio H .3 .)
nocerrenull: <l'>rropellITh (.z:i;ae KOCTH) H l1;1>1pa (o.n;na J<OCTh) B ceaepoBOCToqno:ii
qacTH Morr,n:OBhI. B rrocrre,n:Hee BpeMJI aBTopoM ,n:aHHoro coo6meHHH rrpu
H3yqeHHH OCTeorroruqecKHX MaTepHaJIOB .[(OMallIHHX H .[(HKHX MJieKonrrTaIOIIJ;HX
H3 Bhm1eynoMknyToro nocerreHHH Kyrr1>Typ1>1 Kpulll y c. CaKapoBKa, KOTopoe
,n:aTHpyeTC.lI nepaoll: nOJIOBHHOH ThICH'IeJieTH.lI ;[(0 H.3., BhIHBJieHo HeCKOJibKO
KOCTHhIX oeraTKOB JIOllla.[(H, pe3yJihTaTbI H3y'IeHH.lI KOTOpbIX CBH.[(eTeJihCTBYIOT'
qTo HeK0Top1>1e m HHx np:uHa,n:rre:>KaT .n:oMalllnell: <tJopMe. 3To caMaH ,n:peBHHH
Haxo.z:i;Ka KOCTeli .z:i;oMamHe:ii rrollla,n::u a IOro-socToqHoli Espone.

B nocerreHHH CaKapOBKa 06Hapy:>KeH1>1 CBhillle 20 KOCTHhIX ocTaTKOB


rrorna,n:eli, rrpHHa,n:rre:>Karn;Hx MHHHMYM TpeM B3pocrr1>1M oco6JIM. K .ri;oMallIHeli
<tJopMe MhI CI<JIOHHhI OTHeCTH O.D:HH BepxneKopeHnoli 3y6 M 1 HJIH M 2, qiparMeHT
rreaoli BeTBH HH:>I<Heli 'IeJIIOCTH, 2 parMeHTa .[(HCTaJibHOro KOHU:a 60JihIIIOM
6epu;QBOM KOCTH, parMeHT TIJIIOCHeBOM KOCTH, 2 nepBbJe arraHrH, 0.[(HY
s;zopyIO arraHry H 2 KOnhITHhie KOCTH OT .[(Byx oco6eli. IlpHBO.[(HM KpaTKYIO
Mopo-Me'rpH'IeCKYIO xapaKTepHCTHKy Hau6orree Ba:>KHhIX HX yKa3aHHhIX

-116-

KOCTHhIX OCTaTKOB B cpaaneHHH c H3BeCTHhIMH B JIHTepqType ,n:aHHhIMH (2-5,

8, 10, 26-30).
Bepxuuu 3y6, M~ mm W, npaa1>1H:, cpe,n:ne:ii CTB,[(HH CT~Ipamrn. 3Marrh
TOHKaH (0,8-1, 1 MM), cpe,n:ne:ii cKrra,n:'IaTOCTH. BHyTpeHHHH .z:i;orrHHKa llIHpOKaH,
aepllIHHa ee pacrn11pena c KJ,jynno:ii rnnopoll:. funoKOH ~reTKO oT,n:erren OT
runocnrnH xopprno pa3BHTOM 6yxToli. Me30CTHJih HeCKOJihKO Bhr,n:aeTcH na,n:
CTeHKaMn napa- u ~eraKoHa, BepllIIrna ero 3aKpyrrrena u crrerKa ynrromem~.
Pa3Mepbl 3y6a: ,[(JIHHa KOpOHKH COCTaBJIHeT 26,6 MM, IIIH~HHa ee - 25,0 MM,
,[(JIHHa npo,TOKQHa - 13,1 MM, HH,[(eKC llIHpHHhl KOpOHKH - 94,0%, HH.[(eKC
rrpOTOKOHa - 45,9%.
CpaaHHTeJihHO ,n:rrHHHaH KOpOHKa, .z:i;rrHHHhIR H y3KHli rrpoTOKOH c
Bbipa:>KeHHOR BhJeMKO,M Ha ero JIHHrBaJibHOR CTeHKe, COQTBeTCTBy10rn;eH:
npo,n:OJihHOM 6op03,[(e CTOJI6HKa, CHJihHO BhICTyna10rn;ero Ha.[( KOpOHKOM,
rnupoKaH, ,n:rruunaH c pacrn11pemrnH: aeprnHnoH: H c Kpynuoll: rnnopoll:
BHyTperrnHH ,[(OJIHHKa c6JJH:>KaIOT paccMaTpHBaeMbIR aepxne,KopeHHOH 3y6 c
COOTBeTCTBYIOIIJ;HMH 3y6aMH ,[(OMamneli norna.z:i;H H OTJJH'IaIOT ero bT 3y60B
TapnaHOB. C 3y6aMH nocne,n:uux ero B i<aKott-TO Mepe c61111:>KaeT a6conIOTHaH
H OTHOCHTeJJhHaH llIHpHHa KOpOHKH.
Hu11e11eqemoCT11au BeTBh o6JJOMa:tia nepe,n: P2 H no3a,n:H M 3 lfa 3y60B
coxpaHHJJHCh p3 H M2' KOTOpbie HaXO,[(HTCH B uaqaJihHOM CTa,[(HII CTIIpaHHH.
OT ocTaJihHhIX 3y6oa coxpaHIIJJHCh IIX aJJhBeo11h1. BI>1c0Ta aeTBH nepe,n: P2
COCTaBJJHeT 57 2 MM. Ona 3JiaqHTeJJbHO Bhlllle, l.JeM y TaBpH'IeCKOro (45,0 MM)
H xepCOHCKOr; (40,0
TapnaHOB, a TaK )KeJIOllla,[(H Ilp:>KeBaJibCKOrO (51,0. 55,0, cp. 53,0 MM) H HaXO,[(HTCH B npe,n:enax II3MeH'IIIBOCTII 3Toro IIOI<a3aTeJIH y
.[(OMallIHIIX KypraHHhIX rrorna,n:eli (54,0_:_64,0, cp. 58,4 MM) II ,[(OMarnuell: JIOllICl,[(H
II3 pami:eTpHIIOJihCKoro nocerreHIIH Hoa1>1e PycernThI B Morr,n:oae (57,0 H 63,0
MM). HII:>KHHli Kpali qerrrocTII H3 Ca1<apoBKH crrerKa BhIIIYKJihIM no,n: P 3- M 1 H
a1>rnpHMrreuu1>1i1 no,n: M 2- M 3 Ilo ,n:aHHhIM B. I1. EII6HKOBoi1 (2), HH:>KHIIH Kpali
qeJIIOCTH y .[(OMallIHI;IX rrorna,n:eli BbIIIpHMJJeH~hIM, y ,[(HKIIX - BhIIIYKJJhIR.
)J;rrHHa 3y6uoro pH,n:a P2- M 3 II pH,n:a npe,n:Kopenn1>1x paccMaTpHaaeMoli
qeJJIOCTH (173,0 MM II COOTBeTCTBeHHO 91,0 MM)' 6nH3KH K TaKOBhIM

M~)

TaBpnqecKoro Tapnaua (177,0 MM II 91,0 MM) II ,n:oMarnnett rrorna~H 3ueo1111TIIqecKoro noct:;neHIIH )J;epeHBKH (YKpaHHa) (176,0 MM H 88,0 MM) H 3HaqHTeJihHO MeHhllle, 'IeM y rrorna,n:H Ilp:>KeBaJihCKOrO (186,0- 194,0, cp. 190,0
MM H 96,5- 102,0, cp. 99,5 MM). )J;nuua pH,n:a KOpeHHhIX 3y6oa (83,0 MM)
MeHhlll6, 'Ie;M y COBpeMeHHOro Tapnaua (88,0 MM) H JIOIIIa,[(H Ilp)KeBaJihCKOro
(89;0-94,o; cp. 91,0 MM) H necKOJJhKO 6omllle, 'IeM y ,n:oMarnueli norna,n:II H3
,D;epeHBKH (78,0 MM). 3y6uoi1 (MOJIHpHO-npeMOJJHpHbIR) HH,[(eKC cpaBHIITeJJhHO
HH3KHi1 - 91,2%. OH MeHhIIIe 'IeM y Tapnana (96, 7%), HeCKOJihKO 6orrhrne,
'IeM y ,[(OMarnneli norna,n:II H3 )J;epeHBKH (88,6%) H HaXO,[(HTCH B npe,n:enax
II3MeH'IHBOCTII .n;aHHOrO npII3HaKa y rr9rn,a.n;H Ilp)KeBaJJbCKOro (88,2- 94,0, cp.
90,8%). Pa3MephI P3 (.wrnna KopottKH - 27,2 MM, llIHpHna ee - 18,5 MM) II
crpoeHIIe ero :>KeBaTeJfhHOM noBepXHOCTH (rnHpOKO OBaJIJ,HaH ,[(BOMHa neTJJH:

117 -

JIOilaCTH cna6o CKOUieHbI K OCH 3y6a, Kpynttal! Hapy).<Hal! ,[(OJlHHKa H .n:p.)


o6ttapy)J(liBaeT 60JlbWee CXO.[(CTBO c COOTBeTCTByIOll.(HMH IlOKa3aTeJil!MH '
.n:oMawttux nowa.n:ei1. M 3 O'Ietth MeJTKHH (.n:nntta KOJ!>OHKH - 29,8 MM, wapmrn
ee ____: 13,6 MM, .n:mrna TaJTOHH.[(a - 6;8 MM, IIH,[(eKc .[(JlHHhI KOpOHKH K .[(JlMHe
Kopettr-IbIX 3y60~ - 36,0%.

I1TaK, HH)J(I-JetJ:enrocTttair BeTBh nowaAn H3 Mon.n:oBbI xapaKTep1nyeTcJ


cpaBHHTeJTbHO MeJTKHMH 1y6aMu, yKopo'IeHHhIM 1y6tthIM pir.n:oM, B 'IaCTHOCTH
Kopem-ihrx, otJetth MeJIKHM M 3 c KOpOTKHM Tanott11.n;oM. Otta o6ttapy)J(HBCleT
CMemaHHhie I:lpH3Harrn .[(OMaWHHX H .[(HKHX noura.n:ei1, rnaBHhIM o6pa30M
Tapmu-rn.
,Qmr xapaKTepucTHKH cy6cjioccnnhHhIX KOCTeii nowa.n:11 3I-Ia4:MTeJTbHhIH
111-!Tepec npe,n:cTaBJTHIOT cjJaJTattrH rraJThIIeB . DpHBO.[(HM xapaKTepMCTHKY Jll1Wb
rryTOBhIX I<OCTett, CtfHTaI-Oll.(HXCl! Hau6onee xapaI<TepHblMH H .[(OCT<lTO'IHO
xopomo M3y'IeHI-IhIMH B .n:amrnM DJraHe. I1MeroTcir Bcero ,n:Be nepBhie cjiamrnru
(nepe.n:1-1Jir H 1a.n:r-rna). I1x pa1Meph1, npo11opIIm1 a cparrnemrn .n:aHhI B Ta6naIIe 2.
Do a6comOTHhIM H OTHOCHTeJlbHhIM pa3MepaM, a TaK)J(e no CTenenu
pa3BHTHH CB5l30'IHblX 6yrpoB (Bblpa)J(ef!bl cpaBHHTeJibHO cna6o), paccMaTPHBaeMbie nyTOBhre KOCTH 111 cpe,n:Hetteon11T11tJecr<0ro nocenettuir CaKapoBKa
o6ttapy)J(JfBaI-OT IlOlJTH nomrne CXO.[(CTBO (naxo.n;HTCH B rrpe.n:enax H3MeH'IHBOCTH'
COOTBeTCTByIOll.(HX rrpH3HaKOB) c 0.[(HOHMeHI-[bIMH I<OCTHMH cy6cjioccunbHblX
.n:oMaurHux norua.n:eH: :meomna II cnanaHCKHX naMirTHHKOB Mon.n:oB~r H
HeKOTOphrx nocenermii :meomna rr 3ITOXH rro3,n:tteH: 6pott3hI YKpaHHhr u
OTJTH'ICHOTCH (no OT,[(eJibHbIM np!13HaKaM 3Ha4:HTeJir.Ho) OT COOTBeTCTByrouilfx
KOCTeH: rnpnaI-IoB rr nowa.n:rr Dp)J(eBanr.cKoro.

11.~-

<'ti"
\0 M
00 00

0 _1000 '<loo 00

00
t-"' M"'
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N~

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Donmrn .n:murn 3y61:1oro pH,n:a cocrannaeT oKon o 175 ,0 MM, .n:nrru a


rrpeMon apoB -- Ol<OJTO 90,0 MM, ,l:\JIHHa MO'.rrnpoB - 85,6 MM. 3y6r.r HaX0.[(5ITC5I
Ha cpe;wei1 CTa.[(HH CTHpamrn. Do pa3MepaM H CTpoeHHIO .[(BOHHOH rreTJHf, B
qacTHOCT11, 6onee 1<0coe pacnon o)J(emre ee.06e11x lJaCTeH: K oc113y6a u .n:p., OHM
118 -

I I

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C"f

l(")

K .D:HKOH noura.n:rr Ka6anJIOH.D,HOro nma Mbl CKJIOI-IHbI bTJ-IOCHTb 1-IH)J(J-IMH


1y6uoH: pir.n: P3- M 3 (P2 pa1pywen BO BpeMH pacKonoK), o,n:J-Iy nircTHy10 KOCTh
(npaBair) u o.n:ny rrepByro cjiananry 1a,n:HeH: r< oneqnocTu.

oo"' oo"

.,-., \0

AHanorH4:Hhre pe1ynhTaTb1 rronyqenbr TaK)J(e rrprr rr1yqen1111 BTOphrx rr


Tpen11x cjJananr.
TaK11M o6pa3oM, oxapaKTepu3oBaHMhI'M Br.rwe KOCTlIM B pa3Mepax,
nporropIIlilIX H CTpoettrm 11pHcyru:u CMewam-Ihie IIpH3HaKH .[(OMaumux H .[(HKHX '
nowa.n,e'H:, B 6oJThlliHHCTBe cnyqaei3 c npeo6na.n:anueM rror<a1aTenei1 .noMawHux ,
<jlOpM. 3TOT cj.lar<T fI03BO.IrneT paccMaTpHBaTb I-IeOJTHTH'IeCKyro CaKapOBCKyro
nowa.n:r. rr1 Mon.n;OBhr KaK nprrpyqe1-rnyr-0, r<oTopaH eru:e coxpaHJna oT.n,enhHhre
MopcjionorutJ:eer<rre npmHaKu .n:rrKoH: cjJopMbI - Tapnatta . HecKorr:6Ko oco6eH:
3TOii nowa.n:u 110HBHJIHCh 3.[(eCb, IlO-BH.[(HMOMy, B pe3yJJhTaTe 3aHMCTBOBaHHlI
Mecnrr.IMH rrneMeHaMu y nneMeH 6onee BOCTOt.iHhIX paH:or.J:oB rora EBporrbr, r.n:e,
no M;-1e1-n uo B. 11. Eu6rrKoBoH: (2), 6r.mrr 6naronpMHTHhie ycn oBua (rrpupo.n:1:1h1e,
re1-ieTrrqecKrre H .np.) .n:nir rrepBOHa1.J:aJTI>1:1oro nprrpyqearrir .n:rrKoi1 nowa,nu.
Jloma~h ~HirnH - Equus cf. gmeJini Ant.

MM

' o

-- ll9 ---

oo" o"'

06ttapy"1K1rna1-0T 6omrnoe cko;::i:crno c E ...gnielini. Y M 3 (.u:mrna 31,6 MM) o6e


qacn1 ;::i:soiittoii 'nerm1 OKpyrnoro oqepTamrn, Ta.JIOHM.U: oqeHI> Koponmii (;::i:n:rrtta
-:- 6,0 MM), npHMOH, nepe;::i:HHH ero qacn IlIIIpOKaH II OKpyrnaH .
MeraKapn, KaK II IIHCTHaH KOCTb Tapnatta (4,5,10), KOpOTKMH MMaCCMBHbIB.
Ero a6COJUOTHblC pa3MCpbI (B MM) II MH.U:eKCbl (B %) COCTaBJrnIOT: Harr6on1>rnaH
.r1murn - 208,0; IlIIIpIIHa BepxHero KOHl(a --'- 52,0, OTHOIIieHIIe ee K ;::i:nIIHe KOCTM
- 25,0 (3TOT IIH.[(CKC BbIIlIC, qeM y BCCX cy6cpoccIInhHblX JJ:MKMX ll .U:OMaUIHIIX
norna.u:eil BocroqI-Ioii EsponhI, Haxo.n;IITCH B npe.u:enax sepxHIIX 3HaqeHIIH 3Toro
npM3HaI<a y OT;::i:enI>HhIX KOCTeii E. l atipes M3 no3;::i:Hero nneiicrou:e1rn); rnMpMHa
HM"IKHero cycTaBHOro 6no1<a 48,0, ero OTHOilICHne K .u:nrrHe KOCTU - 23,1;
IlIMpnHa HM"IK.H ero I<OHl(a B Ha.[(cycTaBHhIX 6yrpax - 46,0; HaMMCHblliaH
rnnpMHa ;::i:nacpa3a - 33,2, OTHorneHMe I< ;::i:nrrHe KOCTn - 1,5 ,9 (cosna;::i:aeT c
MH.U:CI<COM KOCTM Tapnatta) .
'
Y paccMaTpMsaeMoif nHCTM norna.u:n n3 CaKaposKn OTMeTnM M. .u:pyme
npn3HaKn, xapaKTepttbIC, no MHCHHIO B. II. :En6m<OBOH (4), ;::i:nH Tapna:irn. B
qacTHOCTM, nnocI<aH 3a.U:HHH IT(>BepxHOCTb HH"IKHero I<OHl(a, .U:OBOllbHO pe3I<HH
nepe;::i:tte-Hapy"IKHhIH 1<paif HH"IKHero 6no1<a, sepxHHH I<OHeu: HH"IKHero rpe6HH
cna6o BbI;::i:aeTCH Hap: BepxHHM KpaeM 3a;::i:Heif cycTaBHOH ITOBepxHOCTH H .u:p.
IlyTOBaH I<OCTb norna.u:rr, OTHeCeHHaH HaMH I< .U:HI<OH cpopMe, OTnHqaeTCH
OT BbllliCOITMCaHHblX nepBblX cpanaHr .U:OMarnHeif cpopMbI M3 3TOro "IKe
MeCTOIIaXO"IK.U:CHMH, a TaI<"IKC OT cJ.iarraHr .U:OMarnHeii norna.u:H H3 6onee Il03.U:HMX
noceneHHH Mon.u:oshI H YKpaHHhI He6on1>rnMMH a6comoTHhIMM pa3MepaMH
(Ta6n. 2) H CHJlhHblM pa3BHTHCM npOI<CHMa.Jlb!-IbIX H .U:IICTa.JlbHblX CBH30qHblX
6yrpos (rnHpmrn B Ha.u;cycrnBHhIX 6'yrpax - 44,6 MM, B cycrnse - 40,4 MM).
0THOCHTenI>HaH IlIHpHI-Ia 3nncpM30B (sepxHero - 74,3%, HH"IKHero - 59,9%)
.oqeHb 6JlII3Ka K nyTOBOH I<OCTH TapnaHa, COOTBeTCTBYIOmne MH.U:CKCbl I<OTOpoif
COCTaBllHIOT 75 ,6% U 58,5% (10, 11).
OcTeonorMqecKMe MaTepHa.JlbI no .u:pyrnM BM.U:aM ;::i:nKMX M .n;oMaulHMX
MneKonnTaromttx M3 pacKonoK tteonMTHqecKoro nocenettnH Ca1<aposKa I 6y;::i:yr
paCCMOTpeHbI B .u:pyroii pa6oTe.
JUITEPA TYP A
Eu6uKo6a B. fl. K HCTOpHH rono11eHOBOH <J>ayHbl no3BOHO'lHbIX B BoCTO'lHOH Espone II
Up11po.11HaJ1o6cTaHOBKa11 <j>ayHbI nponrnoro. BMn. 1, l<11es: Jil3J:I. AH YCCP, 1963.
.
2 Eu6uKo6a B. H. K H3y'leHHIO .11peBHeHIIIHX .11o'MaIIIHllX JIOIIIa.11eli BocTO'lHOH EsponbI II
EionneTeHb MOJilil, OT.II. 611on., T. 72, Nl 3, 1967.
3
Eu6uKo6a B. H. K H3y'leHHIO .11peBHei1IIIHX .llOMaIIIHHX JIOIIIa.11ei1 BocTO'IHOH Esponbl.
Coo6I1.1eHHe 2 II IiIOJIJieTeHb MOJilil, OT.II. 611on ., T. 75, Nl 3, 1970.
4
Eu6uKo6a B. H. OCTaTKH cy6<j>occ11nbHOro TapnaHa na YKpaHHe II IiIOJIJleTeHb MOJilil, OTJ:I.
6HOJI., T. 78, N2 3, 1972.
5 Eu6UK06Q B. H., Eena11 H. r Pa1rnerono11eHOBbIH TapnaH Ha TeppHTOpHH ceBepo-3ana.11Horo
IlpH'lepHOMOpbll II BeCTHHK 3oonorn11, KtteB, 1981, Nl 3.
6 Eowmo6cKutJ C.H. Ilpo11cxolK,lleH11e 11 npeo6pa3oBaHHe .llOMaIIIHHX lKHBOTHbIX. MocKBa., 1959.
7 Borziac 1/ie. Paleoliticul eyi mezoliticul in spa.tiul dintre Nistru ~i Prut// "Thraco-Da.cica", t. 15,
v. 1- 2, Bucure~ti , 1994.
" Epay11ep A. A. MaTepHaJibl K no3HaHHIO .llOMaIIIHllX lKHBOTHbIX PoccHH. I. JloIIIa.llb KypraHHblX
1

- 120 -

norpe6eHHH Tttpa.cnonbcKoro ye3.11a XepcoHCKOH ry6eptt1111 II 3a.n11cK11 06I1.1CCTBa cerlbcKoro


X03l!HCTBa lOlKHOH Pocc1111, T. 86, KH. 1, 1916.
9 I'Qllfl H. M. JilCTopHll opH11To<j>a.yHbI MoJI.11as1111 c no3,llttero M11011ena. .110 HaIIIllX J:IHeH II <l>a.ytta
Ha3CMHblX Il03BOHO'lHblX MoJI,llaBHH H npo6neMbl ee peKOHCTPYKllllH. KHIIIHHeB: lllTHllHI.la,
1972.
10 TpoM~Ba B. H. JilcTopHll noIIIa.11eli (po.11 Equus) B cTapoM cBeTe II Tpy,llbl Ila.neOHT.
JilH-Ta AH CCCP, T. 17, Bblll. 4, 1949 .
11 I'poM06Q B. H. 0 CKCJICTe TapnaHa. H .11pyrnx COBpeMeHHbIX J:lllKHX JIOIIIa,lleH, 'l. l // liIOJIJieTeHb
MOJilil, OT,ll. fa!OJI., T. 14, 1959.
. .
.
12 }1aeuo A . H. Tep11o<j>ayHa. nnelicro11eHa Mon.11a.s1111. Km1111HeB: lllT1111H11a, 1980, 186. c.
,
")1a 6uo A. H. <})opMHpoBa.HHe Tep11o<j>ayHbI MoJI.11as1111 B a.HTponoreHe (K 50-JICTHIO INQUA).
KHIIIHHeB : llh1;111H11a, 1982, 150 c.
.
14 )1a uo A. H . HoBble Ma.TepHaJibl no cpe.11tteroJI011eH0Boi1 ,<J>ayHe Mon.11aBHH II IlJI11.011rn6
aHTpono.r ettoBa.ll <J>ayHa ,[(HeCTpoBcKo-IlpyTcKoro MelK.11ypelibll. K11IIIHHeB: lllTHHHlla., 1986~
is )1a 6 uo A.H. HoBbie MaTepttanbI K.HCTOpHH .11peBHCHU1HX .110MaIIIH.11x JIOIII~.llei1 IOro-BoCTO'lHOH
EsponbI II IlaMl!TH npo<j>. A. A. IipayHepa.. C6opHHK i:iocnoM11HaHHH n HaytIHbIX TPY.llOB.
0.11ecca, 1997.
'
'
.
.
16 David A. Fauna. a.sezarii neolitice Sacarovca I din R. Moldova. // Lucranle Congresulu1 al
XXII-lea a.I Acade~iei Romano-Americane de ~tiinte eyi a.rte. Targovi~te, 1997.
11 ;[la u 0 A. H. MapKe 6w1 B. H. Xo3l!HCTBO 11 <J>ayHa. Heon!i111qecKnx noceJ1eHHH Cpe.11Hero
6
Ilo.11HeCTpOBbll ll<l>aytta Kai1H030ll MoJI,llaBHH . Kmn11HeB, PHO AH MCCP, 1970.
" Kempapy H. A . IlaMl!THHKH :mox naneorrHTa H Me3oJII'ITa . ApxeoJioTH'lecKall KapTa
Morr.11ascKOH CCP,.sbm. I. KttrnHHeB: lllTHHlilla, 1973.

,
19 Larina Olga. Neoliticul pe teritoriul Republicii Moldova II "Thraco-Dacica", t. 15, v. 1- 2,
Bucure~ti, 1994.
.
,

20 flo3a11 M . H. rpbI3YHbl Mon,llaBHH. T. 1- 2, KnUIHHCB: PHO AH MCCP. 1970- 1971.


2 1 MapKe6U'I B. H. Ila.Ml!THMKH HeorrH: a H 3Heorr11Ta. Apxeonor11'lecKaJ1 KapTa. MoJI,llaBCKOH
CCP, Bbm. I. KHUIHHeB: lllTHHHl(a, 1973.
22 MapKeBU'I B. #. 6yro-.11HecTpoBcKa.l! KYllbTypa Ha TeppttTOpHH MoJI.llaBHH. KttruHHeB:
lliTHHHl(a, 1974.
_
23 H eKpacoBa O. K. K H3y'leHHIO J:IOMaUIHHX H J:IHKHXlKHBOTHbIX paHHeHeoJIHTH'Iec~ o H KYJihTYPbI
Kp11UI II Analele stiintifice ale Universitatii la~i, sec. II, t. X, fa.sc. 2, 1961.
;
24 Necrasov O. Sur le; restes des faun es sub fossil es datand de la cultlire Starcevo-Cds 'e t la probl~me
de la domestication II Analele ~tiintifice ale Universitatii la~i , sec. II, t. X, fasc. I, 1964.
25 XafjMoeut c. CpaBHMTCJibHOe my'leHne cjlayHH<:TH'lecK~x.oCTaTKOB 3~ox H~O~HTaH 6poH3bI,
Ha.i1.11eHH&1x B nocenenHn Bam1-JlynyJ1yli II An alele ~t11ntif1ce ale Umvers1tat11 Ja~1, sec. II, t.
VIII, fasc. 2, 1962.

26 aa!lKUll B. H. ,[(aMaIIIHHe H ,llHKHe lKHBOTHblC CesepHoro Ilptt'lepHOMOpbll B. 3IIOXY paHHero


lKeJle3a II MaTepHanbI H Hccne.110BaHHll no a.pxeonornH CCCP, N2 53~ 1960.
.
27 aa!lKUll B. H. MneKOilHTa!Oll.IHC .11peBHeH MoJl,llaBHH II IiIOJIJICTCHb MOJilil, OT,ll. 6HOJI ., T.
67, Nl 5, 1962. '
28 aa!lKUN B. }[. )KHBOTHOBO):ICTBO H OXOT3. IlJieMeH BOCTO'lHO~BpOileHCKOH JieCOCTCilH B panHeM
JKCJIC3HOM BeKe 11.MJilA, N2 135, 1966.
.
29 a a!lKUll B. H. ,[(peBHCHUIHe .llOMaIIIHHe lKHBOTHble BOCTO'lHOH EBpOilbl. MoCKBa: HayKa., 1970.
30 aaJlKUll B. H. <DayHa. H3 pacKOilOK cnaBllHCKHX naMl!THHKOB MoJI,llaBHH II Tpy,llbl MOJilil,
oT.11. 6Horr ., T. 48, MocKsa: HayKa., 1972.
Summary

The results of research of osteological remains of mammals collected from Mesolithic and
Neolithic archaeological sites (the Bug-Dnestr and Cri~ cultures) from. the Mold~v.a Republic
are generalised in the present p aper. The article incl~des the l!st .of species compos1twn and the
number of the ostt;ological remains. The most ancient Neohth1c (Sacarovca I, Cn~ Cultures)
remains of the domestic horse in South-eastern Europe are described.
- 121 -

B. SI. CopoKHH
HCCnEAOBAHHSI MHOrocnOHHOro nocEnEHHSI
nYTHHEWTb II
.TpmIOJibCKoe nocenemie IlyTntternTb II 6i,mo OTKpbITO B.11. MapKeml'IeM
B 1955 r. 1 Otto pacnono:>Ketto B 1 KM K BOCTOKY OT .uepKBM c. IlyTntternTh,
<l>nopernTCKoro p-Ha ll B 0 ,5 KM 011 MOJIO'IHO-TOBapHOM cpepMbl MeCTHOrO
X035IMCTBa. IloceneHne HaXO,ZWTCH Ha nepBOM Ha,DJIOHMeHHOH Teppace neBoro
6epera p. P3yT. C BOCTOKa nocenettne orpattn'leHo .n:onnttoU: "Bana bIH mmtt",
pa3,n:eJIHI-OIIIeM ero c rrocenettneM IlyTnttemTb I, onwcameMCH K KYJibType
IlpeKyKyTeHn-Tpnrroni,e A 2 . PacKorr rrnoma,n:i,1-0 184 M2 6bm 3ano:>KeH Ha 1-0ro3arra,n:HOM oKpanHe rroceneHnH. BbIJIM nccne,n:oBaHI>I ocTaTKM .n;Byx rrony3eMJIHHOK n .n;Byx ua3eMHbIX rroCTpoeK. B pe3yJIDTaTe pacKorroK 6bIJIO yCTaHOBneuo, 'ITO rraMHTHMK MHOrOCJIOHHb~M: 6bIJIIl o6uapy:>KeHbl MaTepnaJibl
KYJibTYP IlpeKyKyn"iui,-Tplirroni,e A, KyKyTeui,-Tpnrroni,e (3TaIIbI KyKyTeHb
A-TpMrroni,e BI, KyKyTeHb B-TpMrrOJibe CI), qepHHXOBCKOH M, O'leBM,n:uo,
MOn,n:aBCKOM cpe.n:tteBeKOBOM. qepH5IXOBGKMe Il MOJI,n:aBCKne MeTepMaJibI
Hail:,n:eHbI BO B3BellleHHOM COCTOHHMII. Ha rroceneHMll Ha6nro.n:anacb cne.n:yromaH
CTpaTnrpacpnH: MOIIIHOCTb KYJibTypuoro CJIOH :\(OJie6aJIC5I B rrpe.n:enax 2580 CM.
1 cnoil: -:- rrpe,n:CTaBJIHJI co6oH: rreperraxaHHbIM ryMycnpoBani-IbIH rpyHT
TeMHO-ceporo UBeTa, co.n:ep:>KamnH: BO B3BellleHHOM COCT05IHIIIl MeJlKMe KYCKII
o6Ma3KM, cpparMeHTbI KepaMMKM, KpeMHeBbie M3,n:eJIM5I ll T.,n:. Ero MOIIIHOCTb
.n:ocTnrana 15--40.
' 2 CJlOM, MOIIIHOCTbl-0 25- 40 CM, KOpll'IHeBaToro UBeTa, co.n:ep:>KaJI
OCHOBHbie KYJlbTYPHbie OCTaTKll . ll OCTaTKll Ha3eMHbIX IIOCTpOeK. Hn:>Ke 80 CM
3arrerana MaTepnKoBaH rnIIHa.
Ilpn 3a'IMCTKe .n:rrn pacKorra B MaTepIIKe 3acpnKcnpoBaHO TeMHOe IIHTHO
uerrpaBMJibHO-OBaJibHOM cpopMbI, opneHTIIpOBaHHOe .D:JIMHHOH OCbl-0 no JlIIHIIIl
ceBepo-3arra.n:-1-0ro-BocToK. B npouecce nccne,n:oBaHHH 6brno ycTaHOBJieHo, 'ITO
OHO BKJII-O'laJIO B ce65I ,n:Ba caMOCT05ITeJihHbIX )l(IlJlllIIIa yrny6neHHOro nma,
OTHOCHIIIHXCH K pa3HbIM 3TarraM TpnrroJibCKOM KynI>TYPbI. OCTaTKH :>Kttnttma I
3aHIIMan11 roro-BOCTO'IHYI-O 'lacTb BbIHBJieHHoro coopy:>KeHHH. B nnaHe :>Kttnttme
IIMCJlO HenpaBIIJlbHO-OBaJlbHYI-0 cpopMy Il BbITHHYTO c roro-3arra.n:a Ha ceBepoBOCTOK. Pa3MepbI :>KHJIHIIIa: 4,5x3,2 M. CTeHKM KOTJlOBaHa c 1-0ro-1-0roBOCTO'IHOH CTOpOHbI .KPYTbie, c ceBepo-ceBepo-3arra.n:a-nonortte .
1-0:>KHOM
CTOpOHbl OTMe'laeTC5I CTyneH'laToe IIOHH:>KeHne CTeHI<II, IllllpllHa CTyneHeK 25- 30 CM~ BbICOTa - 7- 11 CM. HaII6onbmaa rny6nHa :>KHJIHIIIa - 1,87 M B
ueHTpe IIOJiy3eMJI5IHKil. 3anOJIHeHne qepHoro IIBeTa, HaCbIIIIeHHOe cpparMeHTaMn KepaMnKn 3Tana KyKyTeHb A-Tpnrroni,e BI, KpeMHeBbIMn II3,n:enIIHMH,
KOCT5!Mll )l(IlBOTHblX Il .n:p. IlO'ITil B ue1-ITpe )l(IlJIMIIIa Ha rny6ttHe - 1,5 M OT
"O" JIOKaJIIl30BaJIHCb OCTaTKil rITilH06nTHOro coopy:>KeHmI OKpyrnoll: B IIJiaHe

cpopMbI (.n:ttaMeTpOM 0,55 M), npe,n:cTBaJIHI-OIIIee co6oH: KOHUeHTpaUill-0 KYCKOB

- 122 -

o6Ma 3Kll ,n:Byx BH.D:OB: 1) o6o:>K:>Ke:irnaa rJIHHa c o6ttJibHOM pacTnTeni,uoll:


npttMeCbl-0, qacTO c OTIIe'laTKaMil JlllCTbeB ua HH:>KHell: CTOpoue. Pa3Mepbl: OT
5x9xl ,6 CM .n:o 8x2,5xl ,6 cM, IIBeT OT qepttoro .n:o :>KenTo-opau:>KeBoro; 2) MenKH~
KycKn o6o:>K:>KeHHOM rnnui,1 6e3 BH.D:HMbIX rrpnMeceH:, c TIIIaT~JlbHO 3arna:>Keuuon
IIOBepXHOCTbl-0, THIIIl'IHbie .D:JI5I OCTaTKOB IIO.D:OB rreqen Ha TpllIIOJibCKilX
rrocenettnHx. Pa3Mepi,1 2,5x5x3 CM, UBeT :>KeJlThIM. Cpe,n:H KYCKOB o6Ma3KH
o6Hapy:>KeHa MaccHBHaH PY'IKa-yrrop rrpaMoyronhHOM B rrrraHe cpopMbI ,
Il3rOTOBJICHHaH Il3 rJIHHbI c rrpnMeCbl-0 paCTHTeJibHOCTH. IllnpnHa - 5 CM ,
,n:JinHa - - 5 CM, BbICOTa - 2,5 CM, UBeT' OT qepHoro .n:o :>KeJlTO-opaH:>KeBoro.
BepoHTHO, py'IKa-yrrop 11 01mcaHHbre ocTaTKn nittuo6HTHoro coopy:>KettnH
3aneranH ua 7- 13 CM Bbirne ,n:Ha rrony3eMJIHHKn, tta.n: or.iaroM-KQCTpnn~eM. Ha
ypoBHe rrpe.n:rronoraeMoro nepeuocHoro coopy:>Ke1-nrn n ~b1rne B 3arromreunH
Haii,n:eHO 60JlblllOe KOJlH'leCTBO CTBOpOK paKOBMH Umo, cpe.n:u KOTOpbIX
HaXO.D:IlJIIlCb CTBOpKM c npOCBepneHHbIMll OTBepCTMHMM, a o,n:Ha - c 3y6'laTblM
KpaeM, o6pa6oTaHHbIM, BepOHTHO, KpeMHeBOM IIHJIKOM. 0CHOBHOe KOJIM'leCTBO
paKyrneK o6Hapy:>KeHO B l~e1nparrbHOH qaCTil IIOJiy3eMJI5IHKil Ha rny6nHe OT 1,35 .n:o 1, 6 MOT "O)' ' XOTH OT,n:eJibHbie CTBOpKHBCtpeqaJII1Cb B pa3HblX rrnacTax
3aIIOJIHeHH5I.
Qqar-KOCTpnme rrpe,n:CTaBJIHH co6oH: oKpyrrroe nHTHO qepHoro UBeTa c
BKJII-O'leHHeM MeJIKMX KYC0'1KOB .n:peBeCHOrO yrrrH .n:naMeTpOM 0 '73 M H
TOJIIIIMHOM 0,05- 0,06 M, .o6Hapy:>KeHHOe Ha rrryfarne - 1,65 M OT "O" . Qqar
pacrrorroranca Herrocpe,n:dBeHi:o Ha ,n:He rrorry3eMrrHHKM (pnc. 1).
y ceBepO-BOCTO'IHOrO KpaH rrorry3eMJI5IHKH .D:HO 6bIJIO o6Ma3aHO TOHKilM
crroeM rJIIlHbI TOJIIIIHHOM l CM, 6e3 BH.D:IlMbIX rrpnM:eceii, KOTOpaH pacTpecK~aCb
OT orHH Ha MerrKne KycI<n. Pa3MepbI - 4x5-----'-6x6 CM, UBeT qeptto-:>KeJITbIH. Ha
HeM 11 pH,n:OM c HHM Haxo,n:HJinCb ,n:aa rrrrocI<HX n3BeCTH~I<OBbIX I<aMHH 6e3 cne,n:oB
o6pa6oTKH, pa 3MepaMH 14x10 H 16x20 CM. B I-O:>Ktton 'laCTn :>KnrrHIIIa, TaK:>Ke
Ha ,n:He, Ha rrry6ttHe 1,24-1,4 M OT "O" 3acpnI<CnpoBaHO CI<OIIJieHne
1<peMHeBbIX oTmerroB H.'lernyeK ,n:HaMerpoM Q,56 M. HecI<OJibI<O ceBepHee noro
CI<OIIJieHMH, Ha paCCTOHHllll 0,25 MK 1-0ro-3arra.n:y OT O'lara, Ha rny6HHe- 1,46
M OT "O" o6Hapy:>KeHO tte60JiblllOe 30JlbHOC IIHTHO .n:naMeTpOM 0,52 M,
TOJIIIIMHOH 4--5 CM, OKpyrrroe B rrrraHe. (pnc. 1).
'
B xmrrnme o6Hapy:ii:<eHbI 9 HyI<neycoB: 1<0Hyc0Bn,n:Hoii cpopMe (5 3K3 .) ,
aMopcpHbie (3 3K3.) n rro.n:.n;ncKOBM.D:Hbiii. KoHycoBn.D:Hbie MPHIIIa c rreprreH,n:nKyrrHpHoii IIOCTaHOBKOH IIJIOIIIa.n:n (3 3K3.) ll O.D:HOCTOpOHHHM CKaJibIBaHneM,
IlHOr.n;a KOCOIIJIOIIIa.n:o'IHbie (2 3K3.).
HHX CHHMaJIHCb MeJIKilC Il cpe,n:Hne
rrrracTMHbI. (3 3K3.), MeJIKMe OTIIICIIbl H rrrraCTHHbl (1 3K3.), cpe.n:nne OTII~eIIbl ll
cpe.n:nne n KpynHbie nrraCTHHbI (1 3K3.). Bb1c0Ta )I.n;pnm 2,3-5,4 CM. AMopcpHbie
HyKrreycbI HOCHT CJIC.D:bl 6eccnCTCMHOrO CKaJibIBaHHH MCJIKHX Il c~e,n:HllX
OTIIICIIOB. 11Hor.n:a OHR BTOpH':IHO HCIIOJib30BaJIHCb B Ka'lCCTBC OT60HHilKOB
(2 3K3.). Ilo.n:,n:nCKOBH.D:HOC MPHIIIe ,n:Byxrrrroma,n:O'lHOe, BTOpH'lHO HCIIOJib-

30BaJIOCb KaK ,n:OJIOT.O (.n:Ha:M.eTp 5,2 CM) . '


'.
.
B norry 3 eM;urnKe cKpe6KH rrpe,n:cTaBrreHbI 24 3K3eMIIJIHpaMn. 0Hn
BbIIIOJIHeHbI Ha MaCTHHaX (3 31<3.) H OTIIIerrax (21 3K3.). IlepBbie KOHUeBoro

-123 -

lfa.n:emrn H3 KOCTH npe,n:CTaBJieHhl npe,n:MeTaMH H3 Tpy6qaThlX KOCTdi c


o6pe3aHHbIMH 3nacjm3aMH, KpaH 3aummpoBaHhI, BC.H HX noBepxHOCTh 3arro1ueml
(2 .3K3.); npo,n:OJihHO paCKOJIOThlMH KJihIKaMH Ka6aHOB, HCnOJih3yeMhIMH,
Bepo~THO , B Kaqecrne opHaMeHTRpOB (4 3K3.); <lJparMeHTaMR paKOBHH Unio ~
ornepCTH.HMH (6 3K3.) HJIH 3y6qaThlM KpaeM (1 3K3.) H o6rrOMKaM pacKOJIOTOH
Tpy6qaTOH KOCTH c 3aIIIJIHtPOBaHHhIM H 3anomeHHbIM KpaeM. 113 KaMeHHhlX
R3,n:eJIHH Hail.n:eHhl <lJparMeHThl 3epHOTepoK H3 MeJIK03epHHCTOrO necqaf!HKa
no.n:np.a:MoyrorrhHOH n no,n:TpeyrohhHOH <lJopM c o.n:ttoil pa6oqefi noBepxHOCThIO. IlnacTHKa npe,n:CTaBJieua 3 <lJparMeHTaMH aH'rponOMOPtPHblX Teppai<oT
n I <lJparMeHTOM 300Mop<1Juoil <PnrypKH. 0.n:nH H3 <lJparMeHTOB npe.n:crnan.a:eT
BepXHIOIO qaCTh CTaTy3TKH, H3rOTOBJieHHOH H3 rJIHHhl c npttMeCbIO MeJIKOrO
IIIaMOTa, UBeT )l(eJITO-opamKeBhIH, nneqHKH np.HMhie, KOHHqeCKRe, CilHHa
rIJIOCKa.H, yKpaIIIeHHa.H KOChIMH yrny6rreHHbIMH JIHHHHMH, B n:eHTparrbHOH qaCTH
HapucoBaH poM6, HMeIOIUHH B ue1upe OKpyrnyro HMOqKy. Cnepe.n:H CTaTy3TKa
crrerKa BhIIlYKJiaH H opHaMeHTMpOBaHa ropH30HTaJihHblMH naparrrreJihHblMH
JIHHRHMH, nneqnKH yKpailleHhI KOChIMH JIHHH.HMH. BTopoil <lJparMeHT
npOHCXO.D:HT OT HH)l(Heil qaCTH c)mrypKH H yKpailleH cnnparreBH.D:HhIM
opuaMeHTOM, ropn30HTaJII>HhIMH R KOChIMH JIHHH.HMH. Yrny6rreHHhre nRHHR
RHKpycTnpoBaHh! 6enoil naCToil. TpeTHH cpparMeHT - HO)l(Ka crnTy3TKH c
BbJ,n:eneHHOH CTynueil. <DparMeHT 300MOp<lJuoil rIOJIOH CTaTy3TKH H3rOTOBJieH '
H3 rnuubl: 6e3 BH.D:HMhIX npttMeceil. Ha TynoBe HaHeceuh! npoqepqeHHh!e KOCbre

Puc. 1. IlyrnttelllTI> II.

06~11H

nnatt pacKona.

Tima H H3r0TOBJieHhI Ha npaBHnbHbIX npR3MaTlflieCKHX nrraCTRHax. c np.HMbIM


npocjmneM. Pa6oqee ne3Bne o<iJopMneHo KpynHoii (2 3K3.) R MenKoii (1 3K3.)
3aTynmrnaromeii PeTYillhIO co CTopoHhI cnMHKR. CKpe6Kn Ha onuenax c.n:enaHhI
Ha H3,n:emrn:x MeJIKRX (.n;naM~p MeHbille 3 cM; 8 3K3.), cpe.n;Hnx (,n;HaMeTp 6onee 2
cM; 10 3K3.) n KpynHhIX (.n:naMeTp 6onee 5 cM; 3 3K3.) pa3MepoB. Cpe.n:n HRX
BhI.n;eJIHIOTCH 6oKOBhie opy,n:RH c 0.D:HHM (4 3K3.) H .D:BYMH (2 3!(3.) Jie3BHHMH,
KOHUeBb!e (10 3K3.), KOHUeBoe-6oKOBbie c .D:BYMH (2 3K3.) H qeTblpMH (1 3K3.)
ne3BHHMH. Ilpe.n:CTaBJIHeT HHTepec CKpe6KOBH.D:HOe opy.n:ne Ha MaKpoonuene
. OBaJihHOH <lJopMbI, Ha O,n:HOM KOHUe c MeJIKOH 3aoCTp11romeii Heperyrr11pHOH
peTyillhlO, HaHeCeHHOH co cnRHKH. .Cpe.n:n KpeMHeBbIX H3,n:errnii Bb!HBJieHhl
BKJia,D;hiillR cepnoB Ha IIJiaCTRHKax (3 3K3.), IIJiaCTRHhI c peTyIIIhIO 'n o o.n:HoMy (2
. 3K3.), .D:BYM 6oKOBhIM (2 3K3.) KpaHM H Ha O,n:HOM KOHUe H 6oKOBOM Kpae
(3 3K3.); oTmenhI c peTyIIIhIO no o.n:HoMy (5 3K3.), .D:BYM (4 3K3.) R TpeM (1 3K3.)
KpaHM H no nepnMeTpy (1 3K3.); HaKOHeqHHKH CTperr TpeyroJibHOH <lJopMhl c
.D:BYCTOpOHHeii 'o6pa60TKOH H npHMbIM (1 3K3.) HJIH enema BOrHYThIM (1 3K3.)
OCHOBaHRel\1; CKpe6JIOBH.D:HOe opy.n:ne Ha KpynHOM OBaJihHOM OTI1(ene c TpeMH
6oKOBhIMH ne3BHHMH; OCTpne Ha cpe.n:HeM oTmene c ,n:ByCTopoHHeii peTyIIIhIO no
.n::ByM 6oKOBhIM Kpa.a:M. B 3.anorrHeHHH n B Ha3BaHHOM cKonneHim Haii.n:eHhI
OTIUeIIbl (327 3K3:), qeillyH (74 3K3.) H IIJiaCTHHbI (59 3K3.) 6e3 BH.D:HMhIX cne,n:OB
yTnmnan:nn.
- 124-

JIHHHH.
B )l(HJIRIUe 1 o6Hapy)l(eHhI 2 <lJparMeHTa paHHeTpnnomcKoil KepaMnKn;
ocTaJihHOil KepaMttqecKnil MaTepnarr OTHOCRTC.H K 3Tany TpttnonI>e BI. B 3TOM
KOMrIJieKCe BhI,n:eJIHIOTC.H 5 rpyrm: 1) c mepoxoBaTOH BHeIIIHeil noBepxHOCThlO
(917 <lJparMeHTOB); 2) c KaHHerrllpOBaHHblM OpHaMeHTOM (516 <lJparMeHTOB);
3) c yrny6neHHhlM .n:eKOpOM (183 cpparMeHTOB); 4) c pacnttcaHHhlM opHaMeHTOM
(135 cpparMeHTOB) H 5) c MeJIKOTOrrqeHHOii paKyIIIKOH B rJIHHHHOH Macce (18
cpparMeHTOB}.
' '
.
OcTaTKH )l(HJIHIUa 1 o6ttapy)l(eHhI K ceBepo,-3ana.n:y OT nepBoro )l(HJIR11;1a, B
Henocpe~CTBeHHOil 6ntt3oCTn OT Hero. )Kurrnme 2 TaK)l(e yrny6neuttoro Tnna,
H ero KOHTYP B nJiaHe HMeeT no.n:TpaneuueBH.D:HYIO cpopMy; pa3Mepbl CTOpOH
4,6x5,2x2,4 M. 3anonHeHne )l(HJIRIUa 2 KopnqHeBoro UBeTa, o.n:ttaKo Mettee
Hachrmettttoe, qeM B )i(HJIRIUe 1. CeBepo-3ana.n:ttaH cTopoHa qacTnq1rn .
nepepe3aHa coBpeMeHHOii Tpattilleeil. IOro-BOCTO'IHa.a: cTopoua cnerKa
nepepe3arra )l(HJIRIUe 1. 3ana,n:Hhie cTeHKR-KPYThie, BOCTOqHhie-6orree nonorne.
B ceBepHoM n 10ro-3ana,n:HOM yrnaM Bhl,n:err.a:10TCH .n:~a yrny6rreun.a: oBaJII>HOM
cpopMhI c KPYThIMM CTeHKaMn. CeBeplioe yrrry6nettne BhIT.a:HyTo no nuttnn
BOCTOK-3ana.n:; pa3Mephr: .n:mrna - 1,55 M, 1,1mpntta - J,08 M, rny6mra OT
"O" - 1, 75 M. Ha .n:ue yrny6neuu11 o6Hapy)l(eHhI q)parMeHThI cocy.n:a,
n3rOTOBJieHHoro n3 rnnHhI c npnMeCI>IO Tonqeuoil paKyIIIKH. Yrny6neune B
10ro-3arra.n:ttoil qacTn opneHTHpOBano .n:nnttuoil OChIO c ceBepo-3arra.n:a Ha 10roBOCTOK; pa3Mephr: .n:nnHa - 2,4 M, IIIHpttHa - 1,9 M, CTeHKH 6onee nonorne c
BOCTOqHOH cTopOHhr; c 3ana.n:a n 10ra (no KOHTYPY rrony3eMJIHHKH) - KpyThie,
-

125 -

.LEJ 08

10

Puc. 2. Ilynmernn II. KpeMHear,1e H3,Llemrn H3 crroJI KyKyTeHh A.


Puc. 3. IlyTHHemrr, II. KpeMHeahle H3JWJIHJ! H3 crrol! KyKyTeHh A.

-126-127 -

fJ-D-)
6

m-~

L-

Puc. 4. Ilynmemn, II. Kpe~mee&re 113.[\emrn 113 c11ol! KyKyTeH& A.

MaKCHMaJII>HaH rrryfarna OT " O" - 1,5 M. Ha .ntte 11 B 3arrom-remm o6ttapy)Ketthr


KYCKH o6Ma3KH c paCTHTeJihHOH rrpf!MeChIO . B u;ettTparrI>ttoil 11acrw )!(Hrrmu;a 2
1-rnxo,nHTCH OKpyrnoe yrrry6nettMe pa3MepaMH 1,8- 1,9 M. Otto oT.nerretto OT
OCTaJibHhlX ,nByx OBaJibHblX yrrry6rreHHH He60JihluMMH B03BbIIIIeHH5IMH (pHc.1).
-

128-

ll~fj

10
Puc. 5. IlyT11Hemn, II. KpeMHeB&re 113.11e1111l! 113

~JIOll

KyKyTeHb B.

B :>KMJlMIJJ;e 2 06ttapJ)KeHL1 o6noMoK HYKJieyca .nmr CKru:ihIBaHHH cpemrn:x rtrraCTHH


H aMOpcpHblli HYKJieyc c 6eccMCTeMHbIM CKaJihIBaHHeM MeJIKMX M cpe,nHHX OTIU:eIIOB
(BbICOTa 4,S CM) .
-129 -

:Vb KpeMHeBbIX H3,neJIHH B )!UJJIHIIW 2 Haii.neHbI CI<pe6KH Ha nnacTHHax


(2 3K3.) If OTIII;enax (7 3K3.); HaKOHe'IHMKH crpen TpeyroJihHOH cpopMbI co cnen<a
BOI'HYThIM OCHOBaHMeM (I 3K3.) H 3arOTOBKH (l 3K3.); nJiaGTMHhI (2 3K3.) npaBHJ1hHOH
npH3MaTll'!eCKOH cpopMbI c H30THYThIM (l 3K3.) npocp1meM ll co cne,naMll BTOpil'IHOH
o6pa60TKll B BH,ne MHKp0BbIJ.Uep6ttH Ha BepxHeii IlOJIOBHHe Ol(HOTO 6or<OBOro r<pa>I
(I 3K3.) HJill HeperyJNpl:lbIX MllKpocpaceTOK (I 3K3.); no.zrrpanen:HeBH,llHOH cpopMbI,
HMeI-OIII;llH Ha Ol(HOM 60KOBOM Kpae BeHTpaJihHyr-0 Mem<yr-o, a Ha .npyroM-Men.Kyro
.nopcaiihHyr-o PeTYlllh, H OTrn;en IlOl\'leTh1pexyronhHOH (liopMhI c MeJIKoii r<paeBoii
PeTYlllhIO, HaueceHttoii co cropoHhI cnHHKH Ha o.nnoM 6oKOBOM Kpae. lfa KaMeHHhix
opy.nuii o6Hapy){(eHor o6noMOK o6yllIHOii 'Iacru m1crpyMer-rra u3 ceporo cJiam~a u
.naa cpparMenTa 3epHOTepoK H3MeJIKocrpyKTypuoro nec'!aHMKa. Kocr>1Hore m.neJill>I
npe,ncTaBneHbI npO.D.OJibHO paCKOJIOThIMH Tpy6'!aTbIMH KOCT>IMH co cne.naMu
HCIIOJih30Bamrn (3 3K3.) . lfa 3aIIOJIHeHH>I ){(HJIHJ.Ua 2 rrpOI:ICXO)l,>IT OTruenbr
(20 3K3.) u rrnacTHHhr (4 3K3.) 6e3 Bll)l,HMhrx cne.noB yTunmaD:HH.

1
' \

Puc. 6.

IlyTHHelllTh

II.

KaMeHHhle H3.QeJIHll.

130 -

B )!(HJillJ.Ue 2 HalmeH o.nuu cpparMeHT paHHeTpHIIOJJhCKoii KepaMIIKH . OcranhHOii


r<epaMui:i:ecKIIii MaTepuan OTHCHTC>I K ::rrarry TpIIIIOJihe Cl, rro.npa3.neneHHI>IH 1:.a TPH
rpyrrrrhr: I) II3 MeJIKocrpyr<TypHoii rnHH>IHOii MaCChI 6e3 BI!)l,HMbIX rrpIIMeceu (260
qiparMeHTOB); II3 rJilIH>IHOH Macchr crrp11MechIO TomeHoii paKyIIIKH (48 cpparMeHToB)
11 3) c lllepoxoBaToii BHerrmeii rroaepxnocrhI-O (I cpparMeHT). '
~
~
B 4 M K r-ory oT ){(IIJIHJ.Ua 1 o6Hapy)!(eHhI ocraTK11na3eMHOH rrocTpOIIKH,
HMeIOruIIe B rrnaHe rro.nrrp>1MoyronhHYIO cpopMy. Cne.nyeT OTMeTHTh, 'ITOrpyHT
B 3TOH '!aCTII 6bIJI ){(eJITOro U:BeTa c 6oJihlllHM BKJIIO'!eHifeM MeJII<HX KYCKOB
o6Ma3KH II o6Ma30'IHOH KpOillKH BO B3BememIOM COCTO>IHHH. Cpe.nII I<YCKOB
o6Ma3KII naii.netthr 4 cpparMeHTa cTeHOK cocy.noB, 1 uyrrneyc KOHYCOBII.D.HOH
qi opMhI, r<peMHeBhre oTrn:errbI, KOCTII ){(IIBOTHhIX II .np. Bepo>I~tto, KYCKH ~6Ma3Kl1
>IBJI>IIOTC>I oC"raTi<aM11 m10rua.n.KH, pa3pymeuHoii rJiy6or<ou BCrraIIIr<OII. Cy,n>I
no r<epaMIIKe, 1rn3eMua.i1 rrocTpoiiKa OTHOCIIJiach K 3Tarry TpIIrronhe BI.
OcTaTKII BToporo Ha3eMHor o coopy){(emrn: o6Hapy)!(eHbI B 2 M ceBepoBOCTO'IHee ){(ilJIIIIUa 2. 0HH B rrnaHe IIMeIOT ITO.D.TpeyrOJihHbie 9'IepTaHII>I lI
rrpe)l,CTBaJI>IIOT co6oii cppar MeHTbI BaJihKOH o6Ma3KH TOJrIII;lIHOH 4- 5 CM,
)l<enTo-opatt){(eBoro n:BeTa, c pacTuTeJihIIOii rrpIIMechIO . Cpe.n.II KycKo_:i o6Ma3Kl1
Haii:,neHbI KOHU:eBOH CKpe6oK Ha OTIII;erre, rrnacnrna rrpaBHJihHOil rrpII3MaTII'IeCKOH cpopMhI c rrp>IMbIM rrpocpIIJieM If rrpIITYIIJieHHbIM KpaeM, cpparMeHTbI
pamieTpurronhcKoii KepaMIIKII, KOCTH ){(IIBOTHhrx ll .np. Coopy){(ettn:e 6orno
~
pa3pyIIIeHO COBpeMeHHOH Tpamn eeii.
B pacKorrKe co6paHhI 16 .cpparMeHTOB paHHeTp1:1rrJihCKOH KepaMHKII,
MO)l,eJIHpOBaHHOH 113 TJil1HbI c rrpIIMeCbIO MeJIKOro nraMOTa. QBeT cpparMeHTOB
BaphIIpyeT OT TeMHo-ceporo .no ){(eJIToro. CTeHKII II BeH'IIIKII yKpameHhI
yrny6J1eHHbIMH II rrpo'Iep'!eHHbIMH J1HHII~MH, OKpyrJibIMH H OBaJihHbIMH
>IMO'Ir<aMII (pttc. 7- 6, 8, IO, 13). Cpe.ri:11 cpparMeHTOB BhI,neJI>IeTC>I cocy.n c rrp>IMhIM
3aKpyrneIIHhlM BeH'!HKOM II KOHH'IeCKOH aepxHeii qaCThI-0, OpHaMeHTHpOBaHHhIH ropH30HTa..llhHhIMII I{ mrnrOHaJihHhIMH yrJiy6neHIIhIMII JIHHH>IMH.
KepaMIIqecKIIii KOMrrneI<c cno>I KyI<yTeHh A - TpmIOJihe BI no TexHHI<OTexHonom'!eCI<IIM, MOpcpoJiornqecI<IIM npH3HaKaM H OpHaMeHTy rro.npa3,lleJI>IeTC>I
Ha II>ITh rpynn.
~
K rrepBoii rpynne OTHOC>ITC>I. cocy.nhr, H3r~TOBJieHHhie H3 rnIIH>IHOII Maccb!
c rrpaMeChI-O KpyrrttoTOJI'IeHoro IIIaMoTa (1148 cpparMeHTOB). 06)!(IIr 3TOH
rrocy,nhI HepaBHOMepHbIH, a ee U:BeT BapbHpyeT OT TeMHO-ceporo .no )!(eJITOopaH)!(eBoro. qeperroK pbIXJibIM, I<OMI<OBaTbIH. IloBepxHOCTh cocy,noB , KaK
upamrno, IIIepoxoBaTa>I 11 qacTo HOCIIT cne.D.hI ne6pe){(HOro crna)!(IIBaHH>I,
II.D.yrn:ae ropII30HTaJihHO, B,epTHKaJihHO HJIH 6ecnop>1.D.O'IHO, B KepaMII'IeCKOM
KOMirneKce cocra:BJI>IeT 51,4% II B Heii BbI,neJI>IIOTC>I cne.nyr-ouure cpopMhI cocy.noB.
IllupOKO OTKpbITbie I<OTJIOBH,l\Hb~e ropIIIK:U: co CJierKa HaKJIOHeHHhIM
BOBHYTPh KpaeM. Bett'!HK 3aKpyrneH, nu6o ropII30HTaJihHO cpe3aH. HeKOTOphre
3K3eMnmrpbr no.n KpaeM BeHqaJ<a HMeIOT KOHII'IeCKIIe py'IKII-ynopbL Y o.ri:Hor~
cocy.na IIO)l, KpaeM BeH'IHKa HaHeCeH yrJiyforeHHbIH opHaMeHT, BhIIIOmieHbIH
IIITaMITOM TpeyrOJibHOH cpopMbI, OIIO>ICbIBaIOIUHtt cocy.n. ,[(aaMeTp BeH'IlIKOB:
14 CM; 28 CM; 30 CM; TOJIIUHHa CTeHOK-0,4- 1,2 CM.
-

131 -

BettqHKa HMe_
m T KOHir<IecKrre py11Krr-yrrophI. BepxHrrM KpaM: rroBepxttocTrr
BeH'lHI<a yI<pameH KOCO pacrrOJIO)l(eHHbIMH OBaJihHhIMH JIMb'lI<aMH H
OI<py'r JihIMH JIMOqJ<aMH. 0.[(HH 3J<3eMrrmrp HMeeT ITO,[( Kpae:M: BeuqrrKa BaJIHK,
paCIIOJIO)l(eHHhIM no ,[(HaroHaJIH cocy,[(a . )::(HaMeTp BeHqHKOB:

16

CM;

21

CM .

fopllII<H c BepTHKaJihHblM BeHqHJ<OM H I<OHHqecI<OM meMI<Oii; BeH'lHKH


3aI<pyrneHhI H cnerKa yTOJIIl(eHhI. Orrtt yKpameHbI no ocrroBaHHIO IIIeMKH
ropH3Q}ITaJihH blM pH.[(OM OI<pyrnhIX HMoqeJ<. )::(HaMeTp BeHqHJ<OB:

I 1-

11

CM;

33cM:
fopllIKH c

npH~hIM

BerrqHKOM H oBaJihHO -BhITHiiyThIM TYJIOBOM. BeuqHK

cocy.[(OB 3arJia)l(eH H CB060.[(eH OT 6ap60THHhI, 3aKpyrneH HJIH ropa30HTaJ1bHO


cpe1att. BepxHHM Kpail rroBepxuocTH BeHqHKa ueKOTOpbIX cocy.n:oB opHaMeHTttpoBaH OBaJihHbIMH HMOqKaMH, a ITO OCHOBaHHI:O IIIeMKH pJILJ:OM or<pyrnhIX HMoqeK. )::(tt aMeTp BeH'lHKOB:

22

cM;

35

ropH30HTaJihHhIM

CM.

)KapOBHJI, rrpe.[(CTaBJIHIOlilaH OTKphIThIM OKpyrnhIM COCYLI c I<OI:rnqecKHMH


CTeHI<aMH (BhICOTa - -

2,4

12 CM).

CM, .D;HaMeTp Berrq11Ka -

MHCKH c KOHH'leCKHMH CTeHKaMH I1 OTOI'HYThlM Hapy)l(y BeH'lHKOM, Kpaii


BCH'lHKa 3aOCTperr; BeH'lHK OT TyJIOBa BhI,[(eJieH pe6poM. )::(HaMeTp BeHqHKa -

16 CM,

TOJIIl(HHa CTeHOI< -

1 CM.

DHfIOKJieBH.[(Hhie H3.[(emrn: cpparMeHThI qaIII -

'

- - - - - - - - - - - _ _,;>

nepeMhI'leK -

,/

1 3I<3.
' ',

8-1

2 3K3.'

3K3., cl)parMeHThI

clJparMeHT QeHTpanhHOH qacTH TyJIOBa c rrepeMBiqKOH -

Bee o6napy)l(eHhI B )l(HJIHil(e

1.

KphIIIIKa KOHHqecKaH c OTOI'HYThIMH 1-rapy)l(y KpaJIMH , ,[(HaMeTp -

____________ _..,,"'

11

CM.

Ilocy,[(a BTOpOM rpyITTihI MO.[(eJIHpOBaHa H3 Tll(aTeJihHO npoMeIIIaHHOM

qa
.

.'

8,

10

MeJIKOCTPYKTYPHOM rnHHhI c npHMeChIO H3MeJih'letrnoro IIIaMOTa. 01rn o6hI'lHO


xopOIIIO o60)l()l(eHa, qeperror< Ha H3JIOMe ITJIOTHhIH, u;BeT ITOBepxHOCTli cocy.[(OB
11aiu;e Bcero )l(eJIThIH HJIH )l(CJITo- opaH)l(eBhIH. Cnapy)l(11 H BHYTPH rroBepxHOCTh
cocy.LIOB xopoIIIo 1arna)l(eHa H 11acTo 3aJioll(ena. B KepaMtt11ecr<oM r<oMrrneI<ce
paccMaTpHBaeMaH rpyrrna COCTaBJIHeT

28,9% (645

cpparMeHTOB) 11 B Heii

BhI.[(eJIJIIOTCJI crre.[(ymr.Utte THIIhI.


Ky6r<H c OTOrHyThIM Hapy)l(y BeHqHKOM, KOHH'leCKOH IIIeHKOH H noqTn
ccpep1111ecr<HM TynoBOM. KaK rrpaBttno, IIIeiiKa yr<parneHa ropH3CiHTaJihHhIMH,
a TYJIOBO-BepnII<aJJhHhIMH r<amienmpaMH. HeKOTOpbre r<y6r<u op1rnMeHTHpoBaHhI TOJihKO ropH30HTaJihHhIMH KaHHenmpaMH'. BepTHr<anhHhie KanHemophI
06b111tto 6onee Bhrpa311TeJIHHhI. Wttp11Ha Kanuenmp

Puc. : IlynmeurrL II. KepaM11Ka ID CIIO!I IIpeKyKyreHL (6, 8, 10, 13).11 KyKyreHL A (1- 5, 9 11; 12).
1

ropmKH CO CJierKa 'oTOI'HYThIM BeHqHKOM, KOTOphIM 6hIBaeT 3aocrpeH

roptt30~TaJ1hHO

cpe1att mm: 3aKpyrnett rr yTOJIIl(eH. Tptt cocy.n:a

Kpacttorr KpaCKOM IIOCJie 06)l(rrra.

y OLJJI~ro

yKpametth~

cocy.[(a BepXHHM Kpail

BeH~HKa

Opl'laMeHTHpOBaH KpaCHOM JIHHHeM ):(0 06)l(rrra, a TaK)l(e OBaJihHhIMH JIMOqKaMH.


)::(rraMeTp BeHqHKOB: 14 CM; 22 CM.
ropllIKH C IIpJIMbIM Be.HqHKOM, 6ap60THH IIOKpbIBaeT BCIO BHeIIlHIOIO
rroBepxnocTh, BHYTPH cocy.[(hI 1arna)l(eHbI. IieK0Topb1e cocy.[(hI no.n: KpaeM

-132 -

BCHqHKOB

7- 11

0,2-0,5

CM, TOJIIl(HHa CTCHOK -

0,4-0, 7 cM;
7- 5).

.n:ttaMeTp

CM (pHC.

MttcKH rronyccpepttqecKoii cpopMhI c OTOrHYThIM BCH'lHKOM H ropH30HTaJihHO npoTKHYThIMH py11KaM11-ywKaM11. OHM yr<paIIIeHhI ropM30HTaJJhHhIMH r<a1rnerr10paMn (Hx um:pmra

0,4-0,6

CM). Ha O.LII~OM 3K3eMrmnpe

r<amremophI HHKpycn1poBaHhI 6enoii nacrnH.


MHCI<H KOHH'leCI<OH cpopMhl c 3aI<pyrneHHhlM n 3aOCTpCHHhIM BCH'lHKOM.
OHM opttaMCHTMpoBaHhI ropM30HTaJihHhIMH H KOChIMH Kam1emopaMH (11x
urnp1rna

0,4- 0,5 CM), TOJlll(HHa CTCHOK - 0,6- 0,7 CM , ,[(HaMeTp BenqHKOB -

22 CM; 38

CM.

-- 133 -

.M11c1m c KOHl1'IeCKHMI1 CTCHKaMH H.. OTOrHyThIM Hapy:>Ky BCH'IHI<OM. BeH'IHI<


3aKpyFJ1CH HJ1lf 3aOCTpen.

0.[IHOM MHCKH BHy;rpeH/il1M Kpa:li BCH'IITKa yKpaweH

P5I.LIOM sepTur<anbl-IhIX 1-raceT.J.eK. MttcKH opHaMeHTHpOBaHhI rop1110HTaJ1hHhIMl1


I1 KOCbIMl1 KaHHemopaM11, HHOr,Lla B KOMII03I1U:Hll c OKpyrJibIMH 5IMO'IKaMI1.
yKpaweH ropM30HTaJ1bHbIMH KaHHemopaMli (.LIHaMeTp BCI-1'-IHI<a -

no~Bll.LIHMOMy,

yI<pameHHbIH rrmpOKHMJf (IIIHprrna -

BeHqHKa Opl-IaMCHTHpOBaH OBaJ1bHhIMH 5IMO'IKaMH .' )J;e1<0p MHCOK HHKpycTHpOBaH 6enoi1 naCTOH UJ1H 6eno:li IIaCTOtt B CO'leTaHHI:I c Kpacnoii KpaCKOM.

1 CM) ropM30HTaJibHbIMJf c KOCbIMH

15 CM , TOJ1l1(UHa

CT~HOK

0,5 CM).

Cocy.r1&1 c OTOrHyThIM BenqHKOM, KOHH'ICCK,OH me:liKo:li 11 oKpyrnhIM


1, 1 cM) JI pe:>Ke y 3 KHMH

(0 ,5

c~! ropu1onTanM1hrM11KamremopaMu,11Hor.r1a rrHr<pycTHpoBaHuhre 6eno:li


10 CM;

Mu9<11

I:I1pe.r1K'a ctta6:>Kan11ch pycII<aM11-ymr<aM11 c ropn16nTanhHhIM

OTBepCTHeM. (.LII:IaMeTp BCH'II:IKOB -

18 CM; 20 CM).

7 CM; 16 CM; 18 CM; 23 CM).

KphIWKH KOHHT.J:ecKoii cpopMhI, opHaMeHTHpoBatmhre rop1110HTanhHhIMH


JII1HI15IMI:I, HHOr,na B CO'leTaHHH c OBaJiaMH (.LlrrnMeTp KpbIWCK bl:IHOKJICB11,[(HOe I13,[(CJ1I:Ie -

TynoBoM, opm:lMCHTMpoBaHHhre rrmpoK11M11 (w11puHa naCTOH (.r1rraMeTp BCH'IUKOB -

KOMI103I:IU:HH c OBaJiaMH 11 r<pyrnhIMI:I 5IMO'lJKaMI~. BepXHHM Kpaii IIOBepXHOCTH

22 CM).

B~po5ITHO. 6nr<o~1wrecKo~ q)OpMhI c oTornyThIM tta~y:>Ky BCH'll1KOM,

KanuemopaMJf (.LII1aMeTp BCH'IUKa -

19 CM; 20 CM; 26cM; 27 CM).

M11c1<11 c KOHH'ICCKHMH CTCHJ<aMH H KOCO cpe3aHHhIM BOBfIYTPh BCH'IHKOM.

or<pyrnhIM

TYJ10BOM. 01m opHaMeHTHPOBaHhI roprr30HTaJ ibHhIMl1 I1 KOCblMH KaHHemopaM11.


1
Cocy.r1,

CO'leTaHHHCKpaCHOHKpaCKOM (.r111aMeTp BCH'IHKOB -

0H11 yr<paweHhI ropH30HTaJ1bHbIMH I1 .[(HaroHaJ1bHbIMkl J1HH115IMH, HHOr,Lla B

Cocy.r1 Co CJie rKa naKnonem1hrM BOB1-1yTpb 3aKpyrnem-I hIM BCH'IHKOM


Cocy.r1a co cna6o Bbipa:>KeHHhIM BenT.J.IIKOM u,

BCTpe'IaI-OTC5I MHCKH, HHKpyCTHpOBaHHbie 6enoii naeroii l1J1H 6eno:li rrncroi-i B

7 CM; 12 CM).

cjJparMeHT cpe,LIHyM 'laCTI:I, yr<paweHI-IhIH

ropI:I30fITaJ1bHhIMI:I, ,L(I:IaroHaJ1hHhIMH yrny6neHHhIMI:l J1HHI:I5IMH, OBaJiaMH,


KpyrnhIMH 5IMO':!KaMH H I:IHI<pyCTI:IpOBaHI-Ihill 6eno11: rracTOil.
Ilocy.r1a 'ICTBCpTOM rpyIIIIbI MO,[(CJII:IpOBaHa 113 TOHKOCTpyr<TypHOM
l'J1I:IH5IHOH MaCChI rrpeI:IMymeCTBCHHO _6e1 BI:l.[II:!MhIX npI:IMe'celi, 11nor.r1a B

KpbillIKa r<onor<onoBH.LIHOH cjJopMhI, naBeprrrne ropn1onTanhuoe,

. Ka'leCTBe mrrpe,L1HCHTa'I:IcnOJ1b30BaJ1C5I MCJ1KOTOJ1lJCHhIM HJ1H KpymIOTOJ1'ICHhIH

yr<pame1-moe p5I,LlaMu r<auuemop. no MaKCHMaJibHOMY .[(HaMeTpy HMeeT PY'IKI1-

IIIaMoT; t.J:epenoK nnoTHhIM, pe:>Ke KOMKOBaToil cTpyKTyphr; rroBepxHOCTh

ywrm c BepnrKaJibHhIM OTBepCTtteM. KpbIIIIKa opnaMeHTHpoBaHa ropn 3 oH-

HCI<OTOpbIX COCJ,LIOB 1anoru:e1rn .LIO 6necKa. L(BeT IIOBepxHOCTI:I cocy.r10B B

Tanh,HhIMH I<a1-rnemopaM11: I<pa:li yr<pallle1-1 ~<aI-rnemopaMu, o6pa 3 yrou_~HMH

OCHOBHOM )KCJ1ThIH I:IJ1H :>KCJITO-opaH:>KCBhIM. B KepaMH'ICC!\OM KOMIIJ1CKCe OHa

Tpely2roJihHI1KH (IIIHpHI-raI<aHHenrop CM.

cocTaBnJieT 9,8% (218 parMeHTOB). B 3TOH rpyrrne BhI.LICJ15IIOTCJI cne,nyror.u:ne

0 ,5----0 , 6 CM) , BbICOTa -

7,5 CM, .[(Ha:rvi;eTp

TI:IIIhI.

KpbIUII<a nonycqlep11t.J:ecr<oli cpopMhI, opnaMeHTHpoBarma5I ropH30HTanb -

Ky6rrn c npHMhIM I:IJ1H o r on-ryThIM Hapy:>Ky BeHqI:IKbM

11 c OI<pyrnhIM

HhIMH H .n:ttarouaJibHhIMH I<aHHeJiropaMH B CO'leTaHHii c 0BCllihHhIMI1 5IM0'II<aMH.

TynoBOM. O.r111a Ky6oK pacrr11cm-r cnnornh 3aKpawem-rbIMH nosrocaMH KpacHoro

I<pa11 KpbIWKH yKpaweu OBaJ1bHhIMH B,LlaBJ1CHH5IMI1.

'

u;BeTa, oI<aliMneHHhIMH y1I<nM11 'lepHhIMH nHHH5IMH , BhmonHeHHhIMH Ha 6enoM

15 3K3., cjJparMeHThI cpe.r1Httx

clrnae. Ha .r1pyrOM r<y6I<e opHaMeHTaJihHa5I KOMII03HI~I:I5I COCTOI:IT I:I3

Bn:ioKJieB11.r1nhre 111.r1enn51: clJparMeHTbI qam t.J:ac.Te11 -

2 3K3., cjJparMeHThI nepeMhI'leK - - 1 3K3. 0Hu yr<pameHhI

ropH30HTaJihHbIX nonoc no OCHOBaHHIO IlICMKH I:! I<pa5IM BCH'IHKa H

rop1130HTaJ1bHhIMl1 11 .[(HaroHanbHhlM11 KaI-II:-IenropaM11, l1HOr.r1a B CO'leTa1-Im1 c

BepTm<anhHhrx no110c Ha TynoBe. KpoM,e Toro, 3TOT :>Ke cocy.r1 yKpaweH

OKpyrnbIMH 5IMO'IKaM11 . qarrrn: BHyrp11 ll cr-rapy:>Kl1 OpHaMCHTHpOBaHbl J1CHTaM11,

rop1110HTaJihHhIMI:I 11 BepTI:II<anhnhIMI:I KaHHenropaMM. TpeT11:li cocy.n pacrmcaH

COCT05Il1(I1Ml1113 3--4 BepTHI<aJibHhIX' KaHHenrop, l1JI11 :>Ke I<aHHeJIIOpbI o6pa3yIOT

1) cnnowh 3aI<paIIIeHHhIMI:I nonocaMI:I Kpacnoro u;BeTa c y3KHMH 'IepHhIMH

OBCllibI, nn6o no BHyTpeHHeMy r<pa1-0 HaHecen ropH30HTaJ1bHhIM PH.LI OKpyrnbIX

nMHI:I5IMH no KpaHM Ha 6e.rroM qJOne I:I 2) neHTaMH Ha y1K11x <1epttr,1x nHHI:IJIX,


'
.
HMCI-OIIJ:I:IX B cepe,LII:IHe Y3KYIO Kpacttyro J1I:IHI:II-O, npocTpaHCTBO MC)K.LIY

5IMO'leK (.r111aMeTp 'lam - - 7 CM; 13 CM; 14 CM).

'

Ilocy.r1a TpeTbe:li rpynnhI BbIJienneHa 113 PJIHH5IHOM MaCCbI c npHMCChIO


MCJII<oro, l1Hor~a KpynHoTon~ieHoro waMoTa (204 cjJparMenTa -

9, 1 %),

t.J:epen oI< nJIOTHhIH, ll;BeT IlOBepxHOCTH COCY.LIOB B OCHOBHOM :>KCJ1TbIM HJIH :>KeJITOopaJ-l)KeBbIH. B ue:li BhrnBneHhI c11e.r1y1-0r.u:11e THIIhI.
Mncrm nonycclleput.J:ecr<oii cjJopMbI c OTOrHyThIM BCH'll1KOM. Kpa:li BCH'IHI<a

KOTOpbIMI:I OKpaweHO 6erroi1 nacTOM (.r1naMeTp BCH'IHKOB -

12 CM;

9 CM; 10 CM;

13 CM.

Cocy.r1h1 c KOpOTKHM, Har<noHeHHhIM BHyrpb seH<rn1<0M, TynoBo, BepoHTHO,


c<llep11':leCKQH cJ.lopMhI. Pocn11ch coxpaHnnach TOJ1hKO na O.LIHOM cocy.r1e H
BhITIOJIHeHa Ha 6enoM cjJone 1) CTIJIOWb 1ar<paweHHhIMH TIOJIOCaMI:I KpaCHoro u;BCTa,

1 aocTpett l1J1H 1aKpyrneH . HeKOTOphie MHCKH HMCIOT py~urn-ywr<n c

oKaliMneHHhIMH y1r<I:IMI:I 'IepnhIMH J1HHHJIMI:I 11 2) neHTaMH I:I3 4--5 y1K11x r<pacHhIX

rop111ounllihHhIM OTBepcTueM. BueIIJH5I5I noBepxHOCTh HeKOTOphrx cocy.r1oB


1ano1.u;eua.

J1HHHH c y1I<I:IMI:I 'IepHhIMI:I JII:IHH5IMI:I no r<pa5IM (.r111aMeTp.BeHT.J:HKOB 7 CM; 8 CM).


Cocy.LJ;hI c npaMhIM seH'IHKOM, B03MO:>KHO, KpaTepoBH.LIHOH opMhI. Bett'IHK

0HH opuaMeHnrpoBaI-IbI ropH30HTaJibHhIMH, KOCbIMl1 11 BepT11KaJ1bHhIMH

3aOCTpeH I:IJ1H ropH30HTaJibHO cpe3aH. 0HI:I opr-raMeHTHpOBaHhI cnnO,Wb

yrny6neHHhIMH J1l1H,I15IMI1, 11nor.r1a B CO'leTaHH c KpyrnhIMff 5IMOqI<aMH, OBaJiaMH

1a1<paIIIeHHhIMH rronocaMH r<pacttoro U:BeTa c y1KI:IMII ':lepHbIMI:I JIHHHJIMH no

11 cepnOBH.LIHhIMH yrny6neI-I11JIM11. KpeMe Toro, Bepx1m:li r<pa:li noBepxHOCTl1

KpaHM Ha 6enoM cpoae, Ha ecTeCTBeHHOM cjJoHe -

BCH'lHKa yKpawen OBaJ1hHhIMI1 JIMOT.J:KaMtt 11 n ace'IKaM11. Cpe,n 11 cocy.[IOB

rroJIOChI 6enoro r.i:BeTa c y1r<11MI:I 'Iepr-IhIMI:I nHHI:IHMI:I no Kpa5IM.

-134-

135 -

cnnornh 1ar<pamem1hre

Cocy,n;hI c KOpOTKIIM IIIIJIIIH,npIIqecI<IIM BeHqIIKOM. 0,n;IIH 3K3eMrrJI.Sip


pacrrIIcaH cilrroIIIb 3aKpaIIIeHIIbIMII KpaCHhIMII 110nocaMII c y3KIIMII qepHbIMII
JIIIHII.SIMII no I<pa.SIM. 0HII pacrrOJIO)!(eHbI ropII30HTaJlbHO II, B03M0)!(H0, o6pa3yIOT
cpecTOHhI. BTopoli cocy.n pacrrIIcaH qepHbIMII JIIIHII.SIMII Ha 6erroM cpoHe.
MIIcKa rrorryccpepwiecKoij cpopMbI co.crrerKa OTOrHYThIM II 3aKpyrneHHbIM
BeI-P:lIIKOM. Cttapy)!(il: n no BHyTpemreli noBepxttoc-::II pacnncatta .ri;IIaroHaJihHbIMII nonocaMH Kpacttoro IIBeTa c y3KIIMII qepHbIMH JIIIHH.SIMII TIO I<pa.SIM.
KpbIIIIKa :i;moyccpep11qecKoi1 qiopMbI, pacrrncamra.SI crrJIOIIIh 3aKpaIIIeHHhIMM
nonocaM11 KpacHoro 1~Bera c y3I<MMH qepHbIMH JIHHHllMII no I<pal!M II rreruaMH
H3 Y3I<Hx '-repHbIX JIHHHM, HMeromttMM B cepe,n11He y3I<ym I<pacuy10 JIMI-IIIIO.
ITpoCTpaHCTBO Me)!(.ny rreHTaMM oKpaIIIeHo 6enoi1 nacT.oli. OcuoBI-Ia.SI
opHaMeHTaJihHa.SI KOMII03MIIMll - - BH,ll.Ha.SI CIIIIpanh, paCIIOJIO)!(eHHa.SI
ropH30HTaJihI-IO. BhICOTa r<pbIIIIKM 4,8 cM, .z:i;ttaMerp - 10 cM. PHcyaoK Ha o.naoM
. ttaBepUIHH BhIIIOJIHeH norrHxpoMHOM pocnIIChIO. Ha cnerKa yrny6rreHHOM
BepxHeM HJIOCKOCTII aapIICOBaHa CBaCTl1Ka.
Ettaor<nemi,nttbie H3.ri;en11.SI: 4 cpparMe1ua qaIII 11 ,n;Ba qiparMettTa qaw c
nepeMbI'l!<aMK pocrrHch coxpamrnach qacTwrno. Bee cpparMeHThI o6ttapy)!(etthI
.
B )!\HJIHiIIe 1.
ITocy.na rr.SITOM rpynnhI H3rOTOBJieHa H3 rJIIIH.SII-Ioli Macchi, B Ka'leCTBe
OTOlIIIITeJI.SI KOTOpOM HCIIOJib30BaJiaCh MeJIKOTOJI'leHa.SI par<yIIIr<a. 06)!(Mr
cocy,z:i;oB ttepaBHOMepHbIM rr IIBeT BapbrrpyeT OT TeMI-Io-ceporo .no )!(eJIToro. Bee
cpparMeHTbl 3TOM rrocy,n;hI Hail:,neHbl B )!(HJil11IIe 1 (18 qiparMeHTOB - 0,8%).
CTeHKH opaaMeHTIIpoBaHhI pacqecaMH, o6pa3yI01IIHMH rop1noaTaJihHhIM pll.z:i;
11 cpecTOHbI. Ben'lIIKH yr<paUieHbI ropH30HTaJibl-ThIMH p}i,z:i;aMw pacqecoB, a no
ocnoBaHHI-O Uieil:r<rr - ropH30HTaJihHhIM PMOM OBaJibHbIX .SIMO'IeK. Bepxnttil:
Kpali IIOBepXHOCTH B.eH'IHKa opHaMeHTHpOBaH KOCbIMH Haceqr<aMII.
~epaMrrqecr<11i1 KOMnner<c cno.SI Kyr<yTeHh B-Tprrrronhe CI no Texnm<0Texi-10norrr;:ecr<11M, Mopcponornqecr<HM npH3Har<aM II opnaMenTy rro.npa3,z:i;eJI.SieTCll aa TPII rpynnI>I.
ITocy.na rrepBoil: rpyrrrrhI (391 cpparMeHT - 87,9%) Mo.ri;enttpoBaHa H3
TOHKOCTpyI<TypHOM rJIHHHHOM MaCCbl 6e3 BH,D;HMbIX rrprrMeceil:, IIBeT
!10BepxHOCTH cocy.ri;OB . )!(eJITbIM HJIM )!(eJITO-KpaCHhitt; qepenOK ITJIOTHbIM.
Pacm1cHoiI opHaMeHT coxpaHHJIC.SI noJrnocTbIO HJIII qacnrqtto TOJibKO Ha 24
cpparMeHTaX, H3 KOTOpbIX na 23 3K3. pHCYHOK BhIIIOJII-IeH qepnoli I<paCKOM H
Ha 1 3K3 . - qepnoli n Kpacnoli I<pacI<aMrr. OcnOBHhie 3rreMeHTbI opnaMeHTa:
ceTI<a, UIHpOI<He JIIIHIIM no OCHOBaHHIO IIIeMI<H cocy.na H Ha rrpH,D;OHHOM qaCT.lf,
"peCHl1'lKH" ' T .e. ropH30HTaJibHbie urnpOKH~ JIHHHH, Ha KOTOpbIX c o6eIIx
CTOpOH napHCOBaHhI KOpOTKHe BepTHKaJibHbie JIHHIIII; I<pyr, o;r KOToporo
OTXO;:J;IIT rrenTa 113 IIIlipoI<rrx nrrurril:. I1, aaKOHeII, rrenTa n3 7 y3I<IIX JIHHHM
Kpacaoro IIBeTa, HattecenHbIX ne6pe)!(H0, OKaMMJieHHbIX urnpOKHMII JIHHilll:Mll
qepHoro IIBeTa. B 3Toil: rpyrrrre BI>rnBrreHbT c.11e.ny1-0mIIe THIIbI.
MIIcKa co crrerKa naKrroneHHbIMH BOBHYTPh I<paeM n KOHrrqecI<oli HH)!(tteil:
'laCTbl-0, 6e3 OpHaMeHTa (Torrmmm CTeHOK - 0,8 CM, ,D;HaMeTp BenqIIKa - 37 CM).
-136 -

MucI<M norrycqiepIIqecKOM cpopMI>I c 3aKpyrneutthIM IIJIII ropH30HTaJihHO


cpe3aHHbIM BeH'l.HKOM. OcnoBHbie opttaMeHTaJibHI>Ie 3neMeHThI: cpecrOHhI H3
urnpOKHX qepHbIX JIHHIIM; ropII30HTMbHhie H BepTIIKaJibHhie UIHpOKtt:e JIIIHHII
qepnoro IIBeTa (.nrraMeTp BeH'lIIKOB ____.: 22 CM; 23 CM; 30 CM).
.
MrrcKM c KOHH'l.eCI<HMH cTeHI<aMrr rr oTon:lyTl.IM napy:>Ky BeH'lHKOM.
Opn<J,MeHT coxpaHIIJICH Ha BHyTpeHHeli noBepxuocTII. OcHOBHbie opuaMeHTarrhHbie 3JieMeHTbI: ropII30HTaJibHbie, .nrraroHaJihHbie, BepTMKaJibHbie llIIIpOKHe
JIHHIIH qepHoro IIBeTa; BOJIHHCTaHnIIHH.SI qepHoro IIBeTa. BttelliH.SIH rroBepxnocrh
HeKOTOpbIX MIICOK 3arromeHa (,z:i;IIaMeTp BeH'lHKOB - 12 CM; 31 c11;1; 32 CM).
AopoBH,D;HbIM cocy.n c oTorny'rI>IM Hapy:>Ky BeH'lHKOM, B03MO:>KHp,
6IIKOHH'leCI<OM cpopMI>I. OcHOBaHIIe meiiI<H yKparneno roptt30HTaJII>HbIMH
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- 11,5CM).

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BTopaH rpyrrna rrocy,n;hI Bl.merrneHa .H3 rrrmrnHOM Macchi c rrprrMeChIO


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paccMaTpIIBaeMa.SI rpyrrna cocTaBJI.SieT 11 ,9% (53 cpparMenTa). B 3Toi1 rpyrrrre
Bbil!BJieHhI crre.nyromHe TIIIIbI.
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14 CM . .z:i;ttaMeTp ,z:i;Ha -

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cjJparMeHT o.nuoro cocy,Z:J;a (0,2%), KOTOpbIM, BH)J;HMO, HMeJI OBaJibHOBbITHHYTbie oqepTaHH.SI .co crrerKa ttaI<noneHHI>IM BOBHYTPI> BemmKOM. B
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(TOJI1IIIIHa CTeHOK - 1 CM, .i:i;ttaMeTp BeH'lIIKa - 39 CM).
TaKIIM o6pa30M, B pe~yrrhTaTe rrccrre.noBaHIIH rrocerreHIIH ITyTrrHeIIITh II
6I>mo ycrattoBrreno, .tlTo rraMHTHIIK MttorocrroiiHI>Iii. Harr6orree HHTepecHI>Ie
MaTepHaJihI rronyqeHI>I H3 crroeB 3TarroB KyKyTeHh A - Tprrrronhe BI H KyKyTeHh B --;- Tpm10m,e Cl. ITpe):(BapttTenbHO, rrocenen11e ~Tarra KyKyTeHb A
- Tpttnon1>e BI MO)!(HO oTnecrH K Kpyry rraMHTHHKOB Tttrra )J.p3ryIIIen1>- )l{ypa:
6
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)J,p3ryrneHb-blH )J,l!JI na IlyT3prre7H .np. )J,aJibHeMIIIHe HCCne,z:i;oBaHH.SI II03BOJil!T
yTO'l.HHTh MeCTO Mnorocnoiinoro rrocerreHH.SI ITyTHHeIDTh II cpe.nrr .npyrIIx
naM.SITHHKOB KYJihTypno-HcropH'leCKOM o6mHoCTH KyKyTeH1>- Tprrnonhe.
-

137-

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c ofiimecTBaMtt pO,D.CTBeHHhIX,I<YJihTYP TeCI-Ihie I<OH'TaKThI OTMeqawTc11 c rrm~
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KaK 11paBHJIO, pacrrOJIO:>KeHbI ua Hll3I<llX foppaca:x B6JIH3ll HCTOqHHKOB BO,D.hI,
na 6eperax 03ep ttJIH B,D.OJih no6epe:>KhH qepHoro Mopa. )J{ttnHru;a rrpe,D.CTaBJIHIOT
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BhI,D.eJIHIOTCH Ky6I<tt, MllCI<ll, .rpymeBH,D.I-Ihie cocy,D.hI, cocy,D.hI Ha m;>,D.CTaBI<ax,
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yKa3aB, qro _rrocne,D.HHH Haxo,D.nJUlCh .no,D. BJittar-l:neM l<YJihTYPhI XaMaH:>KHH2,,
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B q10p1vrnpOBaHHIJ, I<YJihTyphI IlpeKyKyTeHh3 f. ,[(yMHTpecKy, paCCMa'FpHBaH
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CHHxpoHHOCTh q)a3 XaMan:>Kirn C tt )Kr-onernTh-33HemTD;, ycTaH,OBnem-rnH B
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r. ,[J;yMIITpecI<y, B. ,[J;yMHTpecKy H C. MapHH,CCKy-EhIJIKY.IIOqTH ,D.llHO,D.YIIIHhI
B TOM, qTo aHTpOIIOMopr!JnaH_ITJiaCTHKa KY,JlhTYPhI, I1 peKyKy\feHh CJIO:>I<Imach
rro,D. BJI_HH~rneM KYJihTYPhI XaM<l;H:>KHJI n; ,D.pyr~~ o6VJ,HQCTeil (Kpttrn, CecI<no,
,[J;nM[Itm). ,[J;pyraa ToqI<a 3peHnH rrpmi:a,D.ne)Kli:F A'::.rr. Ilor:o:>KeBoil, yTBep:>K,D.ar-oru;eli, q'fo .c,aM06h1nraa rrm,lCTlfKa i<ynhTYPhI IlpeI<yI<yT~Hh-TpHrrOnhe
3apO,D.HJiaCh H pa3BHBaJiaCh B. cpe,D.e 3eMJie,D.eJI1?qecKHX rrJieMeH, 110,D. BJJHHHHeM
3eMne,neJihI~eB-HOCnTeneli 6oaHcKoli, a 3aTeM ryMeJihHHU:I<Oil KYJihTYPhI, Ha
KOTOpbIX CKa3aJIQCh -MOIIJ;HOe :BJIHHHHe BHHqaHCl(Oll ITJiaCTllI<H. 11ccne,D.OBaTeJibHHI(a TaI<:>Ke OTMeqaeT BJIIIHHHe i<pttmCI<HX ipa,D.HIJ;Hll ll llKOHOrpar!Jmi

-138-

--139-

IIPHMEqAHIUl
M apKe<1w1 B. H. ITaMllTHHKH :mox . ~eoJIHTa H3Heomi+a. Apx~onprnqecKaJi Kapra MoJIAaBCKOH
' CCP. Bi;m. 2. KmmmeB, 1973.
' '
.
2
MapKeeuti B. H MccneAoBaHHll MonAaBcKoJ:i HeoJIHTJ111ecKott 3KCIIeAHI.1HH a 1970-1971 rr.
II ApxeonornqecKHe J:ICCJieAOBaHHll B MOJIAaBHH n 19,70-1971 .rr. KuurnHeB, 1973.
'f!u6uKoe C. H. Apxeonori-lqecKue pacKOIIKH y ceneHHH rlo[\eHKH n )l(ypi;1 ua .D:neCTpe n 19 52 r.
II KpaTKHe coo61I.1eHHll llHCTHTyra HCTOpHH MaTepttMbHOtt kyJIBTYPbl. Bi;m. 56. M., 1954.
4'Pb1HouHa H. B. ' PacKOIIKH"noceneHHll pa.3BHT\>ro "fpunoJ1f.ll ,npy1.11>1 1 II ApxeonorH;1ecKHe
OTKpBlTHll 1981 ,r. M,, 1982. ,
'
1;
'
5
lfepHbll.u, E. K. .~Torn Mon11aricKo'ii 3KCIIeAHI.1HH B 1974 J;. ' ' f:Ioneiinme OT,KpblTllll COBeTCKHX
apxeonoron (Te:iHCDI AOKJiaAolfKOH<jJepeHI.IHH). "lJ. L I<tten, 1975.
6
36eHoeui/ B. I'., lllyMoea B. A. TpttIIOJlhCKal! ~YJIBTypa'. CpeAHero IloAHeCTpOBbl! BcneTe non:r,1x
ttccneAonaHHH II Ilepao6bnHall apxeonornll. M<nepHMbI H HCCJieAoBaH~ll. Kuen, 1989.
7
Criyman~ A. Draguyeni. Contributii' la o monografie arheologica. Boto~ani, 1977. MarinescuBilcu S. Ceramica cucuteniana de la Dragu~eni: traditii, creatii proprii, aspecte .regionale II
Studii ~i cercetari de istorie veche $i arheologie, t. 40, nr. 3, 1989.
1

Summary

'

"

The
article.presents'the survey results on the multilayer' settlement of Putin es\ ti II ' pe;fonned
'
by the author in 1989. The most interesting materials originate fr~m the layers of the Cucuteni A
and Cucuteni B stages.
'
' '
'
'

'

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Ha rroceneHHH PycernTttu Hou I Hau.n;eH o6noMoK HH)J(Heu qacTH ctt.n;11me:H:

MHCHHIO

C.

THTIH'IHa ,[(JIH npeKyKyTCHCKOU IIOCy.n;hI. Ilo

Mapli:Heci<y- BhmKy, noHBJICHHC cocy.n;oB c ' reTeporeHtthIMH

3JieMettTaMH B KYJihType XaMaH)J(HH catt.n;eTerrhCTByeT o 1-ranHtIHH npe.n;cTaBHTeneu npeKyKyTCHCKOro 3THOCa B cpe.n;e yKa3aHHOU KYJihTYPhI 15 .

,n;. Bepqy , paccMaTpHBaH aonpoc o CBH3HX MC)J(.n;y KYJihTypaMH XaMaH)J(HH


u BoHH', OTMC'faeT "3Ta)J(CBR.n;Hh1e" cocyL(hI. AaTop y1<a3h1IlaeT, 'ITO OHM HMCJIH
.n;onryIO 3BOJIIOU:HIO B KYJihType XaMaH)J(HH n 6hIJIH nepe.n;aHhI ee HOCHTCJIHMH
6oJIHCKHM nneMeHaM, a qepe3 HHX ryMeJihHHU:KHM o6mecTBaM 16 . C. MapHHCCKy- BhrnKy CtIHTaCT , 'ITO 3TOT THTI cocy.n;OB 6hIJI 3aHMCTBOBaH
xaMaH)J(HUCKHMH nneMeHaMu OT KYJihTYPhI BoHH 17 . Y'IHThIBaH 3BOrrIOu:mo 3Toro

,n;.

IIpeKyKyTCHh I l-

Tuna coc'y .n;oB B KYJihType XaMaH:>KHH, CKOpee BCCro npaB

PyceIUTHu Hou

HaCTOHI.QCC BpCMH aHaJIOrH'IHhIC cocy.n;hI BhIHBJICHhl Ha noCCJICimHX KYJihTYPhI

CTaTy3TKH, y KOT6pou Ha KOJICHHX coxpaHHJIHCh CJIC)l;hl JIOKTeu; BCpXHHH qaCTh


9
yTpatieHa . "MhICJIHTCJih" H3 BynK3HCIUTh II o6Hapy)J(eH a ceaepHou qacrtt

HCCJIC,D;OBaTCJIH onpe.n;errHIOT no pa3HOMy, Ha3hIBaH HX .D:BYXbHpyCHhIMH


ropIUKaMH" 18 HJIH "rpyIUCBH,ll;HhlMH cocy.n;aMu" 19 . y HHX OKpyrrroe HJIH crrer1<a

)J(HJIHUJa

Bepqy, B

IIpeKyKyTCHh- Tpunonhe A ,[J;HeCTpOBcKo-IIpyTcKoro MC)J(,ll;ype'IhH. lifx clJopMy


I

{ (

H rrpe.n;craan11eT co6o:H: clJparMCHT MY)J(CKo:H: <Pttryp1<H, cu.n;11me:H: Ha

npHnrrIOcHyToe TyrroBo, y3KOC roprro, a BhIIlYKJihIC nrre'IHKH qacTo onoHcaHhI

HC60JihllIOH CKaMCC'IKC, OT KOTopoH: coxpaHHJIHCh CJIC,[(hl npHKpenJICHHH K

IUHpOKOU H rny60KOU KaHaBKOH, pa3,D;CJIHIOUJCH TYJIOBO Ha ,D;BC ttaCT H . 0HH

TeppaKOT~.

fonoaa CTaTy3TKH HC60JihIUaH, IIICH MaCCHBHaH, Ha 11JIOCKOM JIHU:C

y1<paIUCHhl OpHaMCHTHpOBaHHhIMH nOHCaMH, COCTOHUJ.HMU H3 pH,D;OB

TpeyroJihHOH clJopMhI e.n;aa BhI.n;CJIHCTCH O.n;HH rna3; BhICTynhI c .n;ayx CTOpOH

Bhipe3 aHHhIX TpeyrOJihHHKOB B CO'ICTaHHH c JICHTaMH H3 naparrrreJihHhIX

H anOMHHaIOT YIUH. HaKnoH Tena anepe.n;, 'ICTKO Mo.n;enupoaaHHhIU no3BO-

yrny6rreHHhIX nporna)J(e'nHhIX JIHHHU. OHM o6napy)J(CHhI Ha nocerreHHHX


21
PorO)J(CHh 12, KoIUepHuu:a
u BepHaIUOBKa22. KaK y1<a3hIBaeT
Bepqy, B
1<yrrhType BoHH 3TOT Tun cocy.n;oa nOHBJIHCTCH B KOHU:e ee pa3BHTHH23 . TaKHM

HO'IHHK , HC60JihllIHC HMKH Ha TIOHCHHU:C, a TaK)J(C TIOJIO)J(CHHC KHCTH y I.QCKH H


no.n;6opo.n;Ka pearrHCTH'IHO nepe.n;a10T c11.n;HUJYIO qmrypKy. Htt)J(C )J(IfBOTa

,n;.

pCJihCtPHO OTMC'ICH <Panrroc1.

140 -

- 141 '-

o6pa30M, yqHThIBa51 :noT cpaKT, eCTb OCHOBaHH51 IIOJI<:traTh, qTO B KYJlhType


IT peKyKyTeHh- TpunOJJhe A "3Ta)KeBHJJ.I-Ibie" cocy.lihI noHBHJIHCh noJI BJIH5IHHeM
xaMaH)KHHCKnx nneMeH, a '!epe3 n~pBy10 - B KYJI,hTJ:pe KyKyTer-Ib- Tpnnonhe.
KynhTypa Bo5IH o6pa3oBanach Ha OC.HOBaHna aBTOXTOHHOli KYJJhTYPhI
,[(yJiell1Th H ee OCHOBHOH Teppruopaeli 5IBJI5leTC5l
, MyHTeHH5l. B pa3BHTHII
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BHJipa a rrepexO.lilia5l K KYJihType I'yMeJJhHmra. HeK0Topy10 aKTHBHOCTh
6oirncrrne rrrreMeJ-Ia rrpOHBIT5JIOT B a13e )K1-0nernTh. 01-m rrpoHm<aIOT Ha 10r oBOCTOK TpaHcurrhBaHH:a,' I'Jie Bo B3aHMoi\eiicrBHH c rr'rreMe~aMn KYJihTyphr
mrn~liHo-rreHTOqHoli KepaMHKH H .lIPYrH1- o6m:r-rocTeli cl)OpMHpyeTC5l KYJihTypa
ITpeKyKyTeHh, n Ha rnro-BOCTOK NlOJIJI()BhI24 Bo BpeM5l cpa3hI BHJipa HOCHTerrn
KynhTyphI Bo5IH nepexOJI51T ,[(yttali, 3aHHMaroi y3KYIO norrocy B.lIOJih perm II
rrpO.[(BHraIOTC5l Ha IOrO-BOCTOK OT OCHOBHOH TeppHTOp:irn.
ITocneJIH515l cpa3a KYJihTYPhI xapaKTepH3yeTc5r oco6oli aKTHBHOCThIO

6.o5IHCKMX nne~en. Ha 3arra.lle ?HM nepexoJIHT OnT, a KYJihTypa B3.[(aCTpa B


CBH3H c 3THM 3aBeprnaeT cBoe pa3BHTHe. Ha 10re rrepexo.[(5IT BarrKaHhI H
paccerrmoTCH B 6acceliue MapMUhI, r.lle BO B3aHMOJielic~BHM c uocriTerr5IMH
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B 3TOM uarrpaB~eHHH 6o5JHCI<Me nrreMena .lIOCTHraro~ 6epera 3relicKoro MOp51.
B ,!J;o6pyJI)Ke o6rn,HHhI KYJibTYPhI Bo.11H nepexO.lJHOH cpa3bI accHMmrnpy10T
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cymecrnoBamie BO c))par<HH 3Ha'!HTeJihJ-Ih~x 3ane)Keii MC.lIH rr rpaqmn1 25 .
ITocerreHH5l KyrrhTYPhl B05JH pacnorr o)KeHhI 1-ra m13KHX Teppacax un11 n.a
OTJIO){<CifM5IX arrmon11anhHO-.lleJ1JIIOB11arrhl-roro xapar<Tepa B Jiomrnax peK. Ha
1-IeKOTOpbIX naM5ITHHKax 3acpHKCHpOBaHhl OCTaTI<l1 pBOB,; )J(un14ma rrpC.lICTaBrreBhI mneMHblMH H yrrry6rreHHblMH coopy)KeHH5IMH. )J.rr51 II03JIH11X cpa 3
p<1ccMaTpHBaeMoii KYJihTYPhI xapa1<Tepb1 ml3eMHhie )KHJIHIIJ;a npHMOyrorrMroii
c[JOpMbI. Opy.lll15l Tpy.[(a 6om1cI<ne rrneMena u~roTOBJI5JJIH 113 I<peMH5l, KaMH5l,
KOCT11, pora, Me)IH 11 .lJp. B KpeMI-JeBOH HB.lIYC"fpirn rrpe.lICTaBJieHbI nnaCTI11-I bl
co BTOpH'IHOH o6pa60TKOH, cer;MCHTOBH.lIHbie H3.[(eJIH5l, cr<pe6I<H, OT60HBHKH
H T .JI. lfa.lleJIH5l .H3 r<pe MI-151 oco6etIHO . MHOrOqHCJieHHbI Ha IlOCenemrnx
pacnono)KeHBhIX B6nrr3H ,[(yHa5126 . Cpe.llrr I<aMeHHhlX opyJIHii BCTpe'IaioTC5l
TOrrOphI, Teena H .lIOJIOTa. 11ncTpyMeBTbl H3 KOCTH, pora cpaBH~1T~J1bHO
j

MBO.r O'IHCJieBHbl H cpe.lIH IU!X BbI5IBJieI-IbI IIIHnh5l, .lIOJIOTa, MOTbirH H T.JI .


Me.l!Bhre opyJIH51 npeJICTaBJieHhI rnaBHhIM o6pa30M rnrrnh5JMH27 .
KepaMH'leCI<He KOMnneI<ChIJ<ym.Typhr Boim no TeXHHI<o-TexHonoru'!ecI<H~
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1<aTerop1111: 1) KYXOHHa51, 2) c yrrry6neHHO-Bpe3HhlM opnaMeHTOM H 3) c
r<arrnerrHpOBaHHbIM .lleK,OpOM. 'EcTe,cTBCHI10, 'ITO ua npOT5l)KeHHH pa3BHTH5l
I<YIThTYP.hI I<epaMrrr<a rrpeTeprrerra cymecrneHBhre TpauccpopMari:1rn 26 .
AnTporroMopcpHbre cTaTy3TI<H B r<yrrhType Bo5JH OTl IOCIITCJihHO Mano-142-

'!HCJICHbl H H3rOTOBJJeHbl nperrMyrn,eCTBeHHO H3 I'Jl~Hbl, pe)Ke H3 KOCTH.


ITocne.lJHHe rro5JBIT5IIOTC5J B nepexoJIHOH cpa3e. EorrhIIIHHCTBO TeppaKOT
npe.lJCTaBIT5JIOT )KeHCI<He a3o6pa)Kemrn, pe)Ke My)KcI<ne. Cpe.n:II u11x rrpeo6rr~29

.narnT oprm?vieJ-ITHpoBaHHhie cpurypr<H .


,
Eep'Iy Ha MHorocrroiiHOM rrocenemrn Tai-rrbrpy B cnoe YB-Y c rr Bo5JH Y c

(,n:.

o6napy)KHJI JIBa cpparMeHTa rrpeI<yr<yTeH~Koli KepaMHI<H~ ABTOP Harnen


aHanorIIH OJII-IOMY cliparMeI-ITY B crroe 1faBoape 12, a BTOpOH C'll1TaeT 6orree
II03.lJHHM, IIOCKOJlhKO B .lleI<ope coqeTaI-OTC5J r<armemopbl c yrrry6neHHbIMH
J1IiHH5IMH H KpyrnhIM11 5JMOqr<aMH 30 no MHCHHIO
Mapm1ecI<y-obIJ1Ky, o6a

c.

q)pcirMeHTa MoryT 6bITh oTneceHbI I< KOHIJ;Y cpa3hI I1peI<y1<yTeHh II mm K naqany


qia3hr ITpeI<yI<yTeI-Ih IIP 1 : Ka1< rrpeJinonaraeT uccne.lloBaTerrhHHIJ;a, npe1<yl<yTencr~11e "uMrro'pTbI" na 3TOJ\1 rrocenei-rnYi ; cyJI51 no rrpe.lIBapuTeJihHbIM
32
rry6rruKaii:mrM, 6brnH 6onee MI-IOrO'rncn eI-IHbI CpeJI~ KepaMrrqecr<oro
r<oMnner<ca cno 51 Bo 51 n IIIB u Bo5II-I Ille oila BbI5JBHJia cocyJibl , nMernrn,He
CX0.l\I-Ibie opHaMeHTaIThHhie MOTHBbl c MOTHBaMH .lleI<opa 1<epaMHI<H cp~3bl
ITpeI<yr<yTeHh II 33
'
.
Ha rrocenerru11 BepnaIIIOBI<a (cpa3a ITpeI<yI<yTeI-Ib

II) Han.lleHbI cpparMeI-ITbI

KepaMHI<l1 c BbieM'laTblM opI-IaMeHTOM H 3Hr3aro-MeaI-I.lJPOBbIMH KOMII034


3HIJ;H5IMH o6hrqHbIX Jinn .l\eI<opa rrocy.llbI KynhTYPbI Bo5IH na qia3e Bn.llpa Ha
.n;pyro.M ~oceneHHl1 3Toil )Ke cpa3bI c))rropernTh I BbrnBneI-I rpparMeHT cocY..[(a H3
MeJIKOCTPYI<TypHOH rnHHbI, opnaMeHTHpOBaI-II-IbIH He6pe)KH0 BCe IIOJII-ICHHbIMH
y 31<aMH KaHHeJiropaMu Mntt, cr<9pee Bcero, rrry6'oI<o rrporrra)l(eJ-IHblMH ITHHHHMH.

r.

KaK C'IHTaeT B.
36eI-IOB11'l, no cocraBy TCCTa 11 opHaMCJ-ITaUHH OH 'fY)K.lJ
paHneMy Tp:11rronhrn M I-Iaxomu J-IeKOTOpbie aHanornn B I<ynhType BoHH, cl?a3a
BuJipa 35 .

cB 51351 x rrpeKyI<yTeHCI<o-paHHeTpunonhCKHX rrneMeH c 6o5IHCKHM11

o6ui:uI-IaMH CBH.lJeTCJibCTByeT TaK)Ke HO)KeBH)IHa5l rrrracTHHa 113 KOpM~rneBoro


6
(6arrI<aI-IcI<oro) I<peMH51, 06napy)Kei-ma.11 Ha noceJieHurr Poro)KeHh 13 EoHI-ICI<~:
rr:rreMena rrpH H3rOTOBJieI-IHH opyJIHH Tpy.na 11CIIOJib30BaITH 11 3TOT BH.[( Cbipb51 .
TaKHM o6pa3oM, rrneMeHa KYIThTYP ITpeI<yI<yTeHb- Tp11rroJihe A u BonH ,
J-Ia'lttna51 , BHJIHMO, c caMoro na'larra o6pa3oBaI-IH5l rrepBoii u .no nepexo.lla I<

KYJibType I'yMeJJhH11IJ;a rrocrre.l\Heii, OMCP)l<HBarr11 TeCI-Ihie CB513,~.' OI-I11 H~X~JIHT


Bbipa)KeI-IH51 rnaBJ-IbIM o6pa30M BO B3aHMHblX KepaMu'!eCKHX 11MIIOpTclX .
ITepexo.ll OT KYJihTypbr Bo5II-I I< KYJihType fyMerrhHHI'.i:a- KapaHoBo VI
rrpoH 3ornen nocTerrei-rno. B rrepBoii (J.:>a3e 1<yhhTYPbI B o6uxoJI BXOJIHT KepaMHKa,
pacnucaHI-Ia5l rpacpuTOM, 5IBJI5JIOIIJ;a5IC5l BI<rraJIOM r<ynhTYPhI Mapuri:a (KapaHOBO

V). B apearre I<YIThTYPbI BhIJien5110Tc5l J-IeCI<OJihKO.. noI<aJihI-IhIX Bap11aH~oB: :)


.lJ06pyJI)KCKHH HJIH noHT11iicKuil; 2) ceBepHbIH rrnu ceBepo-.llyI-Ia11cKu11,
naM5JTHHKH KOTo.poro H3BeCTI-IbI B MynTeHHH u I-Ia ceBepe Borrrap11u (.[(o
EanKan); rr 3) K rnry oT EarrI<aH pacrrorrO)KCHbI nocerreHH51 IO)KJ-Ioro Baprr~I-ITa.
,[(rr 51 r<ynhTYPbI fyMenbnuri:a- KapaHOBO VI xapaI<TepI-IbI Mr-wrocnoMI-IbI:
nocerreHH51 THIIa TeJIJI51. )1(11m1rn,a B OCHOBI-IOM I-Ia3eMJ-Ibie, rrp5IMOyroJibHOH
cpopMbi. Cpe.n:H cneri:rrcpu'!ecI<HX qepT crreJiyeT OTMeTHTh MHoro'!ucneHHOCTh
I<pCMHCBbIX H3)len11ii, oco6eHHO - .lJJIHHHblX H30rHyTblX nrraCT11H H TOIIOpOB.
-

143-

qaCTO Ha rrocenemrn:x BCTpe<JaIOTCJI HaKOHe<JHHKII CTpen TpeyrOJibHOH cpopMbI


c JJ;BycTOpoHtteH: o6pa6oTKoii:. CKpe6KII B KpeMtteBoli IIHJJ;yCTpHII coCTaBJIHIOT
30- 50%, IIJiaCTHHhI c BII)J;IIMOH 3aIIOJIIIpOBKOH - .7-12%. 0TJIII1JIITeJibHOH
1IepTOH IIHJJ;yCTpIIII paccMaTpIIBaeMOH KyJihTYPhI HBJIH~CH HaJIII<JIIe 60JihIIIOro
KOJIH<JeCTBa pe3IIOB H e.n:IIHII'IHhIX 3K3eMrrnHpoB ocTpHli 38 Cpe.n:H 6on1>IIIoro
'IlICJia opy_Hii Il3 KOCTH Il pora BhIJJ;eJIJIIOTCH MOThffH, pan.f, llIIlJlhJI, raprryHhI,
PYKOHTKil )J;JIJI TOrropoB Il T.)J; . tJ3 KaMHJI Il3rOTOBJieHhI TOIIOpbI, TOIIOphIMOJIOThI, )J;OJIOTa, 3epttoTepKH H T.)J;.
Me.n:tt1>1e H3JJ;eJIHH rrpe.n:c'taBJI~HhI IIIHJihHMH, TorropaMH H yKpaIIIeHHHMII.
Ha<JHHaJI c cpa3hI fyMeJihHHIIa A2 BCTpeqaIOTCH H3JJ;emrn H3 30JIOTa.

KyxoHHaH KepaMHKa Mo.n:enHpoBaHa II3 rn~HHHoii: Macc1>1 c rrpHMec1>10


IIIaMoTa. B Heii: BhI.n;enHIOTCH cocy.n:1>1 c 0Ban1>Hb'-BhITHHYThIM TynoBoM,
6HKOHH1JeCKHe . ropIIIKH, KphlllIKII, opttaMeHTIIpOBa~Hhie 6ap6on,:ttoii:,
pen1>ecptthIM .n:eKopoM H .n:p. KepaMHKa H3 MeJIKOCTpyr<TypttoH: rnHHhI
xapaKTepH3yeTcJI pa3JIH"IHhIMH cpopMaMH. lfaCTo BCTepe<JaIOTCH MHCKH, cocy.n;hr
c IIO"ITH ccpepH1IeCKIIM: TynoBoM, rpyu:1eBHJJ;Hl:>re H 611KOHII"leCKHe cocy.n:r,1,
Kp!:>IIIIKH. Ha pam-mx rroceneHIIHX H3pe.n:Ka BCTpe<JaeTcH KepaMnKa c 6enoli
pOCIIIIChIO Ha KpaCHOM qiotte, HaHeCeHHOH .n:o o6:>rnrra, a II03.[(Hee Otta
pacrrIIc1>maeTcH I:paqmToM.
,

K xapaKTeptthIM <JepTaM KYJihTypr,1 fyMeJihHHIIa- KapattoBo VI cne.n:yeT


TaK>Ke OTHeCTII MHOr0"IIICJieHHOCTh H MHOroo6pa3HO~T,h IIJiaCTIIKI:L HapH.n:y c
I'JlllHJ!HhIMH auTpOIIOMOpcpHbIMII CTaTy3TKa~rn, Ha"IIIHaJI c cpa3b1 fyMeJibHIIIIa
A2, IIOHBJIHIOTCH r<ocrntt:t,.re H3o6pa)l(eHHH II pe)l(e - cpIIryp1>r II3 MpaMopa ..
3ooMopcpHhie CTaTy3TKII BCTepeqaIOTCJI B 6oJibIIIOM "IIlCJie II rrpe.n:cTaBJieHhl B
OCHOBHOM Kpyrrn1>1M11 H MemrnMII poraThIMII )l(IIBOTHhIMH. AHTporroMopcpHhie
H 300MOpcpHhie cocy.[(hl OTJIII"l,aIOTCJI peaJIHCTH'IHhIMH 1IepTaMH Il Mo.n:enilpoBaHbI c 60JihllIIIM MacTepCTBOM 39 ,ll;nJI 3TOH KYJihTYPhI 06hI1JHhI Mo.n:ena
)l(HJIIUII, CTOJIOB, aJITapeH: Il T ..[(.
.
0 CBlI3HX KYJII>Typ IIpeKyKyTeH1>-Tprrrronr,e An fyMen1>HHIIa rrncan B cBoe
BpeMJI
B. Pocerm. Ha MHOroCJIOHHOM rroceneHHH Brr.n:pa B cnoe fyMeJibHIIIIa AI 6bm o6Hapy)l(eH cpparMeHT cocy.n:a Kpacuo -)l(eJIToro O:BeTa, opttaMenTHpoBaHHhIH yrny6neHHhIM .n:eKo,poM. ABTop rrpaBHJihHO yKa3an, "ITO CTHJih
opmlMeHTa ,cooTBeTCTByeT paHHeMy TprrrronhIO rr Ha 3TOM ocnoBaHHH
crrnxpoHH3ttpoBan cpa3y fyMemHHIIa AI c TpHrronI>eM A 40 .

,n:.

Ha MHo.rocnoii:ttoM noceneHHH Taurn1py B cnoe fyMeJihHHO:a IB(AI) 6hm


nali.n:ef!' parMeHT auTporroMopcpHoli CTaTy3TKII 41 C . MapHnecKy-B1>mKy
OTHOC~T ero K rrocne.n:neli cpa3e Kyn_
1>Typr,1 IIpeKyKyTeH1>42 . _
MHorO'IHcneuuocThIO Haxo.n:oK npeKyKyTeHcKoro npottCXO)l(.JJ:eHHH
OTJIH<JaeTCH ryMeJil:>HIIIIKOe nocenenHe M3rypene, 'na KOTOPOM o6napy)l(eHa
KepaMHKa, Mo.n:enHpOBaHHaJI Il3 rJIHHlIHOH MaCChI c rrpIIMeCbIO MeJIKOro
IIIaMOTa, necKa, IIHOr.n:a MeJIKOro Il3BeCTHlIKa H .n:p. IloBepxHOCTh cocy.n;OB
ceporo HJI~ ~epuo-ceporo O:BeTa. Cocy.n:DI TOHKOCTeHHhie, aH:ro6IIpoBaHu1>1e,
co cne.n:aMH nomeHHlI. IIpeo6na.n:a10my10 cpopMa rrpe.n:crnanJIIOT He6onhIIIHe
COCY.ZJ:hl c OKpyrnhIMil rrne<JHKaMH, KOHH"leCKOH Hil)l(HeH "laCThlO II BhI.[(eJieHHhIM

- 144 -

KOpOTKIIM BepTIIKaJihHhIM mrn cnen<a OTOPHYTbIM uapy)l(y BeH<JHKOM. ,ll;pyraH


cpopMa npe.n:CTaBneua cocy.n:aMH c OKpyrnhIM, cnerna rrpHrrn10cuyr1>1M TYJIOBOM,
cpaBHHTeJihHO BhICOKOH o:mmu.n:ptt1IeCKOH IIIeHKOH II OTOrHYThIM BeH"IHKOM .
fiocy.z:i:a yKpaIIIeHa UIHpOKHMII KaHHeJIIOpaMH, IIITaMl!OBaHHhIM .[(eKOpOM,
KpaCHOH Kpaci<OH IIOCJie 06)l(IIra II .n:p. ABTOp OTHOCHT yr<a3aHHhie HaXO)J.KII K
cnow fyMeJihHHO:a AI H rrpe.n.nonaraeT, "ITO <JaCTh rrocy.o.hr 61>ma u3rOTOBnena
na MecTe, nocKOJihKO ner<oTopI>Ie 3K3eMnnHphI pacnacaHhI rpacpHTOM 43 K
BhIBO.ZJ:Y 0 HaJIH1JIIII npe.o.cTaBIITeneH: npeKyKyTeHCI<OrO 3THOCa B cpe.o.e
.
44
' '
Kyn1>Typ1>1 fyMemH11o:a npm1ma H C. MapIIHecr<y- Bl>IJIKY .
~
Cne.n:yer, o.o.uaKo cr<a3aTh, "ITO a ryMeJihHHIJ:KHe nneMena oKa3anH BJIHHHHe
Ha rrper<yKyTeHCKO -paHHeTpHnOJihCKHe o6iu;ecrna . Tar<, r. ,ll;yMHTpecKy B
MaTepHanax noceneHHH TpaHH- ,ll;Hnyn <l>hIHThIHlIJIOp Bhrnmma: ryMenhHHIIKHe
3neMeHT1>1 45 B cnoe, oTHOcHmeMCH K cpa3e IlpeKyKyTeHh III, noceneHIIlI
Tb1prrernTh o6napy)l(eH cocy.o. a HeCKOJihKO ' aHTJ>'onoMopqmhIX TeppaKoT,
46
.
("
MO,D.en11poBaHHhIX no.n: ryMeJihHilIII<OM BJIHJIHHeM .
Ha rrocenenaHx aner<caH.o.poBcr<oH: rpynnhI, OTHOCH1IIeliclI K II03JJ.Heii nope
paHHero TparronhH, o6napy)l(eH u.enr,1H: pHJJ. MaTepIIanOB, CBHJJ.eTenhCTBywmHx
0 CBJI3l!X c KYJihTypaMH ryMeJihHil!J:KO-KapaHOBCKOro Kpyra. K HHM OTHOCHTCJI
Kpymr1>1e MHoropy"IHhie cocy;n:bI c penhecpHhIM a3o6pa)l(eHIIeM pyr<H 47 .
iieKOTOphie. cocy.D.hI C"IIITaIOTCH HMrropTaMH - HMeIOTCH B BHJJ.Y <JaCTH JJ.Byx
orpOMHhIX cocy.o.oB c penhecpHhIM Opl-IaMeHTOM, cpparMeHThI KpbIIIIeK K HHM,
ManeHhKHH JJ.BYPY<JHhIH cocy.o.aK H3 AneKcan.o.poBKH II .o.p. 48
TaKIIM o6pa30M, npIIBe,D.eHHhie .o.aHHhie CBHJJ.eTeJibCTBYIOT o TOM, 'ITO
Me:>KJJ.Y npeKyr<yreHCKO-pauueTpIInOJibCKIIMH Il ryMeJibHHO:KHMII rnreMeHaMII
6hmH npHMbie KOHTaKThI, Hawe.n:ume OTpa)l(emre B HX MaTepIIaJihHOH KYJibType.
Apean KYJibTYPbI Bonrpa.o.- An.o.eHb (CToiir<aHb-An.n.eHh) BKnwqaer wr
Beccapa6IIII, wr Mon.n:oBbI, ceBep ,ll;o6py.o.)l(II H ceBepo-BOCTOK MynTemrn. B
nacT011mee BpeMH. na 3TOH TeppIITOpIIH H3BeCTHhI 6onee 90 rrocenenIIli. Ha
wre Beccapa6IIH noceJieHHH pacnono)l(eHbI na BbICOKHX 6eperax rrpecHOBOJJ.HhIX
03ep, rrpeIIMymeCTBeHHO Ha BTOpbIX Teppacax, HJIH B03HIIKaIOT na CKJIOHax
.o.onHH y peK HJIH pyqbeB. Ilnoma.o.b rroceneHHH, no .n:anHhIM JI. B. Cy66oTIIHa,
<Jame Bcero ne3Ha<JIITenbHa 0,5 -- 1 ra, pe)l(e nocenetrIIH 3aHuMamr
Tepp1nopIIIO oKono 2 ra, HHor.o.a .o.o 10 ra 49 Ha rroceneHIIHX r<ynDTypbI
Bonrpa.o.- An.o.eHh 6hITOBanII yrny6nenubre II ua3eMHhre )l(IIJIIIIIJ:a. Yrny6neH!-I bie )l(IIJIHIIJ:a npe,D.CTaBneHbI 3eMJIJ!HKaMII IIIIony3eMJilIHKaMII, HMeIOIIJ:HMil
B nnaHe B OCHOBHOM OBaJihHYIO IIJIIl HenpaBIIJlbHYIO cpopMy c nnaBHbIMII
H3rH6aMM KOHTYPOB, KOTOpbie OTaITJIIIBaJIHCb (jqaraMII o:rnpbITOrO TIIITa.
Ha3eMHhie .o.oMa B nnane npeHMymecTBeHHO rrpHMoyronbHOH cpopMbI ,
HMeIOIIJ:Me HHor.o.a BCITOMOraTeJihHhie IlOCTpOHKII. B HHTepbepe HeKOTOphIX
)l(lIJIHll.( BCTepqaIOTCJI rJIHH06IITHhie B03BbIIIIenmr H J!Mbl.
Bonrpa.o.-an.o.en1>cKue nneMeHa H3rOTOBnHnII opy.D.HH Tpy.o.a H3 r<peMHH ,
KaMHH pa3JIII"IHbIX nopo.o., KOCTII, pora, rnIIHbI,:MeJJ.H . CbipbeM JJ.JIH r<peMtteBoli
IIHJJ.YCTpIIH CJIY)l(IIJI KpeMeHh KOpH1IHeBoro IIBeTa pa3JIII1JHbIX OTTeHKOB
6anKaHCKOro npOIICXO)l(,D.eHIIJI H MeCTilhIH cepbIH nonynpo3pa1IHhIH IIJIH

- 145 -

Henpo3patIHbIH c 6enbIMH BKpanneHmIMH. lfa KpeMHH c.nerraHbI CKpe6KH Ha


KOpOTKHX nmpOKHX imaCTHHax, nnaCTHHbI co BTOpHtIHOH o6pa60TKOH,
ynoTpe6nHeMbie B Ka'leCTBe CTporanhHbIX HO)KeM .[\JIH o6pa60TKH .nepena,
KOCTH, pora, nnnoK, BKJia.[\blllIH cep_noB HT ..n. J.fa KaMHH H3rOTOBneHbl TOilOpbI:
HecnepneHHbie ABYCTOpOHIIe-BbIIlYKnhre, nnoCKHe HecneprreHHhie H CBepneHHhie
Tpaneu:eBH.[(HOH opMbI, M3 KOTOpbIX npeo6na.naeT IIOCJie.[\HMH TMII . Teena B
nnaHe MMeIOT Tpaneu:MeBMAHYIO opMy H HCilOJib30BanMCb npeMMymeCTBeHHO
rrpH o6pa60TKe .nepeBa, HO )'vlOrnH 6bITb npHMeHeHbl M B KatieCTBe MOTbir.
HHCTpyMeHTbl M3 KOCTM, pora npe.ncTaBneHbI MOThiraMM, 3eMne1<0nanKaMM,
.nonOTOBM.[(HbIMM M3.n;enMHMM, llIHnhHMM M .np. l13 rnHHbl M3rOTOBnHJ1HCb
npHcnttu:a H rpy31rna (BynK3HellITh II, Jion3IJMKa) .
Me.n;Hhie H3.n;enHH MarrOtIHcneHHhI. Ha cero.nm1llIHMH .neHh M3BecTHhI nHlllh
O)l;HO KOnhIJO H llIMnO (Bonrpa:n:).
K,epaMMtiecKMe KOMnneKCbI KynhTYPhI Bonrpa.n- An.neHh nopa3.n;enHIOTCH
Ha .[(Be OCHOBHhie KaTeropmr: KYXOHHaH H CTOJIOBaH. Ilocy.na nepBOH KaTeropHH
MO;ri;e;mpoBaHa H3 rJIMHhI c npHMeCbIO lllaMOTa, pacrMTenbHOCTH HnH necKa.
,lJ;nH 3TOH KaTeropHH xapaKTepHbl KOTJibl c OBaJibHO-BbITHHYThIM TyJIOBOM H
lllpOKMM ycTbeM, KYBllIHHhI c OKpyrnhIM TYJIOBOM H y3KHM u:11n11H;ri;pHtieCKHM
roprroM, CKOBopo;ri;hI, 6aHKOBMAHhie ropllIKH H T ..n. B:ropa5I KaTerop1rn nocy.n;hI
BbIJierrneHa 113 MeJIKOCTPYKTYPHOH rnMHHHOM MaCChI, HMeIOru:eii B KatieCTBe
OTOID:MTenH MeJIKOTOJI'leI:IHblH lllaMOT' HHor.na c .no6anrreHHeM H3BeCTHHKa HJIH
necKa. B Heii BhrnarreHhI llIHpOKOOTKpbI'rhJe ropIIIKM 6HKOHHtecKoii cpopMhI;
ropllIKM c BhIDYKJibIMH mm OKpyrnhIMM 6oKaMH H enema Cy)KaIOru;HMCH I<Bepxy
ropJIOM, HII)KHHH 'laCTh KOHIP-IeCKaH; J:S:YBllIMHhl, Ky6KII IJHJIMH.[(pHtICCKMe, MMCKH
KOHH'ICCKOH H nonycepHtieCKOM cpopMbI H .np. CTOJIOBa.a rrocy.na Opf):aMeHTHpOBaHa KaHHenropaMM, Bpe3HbIM H yrrry6rreHHbIM y3opoM, pacnHCaHa .[(0
ofoKHra 6enoii KpacKoii, a nocrre o6)KHra - KpacHoii.
0CHOBHOM THil )KeHCKMX HeopHaMeHTHpOBaHHbIX CTaTy3TOK npe.ncTaBJieH
c]mrypKaMH B CTomu:eii Il03e, c nnOCKMM TOpCOM H ofrbeMHOH HII)KHeii qaCTblO.
fonOBa TeppaKOT MO.[(eJIHpOBaHa npeHMyID;eCTBeHI-IO B BHJJ;e KOHM'leCKOrO
OTpOCTKa, pe)Ke IlTHu:eo6pa3HOH cpopMbI, llleHKa BbICOKa.a, KOHM'leCKa.a, nrraBHO
nepexo;ri;Jlru;aH B IlJIC'IH, ,PYKH corHyThI B JIOKTHX H IlO.[(HHTbl BBepx (no3a
"OpaHTb1") Tope nrrocKHH, Y3KaH TanMH cpaBH.MTeJihHO pe3KO nepexomn B
llIMPOKMe 6e.npa. fpy.n;H nepe.natthI .nayMH KOHHtieCKHMH HarrerraMH. HorM
BbIJienrreHbl pa3;ri;eJihHO, HO npH)KaThI .npyr K .npyry M KOHtiaIOTCH peaJIMCTH'-IHOBhIJienneHHbIMH cTynHHMH. ,lJ;nH opHaMeHTHpoaaHHhIX TeppaKOT cneu:HcpHtI!:m
yrrry6rreHHblH HJIM Bpe3aHHhIH ;ri;eKOp. <DHrypKH B aepxHeii: 'laCTM yKpalllaJIHCh
OpHaMeHTaJihHhIM IlOHCOM, nepexaaTbIBaIOru;HM qame Bcero TaJIMIO H pe)Ke
rpy.nh H cocTO.HID:IIM H3 .nByx naparrnenhHbIX ropM30HTanhHhIX JIIIHIIM, BHYTPM
KOTOpbIX HaHeCeHhI KOChie JlliHHH, OBanhHhie HnH Kpyrnhie yrny6neHi15.I M .np.
Ilo nonpocy reHe3MCa KYJihTYPhI Borrrpa.n-An.neHh BhICKa3aHhI pa3nH'IHhie
TO'IKH 3pemrn. f. llhecpaH YKMh!BaeT, 'ITO B KOMIIJieKcefyMenhHHIJa- ApnyIII.[( ~
cpopMbI cocy.noB H HX OpHaMCHTaJihHhie MOTHBbI npOHCXO.[(HT H3 KynhTYPhl

-146 -

BoHHso. B .npyroii pa6oTe anTop oTMetiaeT, 'ITO nocerreHHH KynhTypHoro


acnei<Ta An.neHh II npe;ri;cTaan.aro:r co6oii CHHTe3 .nayx 6onhllIHX KynhTypfyMenhHHIJa n KyKyTeHb-ApHyIII.n; 51 . B. ,lJ;yMHTpecKy npe.nnonaran, 'ITO
Kyn'. hTYPHhIH acneKT C:roiiKaHb-An.neHh qiopMHpoaanc.a Ha 6a3e 3neMeHTOB
IlpeKyKyTeHh III H fyMenhHHIJa A 52 . E. KoMllla CBH3brnacr reHe3IIC KYJihTYPhI
c o6mecTaaMH nepexo.nHoii cpa 3hI (IleTpy Papelll) KynhTYPhI BoHH K
fyMenhHHIJe H npeKyKy:reHCKHMH nneMeHaMII a3hI Jiapra )KII)Kirn; KynhTypa,
no ero MHeHHIO, qiopMHpoBarrach Ha 1-0re Morr.noBhI H, aepoHTHO, ceaepoBOCTOKeMy1ueHIIH53. Il03.[(Hee HCCJIC.[(OBaTeJih y:ro'IHHn CBOIO Il03II[(HI-O yKa3aB,
'1:ro a cno)KeHim KynhTypHoro 06m1Ka An.neHh II yqacTaoBanH o6mMHbI q1a3hI
IleTpy Papelll II Hatiana KyKyTeHh A 54 . Ilo MI-JeHIIIO H. ,lJ;paroMHpa,
KynhTYPHhIH o6mm CroiiKaHh-An.neHh o6pa3onanc.a B 30He KOHTaI<TOB .nayx
6onhIIIHX KynhTyp, MB ero reHe3ace yqacrnonanII 06u.1ecrna 4Ja3 fyMenhHH[(a
AIM Kyr<yTeHh AI5s. H, mlKOHeIJ, M. illHMOH Bh1CKa3an npe.nnono)KeHIIe, 'ITO
B cpopMl1poBaHHII KynhTypttoro o6nHKa C:ro:H:KaHh- An.neHh yqacrnoaanH
56

nneMeHa fyMenhHHIJbl AI 11 IlpeKyKyTeHh III


0.n;HOH H3 ;rJ;HCKyCCIIOHbIX npo6rreM 6orrrpa.n-arr.neHhCKHX naMHTHHKOB
5.IBJIHeTCH npo6neMa onpe.nerreHHlI TaKCOHOMHtieCKOrO c:raTyca. Ilo 3TOMY,
Bonpbc'.Y B rr11Tepa:rype BhICKa3aHhI pa3JIH'IHhie TO'IKH 3pemrn. B .,1962 r: E.
KoMllla cTaa 11 n norrpoc o B03MO)KHOCTH BhI.n;enenHa paccMaTpIIaaeMBIX
noceneHMH B oco6yro KynhTypy, o.nnaKo nocne Kp11THKII B. ,lJ;yMuTpecKy on
npu.narr HM craTyc 1<ynhTypnoro Bapuan:ra 57 . ,r:i:. Bepqy, B. ,lJ;yMHTpecKy H ~:
,lJ;parOMHP ClJHTaIOT, 'ITO HCCrre.nyeMbJe rraMHTHHKII npe,ri.c:raBJIHIOT co6oH
KYJihTYPHbIH o6nuK H ne MOryT 6bITb BhmerreHhI a caMOCTOHTenhHYIO KYJihTYPY
BMecTe c :reM no.nqepKirnacrcH, 'ITO a IIX Ma:repHarrhnoii 1<ynhType npeo6na.na10:r
ryMenbHH[(KHe qepTbls8. E. K. lfopHbIIU OTMetiaeT, 'ITO npaBHJibHee roaopHTh
59

0 .nayx aapuan:rax (Bonrpa.n II An.neHb) o.nnoii KynhTYPhI Bonrpa.n-Arr.neHh ~


JI. B. Cy66o:run, Ha 6a3e cpamm:renbnoro aHanH3a MaTepuanoB c. noceJieHIIH
.11eao6epe)KI-IOro Il6HH30Bh5l ,lJ;yHa5I H an.neHhCKHX rraMHTHHKOB ~YMhIHHII,
npIIlllerr K BhIBOAY o Heo6xo;ri;IIMOCTH BhI.n;enemrn 6orrrpa.ncKOII rpynnhI
60
rraMaTHHKOB a oT.nenhHhIH rroKanhHhIH aapnaHT KynhTYPhI fyMenh1mIJa .
Oco6o cne.nye:r no.n;qepKHYTh MHeHne X. To.nopoaorr, orrpe.nerrnallleii
rroceneHII.a IO)KHOM Beccapa6mi: KaK Bonrpa.ncKnii aapIIaHT KYJihTYPhI Bapna,
a KOTopoM 1<nacc11 qee1<ue 3JieMeHThI r<ynhTYPhI Ko.n).l(a.nepMeH- fyMeJihHIIIJa:
KapaHoBo VI coc:raanIOT .n;o;rn rrpoueHTa61 . B CB5.1311 c 3Tl1M 3Hat11TeJihHhIH
HHTepec npe.n;CTaBJI5IIOT pe3yJihTaThl cpaBHl1TeJihHO-TIIIIOJIOrII'leCKOro aHaJIH3a
MaTepuanoa KYJibTYP fyMeJihHHIJa II Bapna, rrpoae.neHHOro M. IllHMOHOM.
Ha Halli a 3rnH.n, aaTop .nocTaTO'IHO y6e.nuTeJihHO ;ri;oKa3an, 'ITO ~oce~eHIIH
KYJihTYPhI Bapna npe;::(c:raana10T co6oii He 'ITO mi:oe, KaK rroHTHHCKIII1 um1

62

'

.no6py.n).l(CKHH aapnaHT KYJihTYPhI yMeJihHHIJa .


TaKHM o6pa 3oM, 6onhIIIl1HCTBO 11ccne.noaaTeneii, 3a ncKnro:_eHHeM E. K.
qepHhillI, orrpe.nenHIOT c:raTyc 6onrpa.n-arr.neHhCKHX noceneH1111 Ha ypoaHe
noKaJihHoro aap:qaHTa, cBa3aHnoro c KYJihTypoii fyMenhHl1IJa. BMeCTe c TeM,
rrpn pellleHl1tt 3:roro Bonpoca, Ha Harn B3rn.n, neo6xo.n11Mo 11cxo.nHTh 113

- 147-

HhIMH KpaCHOH KpaCKOH nocrre o6)J(Hra H OKaHMJieHHhlMH yrrry6rreHHhIMH


rrHHMlIMH 71 . AuanorM'!Hhie cocy.IJ:hI H3BeC'rHhI Ha rrocerre1max KYJihTYPhI Eorr74
73
rpa.n- Arr.neHI>: Myp)J(eHI>, CytJeBeHh 72 , ByrrK3HeIIITh II , TapaKJIHH H, no-BH.IJ:I1MOMY cocy.n H3 E3xpttueIIITh VII noHBHJICH B pe3yITI>TaTe . KYJII>TYPHI>IX
,
'
75
KOHTaKTOB . TI o.no6H:&1e cocy.nI>1 .noKyMeH'rnpoBaHhI TaK)J(e B KYJihType KpttIII .
Kom1e1<u11H aHTporroMopcpHoii nrraCTMKH rrocerreHHH ArreKcaH.npoBKa
BhrnBneH cpparMeHT cpttrypKH. CbxpaHHBIIIaHCH tJaCTh Topca nnocKa>I, c
He60JibllIHM OBaJibHhIM OTBepCTHeM c6oKy , 51rO.IJ:HqHyIO tJaCTb IIOKpbmaeT
cnnparrb , HOrH opHaMeHTHpOBaHhl rrpo.norrhHbIMH yrny6neHI-I blMH JIHHHHMH.
He6onI>llIHMH BhICTynaMH rroI<a3aHhI rn;HKOJIOTKH, Mo.nerr11poBaHa cTorra.
OnttchrnaeMhiii cpparMeHT cTaTy3TKH xapaKTepeH .nna nnacTHKH KyrrI>TyphI

c,JIO:>KHBIIIeiicH B apxeOJIOrHH TpHa,IJ;IiI IIOHHTHii: KYJibTYPHO -HCTOpHqecKaH


o6rn;HOCTb, I\YJII>Typa, JIOKaJibHblll BapHaHT. TipH TaKOM ,no.nxo.ne paHHe30Mrre.nerrbqecKHe nocerre~HH lO:>KHoii Eeccapa6HH crre.nyer paccMaTpHBaTb KaK
rroKaJJbHI>Iii BapttaHT, BXO.IJ:HBIIIHii B KYJII>TYPY Eorrrpa.n- Arr.neHb. Tiocrre.nmrn
B <;:BO~ oqepe.nb HBJIH~CH caMOCTOHTeJihHblM TaKCOHOMHqecKHM no.npa3,7:1eneHHeM B CHCTeMe KYJibTYPHO-HCTOpHgec1<0ii o6rn;HOCTH fyMeJibHHUa- KapaHOBO VI.

Tio npo6rreMe npeKpaiuettHH cyw;ecTBoBaHHH nocerre1rnii KYJIT>TYPI>I


Eorrrpa.n- Arr.neHh ttccrre.noBaTerrH norraraIQT,,qTo :>KH3Hh Ha HHX rrpeKpaTttrracb
B pe;l yJihTaTe BTOp)KeHHH CTeilHblX CKOTOBO.nqecKHX nneMett 63 , TaK)Ke
npe.nnorraraeTCH, qTo 6orrrpa.n-an.neHbCKHe nrreMeHa yqacTBOBarrn B rette3ttce
o6w;ecT)3 KYJIT>TYPhI KyKyTeHI> 'Kapn~To-,[(ttecTpOBCKoro pernotta 64

TipeKyKyTeHCKO -paHHeTpHIIOJibCI<He IIJieMeHa no.n.nep:>KHBaJIH TeCHhie


KOHTaKThI c o6mHHaMH KYJI-!>TYPhI Eorrrpa.n- An.neI-Ih, cBH.IJ:eTenbCTBa KOTQphIX
ofornpy)KeHhI Ha naMHTHHKax o6ettx KynI>Typ. B pamreTpunonhCKOM ropii:30HTe
noceneHHH PyceIIITHii HoiiI Haii.netthI opy.nm1, H3rOTOBJieHHhie 113 6aJJKaHcKoro
KpeMHH KopttqHeBoro uBeTa . B KepaMnqecKOM KOMnrreKce :noro noceneHHH
BbIHBJieHbl MaTepHaJihI, IIOHBHBIIIHeCH B pe3yJibTaTe yKa3aHHhIX KOHTaTKT0)3,
B Hccne.noBaHHbIX 3eMJIHHr<ax Haii.neHhI cpparMeHThI pacnHcHoii r<epaMMKH,
KOJ'Opbie Ha .IJ:He )KMJIMm e.nMHH'!HhI, a BepxHeii 'laCTM BCTpetieHbl B 60JibIIJOM
KOJIH'leCTBe. Tio MHeHMIO aBTOpa paCK0110K, cpaKTypoii, o6:>KHraMH H UBeTaMH
OHM OTJlff'i:aIOTCH OT OCTaJIMIOH paHHeTpHIIOJibCKOH KepaMHKH . PocrIHCb
HaHeCeHa 6enecOBaTOH KpaCKOH no tiepHOMY H 6enoMy cpoHy, KpaCHOH-IIO
cepOMY cpotty MITH tiepHOH KpaCKOH - no cepoBaTo-6enoii noBepXHOCTH. TioBH.IJ:MMOMY, 3:ra Kepc;tMHKa 110HBI1Jl'itCb B pe3yJIT>TaTe CBH3eii c HOCMTeJIHMM
r<yrrI>TY,phI Eorrrpa.n-Arr.neHI>65 . Bh1.nerr.aeTCH TaK,:>Ke MarrotJHcrreHHaH rpyrrna
KepaMMKH, y KOTOpoii OpHaMeHT o6pa3yeTCH tiepe.noBatrneM 30H, 3arrow;eHHblX
.no 6rrecKa, H TyCKJIO-MaTOBhIX; HHOr.na OHM CO'leTaIOTCH c yrrry6rreHHhIMlt
rr11HHHMH 66 . TaKaH TeXHHKa natteceiru.a opHaMeHTa xapaKTeptta .nn.a KepaMHKH
6orrrpa.n-arr.neHI>CKHx nocerreHttii. Ifa 3'roii :>Ke cepttH KepaMH'leCKHX Haxo.noK
cne.nyeT OTMeTHTb cppa:J;'MeHThl .IJ:OHHOH 'laCTH .IJ:BYX cocy.noB, IIHTH- HJIH
IIIeCTHrpaHHhIX, Kpyrrrhlll CTOJIHK-aJITapb co CKB03HbIM OTBepC'rHeM B cepe.IJ:HHe
H o6rrOMOK KypHJibHHUbI67 .
'
'
Ha pattHeTpttnonhCKOM 'rroceneHMH HcaKOBa II o6Hapy:>KeHbI KOHUeBoii
CKpe6oK H HaKOHe,'lHHK CTperrhI JIHCTOBH.IJ:HOH cpopMbl, H3rOTOBJieHHhie H3
6arrr<aHCKOrO Cblpb>I68 Tipe.IJ:MeThl H3 3Toro )J(e Cblpb>I OTKpbIThI Ha rrocerreHHH
69

CorrotttJeHhI I . Ha rroceneHMM K3p6yHa Hali.nett Ky6oK uttrr11tt.npo-KOHM'lecKoii


cpopMbl H BhICOKHM rrp>IMhIM roprrOM, HBJIHIOW:HHCH HeCOMHeHHhIM HMIIOpTOM
111 apearra 1<yrrhTYPhI Eorrrpa.n-Arr.netth . B X ancKe o6ttapy)KettbI cpparMeHT
6onrpa.n-arr.neHbCKOH CTOJIOBOH rrocy.IJ:bI70 .
B KepaMtttJeCKOM KOMrrrreKce rrocenemrn 3xp11tteIIITh VII BhI.IJ:err.aerc.a cocy.n
aHTporroMopcpHoro THna. foprr,o cocy.na yKparnetto ropH30HTaJihHhIM p>I.IJ:OM
KanneBH.IJ:HbIX yrrry6rreHHH, Ha ~HeIIIHHH Kpaii BeHgHKa HaHeCeHbl OBaJibHhie
ttacetJKH. TynoBo opHaMeHTttpoBatto BepT111<anI>HhIMH rrorrocaMH, oKparneu-

148 -

Eorrrpa.n- Arr.nenI> 76 .
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77
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cnny3TKa 6e1 opttaMeHTa, xapaKTepr-rn51


Tp1urnnhe A 85 .
.

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' .,
'
'

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'
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1J6'
.
. .
ponoMopq>HllJI rn1aCT11Ka Tp11nonbJ1 . Honoc11611pcK 1983 c 18
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'
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BMerc'.u D.

9 M.

CoB~ltribu\ii .. . p. 519; Dumitrescu V. Arta neolitica in Romania Bucuresti

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\ '

1968 p 64
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M ., 1970, pHC. 15- 3.

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'
' '
' nbm. .

io llacceK

;~ Mari_nescu-Bilcu S. Citeva observa\ii...


Bercw D. Cultura Ha~angia ... p . 33- 34, fig. 17- 2,3.
13
Mrmnescu-Btlcu S. Asupra unor aspecte .. . fig. 1-2- 5.
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16
Berciu D. Cultura H amangia ... p. 33.
17
Marinescu-Btlcu S. Asupra unor aspecte ... p . 32 _
18
MapKeBu'l B. H. HccJJe,llonaH M
"
"
HJI

K HIUHHen, 1974, c. 37 .
19
20
21

OJJ,lla.BCKOH HeOJJHTH'1ecK011 3Kcrre,ll11111111 // AHM 1972 )


.
. r ..

36eHoBu'l B. I'. PaHHHti nan ... c. 103 .


.
MapKeau'l Jt. Jf. Hccne,llokaH11l! Mon"ancKoti P"C 5- 5
M
"
,.
.
apKeBu'l B. lf. PaHHetp11non1>cKoe rroceJJeHHe Ko1UepHHI.1a I // AHM 1986 r . K"lll"Hen,

1992, pwc. 5-6.

"

:: 36eH08u'l B. I'. IIoceneHHe EepHalllonKa ... p11c. 75- I.


Berczu D. Cultura, Hamangia ... p. 33.
24
Dragomir I. T. Contributii generale privind aspectul cultural Stoicani- Aldeni // D
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C~m,a E. Neoliticul pe teritoriul Roina niei. Contribu\ii. Bucuresti 1986 45


'Ib1dem, p.43.
.
~'
, p.

25

27

C~mia E. Istori a comunitiitilor culturii Boian. Bucuresti 1974 p 86- 88


Ibidem, p. 92- 123.
' '
'

Ibidem, p . 193- 198.


10
Berciu D. Contribu\ii.. . p . 66.
11 M.
.
s-1
aruzescu1.cu S. Cultura Precucuteni... p. 135.
32
Mannescu-Btlcu S. Rela\ii intre culturile .. . p . 349 .
'' I bidem.
28

29

::36eHoau'l B. I'. IIoceneHHe EepHalllonKa... p11c. 76- 9.


36e1toeu'I B. I'. Pammli 3Tarr ... c. 138.
MapKeBu'I B. H . Hccne,llonaHHJI Mon,llancKoti HeOJJHTH'IeCKoti ...

36

"

b. ,
a nu ms, t.

Com*a E. Istoria comunitii.\ilor. .. p. 69.


Paunescu A . Evolu\ia uneltelor ~i armelor de piatra cioplita descoperite pe teritoriul Romaniei.
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1970 .

Dumitrescu V, Vulpe A. Dacia inainte de Dromihete. Bucure~ti , 1988, p . 38 .


40
Rosetti D. V. Siipiiturile de la Vidra-raport preliminar. II Publica\iile Muzeului Municipiului
Bucure~ti.

I.

Bucure~ti,

1934, p . 7-17.

Berciu D. Contributii ... p . 66- 67, 471 , fig . 248- 2.


42
Marin escu-Btlcu S. Relatiile intre culturile ... p. 349.
"'Roman P. Ceramica precucuteniana din aria culturilor Boian-Gumelni\a ~i semnifica\ia ei II
SCIV, t. XIV, N l, 1963.
14 Marinescu-Bilcu S. Cultura Precucuteni. .. p . 137; idem, Relatii. .. p . 352.
45
Dumitrescu H. Contribu\ii la problema .. . p. 69.
46 Marin escu-Bllcu S. Cultura Precucuteni .. .
47
3w-1bKOBCKa11 H. E. KyxoHHaJI KepaMHKa paHHeTp11rron1>cKoro noceneHHll AneKcaHAponKa II
41

IIaMJITHHKH Apentt11x KYJJE.TYP Cenepo -3anaAHOro I1p11'1epHOMOpb!i. Kuen, 1981 , pwc. 3- 3.


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49
Cy66omu1t JI. B. IIaMl!THHKH KYJ!bTYPbI ryMeJ!bHHl(a IOro-3arra,lla YKpaHHb!. KHeB, 1983,
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51
$tefan G. Raport asupra siipaturilor ~i cercetiirilor arheologice de la Bii~ti-Aldeni (jul. Buziiu).
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52
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53
Comia E. Unele probleme ale aspectului cultural Aldeni II (pe baza sapaturilor de la Driigan~ti
Tecuci). II SCIV, t. XIV, NI, 1963, p. 23.
64
Comia E. Neoliticul pe teritoriul... p . 51- 52.
55
Dragomir !. T. Eneoliticul din sud-estul Romaniei. Aspectul cultural Stoicani-Aldeni. Bucure~ti,
1983, p . 112.
56
$imon M . Unele probleme ale aspectului cultural Stoicani-Aldeni II SCIVA, t. 37, N l , 1986,
p. 28.
57 flacceK T. C. PyMb!HCKo-concrcKHH ceMHHap no rrpo6neMaM rrepno6b1THoti apxeonornw. II
ConeTcKaJI apxeonornJI, Ni? 3, 1963; MopHHI.1 C. PyM1>IHcKo-concrcKl1ti ceMHHap no rrpo6neMaM
rrepno6bITHo-06I11HHHoro CTpO!i. II Dacia, N .S., V. 8, 1964; Com~a E . Unele probleme.
58
Berciu D. Contribu\ii .. . p . 83; Dumitrescu V. Originea ~i evolutia culturii Cucuteni-Tripolie. II
SCIV, t. XIV, N 1- 2, 1963, p. 62; Dragomir LT. Eneoliticul din ... p. 10 .
59
lfepHbttu E. K. IIaMJITHHKH KYJ11>Typ1>1 Eompa,ll-AJ1,lleH1>113m~oJJHT CCCP . ApxeonornJI CCCP.
M., 1982, c. 253.
6
Cy66omu1t JI. B. IIaMJITHHKH KYJibTypbl. ... c. 127-128.
61
Tooopoaa X. 3HeOJJHT Eonrap1111. Corj>HJI, 1979, c. 32-33.
62
$imon M. Cu privire la rela\ia "cultura Varna" ~i cultura Gumelnita II SCIVA, t. 34, N 4, 1983,
p. 305- 319.
63
Cy66omu1t JI. B. IIaMllTHHKH KYJJbTypbI.. .. c. 131 ; Com~a E. Neoliticul... p. 52.
64
Dragomir !. T. Eneoliticul din ... p. 113; CopoKHH B. >I. Kyn1>TypHO-HCTopw1ecK11e npo6neMbl
nneMeH cpe,llHero Tp11rroJ11>J1 lJ:HeCTponcKo-IIpyTcKoro MeJK,llype'lbJI II lf3neCT11J1 AH MCCP,
cepH!i 06I11eCTBeHHbIX HayK, Ni? 3, 1989.
65
M apKeau'l B. H. MHorocnotiHoe noceneHHe ... c. 61 , pHc. 13- 10; 15 .
66
Ta.M JKe, c. 63.
67
Ta.M JKe, c. 63.
68
EeuJ1eK'IU B. C. I1ccne,llonatt11J1 pam1eTp11rroJ1bCKoro rroceneHHJI I1caKono II II Apxeonorw1ecK11e
oTKpbITHll 1974 roAa. M., 1975, c. 436.
48

-- 152 -

153 -

69

Tchernych E. K. Une ancienne variente de la civilisation de Gumelni\a sur le territoire de L'URSS


II VIII cong. Inter. des sciences prehistoriques etprothohistoriques (Belgrade, 1971). M; 1971,
p. 3.
7

Cy66omun JI. B. IlaMJITH11KH KYJJhTYPhl. .... c. 129.


..
71
MeJ1bnw1y1< lf. B. HccJJet1onaH11J1 Ha panneTp11noJJCKOM noce11eH1111 Earp11Hel!ITb1 VII.// AHM
1986 r. K11l!I11Hen, 1992, p11c. 4-1.
72
Dragomir I. T Contributii generale ... fig. 26.
,
73
Eei1JleK'tU B. C. PaHn11H: 3HeOJJl1T Hl130D&en IlpyTa 11 AyHaJI. K11l!I11Hen, 1978, c. 63, p11c. 52-1.
74
Mau3ypa lf. B.,. Copo1<uu B. 51. I'yMeJJhHl1l\KOe noceJJeH11e y nrT. TapaKJJHJI // ApxeoJJorw1ecK11e
11ccJJet1onaH11J1 MOJJOJ:l&IX yqeH&IX MoJJt1an1111. K11l!I11Hen, 1990, p11c. 2-3.
75
NifuA. Vase antropomorfe ale ceramicii Stoicani-Aldeni din sudul Moldovei // Ceicetari istorice
(seria noua), t. II, 1971.
.
,
76
3wtbKOBCKaJ! H. E. A~nponoMopqmaJI nJJaCTm<a panHe-rp11noJJhCKoro noceJJeHl1ll AJJeKcaHJ:lponKa // MACTI, nhm. 8, K11en, 1976, c. 168, p11c. 1- 5.

77
IIamoKo<ia 3 . <P.; IIempenKo B. r., Eypoo H. E., IloJ1uu1yK JI. JO. IlaMJ1THl1K11 ... c. 28.
78
EeiilleK'IU B. C. PaHH11H: 3HCOJJl1T ... p11c . .63-4.
79
Cy66omu11 JI. B. IlaMl!THHK11 KYJJhTyp&I ... c. 129, p11c. 25-17.
80
TaM)f(e.
81
Harfuche N. Cercetiirile arheologice de la Li~coteanca I. A~ezarea "Movila Olarului" (19701976).//Istros, v: V, 19.87.
82
Vajsova H. Keramika typu Varna v severovychodnom Bulhardky. // Archeologicke rozhedy, t.
XIX, N 3, 1967.
83
Vajsova H. Stand der jungstein~eitforschung in Bulgarien. // Slovenska archeologia, t. XIV, N
. 1, 1966, fig: 3- 20.
"
84
36enoiiu'I B. r. PaHHHH :nan ... c. 169, p11c. 79- 49.
85
MuKOB'b B. Ht10JJna:ra nJJaCT11Ka npe3'h Hono-KaMennal! enoxa n'h n'hJJrap11J1 // H3neCTl1ll EAH,
T. VIII, 1934, Cocji11J1, p11c. 124-1.
86
Tooopoaa X 3HeoJJ11T11qecK11e KYJJhTyp&1EoJJrapm11111x cenepo-noCToqnh1e clll!311 // KanKa3 ~
c11CTeMe naJJeOMe'r3JIJJ11qecK11x KYJJ&Typ Enpa.31111. T611JJ11rn, 1987, c. 182-192.
87
IlacceK .T. C. KoCTl!Hhie aMyJJeT&I 113 <DJJopemr. // Honoe n coneTcKoH: apxeoJJor1111. MHA
CCCP N2 130. M., 1965.
88
MapKeBU't B. lf. 0Tqe'r MoJJ.ziancKoH apxeoJJoro-nnorpacji11qecKoH: 3Kcne.zi11q1111 o pa6oTax,
npone.zienHhIX n 1981 r. Km1111nen, 1982.
89
MapKe8U'I B. lf. HccJJe.zionamrn MoJJ.ziancKoH: ... c. 41, pnc. 6- 1,3.
90
36enoau'I B. r. IlocerreH11e EepuamonKa ... c. 138.
.
91
MaKapeau'I M. JI. Cepe11uh6y3hKa eKne.zittl\ill no .ziocrri):l)f(eHHO naM'llTOK TpttnirrhcKoi KYJibTYPH
.II ApxeorroriqHi naM'JITKH YPCP, T. 4. K., 1952, Ta6. 1,4.
92
Marinescu-Bilcu S. Tirpe~ti-from Prehistory to History in E;istern Romania.// BAR International Series N 107. Oxfoq:I, 1981, fig. 105-12.
93
J6e11oau'1 B. r. Ilocerrenue EepHa!llonKa ... puc. 78-18, 19.
94
Cep2eea B. r. PauHeTpttnorr&cKttH KJJM y c. Kap6yna // ConeTCKa.ll apxeorronrn Ng '1, 1963,
puc. 9-10; 11-1.
95
IlacceK T C. KoCTllH&Ie aMYJie'rbl ...
96 TaM )f(e, cc. 77, 83.
97
Com~a E. Istoria comunitatilor. .. fig. 76--13.
98
Cy66omuu JI. B. IlaMJITHl1KH KYJI&Typhl. .. pttc. 49- 1.
99
Ji5euoau'I B. r. ITocerreH11e EepnamonKa ... c. 139.
100
MapKeBU'I B. lf. MHorocrroH:noe noceJJeHtte .. . puc. 15-1.
101
Buzdugan C, Rotaru M . Figurine antropomorfe de os descoperite in centrul Moldovei //Revis ta
muzeelor ~i monumentelor N 7, 1986, p. 52-54, fig. 2-1.
lOl Marinescu-Btlcu s. Cultura Precucuteni .. . p. 51; 36eHOBHq B. r. PaHH11fl 3Tan ... c. 72- 75.
103
Cep2eea B. r. PaHHe'rp11norrhCKl1H KJia):I .. .
104
~lepHblX E. H. MeTaJJrrypr11qecKtte npon11Hqu11 11 nep110.zi113aq11J1 3rrox11 panHero MeTaJJrra na
Tepp11Top11n CCCP II ConeTcKall apxeorrorttll N! 4, 1978.
-154-

PblflOUHa H . B. ApenneH:lllall MeTarrJJoo6pa6oTKa IOro-BocToq1rnH: EnponhI (HCTOKl1 11


pa3n11T11e). II ApenneHllltte o6JllHOCTl13eMrre11errbI.1eB HCKOTODOJ:IOB Cenepnoro Ilp11qepHOMOp1>ll
(V T&1c. J:IO H.3.-V ll.H.3.). MaTep11aJJbI MC)f(J1YHapo.zinoH: KoncjiepeHI.11111. K11l!I11Hen, 10-14
11eKa6pJ1 1990 r . K11en, 1991, c. 16-19.
.
io6 Pb111ouna H. B. ApenueH:!llee MeTaJJrroo6pa6aT1>rnaIDJllee npo113BOJ1CTBo BoCTO'IHOH EnponhI.
M ., 1971, c. 136.
10
1 Lfepnoix E. H. MeTaJJJJypruqecK11e nponunqu11 .. . c. 59 .

10s

Summary

The article reviews the issues of cultural relations between the Pre-Cucuteni - Early Tripolie
Tribes, and the <;o!llmunities of the Hamanjia, Boian, Gumelnita, Bolgrad-Aldcni and other
cultures. These relations were reflected in anthropomorphic plastic art, ceramic articles ate.

JJ,eM'leHKO

T.11., JleBHltKHH o.r.

l1CCJ1EJJ,OBAHl1E KYPrAHOB 3nOXH liPOH3bl


B KAYWAHCKOM PAJ10HE

Kayrna.ttcKaJI ttosocrpoe'lttaJI 3Kctre.n.:in~HJI OT.n.erra 3THOrpaqmtt n ncKycCTBose.n.ettHJI AH MCCP B 1'985 ro.n.y nposo.n.ttrra cnacaTeJibHbre pacKonKH ua
TeppnTopm1 KayrnattcKoro paiioHa, B 30He CTJ?OHTerrhcrBa Maf!'fcrparrbttoro
ra3onposo.n.a Attattbes-Tttpacnorrh-H3Mattrr. Bhmo Hccrre.n.osatto J 0 Kyprattos,
HyMepau:rrn KOTOpb!X npOH3BO.D._IfJiaCh B nopa.n.Ke HCCJie.D.OBaHmL IlepBbie TPH
KypraHa BXO.D.HJIH B KypraHHYIO rpy11ny, COCT05!BlliYIO H3 6-TH HaCbmeii. H
paCllOJIO)KeHHYIO B 3 KM Ha roro-3ana.n. OT lO)]{HOH OKpamibl c.Kb!pttau:eHbI.
KypraHbI N2 4-10 BXO.D.HJ1H B u:enOtIKY r<ypraHOB, H.D.YIUHX B)J.OJlh aBTO.D.Oporn
Bett.n.epbr-Bonrpa.n., (pttc.1)
KYPrAH .NH (:moXII 1103.n.ueii 6pott3br) 1, r<ypranhr N23,8,9 (capMaTcr<oii
KYJibTypbr) 2 II 11orpe6er-nrn 1103.D.HeKO'IeBHH'lecr<oro speMe1rn 3 ony6nm<0BaHbI
OT)J.eJihHO. TaI<HM o6pa30M, Hacroarn:aJI CTaTb5I BBO.D.HT B nay'IHhIH o6opoT MaTepttaJJ, llOJJY'leHHbIM B pe3yJ1bTaTe IICCJ1e.D.OBaHH5! 6-TII r<ypraHOB 3nOXII 6pon3bl. KypraHhI HCCJle)J.OBaJJHCh no o6rn:enpmrnTOH MeTO.D.HKe, 3a ttyrresym TO'lKY
(P) npIIHHManacb npe.n.norraraeMaa BeprnHHa, II Bee 3aMephI npbH3BO.D.HJIHCb
OT Hee .
KYPrAH .M!2 . Haxo.n.IIrrcJI na paccToaHHH 0,4 KM K mro-socToKy oT
Kpaiiuero cesepo-3ana.n.Horo r<yprana c TpeaHrynau:IIoHHbIM 3Har<oM,
sxo.n.aru:ero B Kypranuy10 rpyrmy y c.KI>Ipnau:eHhI. E)]{ero.n.tto pacnaxttsarrca,
ero COBpeMeHHaa BbICOTa 1,25 M, .D.IIaMeTp OKOJIO 30 M. B03Be)J.eH B .D.Ba npII~Ma
n co.n.ep>I<arr 12 paBHOBpeMeHHbIX norpe6eHHii* . (pttc.2)
Ilorpe6euue 1 (HMHoe) o6Hapy)]{eHO B cesepO-BOCTO'lHOM cer<Tope KypraHa
(13), Ha pacCTOHHIIH 11.3 M, Ha rrryforne 1.84 M. .51Ma npaMoyrOJibHOM lpOpMbI
co CK(~yrrreHHbIMH yrnaMH, )J.JIIIHHOH OCblO OpIIeHTIIpOBaHa no JIHHIIH 3ana.n.cesepo-3ana.n. - BOCTOK-I-OI'O-BOCTOK. Pa3Mepbl 1.7 x 1.45 M OTMetieHHaa
*Tiorpe6e1me .1'&5 11 N28 TI03J:1HeKoqenH11qecK11e.
-

155 ---

Puc.I. CHTyaQHOHHLIH nnaH pacnonoJKeHHll KypraHoB .

rnyforna OKOJIO 0.2 M. Ilorpe6eHHbIH (>KeHII.lHHa-?)* Jie)l(aJI Ha CIIHHe, rorroBOH


Ha 3arra.n:-ceBepo -3arra.n:, cKopIeHHO, rrm1eBoH tiaCTbIO BBepx. IlpaBaa: pyKa
BbITHHyTa, KHCTblO Ha 6e.n:pe, rreBaa:-corHyTa B JIOKTe rro.n: TYIIbIM yrrrOM, KHCTb
Ha Ta3e. Hortt, pe3KO corHyTbie B KorreHa:x (20),rre)l(arrtt cnpaBa. KocTa:K
HHTeHCHBHO nocbmaH KpacHOH oxpoii. Ha ,n:He 3acpHKCttpoBaH KOpH'IHeBhIH
TJieH OT IIO.ZJ:CTHJIKH'. (pttc.2/2)
Ilorpe6euae 2 (HMHOe) o6Hapy)l(eHO B ceBepo-BoCrO'IHOM ceKTOpe Kypnura .
(16), Ha paccroa:HHH 8.3 M OTP,. Ha rrry6ttHe 1.79 M. .51Ma npa:MoyrorrbHaa: co
enema CKpytrreHHbIMH yrrraMH, ,[(JIHHHOH OCblO optteHTHpOBaHa no JIHHHH ceBepo3ana.n: - io~o-Bocroi<. Pa3MepbI 1.84 x 1.08 M, OTMetieHHaa: rrry6ttHa 0.55 M.
Ilorpe6eHHhiii (B3poCITbIH 'leJIOBeK) BepOHTHO rre)l(arr Ha CTIHHe, CKOp'IeHHO,
rorroBoii Ha 3ana.n: -ceBepo-3arra.n:. Horn: corHyThie B Korre_
HHX rro.n HaKrroHoM
rre)l(aJIH crrpaBa. Kocra:K, oco6eHHO ii:eperr H KOCTH cTon, rrocbmaHhl I<pacHoH
oxpoii. Ha ,n:He rrpocrre)l(eH I<OpH'IHeBhIH TrreH OT rro,n,CTHITKM. (pttc.3/I)
Ilorpe6euue 3 (HMHOe) o6Hapy)l(eHO B ceBepO-BOCTO'IHOM ceKTOpe KypraHa
. (57), Ha paccTOHHHH 2.2 M, Ha rny6MHe 1.63 M. .51Ma rrpa:MoyrOITbHa.ll GCHJlbHO

*AHTpononorw1ecKHe onpe~eneHHll BL!IlOJJHeHLI cneQHaJIHCTOM-aHTpononorOM OpnoM P .B-.


-

156 -

Puc.2. l. KypraH 2. Opll\HH nnaH H pa3pe3LI. 2 - K.2 TI.I . 3 -

K.2, TI.3.

CKpyrrreHHhIMH yrrraMH , .n:.tmHOH OCblO optteHTMpoBaHa no JIHHHH ceBepoBOCTOK - ioro-3ana.n:. Pa3Mepb1: .1.78 x 1.14 M, OTMe'lennaa: rny6HH_a 0.39 M. B
3arrorrHeHHH coxpaHHJIHGh qipa:rMeHTbI .n:epeBHHHbIX rrrrax OT nepeKphITHH.
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IOr0-3arra.n, J11Il~CBOH 'laCTblO Ha IOrO-BOCTOK. PyKn crrerKa corHyThI B ITOKTC,
rremur - K.nCTbIO CBepxy T::i3a, rrpaBa51 - rro.n HnM. Horn cnrrhHO corHyThI B
KOJICH51X, JIC)l(aJin crrpam:t. KoCT51K nHTCHCnBHO OKpmueH KpacHOH oxpoii. Ha
.[(HC-KOpII'IHCBhIH TJICH OT Il0.[(CT!1JIK!1. (pllc.2/3)
Ilorpe6eune 4 (a.MHOe)(o6Hapy)l(eHo B ceBepo-BOCToq~oM ceKTope KypraHa
(22), I-Ia pacCTOHHnll 2 M, Ha rny6IIHC 1.66 M. 51Ma rrpa.MoyrOJihHaH co CKpyrneHl;IbIMn yrnaMII, .nnnHHOH OCblO opneHTnpoBairn no nnHnn 10ro-3ana.n-c--CeBepoBOCTOK. Pa3MepbI: 1.8 x 0.8-0.9 M, OTMeBeHHaa. rny6nHa 0.2 M.
I1orpe6eHHblH (B3pOCJiblH qenoBeK) ne)l(a;rr Ha crrnHe, CI<Op'leHHO, rOJIOBOH I-Ia
10ro-3arra.n, JIIIUeBoii tiaCThIO BBepx. IlpaBaH pyKa BhITHHyTa, neBaa. - enema
c;;orHyTa, KIICThIO rro.n Ta3o6e.r.i:peHHhIM cycTaBoM. Horn, paHee conryThie B
I<OJICH51X H Il0.[(H51Tbie, ynaJIH BJICBO . Koca.K IIHTCHCIIBHO IIOChIIIaH MaJIHHOBOH
oxpon, 60JibllIOH KOMOK (1 Ox3 CM) '.3TOH )KC OXpbI Jie)l(aJI Ha..[(He, Ha paCCT05IIIIIH
5 CM OT rrpaaoii BHCO'IHOH KOCTH . (puc.3/7).
Ilorpe6eune 6 (I<aTaI<OM6Hoe) o6Hapy)l(eHo B ceaepo-3arra.nHoM ceKTope
I<yprana (333), Ha paccTOHmrn 9.2 M, na rrryforne 1.8 M. KoHTyphr HMhI He
npocJie)l(IIBaJIHCb. I1orpe6eHHbIH (B3pOCJibIH 1IeJIOBeI<) Jie)l(aJI Ha CIIIIHe, BbIT51HYTO, roJIOBOH Ha ceBepo-BOCTOK, JIIIUCBOH 'laCTbIIO BBepx.(pnc. 3/3). 3a
rOJIOBOii, crrpaBa, Ha paCCT051HIIII 0,2 M CT05IJI cocy.n IIIapOBII.[(HbIM TYJIOBOM,
OTHOCIITCJibHO Y3I<OH, UIIJIIIH.D:PII'leCI<OH ropJIOBHHOH II ropH30HTaJihHbIMH
rrrre:rnr<aMII. YI<paIIIeH .D:BYMH .OpHaMeHTaJrhHhIMII IIOHCaMn -- no nnetIHI<aM
.D:BYMH p51.naMH Hace'leI<, u.nymux no.n npOTHBOIIOJIO)l(HblM yrnoM . (eJIO'lHblH
opHaMeHT). K nocne.nHeMy npIIMhII<aeT .D:BOiiHaH yrny6neHHaH 3Hr3aroo6pa3Ha51 JIIIHII51. Cocy.n BhIIIOJIHeH H3 rJIHHhr c rrpnMeChIO MeJIKOTOJitieHoro IIIaMoTa.
IloBepxHOCTh IIIepoxoBaTaH, I<HpIIII'lHoro uBeTa. Pa3Mephr: BhICOTa 15 CM,
.[(HaMe'rp 10.5 CM, .[(HaMeTp .[(Ha 9 CM, HaH60JibllIIIH .[(I.JaMeTp 18.3 CM (p11c.3/2).
Ilorpe6eune 7 (3noxu 6poH3hr) o6napy)l(eHo B ueHTpanhHOH qacTH ROyprana
(272), Ha paccTOHHHH 1.2 M, Ha rny611He 1.8 M; KoHTYPhI HMhI He
npocJie)l(IIBaJIHCh, coxpaHunach nnIIIh npn.normaa. qacTh. I1orpe6eHHhiii Jie)l(aJI
Ha JICBOM 6oI<y, CI<opqeHHO, rOJIOBOH Ha BOCTOK, JIIIUeBOH rnCTblO Ha IOr.
I1paBa51 pyI<a corHyTa B JIOKTe, I<IICTblO Me)l(.ny rpy.n:Hoii KJieTKOH H Ta30M,
neBaH BhITHHyTa. Horn pe3I<O corHyThl B KOJICHH:X, Jie)l(aJIH cnpaBa. KocTa.K
oI<paIIIen KpacHon oxpoii. (pnc. 3/6).
Ilorpe6e1rne 9 (r<aTaKOM6noii)o6napy)l(eHO B IOrO-BOCTO'lHOH qacTII
KypraHa (115), Ha paCCT05IHHH 9M, tra rrry611ne 1.87 M. 51Ma HerrpaBIIJibHOH
OBaJibHOH clJopMbl c He60JihilinM rro.n6oeM, .[(!JIIIHHOH OCblO opaettTnpoBaHa no
nnHnII 3arra.n-BoCTOI<. Pa3Mephr: 2.38xl.78 M, OTMetieHHaH rrry611Ha OKono 0,44
M. Horpe6eHHbIH (B30pOCJibIH qeJIOBeK) JIC)l(aJI BbITHHYTO Ha CIIHHe, rOJIOBOif
Ha 10ro-3ana.n, JIHUeBoii qacTbIO Ha 10r. PyKn BhITHHYThI, neBaH _,_ 'lYTh corHyTa
B JIOKTe, KHCTblO na Ta3e. Ilo.n qeperroM ofornpy)l(CH KOpntIHeBJ>IH TJICH. (pnc 3/

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Il.7: 7-K.2, Il .. 4: 8-K.2, Il.9.

- - 158 --

8).
Ilorpe6eune 10 (3rroxn 6pOH3bl) o6Hapy)l(eHO B CeBepO-BOCTO'lHOM CCKTOpe
KypraHa (34), Ha paccT051HIIn 12 M, Ha rny6nHe 1.95 M. KoHTyphr 51MhI He
-159-

rrpocJie)I<Irnamicb. IIorpe6eHHhIH (B3pOCJibIH qerroBeK) rre)f(aJI CKOp'IeHHO Ha


cmrne c He60JihllIHM rro:BopOTOM BJieBO, rOJIOB.OH Ha ceBepo-3arra.r:1, JIHIJ;eBOH
qaCThlO Ha ceBepo-BOCTOK. JleBoe rrrreqo rrpHIIO,[IH5ITO, pyKa IIIHpOKO OTCTaBrreHa H BhIT5IHyTa, KHCTb y KOJieHeil:. OT rrpaBoli pyKH qacTH'IHO coxpaHttrracb
rrrretieBa5I KOCTb, KOTopa5I rre)f(aJia Ha rro3BOHO'IHHKe. Ha 3aII5ICTbe rreBoli pyKH
coxpaHHJIC5I 3eJieHhIH crre.[{ OT 6poH3bI. Hom pe3KO corHyTbI B KOJieH5IX, Jie)f(aJIH
crreBa. (pttc. 3/4)
Ilorpe6euue 11(:moxH6pOH3bI-?) o6Hapy)f(eHO B IOrO-BOCTO'IHOM ceKTOpe
KypraHa, '(128), Ha paccT05IHHH 6.5 M, Ha rrry6!rne 1.39 M. KoHTYPbI 5IMhI He
rrpocrre:)f<HBaJIHCh . Cy.[{51 no He3Ha'IHTeJibHhIM KOCTHhIM OCTaTKaM, rrorpe6eHHhlH Jie)f(aJI CKOp'IeHHO, rOJIOBOH, IIO-BH.[{HMOMy, Ha CeBepo-BOCTOK. y
6epuoBOH KOCTH Jie)f(aJI l:re6orrbIIIOH cocy.[{- cocy.[{-6aHKa, BhinOJIHeHHhlH H3
rmrnb1 c rrpttMeCbIO ruaMoTa. IloBepxHOCTb ruepoxoBaTa5I, CBeTrrO-KOptttIHeBoro
UBeTa. qeperroK pbIXJlhIH, B li3JIOMe qepHoro UBeTa.BbICOTa cocy.[{a 7 .3 CM
.[{HClMeTp BeH'IHKa 8.3 CM, .[{MaMeTp ,[{Ha 8.5 CM .' (pttc.12/3)
Ilorpe6euue 12 (Heorrp.) o6ttapy)f(eHo B 1-0)f(HOH qacTtt Kypratta (180), Ha
pacCT05IHMH 9 .5 M, Ha rrry6ttHe 1. 79 M. IIorpe6eHHe rrO'ITM rrorrHOCThIO pa3pyrueHHO.
Cmpamu2paif>u51. u om11ocumeJZblWJ1 xpo110J102UJ1 no2pe6e11uz'1. (pttc. 2/1).

Hacbinb coCTo5I1a M3 .[{Byx cTpottTeJihHhIX roptt30HTOB. IIepBa5I Hacbmb,


KOMKOBaTo-crrottcToil: CTPYKTYPbI, BhICOTOH 0.8 M OT norpe6eHHOH rrO'IBhI.I ,
.[{HaMeTpOM 10 M, 6bma B03Be,[{eHa Ha,[{ .[{BYM5I OCHOBHhIMli rrorpe6eHM5IMli
5IMHOH KYJibTYPbI N!i3,4 . IIorpe6eHHa5I IIO'!Ba 1 MOIUHOCThl-0 .[{0 0.25 M c
BH.[{HMOH rrttHtteil: .r:1peBHero roptt30HTa, .[{JIHHOH 9 M. Ha Heli rrpocrre)f(eH BhIKH.[{
MaTepHKOBOro cyrrrHHKa Ii3 OCHOBHblX rrorpe6eHHH MOIUHOCThlO ,[10 0.3 M. Ha
paCCT05IHlili 3 .5 MK ceBepO-BOCTOKY OT Kpa5I rrepBOH HaCbIIIH 6bIJIO COBeprueHO
3axopoHeHtte N22, Ha.[{ KOTOpbIM 6bma C.[{erraHa .[{OChIIIKa, yBeJIM'IMBilla5I
BhICOTY KypraHa .no 1.6 M, a .[{HaMeTp .[{O 30 M. IIorpe6eHHa5I rrotIBa II
MOIUHOCThlO 0.2 Mc Bli.[{liMOH JIHHMeH .[{peBHero ropM30HTa 3acpMKCHpOBaHa
TOJihKO B ceBepHoil: qacTH. Ha Kpa5Ix ceBepHoli rrorrbr KpraHa rrpocrre)f(eH
JIHH3006pa3HblH BhIKli.[{ MaTepMKOBoro cyrJIMHKa Ii3 OCHOBHOro .[{J15I BTOpoH:
HaChIIlH rrorpe6eHH5I. Ero . MOIUHOCTh 0.36 M. Ha paCCT05IHlili 3 M (40) Ii Ha
rrry6ttHe 1.2-1.42 M 3acpMKCHpOBaH crre.[{ o:r KO,CTpmua .[{HaMeTpOM OKOJIO 1. 3
M B BH,[{e MOIUHOro rrpo)Kera, CKOIIJieHHH yrOJihKOB Ii rrerrrra. B ceBepoBOCTO'IHYIO 'IaCTh roTOBoro KypraHa 6bIJIO BrrymeHO 5IMHOe rrorpe6emrn 1.
Crre.[{y10my1-0 rro BpeMeHM 3axopoHeHtt5I rpyrrrry cocTaBJI5II-OT .[{Ba 1<aTaKoM6Hb1x
rrorpe6eHH5I - N!:! 6,9. IIorpe6eHM5I N!:! 7, 10, 12 5IBJI5IIOTC5I BrrycKHhIMM M
OTHOC5ITC5I K, 3rroxe 6poI-I3bI. IIocrremmMM B KypraH 6brntt .[{OxopoHeHhI
rr03.[{HeKO'IeBHM'IecKMe rrorpe6eI-IM5I N!:! 5, 8.
KYPrAH Nl!4 . Haxo.[{MJIC5I Ha paccT05IHMM 2.5 KM Ha BOcToK oT BocTotIHoil:
OKpattHbI c. Orraq M B 1.5 KM Ha ceBepo-3arra.[{ OT rrorreBoro cTaHa, ttarrpOTHB,
cana, crrpaBa OT aBTO.[{oportt Kayruattb1-Borrrpa.[{. E)Keromro pacrraxttBaJIC5I,
-160 -

ero COBpeMeHHa5I BbICOTa 1.5 M, ,[{HaMeTp 32 M. KypraH B03Be,[{eH B .[{Ba rrptteMa


Ii CO.[{ep)KaJI 16 pa3HOBpeMeHI-IbIX rrorpe6eHHH *. (pttc.4)
Ilorpe6euue 1 (tteorrp.) 061rnpy)f(eHo B ueHTpe Kypratta (180), Ha
pacCTommH 0.5 M, Ha rny6ttHe , 0.6 M. KoHTYPhI 5IMbI He rrpocrre)KMBarrrrch .KoCT5IK rrrr oxoli coxpaHHOCTH. IIor pe6eHHhIH Bep05ITHO (MY)K'IttHa 40-60 rreT)
Jie)l(aJI 1-rn crrttHe, BbIT5ItIYTO, rorroBoli Ha 3arra.[{ - ceBepo-3arra.[{: CrrpaBa, Ha
paCCT05IHlili OKOJIO 0.2 M OT Ta3a H II03BOHO'IHHKa Jie)l(aJIH OCTaTKH.
.uepeB5IHHbIX rrrrax, o6ropeBIIIHX CHM3Y.
Ilorpe6enue 2 (3rroxtt 6pomhr-?) o6Hapy)l(eHo B ceaepo-3arra.uuoM ceKTope
Kypraua (300), Ha paCCT05IHMH 6.6 M, Ha rrry6ttHe 0.73 M. KoHTyphr 5IMbI He rrpocrre)l(HBaJIHCb. KoCT5IK nrroxoli coxpaHHOCTH. IIorpe6ettHhIH ()KeHIUHHa- ?), rroBli.L\HMOMy, Jie)!(aJI Ha rrpaBOM 6oKy c pa3BOpOTOM Ha rpy.utt, CKOptieHI-IO, rOJIOBOH
Ha BOCTOK. Hom COt'HYTbl B KOJieH5IX Jie)!(aJIM CJieBa. (pttc 5/7).
. Ilorpe6e1me 3 (1-ieonpe.u.) o6Hapy)Kei-io B 10ro-3arra,L\HOM ceKTo'pe r<ypraHa
( 190), 1-m paCCTOHHHH 4 M, i-ia rrry6tttte 0 .3 M. Ilorpe6mrne nonHOCTbIO pa3pyrueuo,
rrpe.urroJIO)l(HTeJihHO norpe6euHhIH 6bm optteHTHpOBau rorr oBoli Ha ceBepo. BOCTOK .
Ilorpe6euue 4 (3rroxtt 6poH3bI) 06ttapy)l(e1rn B ceBepo-3arra.uHoM ceKTope
KypraHa (328), Ha paCCTOHHHH 6.5 M, Ha rny6ttHe 1.6 M. KoHTYPbI HMbl Be rrpocrre)!(11BC1JIHCb. IIorpe6eHHbIH (MY)!('IllHa-?' 6orree 60 rreT) Jl~)f(aJI Ha CIIHHe, CKOptieHHO,
'rorroBoli Ha 10ro-3arra.[{, JIHUeBoli qaCTbIO BBepx. Hortt, paHee corHYThie B KorreHHX
tt no.unHTbre , rre)!(aJitt crrpaBa . PyKtt BbITHHYThL Ilo.[{ rorroBO H coxpaHHJICH
KOpH'IHeBblH TJieH OT IIO.[\CTHJIKH. (pttc.5/6)
Ilorpe6euue 6 (3IIOXH 6pOH3bl) ObHapy)KeHO B IOrO-BOCTO'IHOM ceKTOpe
Kypra1-rn (155), Ha p accTOHHHH 6.6 M, na rrry6mre 0.9 M. KoHTYPbI HMbI ne
npocJie)l(HBaJIBCb. IIorpe6eHHbIB (MY)K'IttHa, 6orree 55 rre:r) Jie)l(arr 1-ia npaBOM 6oKy,
c pa3BOpOTOM Ha rpy.Uh, B CHJihHO CKOp'IeHHOM IIOJIO)l(eHHH, rOJIOBOH Ha 10ro3arra.u, JIHUeBOH qaCThlO BHH3. PyKH corHyTbl B JIOKT5IX, KMCT5IMH ITO.[\ rpy.[{HOH
1<rre:r1<0H:. Hortt Mar<CHMaJihHO corHyThI, r<orreHHMH 1<aca10TCH rorroBhI. (pnc. 3/5)
Ilorpe6euue 7 (3Il0Xli 6pOH3bI) o6Hapy)!(eHO B IOrO-BOCTO'IHOM cer<Tope r<ypra1-rn (170), na paccTOHHlitt 3.6 M, Ha rrry6ttHe 0.79 M. KoHTypb15IMbI He npocrre)f(ttBaJIIICb. IIorpe6eHHhIH (20-30 rre:r), no-BM.L\HMOMy, rre)l(arr Ha cnrrHe c noBopoTOM
BnpaBo, rorroBOH Ha 3ana.r:1, rruueBOH qaCThIO BBepx. Hom aep05ITHO 6bmM
corHyThI B 1<orreHHX H rre)!(aJili cnpaaa. Ko CT HK; oco6eHHO ttttTeHCJ1BHO qeperr, 6bm
rrochrnaH r<pacHoli oxpoii. Ha .[{He 3acpttr<cttpoBaH KOptttIHeBhiii TJieH OT
I
IlO.[{CTHJIKH.
Ilorpe6euue 8 (HMHOe, OCHOBHOe .[\JIH nepBOH HaCbIIlli) o6Hapy)KeHO B 10ro3ana.[{HOM ceKTope KypraHa (334), Ha pa<;CT05IHMH 3,8 M, Ha rrry6ttHe 1.82 M.
.51Ma np5IMOyrOJibHOH cpopMbl co CKpyirreHHb~Mli yrrraMM, ,[{JlliHOH OChlO
optteHTiipOBaHa no JIIIHMH 3ana.[{-IOr0-3arra.u - BOCTOK- ceBepo-BOCTOK,
pa3MepaMM 1.22 x 0.8 M. 0TMetieHHa5I rrry6ttHa 0.54 _M. Ha .UHe, no yrrraM
o6Hapy)f(eHbl 4 5IMI<li OT KOJibeB , liX ,[{HaMe:rp OKOJIO 5 CM, rrry6ttHa OT 6 .[\O 11

* I1orpe6emrn N!5,9 - n03AHeKoqesH11qecK11e.


-

161 -

"";

~d

......._,
1

"'r..,J

,...

g~

~--

,,,,~

Qlf

0,~

.~

t
u

.....

*=

Puc.4. 06l1.IHH m1a/f H Pa.3pe3J>I Kypralia 4.

CM. B pa3pe3e J!MKH KOHnqeCKHe, HarrpaBJieHbI OT U:eHTpa. Ilorpe6eHne


orpa6neHo B .D;peBHocrn, Ha .QHe o6HapyJI<eHhI pa3p03HeHHhie KOCTn. Orrpe.Qennn rrono:>KeHne rrorpe6euHoro (JI<eHrquHa -?, Ol(OJI9 20 JieT) He rrpe.QCTaBnnoci,
B03MOJI<HhIM. KocTn OKparueHhI KpacHoif oxpol):. Ha .D;He M:ecTaMn coxpaHnJicJI
KOpnqueBbIH TJieH OT IIO.QCTHJIKH. (pnc 511 )

llorpe6enue 10 (>noxu 6poum) o6uapy><euo e mro-eoCToqHOM CCKTope .


Kypraua (146), Ha paccTOHHnn 7.1 M, Ha rny6nHe 1.09 M.
.. . - 162 -

KoHTypbI RMbI

ue

Puc.5. I-K.4, IT.8: 2-cocyn H3 Il.16,K.4: 3-K.4,Il.14: 4-K.4,Il.12: 5-K., 4,Il.1 3% 6-K.4,Il.4: 7-

. K.4,Il.2: 8-K-4, Il.16: 9-K.4,Il.15.

'

rrpocneJI<nBannc1>. Ilorpe6eHHh1ii (MyJI<qnua, 6onee 55 ner) .i:re:>Kan ua 'cmrne c


IIOBOpOTOM BJieBo, CKOpqeHHO, I'OJIOBOH Ha BOCTOK, JlifI.{eBoli qaCThIO Ha IOro3ana.Q. Horn MaKCHMaJihHo corHyTbI B KOJieHHx, Jie)Kanu cneBa. JleBaH pyKa

BbIT5!HyTa rro.n: JieBo:if ttoro:if, KnCThIO y CTOIIhI. KncTb rrpaBo:if pyKn Jie)l(aJia
rro.n: roJieH5!Mn KaK 6bI OXBaTbIBa5! nx. (pnc. 6/ 5)

s
Puc. 6. 1 - 06ll.IHH nnaH H p 3.3pe3 KypraHa 5; 2 - K.5,II .8 : 3 - K.5,II.4: 4 _'._ K.5, II.11 :
5 - K.4,II.10 : 6 - K-5,II.5: 7 - K.5,II.2 : 8 - K.5,II.7.
-

164 -

1Iorpe6e1me'll (3rroxn 6pOH3hI) o6ttapy){(etto B ceaepo-3arra,n:HOM ceKTope


KypraHa (294), Ha paccT05!Hnu 6.1 M, Ha rny6nHe 1.05 M. KoHTYPhI 5!MhI tte
npocJie)l(ttBaJinc&. Iforpe6ettne CHJibHO pa3pyruetto.Ilorpe6eHHhIH Bepo5!THO
Jie)l(aJI rO JIOBOH Ha IOr-IOr0'- 3ana.n: c corHyThJMH HOraMH. KOCT5!K HHTeHCHBHO
OKparuett MaJIHHOBOH oxpo:if. Y npaaoro rrJietieaoro cyCTaaa Jie)l(aJI KpynHhirr
cpparMeHT .n:epeB5!HHOH 1maxn. Ha ,n:He MecTaMH coxpaHnJirn KOptttIHeBhIIT TJieH
OT IIO,[(CTHJIKn.
Ilorpe6emte 12 (3I10XH 6pOH3bI) o6Hapy){(eHO B IOrO-BOCTO'IHOM CeKTOpe
Kypratta (171) , Ha paccT05!HHH 3, 7 M, Ha rny6ttHe 1.2 M KOHTYPhI 5!Mhl He
rrpocJie){(ttBaJIHCh . KoCT5!K rrJioxo:if coxpaHHOCTH. Ilorpe6eHHhIH (MY){('IHHa, 2040 JieT) Jie)l(aJI Ha cmiHe c pa3aopoToM arrpaao, roJIOBOH I-Ia ceBepo -3am1.n: ,
JIHIJ;eBorr tiaCTbIO Ha wro-3arra.n:. Horn He3HatIHTeJI&HO corHyThI a KOJiem1x.
IlpaBa5! py1<a BhIT5!HyTa B,n:OJib TeJia . KocTH , n oco6eHHO 1rnTeHCHBHO tiepen ,
6hmn oKparueHhI KpacHo:if oxpo:if. Ha ,n:He coxpamrnc51 KOpntIHeBhIH TJieH OT
no,n:CTHJIKn. Pattee 5!Ma rrepeKpbIBaJiac& .n:epeB5!HHhIMn nJiaxaMH, cpparMeHT
0.[(HOH H3 HHX, ,n:JinHOH 0.2 M, Jie)l(aJI y npaBoro n Jieqa, (pnc.5 / 4)
1Iorpe6euue 13 (3noxn 6pOH3hI ofaiapy){(eHO B IOrO-BOCTO'IHOM ceKTOpe
Kypraaa (130) , Ha pacCT05!Hnn 9 M, Ha rny6nHe 1.36 M. KotnyphI 5!MhI He
npocJie)l(ttBaJinCh_.,J(ocrnK rrJioxo:if coxpaHHOCTH. Ilorpe6eHHhIH (MY){(tIHHa, 2035 JieT), no Bn,n:HMOMy, Jie)l(aJI Ha JieBOM 6oKy, CKOptieHHO, fOJIOBOH Ha BOCTOK,
n mi:eBOH tiaCThIO Ha IOr0-3arra.n: . Horu pe3KO corHyThJ B KOJieH5!X, Jie)l(aJin
cnpaBa . IlpaBa5! p)"Ka corHyTa B JIOKTe, KHCTbIO B paHOHe Ta3a, JieBa5! BhITHHyTa B,n:OJih TeJia, KnCThIO rro.n: 6e,n:poM. Ha ,n:tte MeCTaMtt coxpaHnJIC5!
KOpntIHeBbIH TJieH OT IIO,[(CTHJIKn. (pnc.5/5)
1Iorpe6euue 14 (5!MHOe, OCHOBHOe ,[(JI5! BTOpo:if HaChIIlH) o6Hapy){(eHO B
ueHTpaJibHOH 'IaCTH KypraHa (112) , Ha paCCT05!HHH 1.2 M, Ha rny6ttHe 1 .4 M.
BepxHHH KOHTYP 5!MhI HerrpaBHJihHOH npHMoyroJibHOH cpopMhI. )J;anee, KO ,n:Hy,
OHa rrpno6peTaeT IIp5!MOyrOJihHhie OtiepTaHH5!, ,[(JIHHOH OCbIO opHeHTHpOBaHa
no JinHHH 3arra,n:-BocTOK . Pa3Mepb1: 1.72 x 1. 1 M,OTMetieHHa5! rny6uHa 0.63 M.
3arrOJIHemre 5!Mhl - O'IeHh pblXJihIH CMernaHHhIH rpyHT, B KOTOphIH rrpoceJIH
Tptt KaMeHHhie IIJIHThI, paHee nepeKphm aBrntte rrorpe6etttte. )];Be H3 HHx, noBn,n:HMOMy, CTeJihl. IlorpeQi:i~m~IH (MY){('IHHa, 25 -35 JieT) Jie)l(aJI Ha CIIHHe,
CKOptieHHO, roJIOBOH Ha 3ana.n:, JinueBoii tiaCThIO BBepx. Hom, paHee comyThie
B KOJieH5!X n Il0,[(H5!Thie, yrraJIH BrrpaBO , He KaCa5!Cb ,[(Ha. PyKH BhIT5!HYThI B,[(OJib
TeJia . KOCT5!K nHTeHCHBHO OKparneH KpaCHOH oxpoH:. Ilo ,n:Hy 3atIIIIUeH
TeMHOKOpHtIHeBhIIT TJieH OT IIO,[(CTHJIKH. (pttc.5/ 3)
1Iorpe6euue 15 (3IIOXH 6po~3bl) o6Hapy){(eHO B ceBepO-BOCTO'IHOM ceKTOpe
KypraHa (28), Ha paccT05!HHH 10.1 M, Ha rny6uHe 2.1 M. >IMa rrp5!MOyromHo:if
cpopMbl co CKpyrJieHHhIMH yrJiaMH, ,[(JIHHOH OCbIO optteHTHpOBaHa no JIHHHH
3arra,n:-ceBepo - 3arra.n: - BOCTOK-IOrO-BOCTOK. Pa3Meph1: 1 .43 x 0.94 M ,
OTMetieHHaH rny6ttHa 0.5 M. Ilorpe6eHHbIH (MY){(tIHHa, 6oJiee 55 JieT) Jie)l(aJI Ha
JieBOM 6oKy c IIOBOpOTOM .Ila r py,n:h, rOJIOBOH Ha ceBepo -3arra.n:, JIHUeBOH tiaCTbIO
Ha ceBepo -BOCTOK . Horn MaKcnMaJihHO c.? rHyThie B 'KoJieH5!X, rro,n:T5!HYThI K
-

165 -

rpy.nttoii KJleTKe, CTOIIhI no.ii Ta30M. PyKn corttyThI B noKnrx, npaBa2 ne)KaJJa
no.n rpy,nttoii 1rneTKOii, RHCThIO y HH)Ktteii qen~CTH. l.Jepen oKpamett .r<pacuoii
oxpoii. ITo .ntty 3atfHIIJ,eH .r<opntIHeBhIH TJJeu OT rro,ncT.,lfJlKH . (pnc. 5/9)
11orpe6euue 16. (3IIOXH 6pOH3bl) o6uapy)KeHO B IOrO-B.OCTOtfHOM ceKTope
Kyprana (200) ua paccT011ttnn Io M, Ha rny6nae 1.99 M. KottTypi;1 11MhI He
npOCJ1e)KHBaJ1HCh. Ilorpe6eHHblH (MY)Ktfl;IHa, 20-35 JleT) Jle)KaJJ Ha JleBOM 6oKy
c pa3BOpOTOM Ha rpy.nh, CKOptieHHO, rOJlOBOH Ha BOCTOK, JIHIJ;eBOH tfaCTbIO Ha
ror. Horn pe3KO comyThI B KOJien11x n no.nrnHyThI K rpy.nHorr K.rreTKe. fipaBan
pyKa corr-ryra B. JJOKTe, KHCThIO y J1Hu;a, JleBaH - KHCTbIO y JJeBoro KOJleHHoro
cycrnBa. (pnc,5.8). Ha paccTOHHHH 0.1 M OT rrm1eBoii. 'IaCTHJqepena cToarr
pa3.naBJ1eHJiblll cocy.n, cocy.n-6anI<a c BhI)J;eJleHHbIM .[IHOM, BhUIOJ1HeH ll3 rJIH~hl
c npnMeChIO Ill<J-MOTa, qepenoK pbIXJ,Ihitt, B H3J10Me qepHoro JJ.BeTa. IToBepxHoc:Th
cocy.na uepoBHaa, qepHo-KopwrneBoro u;BeTa . P a3Meph1: BhICOTa 1O CM,
.[lliaMeTp BeH'fHKa 17 CM, .nnaMeTp".nHa 12.8 CM (pnc.5/2)
!.<

CTparnrpa<J>uii' u OTHOCnTem,uaH xpou~_J1onm iiorpe6em:dl.


Kypri;l-H cocTOHJl H3 .LIBY~ nachmyi1. ITepB,~H, H3, 1vmp:amrnr~ rpyHTa,
BhICOTorr O.Q M OT n0Ppe6e1rnoii IIQtfBhI 1 n .nnaMeTpOM OKQJIO 10 M, 6hma
B03Be,neu a Ha,n OCHOBHhIM norpe6efIHeM HMI!OH KYJlhTYPhI N:28. I1orpe6eHuaa
n,OLIBa 1 MOJIIHOC:rhIO 0. 15 Mc Blll(HMOH nmrneii .npeBHero ropH30HTa,, )J;JlllHOH '
na 7 M. Ha Heil 3aqmKcHpoBan BhIKH.ll; Me1~mm~oro Ma'.J'ep~IKOBoro cyi JinHKa,
MOIJJ,HOCTbl() .no 0 .25 M, KOTOpblll Jie:>r<an c ceBepHOM CTOPOHhI JIMbI B BH,ne .LJ:BYX
ITHTeH. Ha Kparo rorO -B,OCTOtfHOH qacnr' nach1mr 1 6hrno coBepmeno
3axopoHeHne N2 14, Ha)J. KOTOpbIM 6bma c.n:eJ1aHa .nochII,IKa, yBerrn9,~Bmaa
KypraH .no 1.5 M B BhICOTy , Il: .n:o 32 MB .nua)\1eTpe. B npocjmnax u;empamnoii
6pomrn npoy.ri,:e:>Ken BhIKH.D: M~illammro MaTepnI<OBoro cyrnm.r1<a H3 ocnoBHoro
.n:rra BTopoii naCh!ilH norpe6emrn N214. Ou noJiyKOJih~OM pacrroJiararrca c
I-O:>KHOH CTOpOHbI HMhI, rrpn'IeM 3ana,nHaH 'faCTh BhI,I<H.[la 3aqmKcnp oBa1rn Ha
I<paro rrepBqii Ha(:hIIIH. Hatt60J!ee MHOrOtfIICJlemiyr-0 rpyrrrry COCTaBJ15!IOT
Bny~r<Hhie rrorpe6emrn 3IIOX:II panHeii II cpe.nuei1: 6poH3hI N2 2, 4, 6, 7, 10, 1'1,
12, 15 , 16,. ITocne,nHHMI;I B Kypran ,6hmtt .noxopoHeHhI rro3,nHeI<otfeB~nqecKne
rrorpe6ennH N2 5, 9 .
'
.

KYPr AHN!! 5 . Haxo.n;HJ1CH Ha paccT011HHH 1.3 KM Ha 3arra.n oT c. Canu;hr


II 200 M Ha 3aI1a.n OT aBTo.nopom Kaymar-I hI-ponrpa.n:. E)!(ero.nHo pacnaxnBanc11, ero coBpeMe1rnaa BhICOTa 0.7 M, .n:naMeTp 24 ,M. Coopy:>KeH B o.n:nu npne~
II co.n:ep:>Karr 12 pa'.rnoBpeMeHHhIX no:rpe6eunii *. (pnc. 6/1)
.
.
Ilorpe6euue 1 (Heonpe.n.) o6ttapy)!(eHo' B ceBepo-3ana;:(HOM ceKrope
uprana (329), Ha paCCTOHHHH 3.5 M, Ha rny6nne 0.63 M. KoHTYPhI HMhI He
npocne:>KHBaJ1IICh. KoCTf!K IlJIOX.OH coxpaHHOCTH, orrpe.n:enn'Tb IIOJlO~emre He '
rrpe.n:cTaBIIJ10Ch B03MO:>KHbIM.
"''
Ilorpe6euue 2 (3rroxH 6poH3hI) o6napy:>KeHo B mroc3arra.n:HOM ceKTope
Kypr\J.Ha (248), Ha paCCT01IHIIII 6.3 M, Ha rny6IIHe 0.95. M . .KOHTYPhI 1!MbI He
*Ilorpe6am1e N2l:Z' no3AHeKo'leBHH'I~CKoe

-- 166 --

npocrre)!(HBannch. KocTHK nrroxoii coxpaHHOCTII. I1orpe6euHhIH (B3pocnhIH


qenoBeK) rre:>KaJI Ha npaBOM 6oKy, CKOptieHI-IO, rO:JIOBOH Ha I-OI'O-BOCTOK,
JlIIIJ;eBOH qaCThI-0 Ha I-Or0-3ana.n. Horn COrHYThI B KOJleHHX, IIO):(THHYTbI K
rpy.n:uoii KJieTKe, rre:>KaJIH CJleBa. PyKH corHyThI B JIOKTHX, KHCTHMII y JIHI.(a
(pnc.6/7)
Ilorpe6e1me 3 (Heorrpe.n.) o6napy:>KeHo B ceBepo-}arra,n:HOM ceKTope
KypraHa (298), Ha paCCTOHHIIH 4.2 M, Ha rny6IIHe 0.85 M. KoHTYPhI RMhI.He
rrpocrre:>KHBaJIIICb. I1orpe6eHIIe CIIJihHO pa3pynreHO, OtfeBII):(HO rrorpe6eHHhIH
ne:>Kan a crrHHe c nonopo-roM JilJieBo,. rorroBoii Ha ceBepo-3ana.n:, Jrnu;eBoii
tfaCTbI-0 Ha ceBepo-BOCTOK. '
Ilorpe6e1rne 4 (aMuoe) o6Hapy:>Keno B l(e:inpe 3arra.n:Hoii norrhr KypraHa
(264) Ha paCCTOHHIIII 4.8 M, Ha rrry6nHe 1.07 M. 5.IMa no.n npaMoyrOJibHOH
cpopMbI c CIIJibHO 3aKpyrrreHHhIMII yrrraMII, ):(JIIIHHOH OChIO OpIIeHTHpOBaHa
no JJHHHH ceBepo -3ana.n:-roro-nocToK . Pa3Mephr:l.31 x 0.88 M,, OTMetfennaa
rrry6IIna 0 .13 M. IIorpe6eHHhIH (B3pocnhIH qenoneK) ne)!(aJJ Ha cnnne c
pa3BOpOTOM mrpaBO, CKOp'IeHHO, rOJIOBOH Ha BOCTOK-IOrO-BOCTOK, JlHl(eBOH
tfaCThI-O na ceBep . HorH pe3KO corHY'fhI B Korre1rnx, ne:>Kann cnpaBa. JleBa11 pyKa
crierKa cornyTa n rroKre, KIICTbI-O Ha Ta3e II (ie.n:pe, rrpaBaH - 'BhrrnHyTa no.n
yrnoM, KHCTbIO y I<OJleHa npaBOH HOrH. KoCT1IK, II oco6emro HHTeHCHBHO
qeperr, OI<pameH KpacHoii oxpoii . Ha ,nHe MecTaMn coxpaHIIJlCH KOpIItIHeBhIH
TJieH OT IlO.[ICTIIJIKH. (pnc.6/3)
Ilorpe6euue 5 (3rroxH 6pO.fI3bI) o6Hapy:>KeHo B mro-3ana.n:HoM ceKTope
Kyprana (247), Ha paccT011nnn 3.8 M, Ha rny6IIHe 0.87 M. Ko;HTyphr HMhI He
rrpocne:>KIIBaJIHCh. KocrnK imoxoii coxpannocTn, rrorpe6enHhIH, no-BII.LIHMOMY,
J1e:>KaJ1 Ha cnHi'.ie c pa3BOpOTOM nrrpaBO, CKOp'IeHHO, rOJIOBOH H,a ceBep-ceB'epo3arra.n . ITpaBaH pyKa BBirnHyra. (pHc.6/6)
,
1
11orpe6enue 6 (3noxn 6poli.3br) 06Hapy)!(eHo B ceBepo-3arra.n:HOM ceKTOpe
KypraHa (330), Ha paccTOm-rnH 3.3 M, fla rny6HHe 0.95 M. KoHTYPbI HMhI He
rrpocrre:>KnBaJrnch. Kocnr< crrrrhHO pa3pyrneH, BepoHTHO n.orpe6enI-IhIH rre:>Kan
CKOp'IeHHO, rOJlOBOH Ha ceBep.
'
Ilorpe6euue 7 (3rroxn 6pou3br) o6napy:>Keno B ceBepo-3ana,n:H'oM ceKTope
KypraHa (326), Ha paccTOHHHH 5 .7 M; I-Ia rny6nne 1 M. KoHTYPhl HMhl He
npocne)KJIBaJIHCh. ITorpe6eHI-IhIH (B3pocnhIH qeJIOBeK) jJe:>Karr na neBoM 6oKy,
CKOp'IeHHO, I'OJ10BOH Ha BOCTOK, JlHIJ;eBOH 'faCTb10 na I-Or. Ho~II pe3KO corHyThI
B KOJleHax, rre:>KaJm crreBa. IlP,aBaa pyr<a conryTa B noKTe, rreBaR- OTCYTCTByeT.
(pnc. 6/8)

Ilorpe6euue 8 (3noxn 6poH3hr) o6uapy:>KeHo B mro-3arra.nnoM ceKTope


Kypraria (213), Ha paCCTOHHIIII 10 M, Ha rny6nHe 1.11M. 51Ma rrpaMoyrOJihHOH
cpopMbl co CKpyrrreHHbIMH yrrraMH, .[IJ1HHOH OChI-0 opneHTHpOBaHa no JJHHHH
3arra,n-BOCTOK . Pa3Mepi:,1: 1.2 x 0.7 M, OTMe<1erma11rny6nna0.15 M. IIorpe6eH"
HhIM (B3pOCJ1bIH '!eJlOBeK) rre:>KaJl ua JieBOM 6oKy, CKOp'IeUHO, rOJIOBOH na
v
H
.,,
BOCTOK, Jrn:u;eBOII tfaCTbI-0 Ha I-Or.
OrII corHyThl B KOJ1CHHX II IIO):(THHYTbI B
paiiou rpy,n:HOH KJieTKII, rre:>KaJlH CJleBa. PyKH corHyThI B JIOKTHX, KIICTHMH no---1 67 -

Bl1,[(l1MOMJ: nepe,[( JIHUOM. KocnIK 11 110,[(CTHJIKa:ITO,[( HHM OKpaIUeHhl KpaCHOM


oxpon. Ha ,[(He 3aqrnKcnpoBaH .rrnpwrneBhitt TJieH . (pnc.6/2)

,,

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~ Y~/\\V/~'V/t\\V/A\V/A\V//\.\V//\\V/l\'\V/A,.y;.A\V//\\V/A\y/A'-V//\\>'/,.('\V/~/A\Y/A\Y/;\'\Y'//\\Y/~

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. -, ~

.'

'

Ilorpe6euue 9 (paHHero :>KeJie3Horo BeKa) o6Hapy:>KeHo B u;eHTpe 3ana,[(HOH


nOJihI KypraHa (270), Ha paccTOJIHIUI 1.8 M., Ha r~yforne 1.08 M. 51Ma
Henpa,BHJihHOH BhirnHyTon cpopMhI, ,[(JIIIHOH ochIO op11eHT11poBaHa no nnHIIH
3ana,[(-BOCToK. Pa3Meph1110 ,[(HY: 2.05x0.3-0.72 M, OTMe'leHHaH rnyforna 0.13 M.
Ilorpe6eBHbIH (MY(K'IIIHa) Jie:>KaJI H:a ~nIIHe, BblTJIHYTO, rOJIOBOH Ha 3ana,[(,
JIIIil;eBoii 'laCThIO Ha ceBep. IlpaBaJI pyKa pe3KO comyT.a B JIOKTe, neBaJI.- KIICThIO
B pa:lioH;e Ta3a. (p11c.8/l). Y neBoro nne'!eBoro. cycTaBa .rre:>KaJI pa3Ban
Ky6KOBil,[(HOro cocy,[(a c "S" -OBil,[(HbIM npocp11JieM, OTOrHyThIM Hapy:>Ky BeH'lllKOM 11 Bhip~:>KeHHhIM ,[(HOM. BhrnOJIHeH 11'3 rnIIHhI c np11Mecb10 M:em<OTOJI'!eHoro
rna:M:orn. IloBepxHOCTb 6yrp11CTaJI, co cne,[(aMII JlOIIIeHHJI, ceporo UBeTa. BepxHHH 'laC'fh cocy,[(a yKpaIUeH:a 6e3c11c:r;eMHhIM11 npotieptieHHhIMII ;rrnHIIHMII. Pa3Mepb1: BbICOTal 3.5 CM, ,[(HaMeTp BeH'IIIKa 8.8 CM, ,[(IlaMeTp ,[(Ha 7 CM. (p11c. 8/2)
1Iorpe6euue 10 (Heonpe;n:enemrne) o6Hapy:>KeHo B ceBepo-BOCTO'IHOM
ceKTope KypraHa (336), Ha paccTOJIHHII 3,5 M, Ha rny611He 1.1 M. Ilorpe6eH11e
110JIHOCTbIO pa3pyIUeHO, 110-Bil,[(IIMOMy, ,[(eTCKOe .
1Iorpe6euue 11 (JIMHoe-ocHOBHoe) o6Hapy:>KeHo B ceBepo-3ana,[(HOH 'laCTII
I<YpraHa (291), Ha paCCTOJIHIIII 2,5 M. Ha rny6III-Ie 1.15 M. 51Ma HenpaBIIJihHOH
npJIMOyroJihHOH cpopMbl co CKpyrneHHbIMH yrnaMII, ,[(JIIIHOH OCbIO op11eHT11poBaHa no n11H1111 ceBepo-3ana,[( - roro-BOCTOK. Pa3Mepb1: 1.86 x0.86-094 M,
OTMe'IeHHaJI rny611Ha 0.75 M. horpe6eHHbIH (B3pOCJiblH qenOBeK) ne:>Kan Ha
cnrme, cKopqeHHO, rOJIOBOH Ha ceBepo-3ana,[(, nru~eBon 'laCThIO BBepx. Hor11
con1yTb1 B r<.onemrx, ne:>Kan11 ~neBa. PyK11 BhITJIHYTh~ B,[(OJih Tena. KocTHK,
oco6eHHO 11HTeH:c11BHO qepen, oKpaweHhI MannHOBOH oxpon. Ha ,[(He 3acpnKcnpoBaH I<Oplll!HeBb~H TJieH OT nO,[(CTIIJIKH. (pnc.6/4)
CTpaTurpa<l>uH u OTHOCHTeJlhHaH xpo~oJJoruH norpe6euuii.

KypraH B03Be,[(eH B O,[(HH npne:r1.i:'Ha,[( ocHOBHhIM norpe6eHneM JIMHOH


I<YJihTYPhI N211. B roro-3ana,[(HYIO.nony y:Me roTOBoro KypraHa 6bmo BrrymeHo
norpe6eHne JIMHOH KYJihTYPhI N24. Cne,[(yromHMH no BpeMeHn 3axopoHeHHJI
HBJIJIIOTCJI Bn:}'CI<~hle nOI'pe6eHHJI :moxn cpe,[(Hen H n03,[(Hett 6pOH3bI.
Ilorpe6emie N29 OTHOCHTCJI K paHHeMy :>Kyrre3HOMY BeKy H TaKHM 'o6pa3i:>M
COCTaBJIHeT xpOHOJIOIB'IeCKYIO rpynny. Ilocne.n;HIIM B KypraH 6bmo ,[(OXOpoHeHO n03,[(HeKo'!eBHHqec1,rne norpe6eH~e N22. .,
.KYPr AH .M16. Haxo,[(nnc.s: Ha paccT05IHHrr 40 KM K rory OT Kyprairn N25.
E:>Kero,[(HO pacnaxHBaJIC5I, ero coBpeMeHHa5I BhICOTa 1.4 M, ,[(HaMeTp 29 M.
KypraH B03Be,[(eH B ,O,[(HII npHeM H co,[(ep)KaJI 15 BnycK;HhIX pa3HOBpeMemihIX
norpe6eHnn. (pHc. 7/1)*
'

Ilorpe6eilue 1 (3UOXH 6pOH3bl) o6napy:>KeHO B IOro-BOCTO'IHOM ceKTOpe


I<ypraHa (92), Ha 'paccrnkHHH 3.2 M, ua rny6HHe 0.71 M. KottTYPhI 5IMhI He
npoc)le:>KHBaJIHC,b. Ilorpe6eHHhlH Jie:>KaJI Ha JieBOM 6oKy, CKOp'IeHHO, ronOBOH
ua BOCTOK, JIHI~eBOH 'laCThIO Ha ror. Hor11 pe3KO corHyThl B KOJielI5IX, ne:>KaJIH
cneBa. npaBaH p:YKa comyrn B JIOKTe ITO):( npJIMhIM yrnoM, JieBaJI - OTCYTCTBYeT.
0

2
Puc.?. 1 -

06m11i1rrnaH11 pa3pe3 KypraHa 6: 2 -

-168-

K.7, Il.22: 3-K.7,Il .23.

*Ilorpe6eHHll

N! 5, 8 ~

Il03.[IHeKb'IeBHH'IeCKOe

-169-

B paiioHe pe6ep 6brJm 1-rnii;1:1eHbI MeJIKue, HeBbrpa3HTeJ1hHhie clJparMeHThI


6poH3bI. (pwc.8/4)

Ilorpe6euue 2 (3IIOXH 6pOH3bI) o6Hapy)l(eHO B I-OrO-BOCTOqHOM ceKTOpe


KypraHa (160) Ha paccroJIHHH 1.7 M, Ha rny6HHe 0.72 M. KonTyphr JIMhI He rrpocJie)l(MBaJIHCh. KocrJIK rrJioxoll: coxpaHHOCTH. Ilorpe6eHHbIH oqeBH.D.HO Jie)l(aJI Ha
rrpaBOM 6oKy, CKopqeHHO, roJIOBOH Ha ceBep-ceBepO-BOCTOK. (pwc.8/5)
Ilorpe6enue 3 (3rroxrr 6poH3hr) o6Hapy)l(eHO B roro -BocroqHoM ceKTope
KypraHa (161), Ha paccTOJIHHH 6.1 M, Ha r:,'Iyfauie 0.76 M. KoHTYPhI JIMbI ne
npocJie)l(UBam1cb. KocnIK nrroxoii coxpanaocrH. Horpe6euHhn1 BepOHTHO rre)l(aJI
npaBOM 6oKy, CKopqeuno, rorrOBOH na BOCTOK.
Ilorpe6en~e 4 (3HOXH 6pOH3bI) o6napy)J<eno B I-Or0-BOCfO'Il'IOM C'.eKTOpe KypraHa
(118), na paccromnrn: 4 M, na rny6ime 0.88 M. Komypb1 HMbI
npoCJ1e)J(llBaJIHCh.
KocrnK mroxoli coxpamrocrn.Ilo,rpe6ettnhrii nepOHTHO ne)KaJI ua npanoM 6oKy,
CYOpIeIIBO, TOJIOBOM Ra BOCTOK. Ilorpe6em1e 4 (3IlOXH 6pOH3bI) o6nap~eHO B roroBOCfO'IllOM ceKTope Kyprruia (118), na paccroHHHH 4 M,, Ha niy6m1e 0.88 M. Komypbr
JIMbI He npOCJie)l(IIBaJIMCh. IIorpe6emlhIH JIC)J(aJI Ha neBOM 6oK y, CKOpt.Ienno, roJIOBOH
Ha ceBep, rreBOH qacrbI-O Ha BOCTOK. Hom pe3KO COILJ)'Tbl B KOJiemrx, JieJI<am1 CJICBa.
PyI<H cKpemeHhI B palione Hl1)1(HCM qacr11 rpy,a,noli KJICTKH. (puc.8/6) Y npanoii KHCTH
JIC)J(aJia KOCT.llHaH rrPJI)l(Ka B Bll,[(C 3JUmca pa3MepaMH 5.5 x4.6 CM, BbillOJIHCHHaH H3
TOI-IKOii (OKOJIO 3MM) BhIIIyKJIOH KO(,"DIHOH DJiaCTillfbI. B n:empe l!Meerca OTBepcrrre
.n;aaMerpoM 1.7 CM. Ha paccro51Httn 0.5 MOT r<paH nmw;.wrrcH eme omw ue6orrhmoe
oTBepcme ,n;aaMcrpoM 0.3 CM. (pttc.8/8) OreBa, y rpy.D.HOii KJierKH ne)l(arro opy.ru1e Tpaneu.neB1wiaa necrm:m1K0Baa nl.JihKa co CTH!JJ.CL\lli cpa6oTaHHocrn na Kouu.ax.
Pa3Mepbr: 9.4 x 2.7 x 4.2-3.5 CM. (pnc. 8/10)
Ilorpe6euue 6 (HMHOe) o6napy)l(eHO B ceBepO-BOCJ'Ot.{HOM CCKTOpe Kyprana
(18), na paccToa1rn11 10,2 M, na rnyfome 1.83 M. 51Ma npmwoyroJII>Hoii rpopMbI,
)J,JlHHOii OCbIO optteHTnpoBarrn no JillHHll ceBepo-3aIIa.D. - IOrO-BOCTOK.
Pa1Mepb1 2 x 1.17 M, OT111eqeHHM myforna 0. 35 M. rrorpe6erlHblli JIC)l(aJI na CilllHe,
roJIOBoii ua ceBepo-3aIIM. Pyia:r cornyrhI B JIOKTHX, KllCTHMH B par1oue Ta3a. Horn,
pauee comyrhre BKorrenHX1uro.ru-urrb1e, pacnaJIIICh poM60M. KocrnK OI<pameu Kpamoii
oxpoii. HaJJ.HC upocnCJKeH KOpHrnem,riiTJien orr no;1:1cn1JII<H. (pttc. 8/9)
Ilorpef.ienue 7 (HMHOO.-OCHOB~Oe) o6HapyA<eHO BIOf'O-BOCfO'IIIOM ceKTOpe I<ypraua
(165), Ha paccromum 1.5 M, Ha r.nyfome 1.92 M. 51Ma rrpm11oyro.[.lhHOrr rpopMbI co
cr<pyrneHHhIMII yrnaMn, OChIO opHCHTHpOBaHa rro JIBmm: 3anM-BOCTOK. Pa1Mepr,1:
1.19 x 0.89 M, OTMeqeHHaa my6HHa 0.46 M. Ha .nne B ceBepo-BocrO'IHOM yrny n y
ceBepHOM creHKH HMbl OI<p~eHbIJJ.Be HMKU .Z:UfaMCTpOM OKOJIO 4 CM ll rny6HHoii OKOJIO
6 CM. Ilorpe6eHHe rrapHoe, .nercKoe, nrroxoii coxpauHocrn. Cyroi no coxpammlllliMC.R
KOCTHM, rrorpe6eHHbIC JIC)l(aJIH Ha CIIHHe, roJIOBaMll Ha 3aIIM. KOCTHKH OKparneJ-llil
Kpacuoii oxpoii. Ha ,Z:U'Ie 3arpnKcnpoBaH KopmrneBhlii men OT no.ncnmKtt. (pttc. l 0/3)
Ilorpe6euue 9 (3rroxn 6poH3hI) o6napy2KeHo B I'oro-BOCToqHoM ce1nope
Kyprana (118), na paccToannn 5.8 M, u.a rrry6RHe 1.12 M. KmITyp61 HMtr He
rrpo c:r:re)l(HBam1ch : Kocn:I< rmoxoii coxpanHOCTH, Bepouno norpe6eHHhrii
ne)l(aJI na rreBOM 6or<y, cr<0pqe1rno, ronoBoiI Ha 3arra.r:1 .. (pnc. 10/5) Y neBoli
pyKn 6bmtt naii,nenhr rpparMeHThI cocy.D,a. 3To 6aHI<OBHJJ.HbI~ cocy.r:1 BbITHI-IyTbIX nponopu;nii c BbIJJ.e.JieHHbIM JJ.HOM, B Bepxneii qacTH cna6)1(eH pyqK~Mll
ynopaMH co CKB03HhIMtt BepTnKa.JlhHhIMH OTBepcTttHMtt. Cocy.r:1yKpameu
0

Ha

ne

~f'-fO

~/,F
( ) 'I/ .....,If,'
~

'

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,.
~~-,----~
~ 8
I

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Puc.8. 1-K.5,Il.9: 2-cocy,11 H3 Il.9,K.5: 3-K.6,Il.12: 4-K.6,Il. l: 5-K.6, Il.2: 6-K.6:,Il.4: 7K.6,Il.10: 8-nplllKKa H3 IT. 4;,K.6: 9-K.6,Il.6: LO-KaMeHHoe opy,11He H3 Il.4,K.6: II-K.6,Il. 14:
12-cocy,11 H3 TI. 14,K .6.
-

170 -

171-

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I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I

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I
I

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0

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--,---~

Puc.9. 06~11lf rmaH 11 p33pe3bI KypraHa 7.

reoMeTprrqecKIIM opHaMeHTOM, BbIIIOJIHeHHbIM BepeBoqHbIM IIITaMIIOM (ryceHIIqKrr) B BII.D;e rrapaJIJieJihHbIX yrJIOB , CXO.D;H.W:IIXCH BepnrnHaMH. BbICOTa
coxpaHHBIIIeMCH qaqrr 14 CM, .nttaMeTp BeHqHKa OKOJIO 15 CM, .nttaMeTp .D;Ha 7
CM. Cocy.n BhIIIOJIHeH tt3 rJIHHhI crrpIIMeChIO rnaMoTa. IToBepxHOCTh xoporno
3arna)l{etta CBeTJIO-KopttqHeBoro :unern. (prrc. l 0/9)
Ilorpe6euue 10 (3IIOXII 6pOH3bI) o6Hapy)l{yHO B u;eHTpe IQ)l{HQM IIOJibI
KypraHa (186), Ha paccTOHHIIH 5 M, Ha rnY6HHe 0.6 M. KoHTypbI HMbI He
rrpocJie)KIIBaJIHCh. ITorpe6eHHhiii Jie)KaJI Ha JieBOM 6oKy, cKopqeHHO, roJioBoii
Ha 3arra.n-ceBepo-3arra.n. PyKII corHyThI B JIOKrnx, KIICTHMII rrepy.n JIIID;OM . HorII MaKCIIMaJihHO corHyThI B KOJieHHX, Jie)KaJIH CJieBa. (pIIc.8/7)
-172-

P11c. 10. I-coc;;y,11113 II.3,K.7; 2-K.7,II.3; 3-K.6,II.7; 4-K.7,II.I; 5-K.6, II.9; 6-K.6,II.3; 7.
K.7,II.15; 8-K.7,II.18; 9-cocy,11113 II.9,K.6.

Ilorpe6euue 11 (Heorrpe.ne.neHHoe) o6Hapy)l{eHo B 10ro-BocroqHoM ceKTope


KypraHa (138), Ha pacCTOHHIIII 10 .M, Ha rny6IIHe 1.64 ,M. KoHTYPhI ~MhI He
rrpocne)l{IIBa.JIBCh. ITorpe6eHHe pa3pyweHo B.npeBHOCTII, rro-Brr,n:HMOMY, rrorpe6eHHhlli
Jie)KaJI B CKOpqeHHOM IIOJIO)KeHHH, Ha JieBOM 6oKy, roJIOBOM Ha IOro-3arra.n.
-173 -

Kypran 6brn B03Be.neH na,D, ocnoBHh~M noi'pe6eHHCM JIMHofr r<ym>rypbI Ng7.


BI>IKHJ~ Memamrnro MaTeprIKOBoro cyrmrnKa MOIIJ:HOCTbIO .no 0.3 M .113 3TOro
uorpe6errm13atpIIKCHponarr B uerrTpaJihHom6poBKe. B rom-nocroqr-rbrtt ceKTOp
Kypraua mryui:eno norpe6erme Ng6 - HMHOH KYJihTYPhI. 3axopouemrn Ng 1--4,
9' 10, 14 OTHOC>ITC>I K 3ITOXe cpe,nHeH II Il03,D,HeH 6pOH3bI II COCTaBJI>IIOT TpeTbIO,
1-1a.116onee MHOrOtfIIcrrenHym rpynrry. ITocne,D,HHMII B r<ypraH 6bm11 .noxoponeHbr
rro3.nI-IeKotfeBHIItfecr<.11e norpe6eHII>I Ng5, 8. Onpe.nennTh .Kyn1>Typny10
npIIHa):(JIC:>KHOCTb oc,raJibHhIX norpe6eHMH He npe,D,CTaBI1JIOCb B03M0)l(HbIM.
KYPrAH J-fa7. HaXO,lJ,IIJIC>I na pacCTOHHIIII 500 M Ha cenepO-BOCTOK OT
r<yprarrn Ng5, cnpana n1mMI>IKaJI K aB'J'O.nopore KayIIIaHI>rEorrrpa,n. Kypran
pacnaxnnanc>I JIHUII> Ha nepIIcpep.11II, rte!npaJihnaa <IaCTb 6i>ma 3a.nepnonaua.
Ero COBpeMeHI-Iaa BbICOTa OKOJIO 3 M, ,D,HaMeTp OKOJIO 50 M, B nnane IIMeJI
onanI>nym c]JopMy c 601ree norroro1i IO)KI-IoH' crnponou. Kyprai-1 coopy:>Ken 8
TPII rrp.11eMa .11 co,D,ep)KaJI 26 pa3HOBpeMeHHhIX 3axopoHeHHH.
.
Ilorpe6euue 1 (3noxII 6pbH3bI) o6napy)!{eHo B filro-3arra.riHoM cer<Tope
r<ypraHa (191), Ha paccroHHIIH 11 M, na rny6III-Ie 3.29 Ma. Ko1nyphr >IMhI ne

nppcne:>KHBaJIIICh. KocTHK rmoxoM: coxpaHHOCTH, norpe6eHHhIH uepo>ITHO


ne)!{aJJ na nenoM 6or<y, cr<op<Ienno, rononoli n a BOCTOK. ITpanaH pyr<a corHyTa
B JIOKTe, HOTH COrI-IYTbI B.KOJieH>IX, Jie:>KaJIH CJieBa. ITo.n KOCTHKOM coxpaHHJIC}l
TOJICTbIH CJIOH TeMHO~KOPHtfHeBoro nrena OT IIO):(CTHJIKM. Ha tieperre II MecTaMH
na .nue 3acp.11KCMpoBaHa KpacHaa oxpa. (pn:c. 10/4)
Ilorpe6eime 2 (>IMI-Ioe) ofaiapy:>KeHo B cenepo 3arra,D,HOM cer<Tope KypraHa
(271 ~), na pacCTOHH.1111 4,2 M, I-Ia rny6rme 2.8 M. JIMa rrp>IMOyrOJibHOH cpopMbI
co CI<pyrneHHbIMM yrmtMH, ,D,JIHHOH OCbI-0' op,HeHTHpOBaHa no JIHHHH ceBepo3ana,D, - I-01'0- BOCTOK,. Ha CTCHKax coxpaHHJIHCb BepTHI<aJibHbIC :>KeJI06tfaTI>Ie
CJie):(bI OT opy;n:11ii mn:pm10ii OKOJIO 5 CM. Pa3MephI: 1.73 x 0.94 M, OTMe<ICHHa5J
rny6mra 0.6. Ha ,D,I;Te, ITO yrnaM II B U:eHTpe CeBepo-3ana):(I-IOI1 CTeHKH >IMhI,
pacnOJIOraJIHCb >IMI<H OT I<OJibeB . JIMKH B pa3pe3e KOHHtfeCKHe, ,D,HaMeTpOM 510 CM, rny6mmll: 6-9 CM. B 3anorrneHHH OTMeqenhI rliparMeHThI ,D,epeBHHHhIX
nnax OT rrepeKpbITII>I. Tiorpe6eHI-IbIH ne:>Karr Ha CilHHe, CKOptfeI-U-IO, rOJIOBOH
na cenepo-3arra,D,, JIMI(eBOH tfaCThlO naepx. PyKH BhITHHYThie B,D,OJib TyJIOBHma.
Hor.11,, panee con-ryTI>I B r<osierrnx H np1:mo.nn>IThre, ynanII anpano. KocTHK
OQHJihI-IO nochmarr MaJIHHonoll: oxpoii. Ha .nHe 01MetfeH r<opntIHeBbIH c 6enhIMII
BOJIOKI-IaMH TJieH OT IIO,l\CTIIJU<II. pIIC. 1J/10)
Ilorpe6em1e 3 (irMrroe) o6Hapy)l(eHo B roro-3arra,D,I-IOM cer<Tope Kypra1rn
(205) Ha pacCTOHHHli 10.5 M, Ha rny6m-1e 3.95 M. 5IMa npaMoyrOJihI-IOM q)OpMbI
co CKpyrneHHbIMli yrnaMH, ,D,JIHHOH OCbIO opHeHTHpOBaHa no JIIIHHH 3ana,D,BOCTOJ\. Pa3MepI>r: 1.8 x 1. 17 ~ OTMeqerrHa>I rny61ma 0.59 M. B 3anonrrerruu
BCTpetfaJIIICb cpparMeHTbI HCTJieBIIIHX ,D,epeB>IHHbIX nnax, JIC)KaBUlHX B,l\OJib 5IMbl.
Ha ypoane 4.24M, T.e. Ha 0.3 M BhIIIIe.nna, naM:,D,eH KOCT>IK B3pocnoro qenoner<a.
ITorpe6eHHhIH ne:>Karr Ha rrpaBOM 6or<y, cKoptJeHHO, rononoli Ha 3ana.n-1-0ro3ana,D,. ITpanaa pyr<a cornyTa B nor<Te, neBa>I - BhIT>InyTa n.nonI> Tena, KIICTblo
no,D, KOJieHI-IhIM cycra;aoM . Hor.11, cornyThie B r<oneH>I~ , cnerKa npmro.n.H>IThre,
ne)l(an.11 cnpana. (p.11c. ~ 0/2) Y rone~tell: Jie)l(aJI pa3,D,anneI-IHhIH cocy.n. 3To
ropUioK c Bbi COI<IIM, cnerna oTornyTI>IM Hapy)l(y neH<IHKOM. BhmoJrnen rn
rnHIIbI c npIIMeChI-0 IIIaMOTa, nonepXHOCTb nepOBHa>I, co cne.naMII pactfeCOB,
rrnTHHCraH. Cocy.n yr<paIIIeH p11,D,OM norreBI>IX n.nannem1li, 11,D,YIUHM no pe6py.
Pa3Meph1: BhICOTa 15 cM, .n.11aMeTp nentfHKa 14.2 CM. (p.11c.l0/1)
Ha rpy,D,II norpe6eHnoro ne:>KarrII II03.J30HKH r<pynHoro )!{IIBOTHOro. ,[(rro
>J.Mbl HaXO,QHJIOCb I-Ia rny6.11ne 4.54 M; Ha HeM, no l(eHTpy, Ha pacCT01IHIIII 0.08
-0 .4 M OT CTeHOK >IMbI, HaXO,D,IIJIIIC.b ):(Be >IMKH ,D,IIaMeTpOM 6-8 CM H rny6m10M: 7
CM. Me)l(.ny HIIMH ne:>KaJI KpecTeu: KpynHoro )!{HBOTHOro.
Ilorpe6eune 4 (3nOXII 6pOH3bI ?) o6Hapy:>KeHO B I-Oro-3arra,D,HOM ceKTOpe
Kyprcrna (235) , na paccTOI-IHH 7.6 M, 1-rn rny6IIHe 1.81 M. KoHTYPhI 1IMhI He
npocrre)KirnamICb. KocDIK tfaCTlfqHo,, pa3pyIIIeH, Bepoan10, rrorpe6emthIH
Jie)l<aJI ua JICBOM 6oI<y, CKopqemro, rOJIOBOH Ha BOCTOK-CeBepo-BOCTOK. ITo.n
KOCDIKOM coxpaHHJIC>I KOp11<rneBblH TJICH.
ITorpe6eme 5 (neonpe.n.) o6Hapy:>KeHo B 1-0ro-3ana,D,HOM ceKT.ope r<yprana
(240), Ha paccroHHHII 5.9 M, na rny6III-Ie 2.4 M. ITorpe6e1-me pa3pyIIIeHo B
,D,penrrocT11, coxpaHHJIHCh JIHllih He3natfHTeJihHI>Ie qiparMeHThI KOCTeli II

__:_ 174_

- 175-

Ilorpe6e1me 12 (Heonpe.n:enemroe) o6napy:>KeHo B ceBepo-3ana.n.rroM ceKTope


Kyprarra (57), Ha pacCTO>IHlfM 12 M, Ha myforne 1.39 M. JIMa HerrpaBttJibHOM
np>IMoyrOJihHOM rpopM~I, optteHTMpoaarrn no munm mro-3ana.n - ceBepoBOCTOK. Pa3MepbI 1.84 x 0.45-0 .7 1 M, 3acpttKcnponana no J\OHHoH: qacTtt.
ITorpe6~HHhIM .Jie:>Karr Ha cnm:1,e, BhITm1yTo, rononoii Ha cenep-ceBepo-BOCTOK,
m1u:eBon qacTbIO BBepx. Pynr cornyThI B JIOKT>Ix, KIICTHMH n o6nacTn :>KHBOTa.
(pttc. 8/3)
'
.

Ilorpe6e1me l3 (tteo~pe.n:enettHpe) ofarnpy:>Keno n u:eH'rpanMrnli qacTn


IO)!{HOH uonI>I r<ypraaa (180) , Iia paccTOHMH 6 M, na rny6m::ie O.8 M. K01nypI>1
MhI He npocJie)!{Imannch. ITorpe6e1rne qacTm:I1-10 pa3pymeuo, onpe.n:emITh
IIOJJO)Keime He upe.n:cTaBMJIOCb B03MO)!{HbIM.
Ilorpe6e1rne .14 (3noxu 6pOH3bI) o6ttapy)KCHO B I-OI'O-BOCTOtfHOM ce1nope
KypraHa (168), Ha paCCTO>IHMII 10.5 M, Ha rnyfoui:e 1.37 M. >lMa HenpaBHJibHOH
np5IMOyrOJibHOH qiopMbI co CKpyqeHHbIMII yrnaMM, J\JI.111-IOtt OCbI-0 opneHTIIpoBaHa no JIHHn11 3ana.n:-nocTOK. Pa3MepI>r: 0.83 x 0.73 M, OTMetJe1rna>I my6Htta
OKOJIO 0. 11 M. ITorpe6eHHhIH Jie)KaJI Ha neBOM 6oKy, CKOptfeHHO, rOJIOBOM Ha
3ana.n:, mu~enoli qacTi>I-O na cenep. PyKH c11nhHO con-ryThI B JIOKTHX, KMCT>IM11 y
n6a . HorH pe3KO . cornyThI B 'r<onerrnx , ne)KaJIH cnena. 'Ha !\He, MecTaM11
coxpanm1ca 1<0pHtIHeBhIH TJieH OT nql-(crmrKII . (pIIc. 8/ 11) Ha paccTO>IHm1 O.15
M cnpaBa OT qepena rre:>Karr CMJibHO pa3.[(aBJreHHbIH 6aHKOBII):(HhIH cocy.n, .
BhIIIOJIHCHHhIH 113 rrrHHhI c np.11Mecb1-0 Mem<03epHIIcroro lliaMoTa. ITonepxrIOCTh
cocy.na 3anomem1, cepoaaToro u:neTa. Pa3MepI>r: BhICOTa 9.8 CM, .n:.11aMeTp
BeHtfHI<a 12 CM, ,D,HaMeI'P ,D,Ha 7.3 CM. (pnc.8/12)
Ilorpe6emrn 15 (Heonpe.n.) o6Hapy)l<CHO y P, Ha rny6nHe 0,45 M. Cm1I>HO
pa3pyrneno acrraIIIKoli, onpe,D,emrrh nono:>KeHn:e rrorpe6emro ro He npe.nCTaB.11JIOCb B03MO)I<l-IbIM.
'
Cmpamu2parjJw1 u omHocumenbHaR ,xpoH01io2UJ1 no2pe6eHuu

HeCKOJihKO cpparMeHTOB KepaMHKM OT He60JihIIIOrO ropllIKOBH.[(HOro cocy.n:a


c OTorHyThIM Hapy)l(y BeH'lHKOM. Cocy.n: BhIIIOJIHeH H3 rJIMHhI c rrpHMech!o
lllaMOTa. H.a ' BHyTpeHHeH M oco6eHHO Im BHeIDHei1: IIOBepxHOCTH cocy.n:a
HMeeTCH qepHhIH Harap. (pHc.13/4)
Ilorpe6euue 6 (HMHoe) o6Hapy)l(eHo B roro-3arra.n:HoM ceKTope KypraHa
(222) Ha paCCTOHHHH 8 M, ila rrry6MHe 3.7 M. 51Ma rrpHMOyrOJihHOH cpopMhl co
CKpyrrreHHhIMH yrrraMH, .[(JIHHOH OChIO OpHeHTHpoBaHa ITO JIHHMH IOrO-BOCTOK
-- ceBepo-3arra.n:. Pa3Meph1; 1.24 x 0.83 M, OTMet.J:eHHaH rrry6mia 0.42 M. ITorpec
6eHHhIH rre)l(aJI Ha crrMHe, CKOptieHHO, rorroBoi1: Ha 3arra.n:-ceBepo-3ana;:i:. PyKH
BhITHHYThI B.D:OJih Tena. HorM pe3KO corfiyThI B KOJieH~x, rre)l(aJin crrpaBa .
KoCTHK oKpalllen Kpacnoii oxpoi1:. Ha ,n:He 3at.J:HI.QeH KopH'IHeBhIH Trren . (pHc.
11/8)
Ilorpe6euue 7 (:moxM 6pOH3hI) o6Hapy)l(eHo B roro-3arra,n:HoM ce1<Tope
KypraHa (223), na paccTOHHHM 7.5 M, Ha :rrry6MHe 2.2 M. KoHryphI HMhI He
npocrre)l(MBaJIRCh. ITorpe6enHhIH (I!3pocrr.t.J:en.) ne)l(aJI Ha rrpaBOM 6or<y,
cr<optieHHO, rorroBOH Ha ceBepo-3ana.n:, mp..(eBOH t.J:aCThIO na roro-3arra.n:. Pyr<H
BhITHHYThI B;LIOJih TyrroBMI.Qa. HorM pe3KO corHyThI B r<orreHHx, crorraMH y Ta3a,
rre)l(aJrn cnpaBa. ITo.n: I<OCTHI<OM coxpaHHJICH KOpHt.J:HeBhIH TJieH. (pHc. 11/4)
Ha paccTOHHHH 0.1 M, cnpaBa OT qeperra CT6Hrr cocy.n: . Yceqel:rnor<OHH'lec;:KaH
6aHKa.BhIIIOJIHeHa H3 rJIHHhI c rrpHMeChIO lliaMOTa, IIOBepxI-IOCTh rnepoxoBaTaH,_
IIHTHHCTaH, c npeo6na,n:aHMeM r<OpHt.J:HeBoro l.(BeTa. Pa3Mephr: BhICOTa 10 CM,
.D:JIMaMeTp BeHl.J:HKa 12.3 CM, ,n:HaMeTp ,n:Ha 8.5 CM( pHc.12/4)
Ilorpe6etme 8 (I<YJihTYPhI MHOrOBMHKOBOH KepaMHI<H) o6Hapy)l(eHO B 1-0roBOCTO'IHOM ceI<Tope r<ypraaa (126), Ha paCCTOHHHH 5 M, Ha rrry6mre 0,86 M.
KoHTYPhI HMhI He rrpocJie)l(MBaJIMCh. ITorpe6eHne 'IIO-BH.D:HMOMy, rrepeI<phIBaJIOCh .n:epeBHHHhIMH rrrraxaMH, OT I<OTOphIX coxpaHMJICH .n:peBeCTHhIH TJieH, a
Ha Hnx 6hmH yrro~~HhI H3BeCTHHKOBhre mrnThI HerrpaBHJihHOH cpopMhI. KocTHK
CHJlhHO pa3,n:aBJieH, BepOHTHO rrorpe6eHHhIH Jie)l(aJI Ha rreBOM 6oKy, CI<Op'IeHHO,
rOJIOBOH Ha BOCTOK-CeBepo-BOCTOK, JIHI.(eBOH qaCThIO Ha ror. ITo.n: KOCTHKOM
coxpaHHJICH MOII.(HhIH I<OpHt.J:HeBhIH TJieH, a Ha neM - MeJIOBaH IIOChIIII<a. (pHC.
11/2) Ha paccTOHHMM 0.3 M, crreBa OT qeperra o6Hapy)l(eH pa3Barr 6Hycet.J:eHHOI<OHR'leCI<oro cocy.n:a c BbICOKO IIOCTaBJieHHbIMH IIJiel.J:HI<aMH II cnerI<a
OTOrHYThIM Hapy)l(y BeHl.J:HI<OM. Ha 2.5 CM HH)l(e KpaH BeH'lMI<a paCIIOJIO)l(eH
TOHI<HH OTTHHY'F.hIH BarrHK. Cocy.n: BbmorrHen H3 rrrMHbI c rrpHMechrn rnaMoTa.
IToBepxHOCTh rnepoxoBaTaH, CBeTno-r<opHtIHeBoro l.(BeTa c TeMHbIMH IIHTHaMH.
Pa3Mepbr: BbrcoTa 22 CM, ,n:HaMeTp .n:Ha 11 cM, ,n:HaMeTp BeH'l.Hr<a 12 CM. (pHc.
11/1)
Ilorpe6enue 9 (3rroxH 6poH3bl o6Hapy)l(eHo B roro-BOCTO'IHOM ceI<Tope
KypraHa (164), Ha paCCTOHHHH 12.5 CM, Ha rrry6HHe 2.29 M. KOlfTYPbI HMbI ne
rrpocrre)l(ttBarrttcb. ITorpe6eHHhIH rre)l(arr !la rrpaBOM 6oI<y, cI<opqenno, rorroBofr
na ceBepo-BOCTOK. PyKH corHyTbI B rror<Te, I<HCTHMH y JIHI.(a. HorH pe3r<O
corHyTbI B KorrenHx, rre)l(arrH crrpaBa. (pHc.11/3). Ha paccTOHHHH 0.1 M, cnpaBa
OT qepena Jie)l(aJI pa3BaJI cocy.n:a H PH.D:OM c HMM HeCKOJlbKO II03BOHKOB OT
KpynHoro )l(JiBOTHOro.Cocy.n: 6aHKOBH.D:HOH cpopMbI, BblIIOJIHeH H3 rJIHHbI c
-176 -

.
.
rrpHMeChIO lllaMoTa. IToBepxnoCTh RepoBHaH, co crte,n:aMH pacqecoB, cBeTnoKopttt.J:HeBoro l.(BeTa. Pa3Mepbr: BbICOTa 12.8 CM, ,n:RaMeTp BeH'lMKa 12.4 CM,
,D;HaMeTp ,n:Ha 1.1.2 CM. (pHc.11 /1 1)
.
.
...

"-- "
"
"
~

<>
~

/o~Y ..
"

4:.'

'...=

"' \\

4
5

1~
11/J

'

'

'

.~ ~

I<

..

~a
'I ..,'4

~ ~

Puc.11. 1-cocyA m II.8,K.7: 2-K.7,II.8: 3-K.7,II.9: 4-K.7,II.7: 5-K-7, II.20 6 6-K.7,II.17: 7K.7,II.19: 8-K.7, II.6: 9-K.7,II.14: 10-K.7,II.2: IIcocyJJ; 11.3 II.9,K.7.

-177 -

..

---,

Jie)J(aBIIIHX nonepeK. Bcero ax npocJie)J(eHo OKOJIO 14 IIITyK.Ha )J.He no ueHTPY


5IMbI, Ha )J,epeB51HHOM HaCTirne o6Hapy)l(eH KOCT51K B3pOCJioro 'leJIOBeKa.
ITorpe6eHIIhIH (MY)J('l.) Jie)J(aJI ua cnnue, CKOp'leHHO, rOJIOBOH Ha 3ana)J,,
naueBoil: 'laCThIO BBepx. PyKtt BhIT51HYThI B.lJ.OJih Tena, npaBa.a 1an.&CTheM no)J.
KphmOM Ta1a. Horn, paHee corHyThie B KoneH.ax H npttnO)J.H51Thie, He Kaca.ach
. )J,Ha, 3aBanHJIHCb BJieBO. KoCT.&K, H MeCTaMH )J,epeBO no)J, HHM, nOCbIIIaH KpaCHOH
oxpoil:. (pttc.14/1)

I
I
I

11

______ -

l....: - - - - - " ' I

4
Puc. 12. I-K.7,Il.24: 2-K.7,Il.25: 3-cocyn 113 IT.II, K.2, 4 cocyn 113 Il.7.K.7.

Ilorpe6e1rne 10 (3nOXH 6pOH3bl) o6ttapy)l(eHO B I-OrO-BOCTO'lHOM ceKTOpe


KypraHa (159), Ha paccT051HHH 10.3 M, Ha rny6m1e 2.99 M. KoHTyphI 51MhI He
npocJie)l(HBanttch. KoCT51K nnoxoil: coxpaHHOCTH, norpe6eHHhIH no-BMJ(HMOMY
Jie)J(an Ha JieBOM 6oKy, CKOp'leHHO, rOJIOBOH Ha ceBep-ceBepO-BOCTOK. KuCTb
omwil: pyKu Jie)J(aJia y no)J.6opo.1J.Ka.
Ilorpe6em1e 11 (51MHOe, otHOBHOe )J.JI51 II-M: HachrnH o6Hapy)J(eHo B 1.{e1npe
CeBepHOH IIOJibl KypraHa (360), Ha paCCT051HHH 8,5M, Ha rny6irne 3.67-M. f1o
.lJ.HY 51Ma HMeJia np51MOyrOJihHYID co CKpyrneHHbIMH yrJiaMH cpopMy, )J.JIHHOH
OChID optteHTHpoBaHa no JIHHHH 3ana)J,-BOCTOK. Pa3Mepb1: 2.32 x 1.52 M,
OTMe'leHHa51 rny6uHa 1.2 M. Ha ypomie 06Hapy)J(eHm1 51Ma 6hma nepeKpbna
)J,epeB51HHbIMH nnaxaMH, OT KOTOpbIX coxpaHHJIHCb He3HaLrnTeJibHbie
qiparMeHThI. Ha )J.He, no yrnaM, pacnonaraJIHCh 51MKH OT KOJihes, )J.HaMeTpOM
OKOJIO 4 CM, rny6HHOH 13-22 CM, B pa3pe3e 51MKH KOJ-rnqecKHe, HanpaBJieHbl OT
ueHTpa. B.lJ.OJih 51MhI, Ha paCCT051HHH 0.2-0.24 MOT Kpa5I Haxo)J.HJIHCh KaHaBKH
nrnpHHOH 0.12 M, )J.JIHHOH 0.93 M, rnyfornoil: 0.14 M. Me)J(.lJ.Y HHMII Ha )J.He
coxpaHHJIC51 MOl.l.{HblH )J.peBeCHhlH TJieH OT imax (nmpHHOH OKOJIO 0.12 M),
-178 -

Puc.13. 1-K.7, Il.11; 2-K.7,Il.26; 3-cocyn 113 Il.20,K.7; 4-cocyn 113 Il.5,K.7; 5-K. 7. Il.21.

179 -

1Iorpe6eune 12 (3ITOXH 6pOH3hI) o6Hapy)KCHO B 10ro-3ana.n;HOM ceKTOpe


KypraHa, (200), Ha paCCTOHHHH 12.3 M, Ha rny6uHe 3.13 M. Ko!ITyphI HMhI He
npocJie)KHBaJIHCh . KocrnK unoxoii coxpaHHOCTH. Ilorpe6eHHhIM no -B~HMOMY
Jie)KaJI Ha npaBOM 6oKy, CKOp'leHHO, rOJIOBOM Ha .BOCTOK . y JIOKT.ll norpe6eHHOro ne~ano HeCKOJrhKO cpparMeHTOB OT cocy.n:a co cneria OTOrHyThIM
/

"

..,

lie

't

BeH'lHKOM H nnocKHM .n;HOM. Cocy.n: BhHIOJIHeH H3 rmrnhI c npHMeCbIO nrnMoTa.


qepenoK pbIXJihIM, B H3JIOMe qepHoro u;BeTa. IloBepxHOCTb rnepoxoBaTall ,
ceporo u;BeTa.
1Iorpe6euue 13 (3ITOXH 6pOH3bI) o6Hapy*eHO B IOrO-BOCTO'IHOM ceKTOpe
KypraHa (164), Ha paccTOHHHH 12.7 M, Ha rny6uHe 3.6 M . KoHTYPhI HMhI He
rrpocJie)KHBaJIHCh. KocTHK rrnoxoii coxpaHHOCTH. Cy.n;H no coxpaHHBillHMCH
KOcTHM, norpe6eHHbIM (pe6eHOK) Jie)KaJIHa 6oKy (neBOM-?) CKOp'IeHHO, roJIOBOM
Ha ceBepo-BOCTOK-BOCTOK, JIHU:eBOM 'laCTbIO Ha 10r. IlpaBaH pyKa BbITHHyTa,
HOrH corHyThI.
1Iorpe6euue 14 (3ITOXH 6pOH3bl) o6Hapy)KeHO B IOrO-BOCTO'IHOM ceKTope
KypraHa (130), Ha pacCTOHHHH 13.4 M, Ha rny6HHe 2.29 M. KoHTYPhI HMbI He
rrpocJie)KHBaJIHCb. I1orpe6eHHhIB Jie)KaJI Ha npaBOM 6oKy' CKOp'leHHO, rOJIOBOM
Ha ceBepo-BOCTOK. PyKH corHyThI B JIOKTHX, KHCTHMH, BepoHTHO, nepe.n: JIHU:OM. Horu M;aKCHMaJihHO coTHYThI B KOJieHHx, nHTKaMH y Ta3a.
1Iorpe6eltne 15 (3ITOXH 6pOH3hl) o6Hapy)KeHO B IOrO -BOCTO'lHOM ceKTOpe
KypraHa (135), Ha paccTOHHHH 11.3 M, Ha rrry6uHe 2.9 M. KoHTYPhI HMhI He
npocJie)KHBaJIHCh . ITorpe6eHHe rrapHoe, KOCTH1<H nnoxoii coxpaHHOCTH - neBbIB
npHHa.n;Jie)KaJI B3pOCJIOMy, rrpaBbIM - pe6eHKy. 06a ITOrpe6eHHblX Jie)KaJIH
CKOp'leHHO Ha CITHHe c pa3BOpOTOM BHpaBo., roJIOBaMH Ha ceBep - ceBepo BOCTOK. PyKH neBoro norpe6eHHOro 6bmH cnerKa corHyThI B ,JIOKTHX H
BhITHHYThI. Horu CHIThHO corHyThI B KOJieHHx, rre)KaJIH cnpasa . Ha .n;He
3acpHKCHpOBaH KOpH'IHeBhIH TJieH OT IIO.ll:CTHJIKH. (puc.10/7)
1Iorpe6euue 16 (3ITOXH 6pOH3hI)06Hapy)KeHO B IOrO-BOCTO'IHOM ceKTOpe
KypraHa (150), Ha pacCToHHHH 17 .2. M, Ha rrry6uHe 3.14 M. KoHTYPhI HMhI He
npocJie)KHBaJIHCb. Ilorpe6eHe CHJibHO pa3pyrneHO, BepOllTHO norpe6eHHbIH
(B3pOCJibIM qeJIOBeK) Jie)KaJI Ha CITHHe, rOJIOBOM Ha BOCTOK? JleBall pyKa cnen<a
corHyTa B JIOKTe, KHCThIO y 6e.n:pa. Horu He3HatJHT_
eJibHO corHyThI B KOJieHHX,
CTyrreHH PMOM .

1Iorpe6eune 17 ( 3ITOXH 6pOH3hl) o6Hapy)KeHO B 10ro-BbCTO'lHOM ceKTope


KypraHa (148), Ha paCCTOHHHH 15 .5 M, Ha ~rry6HHe 3.3 M. KOHTyphI HMbI He
npocJie)KHBaJIHCb. Ilorpe6eHHhlll (B3pOCJ1bIH qeJIOBeK) Jie)KaJI Ha JieBOM 6oKy,
CKOp'leHHO, rOJIOBOH no BH.ll:HMOMY Ha BOCTOK. PyKH corHyTbI B JIOKTHX,
KHCTHMH nepe.n: JIHU:OM. Hom comyT.&'I B KorreHHX no.n: yrrroM 30 Jie)KaJIH crreBa,
CTOITbl npH)KaThI .n:pyr K .n:pyry. (puc.11 /7)
1Iorpe6euue 18 (3ITOXH 6pOH3hI) o6Hapy)KeHO B IOrO-BOCTO'lHOM ceKTOpe

Puc.14. I-06L1.1HH IlJiaH

ff

pa.Jpe3 KypraHa l'O: 2-K.10,II.4: 3-K.10.II.3 : 4-K.10,II.2:

-180 -

KypraHa .(140), Ha paCCTOHHHH 13 M, Ha rrry6uHe 3.12 M. KoHTYPhI HMhI He


npOCJie)KHBaJIHCb. Ilorpe6eHHhIM (B3pOCJibIH qeJIOBeK) Jie)KaJI Ha rreBOM 6oKy,
CKOp'IeHHO, rOJIOBOH Ha BOCTOK, JlHU:eBOH qaCTbIO Ha IOr. JleBaH pyKa BhITllHYTa
rro.n: 'yrrroM, KHCTbIO y KOJieHeii, npaBaH - corHyTa B JIOKTe no.n: rrpHMbIM
yrnoM:,KHCThIO Ha neBoif pyKe . Horu MaKCHMaJihHO corHyThI B KoneHax, nhITKH
BMeCTe, npH)KaThI K Ta3o6e.n:peHHOMY cycTaBY. (pHC. 10/ 8)
1Iorpe6euue 19 (3ITOXH 6pOH3hI) o6Hapy)KeHO Ha IOrQ-BOCTO'lHOM ceKTOpe
KypraHa (150), Ha pacCTOHHHH 13.4 M, Ha rrry6HHe 3.13 M. KoHTyphI HMbI He

18l-

npOCJie)l(I1BaJil1Cb. norpe6eHHbIH Jie)[{aJI Ha JieBOM 6oKy, CKOplfeHHO , fOJIOBOH


Ha BOCTOK. Pyirn conrynr B JIOKTe, KHCTaMM, sepoaTHO, nepe;:i; JIMU:OM. HorM
pe3KO COfHYTbl B KOJieHax Il nO,[\TJIHYTbl I< rpy;:i;HOH KJieTKe, CTOilbI BMeCTe.
Ilorpe6e1me 20 (3nOXIl 6pOH3bI) o6Hapy)l(eHO B roro-BOCTOlfHOM ceI<Tope
KypraHa (151), Ha paccTom-n m 15.3 M, Ha rny6MHe 3.11 M. KoHTyp1>1 aM1>I He
npOCJie)[{IlBaJIMCb. norpe6eHHbIH (B3pOCJibIH lfeJIOBeK) Jie)[{aJI Ha JieBOM 6oKy C
CilJibHhIM pa3BOpOTOM Ha rpy;:i;1>, CKOplfem-10, fOJIOBOH Ha BOCTOK, JIMU:eBOH
qacT~Io Ha ror. npasaa py1<a corr-ryTa s JIOKTe MB1>rnepHyn1 Ha cnMHy, I<MCThIO
s paMOHe Ta3a. JieBaa - con1yTa B JIOKTe, 1rncT1>10 nepe;:i; JIHU:OM. HorM pe3Ko
COfHYTbI B KOJieHax II nO,[\TJIHYTbI K rpy;:i;HOH KJieTKe, CTOnhI O)J;Ha Ha ;:i;pyroH:.
(p11c. l 1/5) CJiesa OT Jio6!rnii '-laCTM,qepena crnaJI qepnaK c He60JI1>IIIOH PYlfKOH,
CJierKa B03BbIUiaroru;MHC51 Ha,[\ KpaeM BeHlfilKa Il MMeIOru;MH npo;:i;OJihHbIH
)[{eJio6oK. Cocy;:i; BhIIIOJIHeH M3 rJIMHhI c rtprrMec1>10 MeJII<OTOJilfeHoro UiaMoTa.
lfrpenOK nJIOTHbIH, B H3JIOMe TpeXU:BeTHblif. nosepXHOCTb T'.iepnaKa 3aJIOiu:eHa,
ceporo u:senl. Pa3Mep1>1: B1>1c0Ta IO CM, ;:i;rraMeTp BeHlfMKa 12.5 CM, JJ:MaMeTp
;:i;Ha 8.5 (p11c .13/3)

Ilorpe6enue 21(Heorrpe;:i;eJierrnoe)06uapy)[{e1:ro B roro-BOCTOlfHOM ceKTope


Ky~raHa (148), Ha paccromrnM 13.5 M, Ha rny6rrue 3.5 M. 5.IMano;:i;npRMoyroJIHOrr c)lopMbI c CHJibHO 3aI<pyrneHI-IbIMil yrnaMn, ,[\JIHHOH OCbIO OpHeHTilpOBaHa
no JIMHMil roro-3anan - ceBepo-BOCTOI<. CTeHKM aM1>1 HepoBH1>1e, cneri<a
cy)l(aI-OTca I<O .L\Hy. Pa3Mep1>1: 1.62 x 0.95-1. 7 M, OTMelfeimaR my6mia 0.12-0.26
M. 3anonHeHMe - MeUiaHHhIM rpyHT c 60JI1>Uioii nprrMec1>10 ryMyca. Ha ypoBI-i:e
?6Hapy)[{eHirn, no U:CHTpy 51MbI, 3aqmKCilpdBaH I<OpH'-IIIeBo-6eJieChIH TJieH
06pa3yron.1uil: B nnaHe HenpasuJII>HhIM npaMoyron1>HMK. nprr 3alfMCTKe TJie~
nomen sepTHI<aJI&HO, nepexo;:i;a Ha CTeHKil H 3aTeM Ha ,[\HO 5IMbI, HeCI<OJlhKO
MeH1>me lfeM ocHosmur. Ee pa3Mep1>1: 1.52 x 0 :52-0.58 Mn rny6MHOH 0.07-0.22
M. HanHe 3TO~ aM1>1, T.e. Ha 0.05-0 .07 M BhIUie ;:i;Ha ocHOBHOM aMbI ofornpy)[{eH
p<l3.P03HeHHbIH KOCT51K. Kocn1 B3pocnoro qenoseKa Jie)l(clJIIl no JIHHilil BOCTOK3ana;:i; B cne;:i;yroru:eM nopa;:i;Ke: q)parMeHThI qepena, JionaTr<a, nJielfeBaa I<OCTh,
HeCKOJihKO Il03BOHKOB lI pe6ep, 6e;:i;peHI-Ibie KOCTII, pa:isepHyThie Ha pe6pa, Il
cf)parMeHTbI Ta3a. BepoaTHO B ;:i;aHHOM cJiyqae nMeeT MecTo o6pHJJ: nepe3axopoi-1eHIIa. (puc. 13/5)
Ilorpe6euue 22 (HMHoe) o6Hapy)l(eJ-Io s u:eHTpe JO)[{HOi1 noJibI KypraHa
(1~0), Ha paccToaHIIII 4.2 M, Ha rny6MHe 3.43 M. Ha ypoBHe o6Hapy)[{eHIIa aMa
6brna I~,errpaBIIJibHOH npaMoyrOJibHOH c)lopMbI co CKpyrneHHbIMH yrnaMH,
.L\JIIIHOH oc1>ro opIIeHTHposaHa no JIHHHM 3arra;:i; -so cTOI<. CTeHI<II HMb!
HepoBH1>1e, .L\HO ropII30HTaJI1>Hoe. Pa3Mep1>1 no ;:i;Hy: 1. 71 x O.8-1.0 M, OTMelfeHHaH
rny6mrn 0.72 M. 3arronHeHrre aMbI - MeUiam11>1H: rpyHT c 6on1>moH: rrp11Mec1>ro
MaTepIII<osoro cyrnnHI<a. Ha ;:i;ue, no u:einpy Tpex cTopoH HMI>I 11 no yrnaM
o6napy)[{eHbI 5IMIO'.l OT KOJibeB, BCero 7 IlIT. 5.IMI<Il B pa:ipe3e I<OHHlfeCI<He,
.nnaMeTpOM OKOJIO 4cM, rny6MHOH 8-10 CM. H a ;:i;He, no u:ernpy HMbI 3aru;11111eH
I<OCT5II< xopomeii COXpaHHOCTH. norpe6eHI-IbIH (B3pOCnbIH lfeJIOBeK) ne)l(an Ha '
cnnne, c1<opqemrn, ronoBoH: Ha 3arran, nuu:esoi1 qacT1>IO BBepx, pyKM BbITHHYThI .

BJJ:On Tena. Horn, panee cornyT1>Ie B KoneHHX u rrpnrro;:i;naThie, 3asannnnch


BJieBo. KocTaK, u oco6enno HHTencnBno qeperr M CTOIIhI, oI<pamen KpacnoH:
oxpoH:. Ha ;:i;ne :iacfmKCHpOBaH TCMHOKOpnrneBblH TJieH c BKpamieHHHMH
KpaCHOM oxpbl OT IIO)J;CTHnI<H. (pnc. 7/21)
Ilorpe6enue 23 (KaTaKoM6noe) o6napy)[{eno B roro-3arra;:i;noM ceKTope
KypraHa (194), Ha paccroaHMH 14,5 M, na rny6irne 3.6 M. Bxo;:i;Ho11: KOJIOJJ:eu:
IIO,[\OBaJihHOM cpopMbl pa3MepoM 0.85 x 0.6-0. 95 M H OTMeqemroi1 rny6mroi1:
KJIOHeHHeM Ha
0.21 M, opneHTHpOBaH no JIHHHil ceBep-ror c He60JibilJHM OT_
3ana;:i;. CeBepHOI1 CTOpOI-Ibl BXO)J:HOro KOJIOJJ:U:a HaXO,[\IlJIC5I BXO,[\ B KaTaKOM6y.
KaMepa 0Ban1>HOH q)opMbI, MHHoii oc1>1-0 opneHTHposaHa no nHHilil roro-3anan
-cesepo-BOCTOK. CTeHKH enema pacmnpHIOTca KO ;:i;Hy, pa3Mep1>1: 1.86 x 0.95
M, OTMelfeHHaH rny6HHa 0.4-0.7 M. 3aIIOJIHeHHe 51Mbl - IIJIOTHbIH MemaHHhIH
rpy1-IT. Ha ;:i;He no JIHHHH roro-3arra;:i; - cesepo-BOCTOK, no u:eHTPY aMbI Jie)l(HT
KOCTHK y;:i;OBJieTBOpHTeJibHOM coxpaHHOCTH. 0lfeBH,[\HO, norpe6eHHhIM Jie)l(an
Ha CilHHe c IlOBOpOTOM BJieBO, BbITHHyTo, ronosoii Ha BOCTOK, JIHU:CBOM qaCTblO
BBepx. npaBaa pyKa corHyTa B JIOKTe H ne)[{ana Ha neBOM, BhITirnyToii no;:i;
yrnoM. JieBaa Hora BbITaHyTa, npaBaa - cnerna corHyTa B KoneHe. Ha JJ:He
rrpocJie)[{eH TOHKHM CJIOM KOpH'IHeBoro TJieHa OT IIO,[\CTHJIKH.(p11c.7 /3)
Ilorpe6e11ue 24 (HMHOe OCHOBHOe )J:JIH nepsoii HaChIIlH) o6Hapy)[{eHO B
u:eHTpe KypraHa, rro;:i; P, Ha rny6nHe 4.25 M. 5.IMa c ycTyrroM,ee sepxHaH qacT&
rrpaMoyronhHOH cpopMbI c 3aKpyrneHJ-IhIMH yrnaMH, ,[\JIIlHOM OCbIO opneHTHpOBaHa no mrnIIH roro-3ana;:i; - eesepo-socroK. Pa3Mep1>1 no ;:i;Hy: 3.85 x 2.8 M,
OTMelfeirnaa rny6MHa 0 .1-0. 3 M. norpe6an1>Haa KaMepa, rrpaMOyroJIMIOH
clJopMbI c 3aI<pyrnemihIMH yrnaMH, TaK)l(e opue1nnpoBaHa no mrn1111 10ro3ana;:i;-ceBepo-BoCToK. Pa3Mep1>1: 1.97 x 1.2 M, OTMelfeHHaa rnyfonrn 0.96 M.
CTemrn BepTnKan1>H1>1e, Ha Hnx MecTaMM coxpanunrrc1> )[{eno6lfaT1>1e cne;:i;1>10T
OPYJJ:H51 IllHpHHOH OKOno 5 CM. norpe6eHrre nonHOCTbIO orpa6neHO. Ha ,[\He
coxpaHHnHCb pa3p03I-IeHbie H CHJibHO cpparMeHTHposaHHhie KOCTH B3pocnoro
qeJioBeKa. nonO)l(CHHe KOCTHKa Heorrpe;:i;enHMO. KocTn qeperra 01<pameHHhI
KpaCHOH oxpoH:. Ha ,[\He MeCTaMH coxpamrnca KOpH'-!HeBbIH TneH OT IIO,[\CTHJIKH
(pHC. 12/1)
Ilorpe6e11ue 25 (aMHoe -?) 061-Iapy)l(eHo B u:e1upe IO)[{HOii non1>1 Kypram1
(180 ), Ha paccTOHHHH 5.5 M, Ha rny6nHe 3.73 M. KoHTyp1>1 aMhI He
rrpocne)[{HBanH'.Cb. norpe6eHHblH (B3pOCnhiii qenOBeK) ne)[{an Ha CIIHHe,
CI<Oplfe1rno, ronoBOH Ha roro-3arra;:i;, nnu:eBOH '-laCThIO ua roro-BOCTOK. PyKM
BhlTJIHYThl B)J:Onh Tena, KHCTHMil y Ta3a. HorM COfHYTbI B I<one1rnx, ne)[{aJIIl
cneBa. KocTHK H IlO,[\CTHnKa ITO,[\ HMM IlHTeHCHBHO OKpameHhl KpacHOI1 oxpoH:.
(puc. 12/2)
Ilorpe6e11ue 26 (RMHoe) 06Hapy)l(e1-10 B u:eHTpamHoH qacTH Kypraua ( 180),
Ha paCCT051HHH 6 M, Ha rny6HHe 3.08 M. no Bepxy 51Ma HMena HerrpaBHnhHbJe
npaMoyrOJihHbie oqepnlHHH, CTeHKH HepOBHbie, HeCKOJihKO pacrnHpanHCb KO
)];Hy. no .L\HY 51Ma 61>rna npaMOyrOnhHOH q)OpMbI CO CKpyrneHI-IbIMil yrnaMH,
nnnHoi1 oc1>10 opiieHTnpoBaHa no mrn11n roro-3arra;:i; - cesepo-BOCTOK. Pa3Mep&1:

-- 182 -

183 -

1.77 x 0.98 M, OTMeqeHHaH rrryforna '0.52 M. Ha .n,He, no yrrraM Mcepe.n,1rnaM


CTOpOH, o6Hapy:>KeHbI 5IMKil OT KOITbCB. B pa3pe3e 5IMKil KOHHqecKHe, IlX
.ZJ:HaMCTp OKOITO 5 CM~ rrry6HHa 8-14 CM. 3anOJ1HCHHC 5IMhI - pbiXITbIH MClliaHHbIH
rpyHT, r.D:e BCTpe.qarrHCh cppar:MeHThI .D:epeBa. Ha '.ZJ:He, no u:eHTPY 5IMhI
HaXO.ZJ:HITC5I KOCT5IK xoporneH: coxpaHHOCTil. norpe6eHHbIH (B3pOCJ1bIH qerrdBeK)
rre:>Karr Ha CnHli:e, CKopqeHHO, rorrOBOH Ha IOr0-3ana.D:, ITHU:CBOH qaCTbIO BBepx.
npaBa5I pyKa BbIT5IHyTa B.D:OITb Terra, rreBa5I corHyTa B ITOKTe, o6e KHCTil rre:>KarrH
B paH:olie Ta3a. HorH, CIIIThHO corHyThH~ B KorreHHx,rre:>KarrH cnpaBa. KocT5IK
IlHTCHCHBHO OKparneH KpaCHOH oxpoH:. Ha .ZJ:He 3aqmu;eH KOpnqHeBbIH TITCH OT
110.ZJ:CTHJJKH. (pHC. 13/2)
.
Cmpamu2parjJuR u omliocumeflbliGJ/, xp'oliOfl02Uf/, nozpe6eliUU

KypraH cocT05IIT H3 Tpex HachmeH:. 1. )J;peBHelirnaH, ryMyCHpOBaHHa5I HaChIITh


BbICOTOH 1.4 M c BH)J,HMOM JJHHHeii, .D:PCBHero ropH30HTa, .D:JJHHOH OKOJJO 13
M,B03BC.ZJ:eHa Ha.ZJ: OCHOBHbIM 5IMHbIM rrorpe6eHHeM 24. BbIKil.ZJ: MernaHHOro rpyHTa
c npeo6rra.D:aHHCM MaTepHKOBOro cyrmrnKa MOW:HOCTbIO .D:O 0.25 M norryKOJJbU:OM
pacrrorrararrc5I BOKpyr HMM, ero BHernttrrH: BH.D: .D:HaMeTp OKorro 9 M. IL C ypoBH5I
rrepBoli HaCbIITil 6bmo Bnyw;eHo .ZJ:Ba norpe6eHH5I 5IMHOH KYIThTYPhI - 2.22. III. Ha
KpaIO ceBepHOH nOJJbI rrepBOH mtCbIITil 6bmo COBeprneHO 5IMHOe 3axopOHCHHe II,
Ha.D: K0TOpbIM 6bUia C.ZJ:erraHa .D:OCbIITKa, yBeJJWIHBIIIa5I KypraH .D:O 34 MB .D:HaMeTpe.
lfa-3a CHJJbHOH 3p03Iltt; KypraHa BbICOTa BTOpoH: Il TpeTbCH HaCbIITil COBrrarra Il
COCTaBJJ5IeT 3.1 MOT ypOBH5I norpe6eHHOM noqBbI n, MOW:HOCTb KOTOpOM 0.2 M.
HaCbIIlb n KOMKOBaTO-CJJOHCTOH CTpyKTypbI C qacTHqHo BII.ZJ:IlMOH JJHHHCH
.D:peBHero ropII30HTa. BhIKH.ZJ: MaTepHKOBoro cyrrrrrttKa, MOW:HOCTbIO .D:O 0.25 ,M H3
OCHOBHOro .ZJ:J15I n-oH: HaChIITII norpe6eHII5I, pacnorrararraC5I c BOCTOqHoii CTOpOHbI
HMhr,npIIqeM qacTh BhIKII.D:a rre:>Karra Ha none .D:PeBHeiirneii HachmII. BhIKII.D:
3aqmKCHpOBaH B npocpIIIT5IX U:CHTparrhHOH 6pOBKII, 3.ZJ:eCb :>Ke npocrre:>KIIBarrach
rpa6IITerrbCKa5I HMa, KOTopaH no Bepxy IIMerra .ZJ:HaMeTp 4 M. IV. C ypoBH5I BTopoH:
HaCbIIlII B KypraH 6bIJJil Bhmym:eHbI norpe6eHII5I 5IMHOM KYITbTYPbI - 6.26 II,
B03MO:>KHO 25. Y. 3aTeM ):(HaMeTp Kyprana 6bm yBerrHqeH .D:O 50 M. Onpe.D:errHTh,
Ha.D: KaKIIM rrorpe6eHHeM 6bma C.D:erraHa TpeTb5I .D:OChmKa, He y.D:arrOCh, O.D:HaKo c
onpe.D:eJJeHHOH .D:Orreii OCTOpO:>KHOCTil c nocrre.ZJ:Heii HaCbIIlbIO MO:>KHO CB5I3aTb
IT03.ZJ:He5IMHbie norpe6eHH5I 1, 3, 15 ..YI. Crre.D:YIDW:IIM no BpeMeHrr 3axopoHeHII5I
J!BJJ5ICTC5I rrorpe6eHHe 23 - KaTaKoM6ttoii KYITI>TyphI. YII. HaII6,orree MHOroqHcrreHHYIO rpynnycocTaBJ15IIOT norpe6eHH5I 3nOXII cpe.ZJ:HCH II n03.ZJ:Heii 6pOH3bI 4, 5, 7-10, 12-14, 16-20.
'KYPrAH NdO. Haxo.D:rrrrcH Ha paccT05IHIIII 40 M Ha BOCTOK OT KypraHa
N29, IIMerr KpyrJryIO B ~rraHe cpopMy, e:>Kero.ZJ:HO pacnaxIIBarrcH. Ero
COBpeMeHlj'a5I BaCOTa 1.25 M, .ZJ:IIaMeTp 22 M. Coopy:>KeH Ha.D: OCHOBHbIM
rrorpe6eHHeM HMHOH KYIThTYPhI H co.D:ep:>Karr 4 norpe6eHII5I *. (pHc.14/1)
Ilorpe6euue 2 (KaTaKOM6Hoe- ?) o6Hapy:>KeHO B u:eHTpe BOCTOqHOM IlOJJbI
KypraHa (90), Ha paCCT05IHIIIl 3.2 M, Ha rrry6IIHe 1.3 M. 51Ma HenpaBIIJJ~HOM

* Ilorpe6em1e 1 -

1103t1HeKo'leBH11'1ecKoe.
-184-

OBaJJbHOM cpopMbI, .D:JJIIHOH OCbIO opHeHTHpOBaHa 116 JJilHilil roro-BOCTOK ceBepo - 3ana.ZJ:. CTeHKH HepoBHhre, B I6ro-3ana.D:HOM 11acTII HeCKOITbKO
pacrnHp5IIOTC5I KO .D:Hy. Pa3Mephr: 1.58 x 0.93 M, OTMe11eHHa5I rrry6IImi 0.38 M.
Ha .D:He, y 10ro-3'ana.D:HOii cTeHKH 5IMhI 3atimiJ.eHhI .D:Be 5IMKII, mi.xo.ZJ:rrBrnIIeC5I
Ha paCCTOllHIIII 0 '. 35 M'il.ripyr OT ,.D:pyra. 51MKH .ZJ:HaMeTpOM 12-14 CM, rrry6IIHOM
5-6 cM. norpe6eHHiirii rre:>Karr Ha cnmie, c He6orr&riiIIM HaKJJOHOM BrreBo,
CKo'p<ieHHO, rorroBOH Ila rorO-BOCTOK. JleB'a51 pyK'a crrerna corHyTa B JJOKTe,
.
\
'

'
11
TaK, 'ITO J10KTeBa5I Il nrreBa5I KOCTil BIIC5IT npaBa5I - corHyTa B JJOKTe, !<JtCTbIO
Me:>K.D:Y rpy.D:ttoii KrreTKoii II Ta3oM. Hom corHyThI B r<orreHHX no.D: npHfyihIM
yrITOM, JJC:>KaJJH CITeBa, CTOilbI p5I.ZJ:OM. no .D:II Y 3a~ttrn;e'rr TeMHO-KOpH1IHCBbIM
TITCH
IIO.D:CTIIJIKil. (14/4)
I
'
'

'
.
.
'
I
Ilcfrpe6euue 3 (HMHoe) o6Hapy:>Keuo B roro -3ana.D:HOM ceKTope Kypralia
(240) Ha pacCT05IlIHII 7.6 M, Ha rrry6IIHe 1 M. 51Ma npnMoyrOJibHOM qlOpMbl co
cr<pyr.rieHHbIMII yrrraMrr, .D:ITilHOM 'ochIO oprreHTHpOBaHa no ITIIIIIIIl ' ceBep-IOr c
He6011&.1tmM OTI<rroH:e!meM Ha BOCTOK-3arra.ZJ:. CTeHKil mipoBHhre, MecTaMrr
pacurnp5IIOTC5I 1(0 .ZJ:Hy. Pa3MepbI: '1.53 x 1.0, OTMC'leHHa>I rrry6mra o'.27 M.
f,lorpe6eHHblll ' rre:>Karr Ha cnrrHe; 'C)(Op1IeHHO, rOJIOBOM Ha 10r~10ro-BOCTOI<,
rrm~eBdii ,qacT&IO BBepx. PyI<:li BhIT5IHYThi . Horrr cmrhHO coruyThI B r<orremrx,
rre:>KaJIIl crreBa. Kocrnr< OKparneH Kpacuoii oxpoii. (prrc.14/3)
Ilorpe6euue 4 (m,.1uoe-ocHOBHoe) o6uapy:>Keno B 10ro-3ana.ZJ:HOM ceI<iope
KypraHa (248), ua paccT05IHHH 2.2 M, ua rrry6rrue 1.23 M. 51Ma npHMoyrorrhHOM
cpopMbI Cd CKpyrrreHHbIMII yrmlMil, )J,JrIIHHOM OCbIO opIIennrpoBaHa no ITIIHilil
ceBepo -BOCTOK - 1oro-'.mrra.ZJ:. Pa3Mephr: 1.62x0.74-0.9 M, o~MeqeH:naH rrry6rraa
1 M. 3anorrlieHrre 5IMbl - pbIXITbIH MemaHHbIM rpy1u, B KOTOpOM BCTpeqarrifch
cpparMeHThI OT .D:epeB>IHHoro nepeKphrtM5I. Ha .ZJ:He, no u:enTpy >IMhI o6napy)Ken
KOCT)!K rrrroxo:fi: coxpaunocTII. norpe6eanhri1,' otJ:eBH.ZJ:HO, rre:>Karr Ha cnrrtte,
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r<yprana 6hrrro Bnyw;euo l!Mnoe rrorpe6ettIIe 3. III. Cne.D:y10m11M no BpeMeHII
3axopoaeHII5I 5IBJ15IeTCH KaTaKoM6ttbe norpe6emr'e'2. IY. nocrre.ZJ:HIIM BKypraH
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-

185-

Bcero B meCTU Kypranax BhUIBITeHO 77 norpe6anhHhIX KOMIIITeKCOB, KOTOphie B KYIThTYPHOM OTHOillettue }IBJHllOTC}I 06b1qnhIMH .[(IT~ ):(HeCTpOBCKO - IlpyTCKoro Me)l(.[(ypeqb}I.

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fpynna TaKnx norpe6eHHH Kpaliue MHoroqncrrena.9
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'
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-- 186 --

TpeTnil: KYJII>TypHo-xpoHonornqecKnii ropn30HT Han6oITee ;l\rnoroqncITeueu H rrpe.n:CTaBJieH 40 norpe6eHH}IMH, ycrrOBHO OTHeceHHhIMH K 3UOXe 6pOH3bI.
I13 3Toro r<OJUll.J:ecTBa qerKo onpe.uerrnTb KYJibTYPH;YIO npnHa.n:rre)l(HOCTh
npe.[(CTaBHITOCh B03MO)l(HJ>IM TOIThKO WIH norpe6eHHH 4 r<yprana 6 n norpe6eHna
8 KypraHa 7, KOTOpbie , conpOBO)J(,UaJIHCh HHBeHTapeM, xapaKTepHbIM .UITH
KYJibTYPI>I MHoroBannKo:Boli KepaMHKH . 11
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pam-rero ')l(eJie3Horo BeKa, OTHOCII'fca rrorpe6enne 9 Kyprairn 512
1
CaMhIMH nocrre.[(HHM n B KypraHhI 61>mtt .uoxopoHeHbI II03.UHeKO'leBHnqecKne norpe6emrn. 13

PH.[( fIOrpe6eHHH H3-3a IIJIOXOH coxpaHHOCTH ll OTCYTCTBHH HHBeHTapa


KYJihTypHo He onpe,Zl.eneHhI.
TaKOBhI BKpaTne pe3ynbTaThI nccne.n:oBamrn 6-Tn r<ypraHOB B,KaymaHcKOM paHOHe.

IIPl1ME1IAHHJI

o.r.

IIorpe6anbHbJH KOMnneKC ca6an!HOBCKOH KynbTYPbI y c. KblpH31.1eHbl II


.lJ:peBHOCTH CTenttoro 1Ipw1epHoMOpbl! 11 KpbIMa. Bbm.Y. 3<~nopmKbe . 1995, c.159-165 .
2
I'pocy B.JI., /(eM'leHKO TH. CapMa:rc1<11e KypraHbI y cc Kbipll3JWHbI 11 Ona'!. //AHM B 1985.
Kurn.1990, c.132-140.
3 /(eM<JeuKo T.Jf .. 'le6omapeuKo Tt;P. Ilorpe6enue KO'leBHllKOB B Kyprauax Hm1rnero
floi:1ttecTpon&J1 II Cpei:1neae1<0Bb1e naMJITHllKH )l.11ecTpoac1<0-IlpyTcKoro MClKL1ype1IbJ1.
Kurn.1988, c.95-105.
.

,
4 /(epw<Jee B.A. Moni:1aauJ1 u cocei:1nue Tepp11Top1111 B 3noxy 6po11:m. Kum. 1986, c.74 -77 .
s AzynbHUKoa C.M. Oxpa1mc pacKoilKH y c.EbI'IOK//AllM B 1981. Kum. JQ85, c.41 -52.
6 Jlpoaoi:I E .B. O ueKoTOpbIX i:1epeBJ1HHbJX KOHCTPYKl.llfJIX B JIMHbIX norpe6eH11J1x Kypratta Y
c.Eb1'!01<.// AHM a 1981. Kurn.lQ85, c.52.
,
1 I'yiJKoaa A.B., 'lepHRKoa JI. T. .51.MHbie norpe6eHHJI c KonecaM11 y c. XonMcKoe. II .lJ:peBHOCTll
Ceaepo-3ana):lttoro Ilp11'!epnoMopbJ1 . K11ea, 1981 , c.41.
aJlpoaoi:I E.B . .lJ:peBHeiinme CKOTOl)OL1'!ec1<11e nneMeHa l0ro-3anai:1a CCCP. Knrn. 1985, c.69 .
9 TaM lKe, c.74.
10 /(epza<Jea B.A. KaTaKOM6HaJI 1<ynhTypa n .lJ:HeCTponcKo-IlpyTcKOM MeJKi:1ype'lbe II
Ilepao6bJTHbie ):lpeBHOCTll MoJJ):laBHll . Kum. 1983, c.128-151.
11 /(epw'lea B.'A.. Moni:1anlfJ1 H cocei:1n11e Tepp11Top1i11 ... c. 122.
12 MemoKoaa A .JI. KynbTypa nneMeH .lJ:ttcCTponcKoro-IlpyTcKoro MClKLIYPC'l bJI /r.lJ:peBHJIJI
KYJJbTypa Moni:1amm. Knrn. 1974, c.7.
H /(eM'leHKO. TH., 1:le6oTapeHKO r.<I>. Ilorpe6eH!fJI KO'IeBHlfKOB ... c. 95-105.

Jle8Ul/KUl4

Summary

The article introduces into the scientific practice the materials, obtained in the result of the
excavations on 6 barrows, which were errected at the Early Bronze Age by the thibes 0f the Pitgrave (Yamnaya) culture,. Altogether 77 burial complexes, belonging to var.ious cultu~al a~.d
chronological horizons, were surveyed. A certain part of them is of a considerable sc1entihc
intere&t.

- 187-'--

V. Haheu, V. Gukin

Cerceta.rea tumulilor s-a facul cu ajutorul buldozerului cu pastrarea


martorilor stratigrafici. Toate,masurarile de adincime ~i distanta au fost facute
de la reper- centrul conventional al tumulului. Locul aflarii fiecarui tumul va fi
indicat in fiecare caz aparte .

REZULT A TELE INVESJIGA JllLOR UNOR COMPLEXE TUMULARE


DIN R-UL FLORE~TI, REPUBLICA
MOLDOVA
.
.

1n anul 1990 in raionul Flore~ti au fost efectuate cercetari 4~heologice de


salvare a unor complexe tumulare: doua - linga s. Ivanovca; doua - linga s.
Sevirova ~i trei - linga satul Alexanqrovca (fig. 111-3). lnaltimea mantalelor
tumulare de la nivelul actl\al de calcare (in continuare NAC) v'aria intre O,7--2,0
m. Anual suprafata tumulilor era supusa lucrarilor agricole.
1-

_2

-~

Grupul tumular de liuga s. lvauovca .

Tumulul I. Se gasea la 1,5 km NE de autostrada Sevirova-Flo re~ti la riiscruce, spre satul Ivanovca. Inaltimea m~ntalei de la NAC - 0,8 m; diametrul
- 40 m (fig. 2/1).
6

t
01

3 '

t
@>2

1-

( - - ]~ 3

'

Fig. 1. 1- 3 - plan de situatie; 4 - Sevirova t. II, m. 6; 5 - Sevirova t. II, m. 3; 6 - Sevirova


t. II, m. 5.
-

188 -

Fig. 2. 1 - Ivanovca t. I, planul general ~i sectiunea martorului central ; 2, 4, 7 - Ivanovca t.


I, m. 1 - plan ~i inventar; 3 - Ivanovca t. I, m. 4; 5, 6 - Ivanovca t. I, m. 2.
-

189 -

M. 1 (sarmatic, cenotat) {fig. 2/2): Depistat la 2,2 m spre V de reper, la


adincimea de o,6 m. Groapa sepulcralii de formii ovalii, dimensiunile 0,7XO,
5x0, 35 m. Scheletul lipsea, pe fundul gropii se af1a: un ulcior ~i uh cutit defier.
Ulciorul cu fundul inelar este modela:t Ia roata olarului. Are corpul globular,
umeri u~or evidentiati, gitul scund tronconic, marginea evazatii. Este modelat
din pasta, avind ca degresanti ~amota, suprafata bine netezitii. Arderea oxidantii,
culoarea cenu~ie. 1naltimea - 18 cm, diametrul gurii - 8,2 ell).; diametrul fundului inelar - 8,8 cm (fig. 2/7).
'
Cutitul-pumnal cu miner evident\at este lucrat din fier. Lama este in formii
de frunzii cu douii tiii~ur\. Minerul in sectiune este dreptunghiular. Lungimea
totalii - 10 cm; lungimea lamei - 7 cm (fig. 2/4).
M.2. (catacombelor) (fig. 2/5). Depistat la 8,0 m spre SE de reper la adincimea
de 1, 1 m. Croapa sepulcralii de o formii ovalii este orientatii pe axa VSV-ENE.
Peretii verticali, fundul orizontal. Lungimea - 1,88 m; liitimea - 1, 1 m; adincimea - 0,2 m. Scheletul sumar piistrat era in pozitie intinsii pe spate, craniul
orientat spre SV. Oasele mainilor slot plasate de-a lungul corpului, picioarele
drepte ... La picioarele defunctului ' a fost giisitii o oalii farii fund, modelatii cu
mina dintr-o pasta cu ~amota ~i degresanti vegetali . Suprafata vasului este neglijent netezita, culoare maronie inchisii cu pete negre. Partea superioarii a vasului
este ornamentatii cu striuri oblice . .lnaltimea piistrata a vasuluj - 0,8 cm; diametrul gurii - 12 cm (fig. 2/6).
M. 3. (11edetermi11at) (fig. 3/3). Depistat la 13 m SE dereper la adincimea de
0,6 m. Mormintl a fost priidat in vechime, piistrindu-se dar carapacea din
piatrii a Jui, in centrul ciireia se af1ii putul de priidare . Carapacea consta din 14
lespezi de piatrwcalcaroasii cu dimensiunile intre 0,7x0, 6x0, 1- 0, 3x0, 6xo;2 m .
Scheletul ~i inventarul lipsesc.
M. 4. (11edetermi11at) (fig. 2/3). Depistat la 13 m SE de reper la adincimea de
0, 69 m . Groapa sepulcrala de o formii dreptunghiularii cu colturile puternic
arcuite, peretii verticali, fundul plat. Este orientatii pe axa NV-SE, dimensiunile
- l ,OxO, 7x0, 5 m. Pe fundul gropii a fost descoperita o lespede de piatrii in
pozitie verticalii cu dimensiunile 0,65x0, 6x0, 15 m. Scheletul ~i inventarul lipse~te .
M. 5. (nedetermi11at) (fig. 7/8). Depistat la 13 m SE de reper Ia adicnimea de
1,2 m. Groapa sepulcralii de o formii ovalii, pere~ii verticali, fundul plat. Este
orientatii pe axa NV-SE, dimensiunile 0,6x0, 55x0,3 m. Mormintul a fost distrus
in vechime, piistrindu-se doar fragmente de craniu uman ~i un femur in pozitie
neanatomicii.
,
M. 6. (nomad tura11ic). Depistat in sectorul central al tumulului la adincimea
de 0,45 m. Groapa sepulcralii nu a fost fixatii . Oasele scheletului se giiseau
griimada in pozitie neanatorriicii. ~rintre oase au fost giisite douii fragmente de
obiecte defier puternic corodate nedeterminate.
Analiza stratigrafiei verticale a martorului permite de a constata ca in calitate
de tumul a fost folositii o ridiciiturii naturalii. La aceasta indicii lipsa nivelul~i
antic de ciilcare. Au fost cercetate 6 morminte; Nr. 2 - cultura catacombelor,
I

- 190 -

~2

<if!>

Fig. 3. l - Ivanovca t. II, planul general ~i sectiunea martorului central; 2, 5, 8 -

Ivanovca t.

II, m. l; 3 - Ivanovca t. I,_m. 3; 4 - Ivanovca t. II, m. 2:

Nr. 1 - sarm<}tic; Nr. 6 - probabil nomad turanic; Nr. 3-5 nedeterminate.


Tumulu!II. Se giisea la 15 m SE de t. 1. lniiltimea--0,7 m diame~rul - 35 m Sfig: 3/1).
M. 1. (nomad turanic) (fig. 3/2). Depistat la 1,5 m SE de reper la ~dmc1me~
de o 8 m. Groapa sepulcralii de formii dreptunghiulara cu coltunle arc'mte, peretn
verticali fundul plat. Este orientatii pe axa E-V, dimensiunile - 1,88x0, 68x0,7
m. S~heletul a fost giisit in pozitie intinsii pe spate, craniul orientat spre V cu
mici devieri spre S. Mainile intinse de-a lungul corpului, picioarele drepte.
-

191 --

&O
3

unui copil a fost gasit in pozitie intinsa pe spate, craniul orientat spre SV. Mainile
intinse de-a lungul corpului, putin indoite in coate, picioarele drepte.
,
Inventar: Doua scarite de eya au fost gasite la 15 cm de tibia. stinga. Sint
forjate din fi.er unul face partedin categoria eel or in forma de arcada, celalalt
are un contur ~arecum trapezoidal. Talpa este albiata, avind marginile las.ate
in jos. In partea superioara au cite un orificiu dreptunghiular, ori~onta~ pentru
fixare. lnaltimea - 11,4 cm (fig. 412, 11). 2. In stinga oaselor bazmulm au fost
gasite 7 ar;ice, intr-unul dintre care era introdus plumb :topit (fig.4/7-10). 3.
Tot acolo ; fost gasit un fragment de cu tit defier, in sectiune in forma de "pana",
un nit de bronz, probabil in calitate de garda (fig. 4/5, 6)4 La NNV de tibie se gase~
un inel de zabala din tier (fig. 4/4)5 . Catarama de tier de forma rotunda cu ac mob1l
(fig. 4/3). 6. Inel de tier cu capetele unite, probabil p~evenind de la zabale (fig. 4/4)._ ,
Analiza stratigrafiei verticale a martorulm a perm1s de a constata ca m
calitate de tumul a fost utilizata o ridicatura naturala, la care indica eyi lipsa
nivelului antic de calcare. Au fost cercetate doua morminte, apartinind nomazilor
turanici.
Complexe tumulare de linga s. Servirova

Fig. 4. 1,2 - Ivanovca' t. II, m. l; 3- 12 -,-- Ivanovca t. II, m.2.

Inveptar: 1. Unga tibia piciorului sting au fost gasite doua scarite de p din
fier, executate prin forjare. Fae parte din categoria celor in forma de arcada cu
talpa albiata, avind marginile lasate in jos. In partea superioara are un orificiu
dreptunghiular, orizontal pentru fixare. lnaltimea - 13,2 cm (fig. 411,2). 2.
Doua catarame din fier din categoria celor in forma de semicerc se gaseau la 15
cm Ede scarile de eya. Acul mobil era fixat de veriga opusa. Dimensiunile 6,2x5,8
cm (fig. 3/6,8). 3.. La 20 cm N de gamba stinga au fost gasite zabale din fier din
doua tije. Tijele inegale c,a lu1igime, ambele capete se unesc intre ele, la celalalt
au cite un inel mobil de care se fixau curelele. Lungimea piesei - 9,5 cm (fig. 3/
7). 4. Inel defier cu capetele unite (fig. 3/5).
M. 2. (nomad turanic) (fig. 3/4). Depistat la 5,5 m NE de reper la adincimea
de 1,2 m. Groapa sepulcrala de o forma dreptunghiulara, peretii verticali, fundul
plat. Este orientatii pe axa SV-NE, dimensiunile 1,35x0,55x0,65 m. Scheletul
-192 -

Tumulul J. Se gasea la 1 km NV de localitate, 1,5 km Ede autostrada Sevirova-Trifanesti (fig. 1/2). lnaltimea mantalei de la NAC- 0,8 m, diametrul '
.
40m.
.
M. 1. ("iamnaia", central) (fig. 5/2). Depistat in centrul tumulului la
adincimea de l 5 m. Groapa sepulcrala de o forma dreptunghiulara cu coiturile
ro.tungite, peretii verticali, fundul plat. Este orientata pe ax~ E-E-V: dim~nsiunile
l, 7xl,0,1,35 m . ln colturile gropii au fost evidentiate grop1 de pan cu diametrul
5-7 cm si adincimea de 10-20 cm. In jurul gropii sepulcrale a fost fixat lutul
provenit prin siiparea acesteia, in forma de semicerc, ~u gr~simea de 30 cm.
Scheletul a fost gasit in pozitie chircitii pe spate, ciamul onentat spre VSV.
Bratele intinse de-a lungul corpului falangele mainii drepte - erau dedesubtul
tibi~i. Picioarele cu un grad de chircire mediu, la~ate in dreapta. Dedesubtul
scheletului .pe intreg perimetrul gropii au fost depistate rama~itele aeyternutului
de culoare cafenie inchisa.
Inventar: 1. La no'rd de craniu a fost gasit un bulgiire de ocru.
2. La S de craniu a fost gasita' o aeychie de silex (fig. 6/7).
M. 2. (lamnaia) (fig. 5/3). Depistat la 4,6 m Ede reper la adincime~ de 1, 1 ~:
Groapa sepulcrala de o forma dreptunghiulara c~ colt~ril~ rotung1te, peret11
verticali fundul plat. Este orientata pe axa E-V, dimensmmle 1,5x0,8x0,25 m.
In umpl~tura gropii au fost gasite, la diferite niveluri 3 lesp~zi de pi~tra, d~ua
dintre care erau, nemijlocit pe schelet, deteriorandu-lputermc. Lung1mea p1etrelor era de la 38 la 60 cm; latimea de la 30 la 50 cm; grosimea de la 5 la 8 cm. Pe
marginea de N a gropii a fost gasita o aglomera}ie din frag:nentele ~ 3 vase: 1_.
Cupa de forma tronconica, modelata cu mina dmtr-o pasta ce contme eyamota
-193-

~i degresanti vegetah. Suprafata oarecum zgrunturoasa, arderea neuniforma,


culoarea galbena-rosietica, in spartura~neagra. foaltimea - 4 7 cm diametrul
gurii - 9 cm; diame,t rul fundului - 4,5 cin (fig. 6/8). Fragme~t de ~as cu gitul
conic evidentiat si buza evazata. Modelat cu mina dintr-o pasta cu samota si
degresanti veget;li. ~uprafata este oarecum zgrunturoasa, arderea ne~niformi,
culoare cenusiu - inchisa, in spartura - neagra. Zona 'de trecere de la umeri
spre buza vasului este ornamentata cu snurul (fig. 6/9. 11). 3. Fundul unui vas
de o forma nedeterminata. Modelat cu m'ina dintr-o pasta cu p1nota ~i degresanti
vegetali, Suprafata este sumar netezita, arderea neuniforma, culoarea neagra
(fig. 6/10).

~
10

, Scheletul paf!ialpastrat afost gasitin pozitie chircita, pe partea stlnga, craniu1 orientat
spre Vcumic.,1. devieri spre N. Mmadreaptaesteindoitaincotsubununghidrept.Picioarele'
cu un grad de chircire, lasate pe partea stinga.. Craniul este vopsit cu ocru. Dedesubtul
scl1eletului au fost 'descoperite ram~itele ~temutului de culoare.caf~nie-inchisa.
M. 3. (nedeterminat) (fig. ). Depistat in centrul tumulului la adicnimea de
0,7 m. Groapa sepulcrala nu a fost fixata. De asupra scheletului era o lespede
de piatra cu dimensiunile 0,6x0,5x0,07 m. Din schelet s-au pastrat doar oasele
mainilor picioarelor si a maxilarului in pozitie neanatomica. Inventarul lipse~te.
M. 4'. (nomad tur~nic) (fig. 6/3). Depist~t la 7,5 m SV de reper la adincimea
de 1,5 m. Groapa sepulcrala nu a fost fixata. Scheletul era in pozitie intinsa pe
spate, craniul orientat spre V. Mainile de-a lungul corpului u~or indoite in cot
cu falangele pe oasele baziunului, picioarele drepte. Inventarul lipse~te.

~~

l/J
// 4

il'.

@
7

IJ9

6'

"'*-

it/JI~~

*k

*~o
.

:tr

ff'

Fig. _5 .1 - Sevirova t'. I, planul ~i profilul martorului centrnl; 2 - Sevirova t. I, m. l; 3 Sevirova t. I, m. 2; 4 - Sevirciva t. I, m. 7.
- 194 -

Fig. 6. 1,5,6 - Sevirova t. I, m. 8; 2 - Sevirova t. I, 1


n. 5; 3 - Sevirova t. I, m. 4; 4 -

Sevirova t. 1; m . 10; 7 - Sevirova t. I, m. I ; 8,11 - Sevirova t. I,m. 2.


- 195 -

M. 5. (nomad turanic) (Fig. 6/2). Depistat la 11,5 ill SV de reper, la adinciillea


de 1,35 ill. ?roap.a sepulcralii nu a fost fixatii . Scheletul era in pozitie intinsii pe
spate, cranml onentat spre VNV. Mainile intinse de-a .lungul corpului usor
indoite in coate, picioarele drepte. Inventarul lipse~te.
'.
M 6. (nedeterminat). (fig. 7/2). Depistat la 8 ill SV de reper la adinciillea de 0,7 ill.
Groapa sepulcrala nu a fost fixatii. Din schelet s-au pastrat doar citeva oase izolate.
Inventarul lips~te.

...17

2'

. ~
\
'

'-=Js,

Sevirova t. II, planul ~i profilul martorului central; 2 - Sevirova t. J, m. 6; 3 Sevirova t. II, m. 3; (6,11,12- Sevirova t. I, m. 9; 5 - Sevirova t. II, m. 4; 7 Alexandrovca t. I, m. 3; 8 - Ivanovca t. I, m. 5; 9, 10 - Sevirova t. II, m.l.

Fig. 7 1 -

-196 -

M. 7. (Iamnaia) (fig. 5/4). Depistat la 10,5 ill SE de reper, la adincimea de


1, 1 ill. Groapa sepulcralii de o form ii dreptunghiularii cu colturile rotungite,
peretii verticali, fundul plat. Este orientatii pe axa NV-SE ; dimensiunile
1,5x0,9x0,3 m. Scheletul era in pozitie chircitii pe spate, craniul orientat spre
NV. Mina dreaptii intinsii de-a lungul corpului, cea stingii-indoitii sub un unghi
ascutit. Picioarele cu un grad mediu de chircire, la stinga. Inventarul lipse~te.
M. 8. (sarmatic) (fig. 6/1). Depistat la 17 m SE de reper, la adincimea de 1,1
II}. Groapa sepulcralii de formii dreptunghiularii cu colturile rotungite, peretii
verticali, fundul plat. Este orientatii pe axa NNV-SSE, dimensiunile 1,7x0,8x0,3
m. Scheletul era in pozitie intinsii pe spate, craniul orientat spre N cu mici devieri
spre V. Bratele intinse de-a lungul corpului, picioarele drepte.
Inventar: 1. Llngii umiirul drept a fost gasit un inel din bronz cu capetele neunite (fig. 6/5). 2. Obiect defier puternic corodat, ce nu poate fl identificat (fig. 6/6) .
M. 9. (nomad turanic) (fig. 7/6). Depistat la 12 m SV de reper, la adinchimea de
1,8 m. Groapa sepulcralii de o ro'rma oval ii, peretii verticali, fun du\ plat. Este orientata
pe axa E-V, dimensiunile 2,0x0,65x0,4 m . Scheletul era in pozitie intinsii pe spate,
craniul oriental spre V. Bratele intinse de-a lungul corpului, picioarele drepte.
Inventar: 1. Llngii illina dreaptii a defunctului erau 2 pliici din os pentru arc
de formii ovalii. Partea inferioarii este albiatii cu incizii ob lice haotice. Pairtea
exterioar~ este ~lefuitii . Capetele uneia dintre ele sunt previizute cu douii giiuri
cu diametrul 0,5 cm. Dimensiuni: 15x2,5 cin (fig. 7/11 , 12). 2. Llngii oasele _
bazinului era un amnar din fier de forillii ovalii. 1n partea inferioara a suprafetei
de lovire are o proeminentii triunghiularii. Diillensiuni: 9,5x2,7 cm. (fig. 7/6). 3.
Llngii tibia stingii erau 4 varfuri de siigeti din fier cu tub de inmanu~are.: Au
forillii romboidala sau roillboidala-alungitii. Intr-un caz pe peduncul s-a piistrat
o foitii subtire de metal galben (fig. 7/4).
M. 10. (sannatic?) (fig. 6/4). Depistat la 7 m SV de reper la adincimea de 2,1 m.
Groapa sepulcrala de fom1a ovalii, peretii verticali, fundul plat. Orientatii pe axa
NV-SE, dimensiuni: 1, 85x0,55x0,3 ill. Scheletu!' era in pozitie intinsii pe spate,
craniul oriental spre NV. Bratele intinse, picioarele drepte. Inventarul lipse~te.
Mantaua tumululu1 a fost construitii pentru mormintul Nr. 1 al culturii
"iamnaia" de la nivelul solului antic de ciilcare, par tea lizibilii a caruia are o grosime
de 7 cm ~i lungimea de 8 m . La nivelul orizontului antic a fost identificat lutul
galben provenit din mormintul principal in forillii de semicerc cu diametrul maximal de 8,5 m, grosimea de 0,3 m. Ulterior, mantaua tumulului a fost utilizatii pentru
mormintele secundare Nr. 2, 7 ale culturii iamnaia, pentru mormintele sarmatice
8 10 si illormintele turanice tirzii 4, 5, 9. Mormintele 3, 6 nu au fost determinate.
' Tumulul JI. Era situat la 1,5 km N de localitate, 0, 1 km V de drumul de
cimp spre brigada de tractoare. Iniiltimea de 2 m, diametrul 60 . (fig. 7/1).
M. 1. (sannatic) (fig. 7/9). Depistat la 14 m SE de reper la adincimea de 1,3 ill.
Groapa sepulcralii nu a fost fixatii. Scheletul unui copil se afla in pozitie intinsii
pe spate, craniul oriental spre N, bratele de-a lungul corpului, picioarele drepte .
htventar: 1. Llnga talpa piciorului drept se gasea un vas modelat la roata cu
fundul inelar, cu miner. Pasta contine eyamota ~i nisip. Suprafata este ingrijit netezitii,
-197 -

8
Fig. 8. 1 - Sevirova t. II, m. 9; 2- Sevirova t. II, m. 7; 3,5 -

Sevirova t. II, m. 5; 6 'Alexandrovca t. II, m. 1; 7 - Alexandrovca t. I, m,. 1; 8 - Seviroya t. II, m. 2. ,


-1 98 -

M. 3. (cultura "mnogovalikovaia") (fig. 1/5). Depistat la 10 m SV de reper la


adincimea de 1,4 m. Groapa sepulcrala are o forma ovala, peretii verticali, fundul
plat. Este orientata pe axa SE-NV, dimensiunile de 1,lx0,65x0,3 m. Era acoperitii
de-a lungul cu 6 birne, cu diametrul in jur de15 cm. Scheletul se afla in pozitie
puternic chircita, pe partea stinga, craniul oriental spre ESE. Bratele intinse
linga oasele bazinului. Dedesubtul scheletului, pe intreg perimetrul gr~pii au
fost fixate ramasitele asternutului de culoare cafenie-1nchisa. Inventar: 1 In fata
cranitului se an'a' un v'as de lut de tip borcan. Modelat cu mina din pasta ~u
~am~ta ~i degresanti vegetali. Sub buza, u~or evazata, era ornamentat cu trei
rinduri de impunsaturi incomplete. Suprafata este sumar netezita, arderea
necompleta, culoarea maronie-1nchisa, in spartura-neagra. lnaltimea - 8 cm,
diametrul gurii - 12,2 cm, a fundului - 9,5 cm (fig. 7/3).
M. 4. (sarmatic?) (fig. 7/5) . Depistat la 14 km V de reper la adincimea de 0,5 m.
Groapa sepulcrala nu a fost fixata. Scheletul deteriorat uriui copil in momentul
depistarii, se afla in pozitie intinsa pe spate, craniul orintat spre N. Bratele
intinse de-a lungul corpului, picioarele u~or chircite. Inventarul lipse~te.
M. 5. (iamnaia) (fig. 1/6). Depistat la 3,8 km S de reper la adincimea de 1 m.
Groapa sepulcrala de o forma ovala, _peretii verticali, fundul plat. Este orientata
pe axa E-V, dimensiunile; 1,2x0,9x0,3 m. Era acoperita, de-a lungul cu trei birne,
cu diamentrul injur de 30 qn. Scheletul se afla in pozitie chircita, pe spate,
craniul orientat spre V. Bratele intinse de-a lunlgul corpului, falangele dedesubtul
tibiilor, oasele picioarelor ar~njate in forma de romb .. Oasele scheletului sunt
colorate cu ocru . Dedesubtul scheletului au fost depistate rama~itele a~ternutului
de culoare cafenie-inchisa. Linga talpa piciorului sting a fost gasit un bulgare
de ocru.
M. 6. (iamnaia). (fig. 1/4). Depistat la 2 m SE de reper, la a~incimea de 1,5
m. Groapa sepulcrala de forma ovala, peretii verticali, fundul plat. Este orientata
pe axa NV-SE, dimensiunile ,1,0x0,55x0,6 m . Era acoperita cu 6 birne, cu
diametrul de 12 cm. Scheletul se afla in pozitie chircita, pe spate, u~or in tors
spre partea stinga. Craniul orientat spre NV, bratul drept intins de-a lungul
corpului, eel sting indoiat sub un unghi ascutit, falangele spre partea faciala a
craniului, picioarele puternic chii-cite las ate in stanga. Oasele scheletului sunt
vopsite cu ocru. In spatele craniului se afla un bulgare de ocru.

M. 7. (nomad turanic). (fig. 8/2). Depistat la 12 m SE de reper la adincimea


de 1,2 m. Groapa sepukrala nu a fost fixata. Scheletul se afla in pozitie intinsa,
pe spate, craniul oriental spre V. Bratele intinse.de-a lungul corpului, picioarele
drepte. Inventarul lipse~te.
,
M. 8. (sarmatic) (fig. 8/3). Depistat la 2 m SV de reper la adincimea de 1,8 m.
Groapa sepulcrala nu a fost fixata. Scheletul se afla in pozitie intinsa, pe spate,
craniul orientat spre N. Bratele intinse de~a lungul corpului, picioarele drepte.
Inventar: 1. Linga umarul drept se affa o fusaiola de forma tronconicii cu
baza te~ita, executata din pasta cu ~amota ~i degresanti vegetali, suprafata netezita,
arderea oxidanta culoarea maronie. lnaltimea - 3,5 cm, diametrul la baza - 4
cm (fig. 8/5). 2. T~t acolo se at1a o placa d'e bronz (caldarusa - ?) (fig. 8/4) .
-

199 -

M. 9. ("iamnaia", principal)' (fig. 8/1). Depistat in centrul tumulului la


adincimea de 1,05 m. Groapa sepulcrala de forma dreptunghiulara, pei:etii
verticali, fundul plat. Orientati pe axa SV-NE, dimensiunile: 1,0x0,65x0,5 m.
Era 1.Coperita, de-a lungul, cu5 birne, cu diametrul injur de 12 cm. Scheletul se
atla in pozitie chircita pe spate, craniul.oriental spre SV. Bratele intinse. de-a
lungul corpul ui, picioarele chirci te in stinga. Dedesubtul scheletului au fost fixate ramasitele asternutului de culoare cafenie in chis a. In pai:tea dreapta si stinga
''
'
'
a craniului au fost gasite cite un bulgare de ocru.
,Mantatla tumulului fost ridicata pentru mormintul principal 9 (cultura
"iamnaia"), sapat de la nivelul orizontului, antic, atestat la adincimea de 2 m.
Grosimea solului antic este de 5- 8 cm, lungimea liniei lizibile'- 14 m. La nivelul
orizontului antic a fost fixat lutul galben, provenit din mormintul principal in
forma a doua semicercuri, groase de 20 cm. Ulterior, mantaua tumulului a fost
utilizata pentru mormintele secundare ale culturii "iamnaia" -- 2,5; cultura
mnogovalikovaia - 3; sarmatice ~ 1, 4, 8 ~i nomazi turanici - 7.

t--~~~15~~~~~~--0,~1
1--~~~~-nv~-~~~~~~

Grupul tumular de lingii s. Alexandrovca.


Tumulul I. Se gasea pe un promontoriu aplatizat la 2 km SE de localitate,
0,5 km NV de drumul de cimp de ia brigada de tractoare de linga sat. Inaltimea
,- 1,2 m, diametrul - 40 m (fig. 9/1).
M. 1. (nomad turanic) (fig. 9/2). Depistat la 12,85 m spre S de reper, la
adincimea de 1,35 m. Groapa sepulcrala de o forma ovala, orientata pe ax.a
VNV-ESE, dimensiunile 1,95x0,55x0,4 m. Scheletul se afla in pozitie intinsa pe
spate, craniul orientat. spre VNV. Bratele erau intinse de-a lungul corptllui,
picioarele drepte.
Inventar: 1. Unga. falangele miinii drepte a fost gasitun set de placute de os
pentru arc. Doua dintre ele, cele laterale au o forma. ovala, partea interioara .
este albiata, ambele suprafete avind urme de prelucrare in forma de linii incizate
ce se intersecteaza haotic. Pe' una dintre marginile fiecare! placi Jaterale se con tine
cite o decupare longitudinala in plan - dreptunghiulara. Lungimea - 1.1 cm,
lungimea deci;iparii _ 6,5 cm (fig. 1038,9). Placa frontal a, ambele capete a
careia au fost ingrijit retezate orizontal. Du pa lungimea ei corespunde lungimii
decupajului placilor laterale (fig. 10/6). 2. Linga falangele miinii stingi se aflau
, I
5 vlrfuri de sageti din fier de foma romboidala, cu peduncul puternic corodate
(fig. 10/2- 7). 3. Unga cotul mainii drepte a fost gasit un fragment de cutit, in
seqiune In forma de "pana " (fig. 10/1).
M. 2. ("ianmaia") (fig. 9/3). Depistatla9 m SE de reper, laadincimea de.1,1 m.
Groapa se11ulqala de o forma ovala, peretii ~i fundul albiat. Este orientata pe
axa SV-NE, dimensi.unile l ,75xl,05x0,l 5 m. Scheletul se afla in pozitie chircita,
in.tors pe partea dreapta, craniul orientat spre SV. Oasele bratului drept erau
intinse de-a lungul corpului, celei stingi, u~or indoita in cot cu falangele pe
oasele bazinului, picioarele, chircite, lasate in dreapta. Oasele scheletului sunt
colorate cu ocru. Unga oasele umarului ~ fost gasita o a~chie de silex (fig. 8/7).

M. 3. (mnogovalikovaia) (fig. 9/4). Depistat la 15 m SE de reper '.la adincin:ea


de 2,2 m. Groapa sepulcrala de forma dreptunghiulara, cu coltunle rotung1te,
peretii verticali, fundul plat. Scheletul se afla in pozitie chircita, pe partea stinga.

-200-

-201-

~
~

Fig. ~ 1 _ Alexandrovca t. I, planul ~i profilul martorului central; 2 - Alexandrovca t. I,


m. I ; 3 - Alexandrovca t. I, m. 2; 4 - Alexandrovca t. I, m. 3.

Craniul orientat spre V. Falangele miinii stingi erau linga partea faciala. a
craniului, cea dreapta indoita sub un unghi drept. Picioarele puternic lasate 1n
stinga, talpile langa oasele bazinului.
Inventar: l. ln stinga scheletului, intre oasele m1inilor ~i a picioarelor se afla un
vas in forma de borcan. Modelat cu mina, din pasta cu ~amota ~i degresanti vegetali,
suprafata netezita, arderea neuniforma, culoarea cenu~ie, in spartura - neagra.
lnaltimea - 7,7 cm diametrul gurii - 11,3 cm, a fundului - 7,2 cm (fig. 7/7).

vas de ]ut, cu corpul bitronconic, gitul cilindric, buza u~or evazata. Modelat la
roata, din pasta cu ~amota ~i mica. Suprafata ingrijit netezita, arderea oxidanta:
culoarea cenusie. Inaltimea, - 15,6 cm, diametrul gurii - 7,6 cm, a fundulm
Unga umarul sting se afla un clopotel din bronz in
_ 8,0 cm (fig. 11/2)
forma de pilnie, cu inel de fixare ~i limba defier, care nus-a pastr~t. Pe suprafata
exterioara a clopotelului s-au pastrat rama~ite de pinza. lnaltimea - 4,7 cm
(fig. 11/4). 4. Intre oasele tibiale se afla o fusaiola pfriforma executata di~ pasta
cu samota si degresanti vegetali. Suprafata sumar netezita, arderea neumforma,
cul~area d~ la cenusi~ deschisa la galbena, in spartura neagra. lnaltimea - 4
cm, latimea maxim~la - 3,5 cm, diametrul orificiului - 0,4 cm (fig. 11 /3).

3.

~
7

Fig. JO. 1-9 -

Alexandrovca t. I, m ..4.

M. 4. (sarmatic) (fig. 1111). Depistat la 14,5 m SV se reper, la adincimea de


1,9 m. Groapa sepulcrala de forma ovala alungita, peretii verticali , fundul plat.
Orientata pe axa NE-SV, dimensiunile 1, 7x0,65x0,25 m. Scheletul se afla in
pozitie intinsa pe spate, craniul orientat spre NE. Bratele intinse de-a lungul
corpului, picioarele u~or chircite. Inventar: 1. ln regiunea vertebrelor gitului au
fost gasite 60 de margele, 14 dintre care erau din halcedon, restul din carneol.
F onna: dreptunghiulara, ovala (fig. 11/5). 2. In dreapta scheletului se afla un

M. 5. (nomad turanic) (fig. 12/2). Depistat la 13 m sv.de re~~r ~a ~di~cimea de


1,55 m. Groapa sepulcralanu afost fixata. Scheletul se af1a .m poz1tie mtmsa pe spat~,
craniuf orientat spre V, cu mici devieri spre N. Bratele intmse de-a lungul corpulm,
picioarele drepte. Inventarul lipse~te.

- 202-

-203 -

Fig. 11. 1- 5 -

Alexandrovca t. I, m.4.

M. 6. (nomad turanic) (fig. 12/3). Depistat in centrul tumulului: Groapa sepulcrala nu a fost fixata. Sche!etul se afla in pozitie intinsa pe spate, craniul orientat
spre V. Bratele intinse de-a lungul corpului,-picioarele drepte. Inventarul lipse~te.
M. 7. (principal, devastat, neidentificat). Se afla in centrul tumulului, distrus
complet de putul de devastare, care incepea de la suprafata tumulului.1n partea
de S partial era suprapus de mormintul 6. Putul de devastare avea o form a de
pilnie, dimensiunile 1,8xl,6 m, adincimea - 3,0 m.
, Mantaua tumulului a fos.t inaltata pentru m . 7. (principal, neidentificat) .
Inaltimea mantalei de la nivelul antic de calcare- 1, 7 m. Linia lizibila a orizontului
antic de cii.lcare- 15,3 m. De la mormintul principal s-a pastrat doar o parte din
lutul provenit.din saparea gropii, deranjat in mare parte de putul de devastare ~i
m. 6. Culturii iamnaia ii apartin doar mormintele secundare 2,3. M. 4. apartine
culturii sarmatice. Mormintele 1, 5, 6, apartin unor nomazi turanici.
Tumulul II se afla la 0,6 km SE de tumulul I. Inaltimea de la NAC - 0,75
m; diametrul injur de 40 m (fig. 12/1) ..
M. 1. (nomad turanic) (fig. 8/6). Depistat la 1,5 m NE de reper la adincimea
de 0,65 m. Groapa sepulcrala nu a fost fixata. De la schelet s-au pastrat doar
anumite par\i in pozitie neanatomica: craniul cu faciesul spre SE ~i oasele tibiale
~~.

'

M. 2. (nomad turanic)(fig. 12/5). Depistat la 14 m SE de reper, la adincimea

Fig. _12. 1 - Alexandrovca t. II, planul.~i profilul martorului central; 2- Alexandrovca t. I,


m. 5, 3 - Alexandrovca t. I, m . 6; 4 - Alexandrovca t. I, m. 7; 5 - Alexandrovca t. II, m. 2;
6- Alexandrovca t. II, m. 3; 7 - Alexandrovca t. II, m. 4; 8 - Alexandrovca t. III, m.1.
- 204-

de 1,4 m. Groapa sepulcrala nu a fost fixata. Scheletul se afla in pozitie intinsa


pe spate, craniul orientat spre V., cu mici devieri spre S. Bratele intinse de-a
lungul corpului, picioarele drepte . Inventarul l ipse~te.
M. 3 . (sarmatic) (fig. 12/6). Depistat la 2,5 m NE de reper la adincimea de .
0,85 m . Groapa sepulcrala nu a fos t fixata. Sheletul pastrat sumar, se afla in
pozitie intinsa pe spate, craniul oriental spre SV. Bratele intinse de-a lungul
corpului, picioarele drepte . Dedesubtul scheletului s-au pastrat rama~itele
a~ternutului de culoare cafenie inchisa. Dimensiunile: 1,8x0,4 m.
Inventar: 1. Unga craniu se afla un vas miniatural in form~ de amfora.
Modelat la roata din pasta cu pmota, suprafata ingrijit netezita, arderea
oxidanta, culoarea cenu~ie . Inaltimea - 11 cm; diametrul gurii - 8,0 cm ;
a fundu lui - 3,5 cm (fig. 13/2). 2. La 15 cm S de craniu se afla un cu tit din
fi.er cu miner. Are marginea putin curb ata, in seqiune in forma de "pana",
minerul dreptunghiular. Lungimea - 12 cm; lungimea lamei ___.:_ 8,5 cm
(fig. 13/6). Unga falangele mainii stingi se afla un virf de sageata din fier
cu pedunculul cu trei aripioare (fig. 13/7). 4. La 20 cm in stinga oaselor
bazinului se 'afla fragmentul unui varf de sageata din fier cu peduncu].
Lungimea - 6 cm (fig. 13/9).
M. 4. (iamnaia, principal) (fig. 12/7). Depistat in centrul tumulului la
adincimea de 0,85 m. Groapa sepulcrala de forma dreptunghiulara cu colturile
rotungite, peretii verticali, fundul plat. Este orientata pe axa SV-NE,
dimenshmile 1, lx0;75x0,4 m. Scheletul se afla in pozitie chircita pe spate, craniul
orientat spre SV. Bratele sunt intinse de-a lungul corpului , picioarele Iii.sate in
-205 -

st1nga. Scheletul ~i, indeosebi craniul erau intensiv vopsite cu ocru. Dedesubtul
scheletului au fost depistare douii straturi de a~ternut: primul-inferior de
culoare cafenie inchisii al doilea -supetior, presurat cu cretii .. Inventar: 1. Lin:ga
craniu se af!a un inel de buclii din metal alb cu capetele neunite. Diametrul 0,8 cm.
Mantaua tumulului a fost ridicatii pentru mormintul central 4 (iamnaia),
inaltimea de la nivelul antic de ciilcare 0, 7 m. Grosimea orizontului antic - 7 cm,
linia Jui lizibila --:- 10 m. lnjurul mormintului principal de fonnii ovalii afost fixat
lutul galgen, lungimea - 6 m, grosimea - 25 cm. Ulterior inmantaua tumulului
au fost efectuate citeva morminte secundare: m. 3 (sarmatic) (nomazi turanici).
Tumulul III se afla la 200 m SV de T.l. Iniiltimea de la NAC 1,2 m; diametrul
- 60 m (fig. 13/1).
M. 1. (iamnaia, principal) (fig. 12/8). Depistat in centrul tumulului la
adincimea de 2,45 m. Groapa sepulcralii de formii dreptunghiulfl.rii, peretii
oarecum segmentati longitudinal, verticali, fundul plat. Este orientatii pe
axa NE-SV. Scheletul se afla in pozitie chircitii pe spate, craniul orientat
spre NE. Bratele intinse de-a lungul corpului u~or indoite in coate, picioarele
las ate in stinga. Dedesubtul scheletului au fost fixate ramiisitele asternutului
vegetal de culoare cafenie-inchisii. in dreapta craniului se' ~flau doi bulgiiri
de ocru.
M. 2. (epoca bronzului) (fig. 13/8) . Depistat la 10, 5 m SE de rep er la
adincimea de 0,9. m. Groapa sepulcralii nu a fost fixatii. Partial distrus in
momentul descoperirii . Deasupra mormintului se aflau 4 lespezi de piatra
Eirii \}rme de prelucrare, dimensiunile respective de 0,52x0,37x0,12 m;
0,5x0,38x0,05 m; 0,45x0,35x0,07 m; 0,25x0,2x0,04 m . Scheletul se afla in
pozitie chircitii pe partea stingii, craniul orientat spre NE. Mina dreapt ii era
indoitii in cot sub un unghi drept, cea dreapta nu s-a piistrat. Picioarele
puternic liisate in stinga.
Inventar: I. In spatele scheletului s-au giisit fragmentele unui vas fragmentar .
Modelat ou mina din pasta cu ~amotii ~i degresanti vegetali. Suprafata
zgrunturoasa, arderea inegalii, culoarea suprafetei exterioare cenu~ie-oranj, clei
interioare-neagrii.
M. 3. (nomad turanic) (fig. 13/3). Depistat la 13 m SE de reper la adincimea
de 1, 1 m. Groapa sepulcralii nu a fost fixalii. Schele't ul se afla in pozitie intinsii
pe spate, craniul orientat spre V. Bratele intinse de-a lungul corpului, picioarele
drepte.
Inventar: 1. Lingii falangele miinii stlngi se afla o a~chie de silex.
M. 4. (nomad turanic) (fig. 13/4). Depistat la 15,5 m SV de reper la adincimea
de 0,9 m. Groapa sepulcralii nu a fost fixalii . Scheletul se afla in pozitie intinsii
pe spate, craniul orientat spre V. Bratele intinse de-a lungul corpului, picioarele
drepte. Inventarul lipse~te.
'
M. 5. (nomad turanic) (fig. 13/5). Depistat la 12,5 m SV de reper la adincimea
de 1,2 m . Groapa sepulcralii nu a fost fixatii. Scheletul se afla in pozitie intinsii

"

Fig. 13. I _ Alexandrovca t. III, planul ~i profilul martorului central; 2,6,7,9 - Alexandrovca

t. II , m.3 ; 3 _ Alexandrovca t. Ill, m.3 ; 4; - Alexa ndrovca t. III, m. 4; 5 - Alexandrovca t.

HI, m. 5; 8 - Alexandrovca t. III, m. 2.

pe spate, craniul orientat spre y. Bra\el~ intinse de-a lungul corpului, picioarele
drepte . Inventarul lipse~te .
. .
.
Mantaua tumulului a fost ridicatii pentru mormintul prmc1pal Nr. 1 (iamnaia) , iniiltimea de la nievlul ~ntic de ciilcare - lm, lini.a lui liz~bilii - 1~ m ,
grosimea varia de la 3 la 5 cm. In jurul mormin tulu1 pnnc1pal la mvelul ant.1c de
ciilcare a fost fixat lutul galben in forma de sem1cerc, lung1mea - 5 m, gros1mea
- 207 -

-206 -

- 30 cn1. La cultura iamnaia, posibil: se atribuie eyi m. 2, secundar. ln continuare


in mantaua tumulului au fost siipate mormintele secundare 3- 5 (nomazi turanici).

***
1n rezultatul investigatiilor arheologice in r-ul Floresti din 1990 au fost
cercetati 7 tumuli in care au fost depistate 44 morminte din diferite epoci cultural-cronologice. Cinci tumuli. au fost ridicati de purtiitorii culturii iamnaia
alte doua reprezentau ridiciituri naturale, in ca;e au fost efectuate inmormintiiri'.
Toate monnintele cercetate se atribuie la 5 grupuri cultural-cronologice a
populatiilor vechi din spatiul Carpato-Nistrean. Arealul de riispindire a acestor
grupuri culturale depiiseste cu mult cadrul teritoriului mentionat desi vestigiile
descoperite se inscriu' ;rmonios in materialul acumulat' in ul~im~l timp in
rezultatul activitatea eyantierilor arheologice de salvare. Activitatea ultimilor
dii posibilitate cercetiitorilor sa liirgeascii numiirul de izvoare arheologice, in
cadrul studierii situatiei istorice, create pe parcursul a cinci etape cronologice
din zona Carpato-Nistreanii si teritoriile invecinate. in circuitul stiintific se
introduc materiale noi, care p~rmit completarea opiniilor privind istori~ veche
a tinutului ey,i o caracterizare mai amplii a tuturor grupurilor cronologice,
caracterizatii prin morminte tumulare. Caracteristica fieciirui grup va fi data in
1
ordine cronologicii unanim acceptatii.
Structura arhitecturalii initialii a cinci tumuli se ati-ibuie purtatorilor culturii
iamnaia, mormintele aces,tora'.'fiind principale. De regulii, mantau consta dintrun singur strat ~i pe parcurs nu sufera nici un fel de sohimbiiri (tt. 1, 2 de 11,nga.
s. Sevirova ~i 1- 3 de lingiis. Alexandrovca). Dinnumiirul total de44 de morminte
11 (24%) dintre ele se atribuie comunitiitilor culturii iamnaia. Pentru aceste
morminte este caracteristicii pozitia chircitii pe spate scheletelor cu introducere
pe partea dreaptii.sau stinga (s. Sevirova - t. II, m. 5-6; s. Alexandrovca - t.I,
m.2). Moimintele se fiiceau in gropi dreptunghiulare cu peretii verticali cu
colturile rotungite. De obicei, se acopereau cu blrne longitudinale 'sau
transversale (Sevirova, - t. II, m. 5). in unele cazuri in colturile gropilor au
fost descoperite gropi de pari (Sevirova - t. I, m. 1), destinatia functionalii a
ciirora pinii la capat nu este clarificatii. Construqiile cu pari in ritualul funerar
al culturii iamnaia au fost semnalate atit pentru zonele de nord cit si de sud a
interfluviului Nistru-Prut (1). Scheletele de cele mai multe ori au ~rani~l orientat
spre V cu anumite devieri sezoriiere. Oasele sunt vopsite cu ocru, culoarea ciiruia
varia de la roeyu deschis pana la roz. De cele mai multe ori intensiv erau vopsite
oasele craniului, miinilor, picioarelor. Mici bulgiiri de ocru erau aranjati injurul
scheletului, probabil, in calitate de inventar. Toate mormintele principale erau
fiicute de la nivelul solului antic de ciilcare si contineau un inventar mortuar
des~ul de modest: a~chii de silex atipice, bulgiiri de' ocru (s. Sevirova - t. I, m.
1). Intr-un singur mormint de linga s. Alexandrovca (t. II, m. 4) lingii craniu se
af1a un inel de buclii din metal alb, descoperire, atestatii de pentru mormintele
de acest tip (2) eyi se atribuie etapei tirzii a culturii iamnaia. Inventarul ceramic

- 208 -

in mormintele principale lipsea, dar a fost depistat intr-un mormint secundar'


de 11ngii s. Sevirova (t.l, m .2). Vasele descoperite corespupd celor trei tipuri.
Conform clasificiirii lui V. Dergaciov ~i intervalul mormintelor.iamnaia, sin tern
in drept a evidentia, preventiv, etapa tirzie a acestei ~ulturi, reprezentata suficient
prin izvoare arheologice. Atribuirea mormintelor etapei timpurie a cul~~uii
iamnaia, in cazul nostru, este discutabila, elementele componente fund
insuficiente.
Cultura catocombelor este reprezentata printr-un mormint de lingii s. Ivan6vca (t. I, m. 2). Pentru mormintele acestei culturi este caracteristic un ritual
funerar stab ii: plasarea complexelor funerare in sectorul de Sa tumulului, <wind
particularitiiti arhitectural-consti:uctive stabile - groape sepulcralii de o forrnii ovalii. Scheletul in pozitie intinsii pe spate, craniul orientat spre SV. Inventarul mortuar a acestei cul.turi este destul de larg ~i variat, ln cazul nostru este
atestat un vas modelat cu mina cu striuri oblice in partea superioarii a vasului.
Asernenea vase sint riispindite larg in arealul culturii catacombelor eyi, conform
clasificiirii lui V. Dergaciov se dateazii in limitele sec . XIX-XVII i. e.n. (4).
Cultura "mnogovalikovaia" este reprezentatii prin douii morminte (s.
Sevirova, t. 2, m. 3; Alexandrovca, t. l, m.3) Scheletele se aflau in pozitie puternic
chircita pe o parte, craniile orientate spre SE. Vasele de ofranda ce insoteau
aceste monninte ca formii sunt apropiate de cele de tip borcan, de~i au corpul
usor evidentiat si buza oarecum avazatii. La unul dintre vase, sub buza era
o~namentat cu 'trei siruri de impunsiituri orizontale. Reie~ind din pozitia
scheletelor si forma ~aselor de ~frandii rnormintele in cauzii pot fi atribuite
grupului tr~i, ~el mai tirziu al culturii "mnogovalikovaia" ~i se dateaz~ c.onfonn clasificiirii lui V. Dergaciov cu sec. XIV i.e. n. (5). Pe de altii parte, refentor
la vasele in formii de borcan, unii cercetiitori le interpreteazii ca un fenomen
universal, riispindite practic "in toate culturile bronzului mijlociu ~i tirziu din
.
stepa Nord Pontica" (6).
Monumentele culturii sarmatice sint reprezentate de 7 mormmte secundare,
cu forma gropii dreptunghiulara cu colturile rotungite (s. Servirova: t. I, m. 8)
sau ovale (s. Alexandrovca t. I, m. 4). ln patru cazuri (s. Sevirova t. II, m. 1, 4,
8; s. A!exandrovca t. II , m. 3) gropile nu au fost fixate. Scheletele se afl~u in
pozitie intinsii pe spate, craniul orientat spre N cu I~ici devieri sezoniere. Intr, un az (s . Alexandrovca t. II, m. 3) scheletul era onentat cu cramu spre SSV.
M.I, t.I de linga s. Ivanovca prezenta un cenotaf, inventarul ciiruia'.dupii ulc10ru~
cu miner se dateazii cu sf. sec. I i.e.n. - incep. sec. I e.n. (7). Dmtre cele ma1
bogate in inventar, pentru acest orizont se evidentiazii m.4, t.I de lingii s.
Alexandrovca care con\ineau 60 de ma.rgele din halcedon ~i carneol, un vas
model at la roatii, o fusaiola ~i un clopo\el din bronz. intregul complex se dateaza
cu sec. I- II e. n. (8).
M. 3. t. de lingii s. Alexandrovca continea ca inventar un vas miniatural de
tip amforii cu fundul inelat, un cu tit de fier eyi douii virfuri de siige\i din fier ,
dintre care unul cu dulie. Ultimul i~i giise~te analogii directe in monumentele
sarmatice din sec. I i.e.n. - I e.n. (9). lntreg numiirul de morminte sarmatice,
1

-209-

cercetate in r-ul Flore~ti cuprind .un cadru cronologic destul de larg - sec. l
1.e.n. - sec. II e.n.
Grupul cultural -cronologic al nomazilor turanici este reprezentat de 16
monninte (36%), fiind dintre eel mai numeros. Consta morminte.secundare'ln
man tale tumulare mai vechi, sau in ridicaturi naturale (s. Ivanovca t. II). Doua
morminte se aflau in gropi dreptunghiulare (s . Ivanovca t. II, m. 1-2), alte trei
in gropi ovale (s. Sevirova t. I, m. 9- 10; s. Alexandrovca t. I, m.1). fn zece
cazuri groapa supulcrala nu a fost fixata, m. I, t. II de linga s. Alexandrovca era
distrus. Toate scheletele nederanjate se aflau in pozitie intinse pe spate, craniul
orientat spre V cu mici devieri sezoniere. Inventarul mortual, in masa, consta
din piese defier ~i os. Sint bine reprezentate, prin materiale databile, m. 1- 2 din
t. II de linga s. Ivanovca, unde in afara de catarame de fier si arsice au fost
giisite 4 sciirite de ~a de tipul D2 ~i zabale de tipul C4, conform ~lasif~ciirii Jui G.
A. Fiodorov-Davidov, care sunt datate cu a doua jumiitate a sec. XIII- XIV
(9). M. 1, t. I de lingii s. Alexandrovca era insotit de virfuri de sageti din fier ~i
pliicute pentru arc din os de tipul 4, conform clasificatiei lui G. A. FiodorovDavidov ~i care deasemenea se dateazii cu a doua jumiitate a sec. XIII- XIV;
(10). Im m.6, t. I de lingii s. Alexandrovca in partea dreaptii .a scheletului au
fos't giisite douii picioare de cal, traditie des riispinditii pentru nomazii turanici.
ln general, mormintele turanice cercetate se dateaza in sec. XIII- XIV.
NOTE

Cebotarenco Gh. Th.

CET ATEA HALST A TTIANA TiRZIE DE LA HiRTOPUL MARE


I

'

in anul 1990 au fost realizate.cercetari de tere~ ~i sapiituri la cetatea de piimint ~i


lemn de la Hirtopul Mare, numita acum de locuitorii satului "La ~ant". Descoperita
In anul 19~4 1 , ea a fost initial datatii in secolele IV-;-III i.e.n. atribuitii culturii getice.
Cetatea este a~ezatii la extremit.atea de ~ iisarit a satului Hirtopul Mare,
raionul Criuleni, pe p<\rtea stingii a ~oselei Hirtopul Mare --- Izbi~te - .Criuleni.
Pe teritoriul cetiitii, In partea sudica, a fost construitii o statie electrica, care, in
parte, a distrus stratul cultural din incinta cetiitii cat ~i valul de piimint. '
Cetatea este a~ezatii in virful dealului , care in vechime a (ost esca rpat ~i
transformat intr-o platformii platii cu malurile inalte de la 2 pinii la 5 m. Aceastii
I
platforma a,fost intiiritii pe perimetru cu valul de piimint, iar imprejurlil ei pe
yersjifltul exterior a fost siipat ~a~tul de apiirare. ln prezent, platforma din virful
dealului, ce formeazii incinta cetiitii cu urmele valului de piimint, este ovalii ~i
are circa 160 m diametrul maximal. Valul de pamint este in mare parte distrus
de lucriirile agricole, iar ~antul de aparare est~ astupat. Incinta cetiitii, ca ~i
partea de sud~est ~i de vest, a fost inte'ns afectatii de lucriirile agricole, pe alocuri
stn1.tul cultral fiind, complet distrus de gropi pentru stilpii retelei de energie
electricii ~i de alte lucriiri recente. S-a piistrat numai partea centralii ~i parteade
N-E a incir,itei , unde se viid urn~ele de escarpare a platformei (Pl. 'l). Urmele

V A . Dergaciov, Moldavia i sosednie territorii v epohu bronzi. Chi~inau 1986, p. 35; E. V.


Iarov01, Curgani eneolitaeepohi bronzi Nijnego Podnestrovia/ Chi~inflU 1990, p. 153.
2 V A. Dergaciov, Op. cit., p. 56; E. V. Iarovoi, Op. cit., p. 80.
3
V A. Dergaciov, Op . cit., p. 43.
4
Ibidem., p. 102- 103.
5 Ibidem., p. 132- 133.
6
E. N. Sava , Culitura mnogovalikovoi keramiki Dnestrovsco-Prutscogo mejdurecia, C hi~inf1u
1992, p. 115.
7
V I. Grosu, Hronologhia pamiatnicov sarmatscoi cultur/ Dnestrovsco-Prutscogo inejdurecia
Chi~iniiu 1990, p. 139.
'
'
8 V I. Grosu, Op. cit., p. 139.
9 Fiodorov-Davidov Gh. A., Cocevniki Vostocinoi Evropi pod vlastiu zolotoordil1schih hanov.
Moskva 1966, p. 12, 17, 116; Kirpicinikov A. N ., Snarejenie vsadnica i verhovogo conea n~
Rusi IX- XHI vv. I Svod arheologhiceschih istocinicov EL-36, Leningrad 197~, p. 12, 29, 118,
tab!. 15; A. 0 . Dobroljubski , Cocevniki Severo-Zapadnogo Pricernomoria v epohn
srednevecovia, Kiev 1986, p. 109- 110, tab!. 3- 4.
'
1 Fiodorov-Davldov Gh. A., Op . cit., p . 25, 116; Medvedev A. F ., Rncinoe metatelinoe o rujie
(luch11 streli, samostrel VIJI- XIII vv.)/ Svod arheologhiceschih istocinicov EL-19, Moskva
1966, p. 121.
1

Summary
The articl e reviews the antiquities, uncovered in a number of barrow banks, surveyed by V.
Haheu. The main attention is paid to the medieval burials, made in this zone by the late nomads.
The article gives the stratigraphic structure of the barrows, describes them and presents the culturnl attribution of the burials. It draws the conclusions on the relations of this area with the
other territories during the period, when th~se burials were made.
-210 - -

Pl. l. Planul cetiitii de la Hirtopul Mare: I -

statiunea de transferare a electricitatii;


2 -- Sectiunea I; 3 - sectiunea 2.
-

211 -

valului de pamint s-au pastrat tot in aceasta parte a platformei de incinta.


Latimea lui este de 8 metri la baza cu o inaltime de 0,5- 1,5 metri.
In incinta, sub valul de pamint au fost construite bordeie care incadrau
perimetrul incintei in interior. Dupa rezultatele sapaturilor efectuate in incinta
cetatii, bordeie au fost construite si in centnil ei. '
'
'
in jurul cetatii, din partea SV, N ~i NE se lntindea a~ezarea nein'tarita
exterioara. Pe panta de s~d a d~alului, destul de abrupta in apropierea cetatii
era amplasat cimitirul. L<>icuitorii satului, care ~i-a.u construit aici case, au ga.sit
schelete de oameni, stele de piatra pe unele morminte, cutii de piatra, cromlehi.
Suprafata a~ezarii nelntari'te ocupa circa 50 hectare, iar cimititul aproape
5-8 heqtare. Pe suprafata asezarii s-au colectat ceramica , oase de animale,
fusaiole . Ceramica se gas'e~te' ~i in gradinile locuitorilor de la n1'arginea de est a
satului .
Sapiiturile au fost efectuate in centrul incintei cetatii, pe o seqiune de 180
nietri patrati, la care s-au adaugat ~i seqiuni suplimentare. Aceasta seqiune a
fost continuata in partea de est de un ~ant lat de 2 metri ~i lung de 50 metri, care
a unit sectiunea sapata in centrul incinte.i cu marginea de nord-est a platformei,
inclusiv si valul de pamint. (Pl. 1 si 2). Din lipsa resurselor financiare side ti mp
(siipaturiie au fost efectuate in lu~ile OCtom:brie-noiembrie), in sectiunile Sa.pate
a fost cercetat numai stratul cultural al incintei ~i obiectele gasite au fost
conservate. Pe sectiunea I din centrul incintei au fost dezvelite urmele a 3 bordeie
~i a unui cuptor. Adin'cimea gropilor de bordeie nu este mai mare de 80-90 cm
de la suprafata, judecind dupa datele primite in urma cercetarilor a bordeiului
Nr. I. Partea de Vest a acestui bordei a fost distrus a de un obiectiv feudal
timpuriu, se pare ca un complex metalurgic, unde au fost gasite buciiti de zgurii
defier, urme de cuptor de topit fierul ~i ceramica din epoca feudala timpurie
din sec. IX-XI e.n. (Pl. 2). Afara de bordeie au fost descoperite urmele a mai
multor cuptoare sau vetre, care apartineau acestor bordeie.

':; : =

=4

I
"=

~2

=
:\

.=

=Ii

!l(J

;<'.M

a
B

@c
:-:

Pl. 2. Ceta tea Hirtopul Mare. Planul sectiunei 1: a - Piesele individuale; b - bordeie; c - vatra;
d - solul matern; I - fusaiolii; 2- briitara de bronz; 3 - sulii de os; 4 - creuzet; 5 - ar~ic;
6 - Cutie; 7 - cutie; 8 - cutie; 9 - cutie; IO - cutie; 11 - fusaiola; 12 - os cu increstiituri .
-

212 -

3~

I
0

200

bordeiul 4 ~i gropile 1- 5;
b - pavajul de piatra de la piciorul valului de apftrare; c - birne arse.

Pl. 3. Cetatea Hirtopul Mare. Planul sect iunei 2: a -

ln sectiunea 2 santul care unea sectil\!!ea I cu marginea incintei spre NE, au


fost dezv~lite 4 gr~pi 'si urmele ale udui bordei lipit de'marginea interioara a
valului de ap~rare. G;opile cercetate aveau in diametru d~ la 1.00 pina la 150
cm cu adincimea de 80- 120 cm. Aici au fost descopente ~1 urmele unor
de~endinte, poate bordeie, cu liitimea de ?90 c:n (Pl.. 3~.
,
in bordeiul de sub marginea valulu1 au fost gas1te urme de b1rne arse ,
piimintul de umplutura fiind amestecat cu cenu~a, cerami~a ~i oase de animal:.
Aici s-au gasit ~ice-a mai.mare parte din obiectele intrebum5ate ca u~elte. sau m
uzul casnic al traitorilor acestui bordei. Prirttre ele prezmta mteres fusa10alele
de lut ars , sule de os, cutii din gresie, astragale- ar~ice, percutoare de piatra,
zgurii defier ~i ceramica, gl iintuitoare de os, piatra_ ~i cioburi , u~ creuze~. de lut,
vase miniaturale (Pl. 4/1 - 18) ~i un fragment de amforii greceasca cu grahtt! (Pl.
5/5).
i 1
Cea mai mare parte a materialului depistat in rezultatul sapatur~ or 1
constituie ceramica. Ea reprezinta 4 grupe mari, din care 3 grupe dm penoada
veche eyi o grupii din epoca medievala timpurie.
.
.
Mai jos, pryzentam descrierea fiecarei grupe de ceram1ca;
1. Este cea: mai numeroasa grupa de ceramica, reprezentata de circa 70- 80 ~~
din ceramica culeasa de pe suprafetele sapate. Este lucrata cu 1?1na, are. per:tn
groeyi, Jutul intrebuintat este amestecat cu cioburi pisate, suprafata exter~oar~ a
vase] or este netezita sau lustruita, arderea este facuta )n cuptoare sau so be ob1eynuite.
Culoarea cioburilor este cenusie sau neagrii. Pe cele mai.multe cioburi se vad urme
d~ angoba, ~i de netezire sau d~ lustruire. Aproape toata c~ramica a~es~ei.grupe ar:
urme de arsura, rezultat al incendielor din bordeie. Formele ceram1cu dm aceasta
grupa sunt destul de variate: ulcioare, oale mari - chiupuri, bor~ane ob1~mute ,
cani, capace, vase cu bur Ian, strachini ma:i mari ~i mai mici. Predommii oalele man-

213 -

9 I

0
.a
~

IA
~

151-~

161-t)

0
..

17

I . I8
.

chiupuri, borcanele si striichinile. Acestea din um1 a sunt lustruite sau netezite in
exterior ~i interior, ~elel alte forme-numai in exterior.
'
Oalele mari-chiupuri ~i borcanele au corpul ovoidal, fundul plat, diametrul
maximal' revine partii superioare a corpului. Btiza este putin trasa in interior,
aproa'pe dreapta, cu marginea rotunjita. M ai jos de marginea buzei cu 2- 5 cm
sunt prevazute cu una sau doua briie aplicate orizontal ~i cu cite doua sau trei
minere-suport. Mai rar se intilnesc briie verticale sau oblice, aplicate de la
minerele-suport injos pe corpul vas ului. Cele mai raspindite motive ornamentale
ale briielor sint alveolele, crestiiturile oblice, sau brire netede sau lustruite.
Minerele-suport au forme diferite: patrate, ovale, cunosoidale, uneori cu ogaurii
verticalii pentru suspendare . Un alt motiv ornamenta't al vaselor ii constituie
butonii in forma de con sau plati. Uneori, peretii vaselor sunt ornamentati cu
'a!veole sau crestaturi oblice, executate cu varful cutitului, care inlocuiesc braiele
aplicate.
Aceasta. grupa de ceram1ca, m dependentii de prelucrarea suprafetei
exterioare a vaselor se irnparte in dou ii variante: cu peretii lustruiti ~i cu peretii
neteziti cu m a.na (Pl. 6- 8).

Pl. 4.. Cetatea J:Iirt~ pul Mare. Piesele individuale dii1 piatra, os, Iut ars ~i 'm ~ta l: J:.'.4 _ cutii de
gresie; 5 - bratara de bronz; .6 - suJii de os; 7 - lam a de cti\it /fier/; 8 - GJiintuitor din os
de pe~te; 9- 14 - fusa1ole de Jut a.rs; J5- J 6 - ar~ice; 17 _,. fosaioJa de Jut ars
18 - biJ ii de Jut ars pentru pra~tie.
'

Ws;,rj

~8
'

Pl. 5. Cet~.tea HirtopuJ Mare. Pies.e din Jut ars: 1 - opai\, 2 - gliin\uitor din min er de amforii;
3 - fragment de vas cu onficrn; 4 - creuzet ; 5 -- fragment de amforii cu garfitii 6 _
fr agment de vas p en tru co nfec\io na rea unei fi saiole; 7- 8 - vase mici; 9 - minerul u~ei ce~ti.
- 214 -

Pl. 6. Cetatea HirtopuJ Mare. 1- 8. Ceramica Jipitii cu mina: oale ~ i chiupuri.

215 -

Ulcioarele sunt foarte putine ~i sunt reprezentate numai de fragmente (Pl.


11/8). Prezintii interes peretele unui ulcior de culoare cenu~ie lustruit, cu maner
plat.

-~

-\

~'-

Pl. 7. Cetatea Hirtopul Mare. 1- 9. Ceramica lipita cu mina: borcane ~i chiupuri.

Pl. 9. Cetatea Hirtopul Mare. Ceramica lipita cu mina: 1- 13 - striichini; a - capac plat.

Pl .' 8. Cetatca I-lirtopul Mare. Ccramica lipilft cu mina: 1- 7, 9- 12 - borcane ~i chiupuri;


8 - toartii de chiup plal.

Striichinele (Pl. 9/1-13) sint


reprezentate de fragmente de pereti
~i buze, ~i, in mare miisurii, pot
contribui la restabilirea formelor
acestor vase. Ele au forma tronconicii, cu fundul mic, plat. Buza
este totdeauna trasa in interior, cu
marginea taiatii cu cutitul. Se intilnesc ~i buze ingro~ate, insii in acest
caz strachina-are un mic git. Suprafetele exterioarii, ~i interioarii a
vaselor mai mici sint lustruite.
Vasele de dimensiuni mari au ,exteriPI. 10. Cetatea Hirtopul Mare. Ceramica orul netezit cu mana, in interior
lustruita prelucratii la roatii de culoare surii.
uneori sunt ~ustruite, dar in majoi , -2 - ulcioare; 3, -4 - striichini.
ritatea cazurilor sint tot netezite cu
mina. Culoarea vaselor este cenu~ie sau neagrii. In lutul din care sint modelate
se viid amprente de cioburi pisate - ~amota, toate fiind lucrate cu mana.

- 216 --

- 217-

Diametrul gurii striichinilor variazii de la 20 pina la 30 cm - pentru vasele mici


~i de la 35 pinii la 45 cm la vaselemari: ,
Canile sint reprezentate de citeva fragmente de buze. Se pare ca forma
canitelor au analogii cu cele din a~ezarile halstattiene de tip Saharn:a ~i cu cele
din a~ezarile getice de la Butuceni. Aceste vase sant lucrate cu mana; au peretii
subtiri, lustruiti la exterior ~i in interior, buza slab rasfrintii, gitul putin ingustat.
2. Vasele din grupa a doua sant reprezentate de putine fragmente, circa
1i36 % din toata ceramica acumulata din sapa,turi. Ea este confeqionata la
r0atii, indiferent de grosimea peretilor. Este lucrata din pasta bine framantata
~~ amestecata cu nisip fin, arsa in cuptoare speciale, au culoarea cenu~ie fa.ra.
pete, iar suprafata vaselor este lustruita. Este reprezentatii de douii categorii:
ulcioare ~i striichini.
, Ulcioarele au fundul plat inelar, corpul sferic, gitul inalt ~i gura in forma de
pilnie cu buza rasfrintii. Sunt prevazute cu o toarta bandata, aplicata p~ git ~i corp.
Suprafata exterioara ~i partea de sus a gitului in interior sunt lustruite (Pl. 10/1- 2).
Strachinele au corpul tronconic, cu fundul ingust ~i plat, :gt1ra larga. Are
inaltimea de apro ape 7- 8 cm. Buza este ingro~ata ~i rasfrinta. Fundul este inelar.
Se pare ca aveau una sau douii, a1tele erau fara torti. Suprafata vaselor la exterior este lustruita, ca ~i la interior. Culoarea este cenu~ie, lucioasa. (Pl. 10/3-4).
Aceastii grupii de ceramica are analogii pe malul drept al Dunarii de Jos,
atit in a~ezari cit ~iin cimitire, datate din secolele VI~V i.e,.n. Este ceramica de
import ~i provine din regiunile de NE ale Peninsulei Balcanice, probabil din
Dobrogea de Sud. 2 (cimitirele de la Ravna, Debrina, Brestak din regiunea
Varnei).
.
3. A treia grupa de ceramica din a~ezare este reprezentatii de ceramica
antica greascii, in majoritatea lor de fragmente de amfore, uneori ulcioare, de
la care s-au piistrat numai tortile ~i citeva fragmente de pereti. Aceasta. grupa
de ceramicii sta la baza datarii cetatuiei. Amforele au piciorul .i nait ~i intreg, cu
minere ovale sau rotunde in sectiune, aplicate pe corpul vasului ~i pe git sub
buza lui. La unele vase gitul este lung, la altele putin mai scurt. Buza este putin
ingro~ata . Culoarea vaselor este ro~ietica, la unele mai palide, batind in galben.
Sint lipite din lut bine amestecat, nisipos. Toate sint fiicute la roata si arse in
cuptoare speciale. Numai minerele sint aplicate cu mina. Ele au ahalogii in
Thasos ~i se dateaza de sfiqitul secolului VI ~i intreg secolul V. 3 (Pl. 11/1 - 7).
4. A patra grupa de ceramica reprezinta epoca feudala timpurie, datata din
secolele IX- XI. Toate vasele sint confectionate la roata, de culoare bruna cu
ornament incizat, valuros sau linii orizontale paralele, executale cu virful cutitului
sau cu o sulii de os, m_ai rar cu pieptenele de os. Toata ceramica acestei grupe a
fost yuleasa numai pe o parcelii, legatii cu bordeiul 1 din seqiunea I, unde a fost
that cuptorul de topit fier din acesta epoca. Vasele reprezentate numai de
borcane cu diametrul maximal in partea superioarii a corpului, umerii rotunjiti,
buza rasfrinta cu gitul scurt ~i fundul plat. Analogii se intilnesc in cetatiile
Echimauti ~i Alcedar4 (Pl. 12/1-9).
-218 -

9'

Pl. 11. Cetatea Hirtopul Mare. Ceramica de import: 1- 2, 4- 5, 7- buze de amfore grec~ti; 6 minerul unei amfore; 8 - minerul unui ulcior.
Reprezintii interes ~i fauna care a fost

cerecetatii in baza oaselor animalelor giisite in


timpul sapiiturilor. Alaturi cu animalele
siilbatice vinate ca, lupul, mistretul, ciiprioara
si cerbul au fost gasite si oase de animale
domestice, printre care, ciinele, calul, porcul,
ovine si bovine. Cele mai numeroase specii de
animaie domestice sint bovinele /18 ex./, calul
3
I 14 ex. I ovinele I 9 ex./~i porcul domestic ./ 5
ex./ . Acest material osteologic demonstreaza
faptul ca. printre ocupatiile locuitorilor cetatii
'.
de la Hirtopul Mare au fost cre~terea vitelor
5
domestice si viniitoarea.
Cetate~ Hirtopul Mare, dupa materiaiele
descoperite in urma sapaturilor din 1990 se
poate data din secolele VI- V 1.e.n. Ceramica
de aici continua unele traditii ale ceramicii
culturii Babadag tirzii (C ~i D) ~i unele traditii
ale ceramicii din a~ezarea ~i cimitirul tumular
de la Telita, in Dobrogea, judecind dupii
Pl. 12. Cetatea Hirtopul Mare. materialele viizute de mine prin bunavoint" dCeramica medievala timpurie; 1-5, 8lor profesori S. Morintf Bucure~ti/ ~i S. Gavrila
9 - buze de borcane; 6 - buza unei
I
strachini; 7 - buza unei caldari de lut. Tulcea/, in decursul vizitei mele la sapiitu~ile

-(

- 219 --

efe~tua~e de Domnia lor in anul 1991. Acest material precede culturile clasice
getice dm Basarabia. ln prealabil, ele pot avea tangente cu cultura din perioada
~al~stattiana tirzie_ din Basarabia ~i Dobrogea, pe de~parte ~i cu cultura getica
tirz1e / sec. l':- 111 1. e.~. pe d~ alta. Aceasta cetate rie poate oferi cheia, care ar
perm1te stu~1e~ea une1 ~poc1 ~pr_oa_pe ~ecunoscute in arheologia Republicii
Moldov.a .. B~ne_i~teles, ca numa1 sapatunle arheologice de amploare la cetatea,
a~e~are~ ~1 .c1m1t1rul de la Hirtopul Mare pot rezolva aceasta problema, ce tine
'
de istona tmutului nostru.
NOTE

,a. Apxeonorw1ecK11e pa3ee11K11 B HHll<HeM TC'-leHlm Peyra. MI1A3 MCCP K


K. M. 1964, crp. 254.; JianymHJIH B. JI., H11Kyn11Q3 M. T., PoMaHOBCKaJI M.
IlaM;TH~~~;
pairnero
JKCJIC3Horo
BeKa.
AKM.
BLm.
4, llITHHHQa. Kum., 1074. crp. 46-48.
2
Mup'leB M . PaHHOTpaK11licK11 HeKponon np11 c. PaBHa . - Jf3eecr1rn Ha Apxeonorn'-leCKH MHC'I'HTYT (MAH), 25, 1962, c. 97 - 162; MHp'-leB M. PaHHOTpaKHHCKH MornneH HeKpohon np 11
c. ,O:o6pH21a. - M3eecrm1 Ha Hapo11H11 My3ej;j BapHa, 1 (16), 1065, c. 33-39; MHpiee M PattHOTpaKHHCKH cenHIQa npH c. EpecraK, BapHe~1cKo. - Jf3necrHJ1 Ha Hapo111111 My3ej;j Ba~Ha 5
(20), 1969' c. 95-ll l.
.
.
'
' 3eecm H. E. KepaM11'-lecKaa Tapa Eocnopa. MaTep11a11LI tt Hccne110BaHHJ1 no Apxeonor 1111
(MMA), ~ 83, MocKBa, 1960, c. 80- 81, Ta6n. VI/16.
.
4
<Peoopoa I. E., lle6oTapeHKO r . <I>. Apxeo11or1111ccKaa KapTa MOJl,[13Bllll. BLm. 6, IlaMJITHHKll
11peB1111x cnaBJIH (VI- XIII BB.). KHlllllHeB, 1974, c. 78-87, .I'& 269, ropo1tll1Qe All'Ie1tap, c. 9194: .I'& 278, ropo11111Qe EK11MayQ1>1, p11c. 21/3- 8.
'CMupHOB I'.

A.

Summary

. The ar_ticle by G. Cebotarenco reviews the results of the resque archeological works on
Hehan fortified settleme?t of Hirtopul Mare. It analyses the finds, draws the conclusions in
rega1d of the cultural attnbut10n of the site. The author dates the obtained materials "into the VI~ centunes A. D. In the autor's opinion, the materials include certain earlier elements which call
for an extra study.
'

S. Kurciatov, V. Bubulici
NECROPOLA DE LA BADRGll VECHI

~I PROBLEMA FAZEI FINALE A CUL TURll SARMA TICE

In an.ii ?O-~O, in zona de nord a SPjitiului Pruto-Nistrean, au fost efectuate


amp.le sa~atun arheologice, care au permis acumularea unei cantitati
cons1derab1~e de materiale, referitoare la istoria veche a regiunii date. Unul dint;e
rezultatele importante ale acestor investigatii a fost descoperirea unui sir de
nec~opole plane, apartinind etapei finale a culturii sarmatice. Materialele
dep1sta.te of~ra. po~ibilita~ea de reluare a discutiilor pe marginea rolulqi culturii
sar~atice tar~n ~m s~.atml Pruto-Nistrean, in procesul istorico-cultural din
penoada marn m1grat11 a popoarelor.
Lipsa pieselor~ .care pot oferi elemente certe de datare din complexele
cercetate antenor ~11gnorarea deosebirilor tipologice care apar intre ~cestea au
- 220 -

dus la concluzia, ca monumentele acestei perioade nu se deta~eaza in ~od evident din masa comuna a complexelor mai timpurii. Fiecare noua descoperire
da posibilitatea de a se preciza mai exact limitele cronologice ale grupului de
monumente care ne intereseaza in lucrarea de fata ~i reprezinta un deosebit
interes ~tiintific. Unui astfel de complex, descoperit de A. Cirkov in 1987 pe
cursul Mijlociu al Prutului, i se consacra acest studiu (Fig. 1/1).
Prin sapaturile de la Badragii Noi (com. Badragii Vechi, r-nul Edinet, Republica Moldova) a fost cercetat un mamelon cu inaltimea de peste 6 m ~ i
diametrul de circa 60 m, care se afla in partea dreapta a ~oselei Edinet-Lipcani,
pe un platou format de terasa inferioara a vaii raului Prut, la 500 m sud-est de
extrema sudica a satului Badragii Noi. Locul este numit de catre localnici "La
Stanca" (Fig. 112!).
Initial, mamelonul stancos a fost considerat drept tumul, dar in timpul
studierii mai detaliate s-a constatat, ca este doar o stanca de calcar.
Pe panta de sud-est ~i la baza inaltimii a fost descoperita necropola plana
sarmatica. Au fost studiate 8 monninte care, planimetric, se impart in doua
grupuri egale. La suprafata mormintele nu erau evidentiate, nivelul cultural
neputand fi sesizat. (Fig. Ii3).
'
.
'
M. 1; Inhumatie in groapa de forma trapezoidala, avind dimensiunile de 1
ill lungime, 0,4-0,5 ill latime ~i adancimea de 1, 1 ill de la nivelul actual de calcare
(in continuare, toate adancimile sunt calculate de la acela~i nivel), Groapa funerara er<: orientata N-S. In umpJutura de cernoziom a monnantului au fost
gasite fragmente de oase de copil (Fig. 2/1). Mormintul a fost distrus in antichitate.
M. 2. Inhumatie in groapa trapezoid ala, cu diniensiunile de 2 m lungime,
0,85- 0,95 m Iii.time ~i adancimea de 1,15 m cu axul principal pe directia NYSE. Moni1intul a fost distrus in antichitate. In umplutara de cernoziom a rnormintului au fost descoperite coaste ~i vertebre ale unui om matur. (Fig. 2/2).
M. 3. Inhumatie In groapa de forma trapezoidala cu treapta, avand
dimensiunile de 1,6 m lungime, 0,8- 1 m latime, ~i adancimea de 0,95 m, orientata
NV- SE. Treapta avea latime de 0,15- 0,2 m, aflindu-se la adancimea de 0,8 m,
de-a lungul peretilor laterali ~i a peretelul nord-estic. La nivelul treptei au fost
descoperite fragmente de lemn care, probabil, provin de la acoperi~ul gropii
funerare .
Mormantul unui copil de 2,5- 6 ani 1 care era intins pe spate de-a lungul
peretelui sud-estic, cu craniul spre nord-est. Bratu! drept era indoit din cot, iar
eel stang nus-a pastrat.
In partea dreapta a craniului ~i langa oasele bazinului au fost gasite
fragmente mici de carbune de Jemn. (Fig. 2/3). 1n partea sta.nga a craniului se
afla un vas modelat cu mana, avand corpul bombat, cu gura larga. Buza vasului
este retezata oblic ~i rasfranta in exterior; este lucrat din pasta impura de culoare
brun-cenu~ie. Fundul este u~or concav. Yasui este ornamental in regiunea gatului
cu patru perechi de amprente digitale; amplasate simetric in patru parti ale
-- 221 -

\..J -

\... '$)
-1

'rr

\;;vJ'

MAREA

NEAGRA

Do 8
a6

~ig. 211 Mormintul 1. F ig. 2/2 Morm1ntul 2. Fig. 2/3 Morm1ntul 3. Fig. 2/4 Mon~1~tul 4. Fig.

Fig. 111 Harta generala a necropolelor sarmatire plane in fw__a finala, din nordul Republicii Moldova.
( 1-6)- 1. Necropola "La stinca"; 2 -

necropola Bli nzeni; 3 Alcedar; 6 -

uecropola Bocani; 4 -

necropola Cotiuni; 5 -

necropol a

necropo la Seli~te.

Fig. 1/2 Planul de situatie a necropolei "La stinca".


Fig. 1/3 (1 - 8). Numerotarea mormintelor.
1. Necrop ole sannatice. 2. Necroi)ole mixte. 3. Reper (centrul mamilonului de la care au fost f;icute ma.smile pe orizontala.
1

4. Necropola' "La stinca".

- 222 -

215 Astragal din m . 3. Fig. 2/6 Vas din monn1ntul 3. F ig. 2/7 Fragmentele une1 sabu dm m . 4.
Fig. 2/8 Vas di11 m. 4. Fig. 2/9 Doua fixatoare de bronz din m. 4. Fig. 2/10 Catarama de bronz
din m. 4. Fig. 2/11 Placide bronz din m. 4. Fig. 2/12 Lama de s1lex dm m. 4.

vasului. lnaltimea -'-- 12 cm, diametrul gurii- 9,2 cm, diametrul fundului - 7
cm. (Fig. 2/6). ln partea stanga a bazinului a fost depistat un astragal cu un
orificiu pe muchia laterala, avand diametrul de 0,4 cm. (Fig. 2/5).
-223 -

M. 4. Inhumatie in groapa de forma dreptunghiularii, cu dimensiunile de


2,6 x 0,9 m 9i adancimea de 0,9 m, orientata NV- SE. Mormiintul a fost distrus
:in antichitate. Oa~ele scheletului unui barbat de 20-25 de ani erau riiscolite 9i se
gaseau in par tea nord-vestica a gropii. In situ a riimas doar osul tibial al piciorului
drept, care ne permite sii presupunem ca defunctul a fost intins pe spate, cu
craniul spre NV (Fig. 2/4).
Langa laba piciorului dr.ept a fost depusa o canita cu o singura toaria,
lucrata la roatii, din pasta de culoare cenu~ie. Buza este inalta, corpul
bitronconic, cu fundul inelar bine profilat. Suprafata vasului a fost lustruita.
inaltimea este de 8 cm, diametrul fundului --;- 4,4 cm. (Fig. 2/8) .
ln umplutura gropii, langa peretele de sud, a fost descoperita o sabie defier
fragment ara (manerul este prevazut la capat cu un inel). Diametrul inelului este
de 3,5 cm (Fig. 2/7). Langa manerul sabiei au fost gasite doua fixatoare de
oronz (Fig. 2/9).
Pe laba piciorului drept se afla o catarama de bronz cu placa rotunda, fa.ra
spin. Diametrul verigii este de 1,3 cm, diametrul placii- 1,2 cm. (Fig. 2/10).
ln coltul de nord al gropii au fost gasite douii pliici de bronz de forma
emisferica, care aveau marginile orizontale (Fig. 2/11).
tn centml gropii s-a depistat un fragment de lamii din silex cu urme de ardere (Fig. 2/12).
M. 5. Inhumati e in groapa trapezoidala, cu t.i;eapta pe tot perimetrul gropii.
Dimensiunile de: 2,8 -lungimea, 0,8- 0,9 m - latimea ~i adancimea- 1,55 m.
Groapa era orientata N- S, treapta a fost situata la adancimea de 1,45 m ~i avea
latimea 0, 1 m. Dimensiunile gropii mai jos de treaptii erau de 2,6 lungimea,
0,55- 0,7 m latimea. Mormantul a fost distrus in antichitate. 1n umplutura gropii
~i pe fundul ei, in pozitie deranjata, au fost descoperite oasele unui matur. Jn
situ au ramas dar oasele tibiale ~i, partial, labele. Aceasta situatie permite sa se
presupuna, ca. defunctul fusese depus pe spate, cu craniul spre nord (Fig. 3/1).
Langa peretele de nord al gropii a fost descoperita o fibula in forma de
"Ringfibel". Fibula a fost confectionatii dintr-o bara de bronz indoita in forma
de semicerc, cu capetele latite, formand douii discuri . Ambele discuri sunt ornamentate cu cate doua cercmi concentrice, realizate din puncte incizate, in
centrul discurilor fiind executate, tot prin incizare cite o cruce umplute cu email
de culoare roza. In mijlocul verigii se afla un valt triplu care juca rolul de cursor
al spinului. Spinul are partea mijlocie putin incovoiata. Dimensiunile fibulei:
diarnetrul - 5,5 cm, diametrul discurilor - 2 cm, grosimea verigii - 0,5 cm (Fig. 3/2).
fn partea centrala a gropii a fost descoperita o catarama de bronz cu veriga
serniovalii ~i cu bara de fixare a spinului dreapta,, prinsa intre 0 placa exterioarii
semiovala cu marginea fatetata ~i o placa interioara. dreptungiulara; ce incastrau
cureaua ~i se fixau printr-un nit. Spinul este arcuit ~i are marginile fatetate.
Dimensiunile: diametrul verigii - 2,2 cm, diametrul placii - 1,8 cm (Fig. 3/4).
Pe tibia stanga. a fost giisitii o garniturii de bronz de la capiitul centurii,
confectionatii din doua. pliici de bronz, cea exterioarii cu marginea pa,rtial
fatetatii, cu dimensiunile de 7,2xl ,2 cm, iar cea interioarii - 3xl ym (Fig. 3/3).

pe
3

,
I

'

I
I

..... %:
4

Q-

-,

''
''
'

''

'

LJ

Fig. 3/1 Mormintul 5. Fig. 3/2 Fibula de bronz din m. 5. Fig. 3/3 Garnitura de bronz de.la
curea din m. 5. Fig. 3/4 Catarama de bronz din m. 5. Fig. 3/5 Oglinda-pandativ din. in.7. Fig.
3/6 Margea din m. 7. Fig. 317 Mormintul 7.

M. 6. Inhumatie in groapii de formii tr~pezoidalii cu dimensiunile: 2,45 m


lungimea O 75-0 85 m liitimea si adancimea 1,5.m, orientata N- S. Mormaintul
' ' in antchitate.
'
'
'
a fost distrus
ln umplutura
gropii in star.e haoticii s~ giiseau oasele
unui matur de 50- 60 ani (Fig. 4/1).
,
In partea de nord a gropii afost gasite 6 fragmente de la un vas lucrat cu
mana din pasta destul de finii, cu degresanti de origine organicii.
'

'

-224 -

-225-

I'

Fig. 4/1 Mormintul 6. Fig. 4/2 Mormiqtul 8. fig. 4/3 Vas din m. 8

M. 7. lnhumatie in . groqpa de "t orma dreptunghiulara cu cotlon cu


dimensiunile: 2,,4 xl
orientata N-S, avand adancimea de 1 m. ln parte~ de
,,
' vest a fost fa.cut un cotlon cu adancimea de 0,:2-0,3 ill.
. 'Scheletul unui matur a fost distrus in antichitate. Oas~le scheletului se gaseau
d1spersate (Fig'. 3/7}.Lingaperefele.de sud al gropii, in i,m plutura; au fost gasite
fragmentele unei oglinzi-pandantiv cu maner. Oglinda afost turnata din metal
alb. 0 parte a fost lustruita, iai pe cealalta parte a fost imprimat un motiv
decorativ sau tamga in forma de "paiangen", realizat din nervuri in i relief.

m,

-226-

Manerul era prevazut cu un orificiu pentru suspendare. Dimensiuni1e: diametru


- 4 cm, diametrul 'orificiului - 0,2 cm (Fig. 3/5). Tot in umplutura gropii a
fost gasita o margea tubulara, rotunda in seqiune, confectionata din pasta de
sticla de culoare albastra. Dimensiunile: lungimea - 0,6 cm, diametrul - 0,3
1
cm (Fig. 3/6). '
1

' M. 8.. Inhumatie in groapa de forma dreptunghiulara, cu dimensiunile de


2,45 x 'O, 75 m ~i adincimea 1,4 m: Groapa este orientata NNV-'.SSE. Mormantul
a fost distrus in antichitate. ln umplutura gt6pii, in stare deranjata, se gaseau '
oasele unui matur (barbat 45_:.50 ani), cu craniul deformat artificial. In situ, ca
~i in morrnintele nr. 4 ~i nr. 5, arl'tarnas, partial doar, oasele tibiale, fapt ce
permite, de-asemenea; sa se 'presupuna ca defunctul a fost intins p~ spate, cu
cr~niul orientat spre nord (Fig. 4/2).
In centrul gropii au fost despoperite fragmente din partea superioara a unui
vasborcan modelat cu mana dihpastii in com'ponenta careia a intrat o cantitate
mica de -ni sip de culoare brun-cenu~ie. Corpulva'sului era u~or bombat, cu buza
verticala. Diametrul gurii 12 cm (Fig. 4/3).
Cercetarea atenta a terenului din: jurul necropolei permite concluzia, ca
necropola sarematica qe la Badragii Noia fost studiata complet.
Du pa cums-a remmcat mai sus, dihtr-o prima privire a planului general al
necropolei se observa ca mormintele se impart in doua grupuri egale, ce se afla
la o distanta de 23-28 m unul de altul. Dona morminte M. 3 ~i M. 4 ~ din
prima grupa; care se afla mai ap.roape de centrul inaltimii, erau orientate spre
NV (in direqia punctului eel mai inalt). Aceasta este caracteristic pentru
majoritatea inmormantarilor sarmatice secundare, efectuate in tumuli. Celelalte
~ase morminte, dona din prima grupa ~i patru di~ cea de a: dona - erau orientate cu craniul spre nord (in unele ca'.zuri, cu foarte mici devieri), o caracteristica
a 9ecropolelor plane.
Majoritatea scheletelor, cu exceptia celui din M. 3 (copil), au fost distruse
in antichitate. Este necesar sa Se mentioneze cii, tu to ate aces tea; gtopile funerare
nu au fost deteriorate. Este posibil ca la momen:tul distrugerii, mormintele sa fi
fost bine niarcate la suprafata s'olului. Cauza distrugerii scheletelor nu este clara.
Se pare, can-a putut fi un simplujaf, mai ales daca se iau in consideratie unefo
obiecte care sau pas't rat in morminte.
Din cauza distrugerii scheletelor nu a fost posibil sa se stabileasoa, in toate
cazurile sexul ~i virsta defunctilor. Din cinci schelete studiate, doua sunt de
copii (5--6 ani)eyi trei de batbati, dintre care unul in varst'.1'de 25 ani ~i doi de 5060 ani. Defunctul din M. 8, dupa cums-a mentionat, 'avea craniul deformat
I
artificial.
Apattenenta culturalii..it n~cropolei estein afar ii de orice dubii. lnmormantarile au fost efectuate dupl'i htul funerar sannatic -- 'in gropi rectangulare
simple, in gropi cu trepte; care erau acoperite cu lemn sau in gropi cu cotlon in
partea de est, orientate pe directia NNV - care este raspandit pe teritoriul de
la vest de Nipru ~i caracteristic pentru cultura sarmatica din secolele I-III d. H .
'

'

~ 227-

E necesar sa se mentioneze ca, incepand cu secolul II d. H., in ritul funerar


al sarmatilor s,e procedeaza la trecerea defunctului prin foe, iar in unele cazuri
se gasesc numai urme de foe (a~a . de exemplu in mormintele 3-4 din necropola
de la Badragii Nqi) , Aproximativ, in aceastii perioada incepe sa aiba o largii
raspandire ~i ritualul deformarii artificiale a craniului.2 Referitor la determinarea
limitelor cronologice mai exacte ale functioniirii necropolei de la Biidragii Noi
este necesar sa se revina la o analiza mai detailata a materialului arheologic.
Obi~ctele cares-au p~strat nu sunt numeroase, fapt 0bi~nuit pentru necropolele de acest tip, dar sunt suficierit de exp.1esive. Ceramica <din necropola "La
Stanca" este reprezentata de patru vase, dintre care doar douii au putut fi
complet reconstituite (M. 3, M. 4), doua fiind fragmentare (M . 6, M. 8). Vasul
din M. 6 nu poate fi reconstituit. Canita din pasta cenu~ie, cu fundul profilat ~i
inelar apartine grup!'!i de ceramica destul de raspandita, incepand cu sec. II d.
H. in complexele sarmatice tarzii din zona dintre Nistru - Prut eyi Dunare si,
aproape necunoscuta la est de Nistru. Cele mai apropiate analogii pentru vasuloala lucrat cu mana din M. 3 se intalnesc in cqmplexele de ceramica a culturilor
Suslovskaja eyi ~ipovskaja, 3 unde ele sunt larg raspandite, in deosebi intalninduse in necropolele tumulare de pe Volga ~i pana in dreapta Niprului. 4 Nu sunt
rare astfel de vase nici in statiunile sarinatice tarzii din zona Pruto-Nistreanii
(necropolele de la Bocani, 5 Branzeni, 6 Vasilievca7 ~i altele).
Referitor la vasul-borcan din M. 8, trebuie precizat ca, asemenea forme nu
sunt caracteristice peqtru cultura sarmatilor din spatiul Pruto-Nistrean ~i are.
anatogii doar in necropolele ,de la Seli~te, 8 Vasilievka 9 ~i intre materialele din
mantaua tumulului nr. 1 de langa s~.tul Co.bani .10
.
0 astfel de forma de vas este intalnita in cultura Zarubinet, faza tirzie, in
monumentele de tip Bugul de Sud ~i Grinei, insa este mai raspandita pentru
cultura Kiev. 11
Nu aduc schimbari esentiale in precizarea perioadei de functionare a
necropolei nici obiectele gasite in M . 4 ~i M. 7. Rarna~itele sabiei scurte cu inel
la capatul manerului, din mormantul 4 se atri-buie tipului de arme folosite de
ciitre sarmati incepand din sec. I i.d.H. ~i pina la inceputul sec. III d. H. 12
Nedatabile, deocamdata, sunt cele doua fixatoare ~i cele doua placi emisferice
din bronz. Este posibil ca primele sa fi fost ,utilizate pentru fixarea sabiei de
centiron, iar placile, probabil, sunt elem~n,te decouative ale centurii. Catarama
din acela~i mormant este o catarama pentru incaltaminte eyi a fost atat de larg
raspandita in sec. II- III d. H ., incat nu este cazul sa fie enumerate to ate analogiile.
In aceia~i perioada se dateaza margica tubulara din pasta de sticla pandautiv P.e
culoare albastra 13 ~i oglinda-pandautiv cu ornament geometric din M. 7 14 .
Cel mai expresiv )Jlaterial din punct de vedere cronologic a fost giisit in M. 5.
Unul din aceste. obiecte este fibula de bronz in forma de "Ringfibel" cu incizii
umplute cu email - un obiect destul de exotic pentru spatiul dintre Nistru,
Prut ~i Dunare. Aceasta fibula face parte din a~a-numitul tip de obiecte de
podoaba "barbare", cu incizii in care a fo~t turnat email, element care a atras
intodeauna atentia speciali~tilor. De aceasta problema s-au ocupat: A. Spitin,
~ 228 -

H. Moora, B. Rybakov, G. Korzuchina, V. Danilenko, ~-a. In ciuda eforturilor


depuse panii acum problema provenientei ~i apartenentei etnice a acestor obiecte
est'e in discuti~ : De fapt, analiza lor nu constituie subiectul studiului de fatii.
Pentru Europa de Est obiectele cu decor incizat, turnat cu email, de regulii, se
intalnesc in zona Niprului.Mijlociu, unde arealul lor cores pun de in mare masura
teritoriului ocupat de cultura Kiev. Pana nu demult, la vest de Nistru, asemenea
obiecte nu erau cunoscute. E. Gorochovskija propus cea mai detaliata clasificare
a fibulelor in formii de "Ringfibel" cu email. Pe baza coreliirii lor cronologice
cu complexe datate exact, el evidentiazii fibule analoge exemplarului de la
Badragii Noi, care sunt din cea mai timpurie fazii de dezvoltare - A, datate in
doua jumatate - sf. sec . II d. H.15 Tipologic, le sunt apropiate ~i cea de a doua
fibula descoperita in M. 1 din tumulul 2 al necropolei de la Divizia. 16
'Dintre materialele care le insotesc, datand din a douajum. a sec. II d. H., se
evidentiazii o fibula din doua pii~ti cu corpul arcuit, {tip III, dupii A. Ambroz)
destul de larg raspandita in coinplexele sarmatice tirzii din interfluviul Prut17
Nistru ~i de pe teritoriul Romaniei de la sf. sec. II d.H.' ~i din sec. III d. H . . De
asemenea, oglinda - pandantiv cu decor in formii de tamga, este apropiatii
stilistic de grupul semnelor lui 'lnimfi.mei (anii 234/235 - 239/240). 18
Avandu-se in vedere cele mentionate mai sus, se poate presupune, ca
pyrioada patrunderii fibulelor in for~ii de "Ringfibel" cu email in spatiul NistruPrut-Dunare poate fi inceputul sec. III d.H. La vest de Nistru este cunoscuta
incii o astfel de fibula insa fiira email si fara !imitator de curs a spinilui,
descoperita in M. 2 din,necropola de la Birlad-Prodana. 19 Ca stil aceasta este
apropiata de cele din seria YIII, destul de rare a fi.bulelor Cern~al-ibv II - Earve,
conform tipologiei lui E. Gorohovskij ~i se atribuie ultimei faze de utilizare a
fibulelor in forma de "Ringfibel" cu email D-E, fazii datatii cu sf. sec. III sec. IV d.H .20 , fapt confirmat de prezenta jn acela~i complex a douii fibule din
varianta a doua, dupii A. Ambroz, apar\inand aceleaeyi perioade. 21
La sf. sec. II - tncep. sec. ~II d.H. obiectele .cu ema,il se raspandesc eyi la
sud-est de Nipru, drept dovada a acestui fenomenservind descoperirile izolate
din complexele sarmatice tarzii din regiuneile Volga Inferioarii, Don eyi din
Kaukazul de Nord.
Fibula descoperita de catre G. Rau in 1928 in tumulul III de la Borodajevka
nu era insotita de alte obiecte care sii permita o ina\:adrare cronologica precisa. 22
Din a douajumatate a sec. II-primajum. a sec. III d.H. se dateazii obiectele
cu email din tumulul 33 din necropola Valovyj, in apropiere de Tanais, cercetat
de E. Bespalyj in 1987. 23 Tot aceleia~i perioade apartine ~i pandantivul in forma
de semiluna din M. 11 din necropola sarmatica Klin-Iar din Kaukazul de Nord,
descoperita in acela~i context cu o fibula puternic profilata, de tip Pontic, care
se incadreaza in varianta Pe-2, din clasificarea lui A. Ambroz (sec. II- III d.H)
si cu margele antice tirzii. 24
' In M. 5, in afara de fibula in forma de potcoava, a mai fost descoperita o
catarama cu veriga semiovala ~i placa exterioara segmental~ , cu spinul fatetat,
arcuit, atribuita tipului 3, din clasificarea lui ,V. Kovalevskaja eyi care sunt
- 229 -

specifice pentn1 spatiile Kaukazului de Nord ~i al Krimeii din sec. II parni in


sec. V d. H. 25
0 piesa analogica cu catarama de la Badragii Noi provine din M . 20 a
necropolei Podkum, unde aceastaa fost gasita impreuna cu o fibula puternic
profilata, fara carlig pentru coarda, categorie de obiecte intllnite in Kaukazul
de Nord in prim a jum. a sec. III d. H. 26 Ce! mai frecvent, cataramele cu placa se
intalnesc in mormintele alane din sec. II - prima jum. a sec. III d. H. 27
ln afara Kaukazului de Nord astfel de catarame au fost descoperitein morrnintele de pe Volga ~i din Krimeia, din sec. III-IV d. H. 28 Cu sfiqituLsec. IIincep. sec. III d.H. se dateaza ~i garnitura de bronz pentrn capat de centura,
avand analogii largi in complexele sarrnatice tarzii din interfluviul Nistru-Prut. 29
Datarea cea mai timpurie a acestor garnituri se face pe baza obi~c;telor din
M. 1 din necropola Pitiah~ei din Armais-hevi, unde acestea au rcist gasite
ir;:;ipreuna cu monede din perioada imparatilor August-Adrian ~i se atribuie
celei de a doua jumatati a sec. II d .H. 3Cea mai tirzie patare a obiectelor de
acest tip s-a facut pe baza materialelor din complexul de la Kerci, in care
garnitura de bronz a fost gasita impreuna cu o catarama policroma, care .se
incadreaza cronologic la sf. sec. II ~i prima jum. a sec. III d. H. 31
Pe baza analizei obiectelor descoperite necropola "La Stanca" de la Badragii
Noi, poatefi datata de la sf, sec. Il-incep. sau-maicurand primajum. a sec. III
d.H. Astfel necropola "La Stanca", reprezinta unul dintre cele mai tarzii complexe
sarrnatice din zona de nord a interfluviului Nistru-Prut.
. Pentru aceastii perioada, in aceia~ zona au fost descoperite necropole, avand
trasaturi specifice, care le deoseqesc de obiectivele arheologice de acela~ fel din
perioadele precedente.
ln total, acestui grup de rnonumente ii pot ti atribuite, in afara de necropola de la
Badragii Noi, cea de la Brilnzeni, 32 o par~e din mo,rmintelenecrnpolelorpluristratigrafice
de la ~oldane~ti, 33 Seli~te34 ~i, probabil, Bocani. 35 Acestora le sunt apropiate ~i necropolele
mixte Alcedar36 si Cotiujeni (sapaturile inedite, intreprinse de 0. Sarov si T. ~cerbakova
in 1990). In pri~ul caz, 2 morminte sannatice tarzii erau p~ terit~riul necropolei,
apartinand populatiei ce a lasat complexe de a.?a-numitul tip Alcedar-Etulia. in al doilea
caz, citeva iresturi cinerare de tip Etulia se gaseau pe teritoriul necropolei sarmatice.
Specificul este r.elevat atit topografic cat ~i prin unele elemente de inventar funerar.
Pentru aceasta perioada in zona de silvostepa a interfluviului Prut-Nistru nu este cunoscut
nici u mormant tumular. Dispar necropolele plane cu amenajari de ~anturi
dreptunghiulare ~i circulare. Suprafata necropolelor semic~oreaza. Daca pentru perioada
precedenta ele erau plasate, de regula, pe coline ~i platouri, acum se intalnesc pe pantele
de sud ale dealurilor (Badragii Noi, Bocani) sau pe extrernele line ale prornontoriilor
.
(Branzeni, Seli~te, Cotijeni, ~oldane~ti) .
Ritul funerar era destul de variat. lnmom1antarile se faceau in constructii
funerare de tipuri diverse, cunoscute pentru perioada respectiva, fara ca unul anunie
sa predomine. Deseori, scheletele sunt deranjate. 0 trasatura caracteristica o
constituie un inalt procent de cranii deforrnate artificial (pentru necrop6lele unde
sau fa.cut detem1inari antropologice).
-230-

Din inventarul funerar dispar vasele de import. 0 exceptie din acestyunc~


Are loco arhaizare a matenalulm
de ve der e 0 constituie necropola de la Bocani.
.
f
d
sarmatic. in locul cerarnicii cu lac ro~u ~1 a vaselor cu gatu 1 ma1t m ?r1:1a . e
(de ti'p "sci'tic") , atat de caracteristice perioadelor
antenoare,
pa1me
..
.
. . mtalmm
. ..
vase grosolane, modelate cu mana, specifice popul~tnlor sarmatice dm tent~rn.1e
de est. ocupate de acestea ~i statiunilor Postzarubmetk de pe c~r~ul supenor al
Bugului de Sud ~i eel al Niprului Mijlociu, vase necunoscut: pana a~um l~ ve.st
d~ Nistru . Apar catarame cu .veriga rotunda, ~laca. cu p:rohl :?m~hcat ~1 spm
fat~tat, c.a si obiecte atat de straine pentru spatml dmtre Prut ai N1stru, cum.ar
fi hbulele i~ forma de "Ringfibel" cu email. Aceste obiecte sunt c~ractenst1c~
pe~tru zona>Niprului Mijlociu, de und~ ele au ~i .putut fiyr~luate de ca tr: sarmati.
Cele expuse dovedesc, patrundereain mterfluvm, la sfa_r~1tul sec: II - mcep~tul
sec. III d. H., dinspre est, a unui nou val de populatn. sarmat1ce~ ~are preiau
elemente din diferite culturi existente la momentul impactulm m zona de
silvostepa ~i stepa, las and ulterior monumenle arheologice de felul celor d-~ la
.
.
. .
. '
Badragii N oi, Branzeni, Cotiujeni, ~ a.
. 1n aceasta perioada se stabile~te pe deplm d1ferent~erea t1p_olo~1ca a
elementelor de cultura sarmatica tarzie din zona de Nord a i~terfluvmlm Pru~
Nistru fa.ta de cea din Bugeac, tendinta manifestata incii in penoada preceden.ta,
acea a ra~pandirii necropolelor cu ~anturi. ln acea p~~ioada pentru sarmatn ~e
la nordul spatiului respectiv predominau construqule funerare cu cotlon, m
timp ce la sud inmormantarile se practi~au in gropi _cu trepte. 0 po.ndere
deosebita 0 aveau in necropole amenajarile dreptunghmlare - ~antur~le, ~
cum sunt cele surprinse in necropola de la Petre~ti. 37 ~~a, de exemplu, pe te~~ton~l
acestor amenajari nu se intalnesc morminte propnu z1se,'.ac~~t luc_ru fu~d m
schimb frecvent la sud. 38 Este semnificativ faptul, ca ~ceasta d1fere~~1e:e, dmtre
complexele din zona de nord ~i cea ,de sud, are loc la mvelul c~l~r m~1 nnportant_e
elernente ale ritului funerar si, practic, nu se regase~te in pnvmta mventarulm.
Catre inceputul sec. III d .H. la nordul interfluviului Prut-Nistr_u a.stf_:I d~
necropole dispar, in timp ce in zona de stepa a Bugeaculm ele contmua samat
existe o perioada de !~thp alaturi de n~cropolele tumulare._
. .
Pisparitia necropolelor cu ~antun dm zona de no rd a _mterflu;mlm la sf~r~
situ! sec. II d. H. este legata, probabil, de deplasarea mase1 de baza a populat1e!
~armatice tarzii spre vest, fapt legat de razboaiele marc?maniice. Pentru acea~ta
perioada trasatura definitorie a procesului is~ori~ in reg~unea pr:1t~-mstreana o
constituie migratiile in masa ce afecteaza tentorul~ de s.1lvostepa ~m zona Subcarpatilor ~i pana la Nipru. Probabil, in aceasta penoada au lo? p_nmel,e cont_acte
ale populatiei sarmatice tirzii cu grupunle de p~pulatie ce _ra~nmd m regt~~e
dinspre nord si nord-vest ~i care practieau ca nt funerar mcmeratia - ca m
necropolele mlxte de la Alcedal;' ~i Cotiujeni. Rezu.ltatul acesto~ ~ontacte a fo_st
aparitia unui grup cultural legat in~r-o :U~~ura ma1 mare sau mica d~ ce~e de ~1p
Psevorsk Postzarubinetk si Sarmat1ce tlfzll, cum sunt monumentele arheolog1ce
d~ tip Al~edar-Etulia. Su~tem predispu~i sa credern, ca astf~l.de com?lexe n~
po~ fi atribuite unei etape presarmatice ~i legate de o anum1ta cultura care sa
A

.A

-231-

'

NOTE

apartina inceputului mileniului Id. H. Dimpotriva, prezenta diferitor elemente


nesarmatice este o reflectare a prezentei in acela~ spatiu, .Jn prima jumatate a
secolului III d. H. a unui conglomerat de populatii venite atit din Est, cit ~i din
Vest, care duce in mod firesc la amestecul de traditii etnice.
La mijlocul secolului III d. H. ~ in vreme ce procesul de consolidare etnica
este activ, proces care are loc in zona de nord al interfluviului, legat de invazia
din regiunea de nord-vest a Miirii Negre a triburilor gotilor - complexele
sarmatice de tip Alcedar-Etulia din .zona de silvostepa dispar. in locul !or apar
urmele populatiilor sedentare de tip S'l-ntana de Mure~ - Cerneahov.
Afost mentionat mai sus, ca lipsa obiectelor care sii permitii o datare precisa, la care se adaugii tendinta de a "invechi" monumentele arheologice
cunoscute, a condus la incadrare cronologicii mult mai timpurie a majoritiitii
necropolelor din stadiul final de evolutie a culturii sarmatilor din zona din nordul
Moldovei. Totodata, cercetiitorii deseori, ingnorau specificul calitativ al unor
complexe ca eyi corelarea aspectelor cronologice cu cele tipologice. La fel s-a
intimplat ~i cu grupul de marturii arheologice supus aici discutiei. Acest lucru
devine con':'ingator Inca din stadiul analizei celor ma! caracteristice obiecte pe
baza ciirora se efectueaza determinarea limitelor cronologice a complexelor..
Absolut neconvingatoare pare atribuirea fragmentului de fibula defier cu bucla
la capatul talpii in formii de placii lata din necropola de la Seli~te, tipului 3 al
acestui grup de obiec.te, dupa tipologia lui A. Ambroz.3 9 Tinind cont de starea
puternic fragmentar ii, piesa nu poate ajuta la. datarea necropolei, or a data
intreaga grupii de fibule in secolul I - III d. H. fiirii o argumentare serioasa,
constituie o chestiune discutabila. Incerta pare a fi datarea necropolei de la
Bocani, deosebitii de restul complexelor prin bogatia mormintelor, dar continind
intre materiale elemente foarte apropiate tipologic. Astfel, dintre cele patru fibule
descoperite in mormintele necropolei, douii (M. 5, 10) sunt absolut corect datate
de ciitre V. Grosu, din secolele II- III d. H. 40 Este indoielni~a datarea fibulei din
M. 9 ~i alteia, de acela~i tip, din M. 10 in secolul I d.H .41 Cu atit mai m ult pare
inc;orecta citarea lui A. Ambroz. lnsu~i A. Ambrnz le atribuie variantei simple
de fibule articulate, datate in secolu!UI d.H. 42 Referitor la ceramica c.u firnis
rosu s-a mentionat larga ei riispindire in nordul Marii Negre, intilnindu-se
de~eori, ~i in ~ormintele sarmatice din secolul II - inceputul secolului I'll d. H .
(Holmsk, necropolele Tanais ~i Ilurat) 43 Acest fapt nu este contrazis in studiile
sale nici de T. Knipovici. 44 In ce priveeyte aribalosul, intradevar, majoritatea
acestor piese suht cunoscute din complexele timpurii ale ora~elor antice Potice.
Dar, asemenea obiecte scumpe puteau fi folosite ~i intr-o perioadii mai tirzie.
lncadrarea cronologica a necropolei in perioada celei de-a doua jumatati a
secolului II - inceputul secolului III d . H . pare a fi cea mai plauzibilii.
Investigatiile viitoare vor .permite cunoa~terea mai profunda a specificului
culturii sarmatice tirzii in zona de no rd a interfluviului Prut-Nistru in faza ei final ii.

, Analiza antropologicii efectuatii de ciitre eyeful Laboratorului de Antropologie al Academ:iei de


~tiinte din Ucraina, dr. Serghei Seghe~a.
.
. ', , '
1

2 M. P. Abramova, Sarmatskie pogrbenJa Dona 1 Ucram1 , m SA, l , 1961, p. 105.


. .
6
3 V. P. Sylov, Calinovskii curgannyi moghilnik, in MIA, 60, Moscova, 1959, p. 154, Fig. 53/ ,
12; Fig. 63/4,5.
. .
,
M
1960
159-163
v. Sinicyn , Drevnie pamjatniki v'N1zovJah
Ereslana,_m MIA, 78_,_ oscva,
, ~ .
.
'
Fig. ?/10; 16/l; 23/13, etc; M. l. Vjaz~~tina, Sarmatsk1e pogrebemJa_u ~ela Novo-F1hpovka, n
"Voprosy skifo-sarmatskoj arheologhn", Moscva, 1954, p. ~22:-2!,6, Fig:. 11/2, 9 ,
,,
s G. B. Fjodorov , K voprusu 0 sarmatskoj cul'ture v Moldavn, m IzvestIJa M.F.A.N.S.S.R. ,
4(32), Chi~injov, 1956, Fig. 8/4, 7,8.
,
.. ,
. .
' v. J. Grosu, Sannatskij moghil'nik us. Brynzen', m AI~, .1981 ~ Ch1*~~au , 19_85: ~~g. 4/4 .. .
1 L.
Subbotin, A. N. Dzigovskij, Kurgannye moghil'm~t Vasilevsk1J IkubeJ, 111 Sarmatsk1e
drevnosti Dnestro-Dunajskogo mejdurecija", vyp. III, Kiev, 1990, Fig. ~/5; 11/4.
.
,
s I. A . Rafalovic, v. L. Lapu~neanu , Mogil'nik i ranneslav1anskoe gorod1sce u sela Seheyte, m
AIM, 1973, Chi~iniiu, 1974, Fig. 7/3._ .
9 L. V. Subitin, A. N. Dzigivskij, Op . cit, Fig. 6/4.
.
.
.
. ..
4
10 a. G. Livickii, Otcjot 0 polevyh isledovaniah NovostroecnoJ ArheologluceskoJ exped1c11 v 198

I.

v.

godu.

, ' "A h I h" SSSR" Moscva


Slaveane i ih sosedi v conce pervogo tysjaceteletIJa n. e.., m . r eo og 1a
,
'
'
1993, p. 45; Fig. XIII/5; p. 49, Fig. 16/3; p. 111; Fig. XLI/3, 16, 24.
12 A . M. Hazanov, Ocerki voenogo dela sarmatov, Moscva, ~971, p. 93.
.
"E. M. Alexeeva, Anticnye busy severnogopricern omonJa, m SAI, vyp. G 1- 12, Moscva, 1978,
1
p. 66, tipul 52; Fig. 33/9.
'
'' .
,
"
67 . ,
14 A. M. Hazanov, Ghenezis sarmatsk1h bronzovyh zerkal, m ~A, 4'. _Mos1;~a, 1963'. P
1s E. L. Garahovskij, Podkovopodibni fil:mli Srednego Podmprov13a z vmncaetoJU emalJU, m
.. , " .
.,
" Arheologhija", Kiev, 1982, nr. 38, .p. 28- 30; Fig.~/~. . . .. .. .
" L. V. Subotin , A. N. Dzigovskij, K~rgany~ ~ogil'mkt J:?1v1z13sk1J 1 Be~olesk1J,t Sa1matsk1e
drevnosti Dnestro-Dunajskogo meJdurec13a , vyp. 2, Kiev, 1990, p. 4, Fig. 3/
11 A. K. Ambroz, Fibuly Jugo-Evropejskoj casti SSSR, SAI, vyp. D 1- 30, Moscva, 1966, p. 52-

11

53 tab!. 9/18.
k s
k s vernogo
"L. 'v. Subotin, A. N. Dzigovskij, Op. cit, Fig. 3/3; V. S. Dracm , . 1stema zna ov e
Pricernomorija, Kiev, 1975, p. 63; tabl. 14/8.
.
.
19 J. Joni/a, Din istoria *i civilizatia DacHor liberi, la~t, 1982, Fig. 27/3.
20 E. L. Garahovskij,. Op. cit, p. 27, 31; F ig. 6/30 .
21 A.' K. Ambroz, Op. cit, p. 63; tab!. 11/10.
. .. .
.. .
. . .
22 I. v. Sinicyn, Arheologhiceskie raskopki na tentorn mznego p~v~IJiJa, ~aratov, 1~47, F1g.,3a.
.
2-' s. !. Bezuglov, J. v. Gudimenko, Podveska s vyjamceto1em_alJU1z de! ty Dona, m SA, 1993, m.
l, p. 171.
.
.
,.
p
-'" ' "Mate1ialy
E. L Garahovskij, Hronologhia ukrasenij z vyJamcatoJ emal JU ~evemogo ncerno~or .ia, m
po hronologhii arheologhiceskih pamjatnikov Ukramy", Kiev, 1982, p. 133, Fig. 217, 8.
2s V. V. Kovalevskaja, Pojasnye nabory Evrazii IV-IX vv . .Priazki, in SAI, vyp. E 1- 2, Moscva,

24

1979 p. 15; tab!. 1/10.


'
.

6/16 A
2 M. p_' Abramova, Podkumskij moghil'nik, Moscva, 1987, p. 48; Fig. 26/15; p . 93, Fig .. 2
,.
K. Ambroz, Op. cit, p. 42-43, 95.
21 M. P. Abramova, Op. cit, p. 172.
.
2s A. K. Ambroz, Hronologhija drevnostej SeveritogO-Kavkaza V-VII vv., Moscva, 1989, p. 25,
(1975
Fig. 1126.
v A Dergacjov , Materialy raskopok arheologhicesko1 ecsped"1tn na sr~ d n~m Prute
.
. .),
Chi~iniiu,
1982;
Fig.
41/l;
A_
v.
Gudco,va,
M.
M.
Fokeev,
Zemhdel
cy
1
cocevmki
v
1 76
.
.
.
nizdviiah Dunaja, I-IV vv. n. e., Kiev, 1984; Fig. 13/l, ~.a.
,o A. M. 'Apakidze, G. F. Gobedzesvili, A. N. Colandadze, G. A. Lomta~z~.. Mcheta. Arheologh1cesk1~
pamjatniki Armazis-Hivi po raskopkam 1937-1946 godov, Tb1hs1 1958, p. 56; ta.bl. 1/4, 5,
tabl. 37/13; tabl. 39/26; tabl. 66/37.

29

-233- 232 -

" /. Tolstoj, N. Kondakov, Russkie drevnosti v pamjatnikah iskusstva, in "Drevnosti skifo-

sarmatskie", vyp. 2, Sankt-Petrburg, 1889, p. 156; Fig. 138.


V. 1. Grosu, Op. cit, p. 129-142.
33
A . /. Meljucova, 0 rascopcah mogil'nika us. ~oldenesti , Rezinskogo rajona, in Arhiva IAIV al
A~ a RM, 1959; T. S. Pasek, Otcet o rabote moldavsh>j expedicii v 1955 godu, in Arhiva
IAIV al AS a RM.
34
/. A. Rafa/ovici, V. L. Liipu~n~an, Raboty reutskoj arheologiceskoj expedi\ii, in AIM; 1972,
Chi~inau, 1974, p. 122- 127.;'Idem, Mogil'nik i ranneslavianskoe gorodisce u sela Seli~te, in
AIM, 1973, Chi~inau, 1974, p. 116- 124.
35
G. B. Fiodorov. K voprosu o sarmatskoj cul'ture.v Moldavii, in "Izvestija M .F.A.N.S.S.R .",
f

4(31), Chi~ini'lu, 1956, p. 49- 64.


36
S. /. Kurciatov, Mogil'nik II-III vv. n.e. u s.Alcedar, in AIM, 1984, Chi~inau , 1989; p. 163179.
37
E. V. Jarovoj. Otcet o rabote Prutskoj Novostroecnoj expedicii v 1986 godu, in Arhiva IAIV al
32

A~aRM;
38

S. /. Kurciatov. Novye materialy iz raskopok sarmatskogo i cerneahovskogo mogil'nikov u

sela Petre~ti MSSR, in "Tezisy docladov oblasnoj konferencii "Problemy skifo-sarmatskoj


arheologii u Severnogo Pricernimor'ja", 1989, p. 74- 75.
39
./. A. Rafa/ovici, V. L: Li'ipujnean, Mogil'nik i ranneslaviailskoe gorodisce u sela Seli~te , in
AIM, 1973, Chi~inau, 1974, p. 120. V. I. Grosu, Hronologhija pamjatnikov dnestrovskoprutskogo mejdurecja, Chi~inau, 1990, p. 52.
0
V. /. Grosu. Op . cit., p. 66.
41

Ibidem...

42

A. K. Ambroz. Fibuly Jugo-Evropejskoj casti SSSR, SAi, vyp. D 1- 30, Moscva, 1966, p. 25.
43
A. V. Gudkova, M. J\.1. Fakee11. Op. cit., p. 59; T. M. Arsenieva, Necropoli Tana'isa, Moscva,
1977; tabl. 22/1 ; tab!. 22/3; M. M . Kublanov, Rascopki necropolja llurat v 1969 godu, 1n
KSIA, Moscva, 1972; Fig.' 33/5 ~i altele.
HT. N. Knipovici. Crasnolakovaja keramica pervyh vekov nasei ery, in "Iz raskopok bospornkoj
expedicii 1935- 1940 gg.", in MIA, 25, Moscva, 1952, p. 301 - 305.
Summary

The article introduces into the scientific practice the materials from the Sannat burial ground
" La Stinca" in the vicinity of the village of Staryie Bedraji, (Edine\ region of Moldova), discovered by A. Yu. Cirkov ln 1987. The authors investigate an original group of the Late Sannat
sites (II- III centuries A. D. in the north of the Pruth-Dniester area and make an attempt to
presise the chronological datings of the final stage sites of the sannat culture in this aiea on the
basis of the comparative analysis of the archeological materials from these sites.

Larisa Ciobanu
DESCOPERIRI MONETARE ROMANE iN SPA JIUL PRUTO-NISTREAN

Influenta civilizatorie a Imperiului roman asupra tuturor tiirilor europene,


atit pe plan economic, cit ~i spiritual, a fost considerabilii pe parcursul intregii
lui existente de secole. Fenomenul se referii ~i la spatiul dintre Prut ~i Nistru, de
modeste dimensiuni pe harta Europei, dar situat; in special in secolele II- III d.
Chr. , in imediata veciniitate a limesului roman .
ln conditiile, cind apr?ape cii nu dispunem de izvoare scrise referitoare
nemijlocit la zona in discutie, vestigiile numismatice, alaturi de cele arheologice,
- 234 -

capiitii o valoare semnificativii. Monedele romane constituie una din categoriik


prineipale ale produselor venite din Imperiu.

.
Primele incerciiri de. sistematizare a descoperirilor de monede romane ~1
bizantine din spatiul pruto-nistrean au fost intreprinse in deceniul ~ase d~ ~iitre
A. A. Nudelman si E. A. Rikman (1) ~i G. B. Fedorov (2). In aceste art1cole
autorii au prezent~t informatiile adunate despre piesele descoperite accidental
sau in timpul siipiiturilor arheologice efectuate in arealul in discutie, cu exceptia
centrelor romane. Tyras ~i Orlovka-Cartal.
'
O contributie importantii la cunoa~terea prezentei monedei romane in zona
dintre Prut si Nistru au adus-o douii lucriiri monografice, publicate la hotarul
deceniilor s~se-s apte de M. I. Brajcevskij (3); continind repertoriul monedelor
romane in 'ukr~ina, eyi V. V. Kropotkin (4), cu descoperirile monetare romane
din fosta URSS. Ambele lucriiri contineau ~i informatia curentii la etapa respe.ctivii despre monedele romane descoperite in Republica Mold?va. . ' .
Au urmat apoi un sir de articole, ce all completat treptat istonografia teme1
(5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12)'. lnsii unrepertoriu complet pentru o partesemnificativ{t
diri spatiul geografic vizat a fost elaborat de A. A. Nudelman in anii 70, cu
ocazia publiciirii repertoriului arheologic general al Republicii Moldova, unul
din cele opt volume ale acestei publicatii fiind consacrat numismaticii (13). ~a
capitolul monede romane au fost inregistrate 926 piese, din care 178 descopente
izolat si 748 provenind din tezaure.
D~pii aproximativ un deceaiu, acela~i autor publicii o sintezii des pre circulatia monetarii in spatiul pruto-nistrean (14), liirgind zona de cercetare, in comp~ratie cu studiul din 1976, pinii la tiirmul de nord .al Miirii Negre la sud eyi
incluzind regiunea Cerniiuti la nord, din nou cu exceptia centrelor romane Tyras
si Orlovka-Cartal. Numiirul monedelor romane descoperite ~i cartografiate pinii
in 1985 era de 1108, din ele 294 piese fiind descoperite izolat ~i 814 in tezaure.
In plan cronologic, dupii cum reiese din titlul ei, lucrarea de fatii. cupri.nde
descoperirile de monede romane republicane, de altfel putine la numiir; impena!e,
care constituie majoritatea pieselor, ~i din sec. V, deasemenea red use ca numar.
Spatiul geografic luat ca obiect de studiu este strict limitat sprees: 9i vest de
rlurile Nistru si Prut, de la cursurile lor superioare la nord (regrnmle IvanoFrankovsk si Cerniiuti din Ukraina) pinii la tiirmul Miirii Negre la sud (regiunea
Odesa din Ukraina). 'Conventional s-au delimitat douii zone specifice in acest
spatiu: 1) barbaricum, la nord de Valul de s .ud al lui Traia? ~i. ~realul adiacent
pina la Nistru, 9i 2) zonaromana, si~uatii la sud de v.al. Ultn~a i~clude, .de data
aceasta si centrele romane Tyras ey1 Orlovka. Lor h s-a ma1 adaugat ~1 Insula
Serpilo~,'inclusii pentru posibilitatea efectuiirii unor comparatii ale circulatiei
~10netare din aceste centre romane cu restul spatiuluivizat.
Tyrasul, acest vechi centru al civilizatiei grece~ti , reu~e~te sii piistreze rolul
ce il avea si in perioada romanii devenind un important factor in procesul de
romaniza;e din arealul geografi~ in discutie, odatii cu incadrarea sa din sec. I in
Imperiu. Foarte interesant este faptul cii la Tyras se emitea moneda roma:nii de
bronz ~i era practicatii marcarea pieselor de argint.
- 235 -

In comparatie cu ora~ul-stat Tyras,' volul cetatii romane de la Orlovka in


planul circulatiei monetare este mult mai mic, dar prezenta aici a unei garnizoane
militare romane permite considerarea acestei cetati drept un centru roman.
0 situatie mai specifica o are Insula ~erpilor, inclusa in studiu in primul
rind din considerentul pozitiei sale relativ apropiate de spatiul pruto-nistrean;
apoi ~i din cauza ca descoperirile monetare de aici sunt puse in circulatie ~tiintifica
mai . rar de catre numismati. Desigur, trebuie sa se tina cont ~i de faptul ca
P.iesele descoperite pe insula nu demonstreaza o circulatie monetara propriuz1sa, monedele descoperite aici fiind, in fond, aduse de marinari ca jertfa la
templul lui Ahilles.
.
In prezent, la mai bine de un deceniu de la apariti~ ultimului studiu al Jui A.
Nudelman, descoperirile monetare romane din spatiul pruto-nistrean au sporit
cantitativ aproximativ de doua ori: 2221 piese, din care 424 descoperite izolat si
1797 in tezaure. La acestea se mai adauga ~i 638 monede descoperite in centreie
romane si pe Insula Serpilor: 238 in componenta a trei tezaure si 400 descoperite
izolat. Pe ling a d,es~operirile din no rd ~i din, sud, neincluse 'in catalog de A.
Nudelman, completari mai importante la repertoriul monedelor romane in
spatiul pruto-nistrean (fara centrele romane) sunt aduse mai ales de 4 tezaure si
unele descoperiri monetare izolate.
.
.
'
Unul din tezaure contine 28 denari din sec. II ~i a fost descoperit la Rotunda (15). Altul consta din 15 monede din sec. III, descoperit la ,v asilevka (16).
Doua tezaure dateaza din sec. IV, ambele continind siliquae ale Jui Constantius
II: primul (93 piese) a fost descoperit in asezarea culturii Sintana de Mures Cernjachov Holmskoe III (17), al doilea: cu 25 piese, deocamdata a ra~as
nelocalizat precis ~i nepublicat. Din monedele descoperite izolat merita a fi mentionate citeva piese nepublicate, informatia fiind furnizata de Gh. Postica: un
denar republican, din anul 821. Chr., descoperit la Lipcani; un solidus (fals) al
Jui Constantius I, descoperit laNicolaevca; doi denari descoperiti la Trinca s. a.
Alte citeva descoperiri provin din asezari si necropole de tip Si~tana de M~res
- Cernjachov (Braviceni, Mindre~ti: Petre~ti, Per~otravnevoe, Oselivka, Sobari'.
Solonceni, Utkonosovka), a~ezari de tip Etulia (Etulia X) sau Mologa (Mologa
II) ~i din morminte sarmatice (Cirnateni ~i Kubej).
Din cele 2859 monede, descoperite in arealul pruto-nistrean, 2035 provin
din componenta a 40 tezaure, restul pieselor fiind descoperite izolat. Dupa metal,
in tezaure au fost descoperite 29 AU, 1365 AR, 266 AE~i 375 piesenedeterminate
(Tab. 1). Din spatiul de la nord de Valul de Sud al lui Traian provin 1641 monede
(gasi te in com ponenta a 31 tezaure); din zona romana-394 piese (descoperi te in
9 tezaure).
Izolat au fost descoperite 824 monede: 16 AU, 296 AR 477 AE si 35 nedeterminate dupa metal. Din barbaricum sunt 367 piese (12 AU, 179 AR, 141 AE
~i 35 nedeterminate), iar din zona romana 457 (4 AU, 117 AR, 336 AE).
Aici, probabil, trebuie remarcat ~i faptul ca statistica descoperirilor monetare
are un caracter relativ. Spre exemplu, in 4 localitati din arealul vizat sunt
-236-

mentionate, t:oarte lacunar, "tezaure de monede romane" (Dubovica, Hotin,


Lipi~ka, Semjakovci), iar in alte 12 localitati (Cini~euti, Drochia:, Glibivka,
Goriglja:di, Galic, Bmeleva, Palanca, Slobidka, Tjaziv, Trofanivca, Tulukiv ~i
Zastavna) sunt semnalate descoperiri de "monede romane", fara alte precizari.
Deci, din 44 tezaure descoperite intre Prut ~i Nistru, 4 nu pot fi luate 1n calculele
statistice, ca ~i descoperirile izolate din cele 12 localitati nominalizate. '
Dupa natura informatiilor referitoare la ele, tezaurele pot fi impartite in
trei categ6Fii distincte: a) tezaure relativ sigure, despre care sunt date suficiente .
pentru analizarea lor; b) tezaure mai putin sigurc, in majoritate dispersate, din
componenta carora s-au pastrat doar cite 1-2 monede uneori; c) tezaure nesigure,
despre care informatiile sunt foarte sumare si deseofrcontradictorii.
In barbaricum ~unt 8 tezaure relativ sigure (Budai, Chirileni, Chi~inau1973, Larga, Luca~euca, Rotunda, Tighina-1914 ~i unul nelocalizat - Moldova), care con tin 413 monede (13 AU, 357 AR ~i 43 AE). Tezaurele de la Tighina
(1914) cu 135 AR ~i Larga cu 21 AR cuprind monede din sec. I- III, iar eel de la
Rotunda cu 28 AR contine numai monede din sec. II. Din sec. IV dateaza 5
tewure, ~i anume trei (B~dai, Chi~iniiu-1973 ~i Moldova) cu monede de argint
de la Constantius II, unul (Lucaeyeuca) cu piese de bronz din perioada Constantius I - I ulianus Apostatul (173 AR ~i 43 AE) ~i ultimul (Chirileni) ,cu 13 piese
de aur din intervalul Gratianus-Honorit1s (ultima monedii din anii 393- 395).
In zoiJ.a romanii sunt 5 tezaure relativ sigure, toate descoperite in timpul
siipiiturilor arheologice (Borisovka, Holmskoe, Bilgorod-Dnistrovskij (Tyras)
- 1950, Bilgorod-Dnistrovskij (Tyras)- 1958 ~i Orlovka. Ele contineau 340 piese,
din care 129 AR ~i 211 AE. Tezaurul de la Orlovka are in componenta sa numai 3 monede de bronz, toate din perioada domniei impiiratului Antoninus
Pius. Cele douii tezaure de la Tyras sunt mixte, cuprinzind monede de bronz ~i
de argint: unul (din 1958) incepe cu monede de argint de la Marcus Antonius ~i
se incheie cu monede de bronz ~i de argint de la Septimius Severus, iar celiilalt
(clin 1950) incepe cu o moneda de bronz de la Domitianus ~ise incheie cu 'qoua'
monede, tot de bronz, de la Caracalla. Ultimele doua tezaure din zona romanii
provin de la Borisovka ~i Holmskoe. Cel de la Borisovka contine 9 monede,
toate de bronz din care 8 se insiruie de la Constantinus I pinii la Constans, a
nouanefiind d~terminata. Tezau'rul de la Holmskoe include 93 monede de argint,
toate de la Constantius ll. In legatura cu cele cinci tezaure sigure din zona
romana se mai po ate remarca faptul ca tezaurele continind monede de pina in
sec. III au fost descoperite in centrele romane Tyras ~i Orlovka, iar acele din
sec. IV- in afara acestor centre antice.
.
O statistica generala a monedelor din 13 ~ezaure sigure cunoscut:e ofera
date deosebit de interesa:nte. Astfel, in barbaricum au fost descoperite opt tezaure
sigure cuprinzind 413 monede, din care 13 AU (3%), 357 AR (86,5%) ~i 43 AE
(10,5%). Cele cinci tezaure din zona romana contin 340 monede, din care 129
AR (38%) ~i 211 AE (62%). A~adar, intre aceste doua zone pot fi observate
importante deosebiri. Monedele de aur apar numai in tezaurele din barbaricLlm.
- 237-

!n c~ea ce P.riv:~t_e mone~ele de bronz ~i de argint, ele apar in ambe!e zone, dar
m pr~po_qu d1fen~e . Astfel, monedele de argint reprezinta 86,5% din masa mo~etara dm barbancum ~i numai 38% din cea descoperita in zona romana.. La
f~J , daca moneda de bronz ajunge la doar 10,5% din masa 1{i_onetara in barbancum , e.a se ridica la 62% in zo~a romana, ceea ce evidentiaza clar circulatia
monede1 marunte din cuprinsul acesteia.
'
'
Deosebirile dintre cele doua zone qevin ~i mai frap ante, daca se face defalcar:a tezaurelor pe pri~cipalele perioady. Astfel, peqtru perioada stapinirii romane 11: sudul Basarab1e1 se, cunosc cite trei tezaure sigure pentru fiecare din cele
dova zone, dar cm11ponenta !or este total dife~ita. Daca tezaurele din barbaricum
(~otunda, T1ghma- l? 14 ~i Larga) cuprind numai monede de argint (184 piese),
cele d~n zona romana (Orlovka, Tyras- 1950 ~i Tyras- 1958), din 238 monede
0
numa1 36 (15%)
sunt de argint, restul 202 (85%) fiind de bronz.
~ .alta grupa de tezaure sigure apare in barbaricum in sec. IV. Trei din ele
(Buda1, q11~mau- l 973 ~i Moldova) cuprind exclusiv monede de argint de Ja
Consiantrns II. Ce! de-al patrulea tezaur (Lucaseuca) contine 43 monede de
bro~z, ~are se. ln~iruie de la Constantius I pina I~ Iulianus Apostatul. Aproximat1v ~111 aceia~1 perioada pr?vin doua tezaure din fosta zona romana (~.ori
sovka ~1 Holmskoe), cu 91 % dm monede de argint ~i 9% - de bronz. Din datele
ment10nate rezulta ca dupa retragerea stapinirii romane din sudul Basarabiei
!ntr_e cele do~1a zone se fac apropieri vizibile in ,ceea ce prive~te masa monetara'.
In fosta zona romana moneda de argint reprezinta 91 %, ceea ce 0 deosebeste
net de penoada anterioara, cu numai 15% moneda de argint, dar apropie 'de
barbancum, unde moneda din acest metal reprezinta 80%. Ceea ce este de
asem~nea se_mnificativ prive~te moneda de bronz, care apare in proportie de
numa1 9% (fata de perioada anterioara cu 85%), ~i se apropie de barbaricum
'
unde moneda de bronz in tezaure ajunge la 20%.
1~ s'.lr~it, tezau.rul cu 13 monede de aur de la Chirileni, cu piese de la Gratianus pma la Hononus, apare in barbaricum.
-~ In,b.arbaricum sunt.1.8 :ezauremai putin sigure (Bal ti, Bannovka, Beleluja,
Biane~t1, Calme~tI, Chr~mau-1972, Cremenciug, Grusevci Malcoci OchiulRo~, ?oroca, Si~inci, Taraclia-1936, Taraclia- 1956, TighinL 1961, Ti~menicja,
T1bmca, V1ctonv) cu 603 monedc;; (10 AU, 593 AR).
Dateaza: din sec. I- un t~zaur (200 AR); din sec. I- II - unul (6 AR); din
sec. II~ ppte tezaure C! AU, 370 AR); din sec. III - doua tezaure (1 AU, 12
AR); dm sec. IV - cmc1_tezaure (4 AU, 5 AR); din sec. IV-V - un tezaur (3
AU); dm sec. V - un tezaur (1 AU).
La sud de Val , in zona romana, au fost descoperite 4 tezaure din aceasta
c~tegone a tezaurelor mai putin sigure (Peremoznoe, Sabo, Vasilevka si
V1pasnoe), cu _54 monede, 41 AR ~i 13 AE. Din sec. II sunt doua tezaure (22
AR , 10 AE); dm sec. II-:--III - unul (4 AR, 4 AE); din sec. Ill - unul (15 AR).
To ate tezaurele nes1gure, 9 la numar, sunt localizate in barbaricum. Despre
ele se cunosc doar unele informatii: Cerniiv - descoperit lntr-un tumul, continea

- 238 -

45 monede diverse; Dubovica - tezaur de monede r6mane din sec. III; Hotin
- tezau:r mare de monede romane, unele piese erau de la Marcus Aurelius;
Lipivka'- '- tezaur de monede romane.de cupru; Pirjolteni - 243 monede romane
~i "monede cu inscriptii turce~ti"; Pirjota - 327 monede romane ~i turce~ti de
aur ~i de argint; Radi-Cere~novat - 1 AR, nedeterminat, dintr-un tezaur cu
monede poloneze din sec. XVII- XVIII; Semjakovci -- monede roma.ne ~i o
fibula ; Stebnik - 8 AR, gasite impreuna cu un inel de argint ~i alte obiecte.
ln spatiul vizat au fost descoperite 8 tezaure cu monede de aur, ce contineau
23 piese, t~ate fiind localizate in barbaricum. Inafara celui de la Chirileni,'restul
fac parte din categoria tezaurelor mai putin sigure. Un tezaur dateaza din sec.
II (Soroca), un altul din sec. III (Grusevci), patru din sec. IV (Chi~i'):i.au- 1972,
Cremenciug, Malcoci ~i Chirileni) ~i doua din sec. V (Ochiul Ro~ ~ i Beleluja) .
Tezaurele cu monede de argint sunt cele mai numerqase - 22, continind
1078 piese. 1n barbaricum au fost gasite 19tezaure (9.50 rnonede), in zo~a romana - 3 (128 monede).
Cl.1 regret, numai sase din tezaurele din barbaricum, contintnd 357 monede,
sunt sigure (Rotunda', Tighina - 1914, Larga, Budai, Chi~inau- 1973 ~i Moldova). Cronologic se profileaza urmatorul tablou: trei tezaure sigure date aza
din sec. II, ~i am1me Rotunda (monede de la Traianus pina la Commodus),
Tighina - 1914 (monede de la Vespasianus pina la Septimius Severus, cu 14
piese neidentificate) ~i Larga (monede de la Galba la Iulia Domna), ~ar alte trei
tezaure sigure dateaza din sec. IV ~i cuprind monede exclusiv de la Constantius
II (Budai, Chi~inau- 1973 ~i Moldova). Dintre tezaurele mai putin sigure merita a fi amintite lnai ales acelea de la Sipinci (200 piese de la VespasianusTitus); Balti ~i Caline~ti (16 ~i respectiv 346 monede de la Antoninus Pius);
Taraclia- 1936 (4 monede, de la Ti'aianus pina la Marcus Aurelius); Tismenicja
(6 monede, de la Vespasianus pina la Faustina II); Bannovka (2 monede de la
Caracalla); Tighiil.a- 1961 (12 monede, de la Alexander Severus pina la Filip I)
si, Taraclia- 1956 (4
monede, de la c 'o nstantius II p:ina la Valentinianus I) , care
'
atesta indubitabil un spectru mai larg al tezaurelor din spatiul discufat fata de
ceea ce ofera "tezaurele relativ sigure''. Tezaurele de la Viktoriv (1 AR Traianus), Tibirica (1 AR Antoninus Pius) ~i Brane~ti (1 AR Constanti1l.s II) sunt
reprezentate de cite o singura moneda, a~a ca aprecieri mai largi la adresa !or
sunt hazardate. In sflrsit,
monedele din tezaurele de la Stebnik si
R adi-Ceres,
'
'
,,
'
nova t n-au fost determinate, a~a incit nu pot fi atrib uite nici unei perioade.
Din 4 tezaure cu monede de cupru (55 piese) doua sunt localizate la nord de
Valul de Sud al lui 'Traian (un tezaur cu 43 piese ~i unul nedeterminat) ~i doua
la sud de Val (un tezaur din sec. II cu 3 piese; al doilea din sec. IV cu 9 piese).
A~adar, din cele t,rei tezaure cu monede de cupru determinate d_
o ar acela de la
Orlovka, cuprinzind num ai trei piese, dateaza din vremea lui Antoninus Pius.
Celelalte doua sunt mult mai consistente ~i dateaza din perioada de dupa retragerea romana din zona. Unul din tezaure a fost descoperit la Borisovka (9 1110nede, de la Constantius I pina la Constans), in perimetrul fostei zone roinane,
- 239 -

i~r alt~l la Luca~euca (40 m_onede - de la Constantius I pinii la Iulianus Apostatul: altele 3 -:- .nedetermmate), aproximativ in zona centralii a Basarabiei
Dupa.datele ofente de cele trei tezaure de la Orlovka, Borisovka 8,i Lucase .'
s ar parea '
1

,
, uca
- . . ~a .1~ genera c.~mst1tmrea teza1,1relor numai cu monedii de bron~ este
ma1 putermca ~n sec. IV decit in perio'a da stiipinirii romane .
'!'e,zaure m1xte au fost .desc?perite in total 6: patru provin din zona romanii,
c?ntmmd monede de argmt ~1 cupru (254 piese) si douii din barbaricum cu
pie~e de AU, AR ~i AE (insii ambele aceste teza~re . sunt din categoria .c~lor
nes1gure).

,
D~n cele pafru teza.ure mixte din ~ona romanii sigure sunt c~le de la Tyr~s1:5.0 ey1 Ty~~s- 195~. :nmul contine 55.monede de bronz (83%), care se in~iruie
de 10a Do~111t1,anus pma la C~racall~ (3 p1ese nedeterminate) ~i 5 monede de argint
(l 7Y~), care mcep cu Hadnanus ey1 se incheie cu Lucius Verus. Al doilea tezaur
contme l ~4 monede d~ bronz (82%), care se e~aloneazii de la Do.\llitianus pin ii
la s.eptn:mus_Seve~us ~1 31 monede de argint (18%), care incep cu Marcus Antonms ~1 se mche1e tot cu Septimius Severus. Ceea ce ni se pare deosebit d
mteresant este prezenta in fiecare tezaur a monedelor de bron.z di'nt
t e
. 1d
, '

.
r-un m erva e tnnp relat1~ i:idelun.gat. AmbeJe acumuJiiri incep tezaurizarea monedelot
d~ bron~ cu Dom1tianu,s ~1 c. on~in~ii dar cu aceia~i imp,iirati (Hadrianus, Antomnu.s ~ms, Commodus ~1 Sept1mms Severus, unul din tezaure mai continind si
doua p1ese de la Caracalla).
'
'
~-au fost det~rminate dupii metal 4 tezaure, toate fiind localizate in nordul
spatmlm pruto-mstrean (Cerniiv, Dubovica, Hotin ~i Semjakovci).
,
A c;lo~a '.are categone de descoperiri monetare o constituie monede]e izo.'
late.
Cantitat1v
d 1ele reprezintii 824 piese: 16 AU , 296 AR , 477 AE s1 35 ne determmate .. upam(;!tal (tab. 1). Dupii zone ele se repartizeazii astfel: J67 in barban~u:n ~1 _282 !n zona romanii, de~i aceasta din unnii are o intindere mult mai
mica. dec1t pnma zo.nii. De asem~nea, majoritatea monedelor din zona romanii
provm _de la Tyr~s ~1 Or.lovka. Dm Insula ~erpilor se cunosc 175 monede. Dupii
metal, 1~ barbancum sunt 12 AU, 179 AR, 141 AE, iar in zona romanii 4 AU
~6 ~R ey1 192 A~. Se remarcii faptul cii din cele 333 monede de bronz aproap~
Jumatate (155. p1ese) au fost ~~scoperite in centrele romane Tyras eyi Orlovka.
.cartograherea descopennlor izolate aratii cii la nord de Valul des d 11
Traian
t
. .
u a m
se .con ureaza tre1 _m1crozone, fiecare cu specificul ei. Prima este situatii
,
m ext~em1ta~e~ nord-vesticii a. spatiului discutat, iri zona cursurilor superioare
ale N1strulm_ey1 Prutului, unde pe o suprafatii destul de redusii se remarca. 0
co:icent~a_re foarte mare de descoperiri monetare izolate. Surprinziitor este nu~a~ul nd1~at a~ monedelor de bronz, care se apropie de acela al pieselor de
.
argmt. Mai rara este moneda de aur (doar doua piese) .
. . 0 a do_:i~ zonii o constituie spatiul pruto-nistrean de la sud de prima zonii,
~1 an~me pma la Valul Leova-Copanca, ce ar putea fi definitii ca zonii centrala..
Spec1f1c pentru aces~ areal es~e o d<;:.nsitate mai mare a monedelor in viii le princ1palelor artere fluviale - N1stru ~1 Prut, dar eyi ale afluentilor lor mai mari _

Raut, Bic, Botna ~ .a . Aici predominii moneda de argint, cele de bronz fiind mai
rar semnalate. Monedele de aur sunt ~i ele rare, dar se poate observa totu~i ca
jumiitate din piesele de aur din intreg spatiul pruto-nistrian au fost giisite in
aceastii zon ii.
A trei a zonii se remarcii intre valul Leova-Copanca ~i valul roman de sud,
in care moneda de argint se reduce drastic in favoarea monedei de bronz. In
cuprinsul ei mai apar eyi trei monede de aur. ,
0 alta situatie este in zona romanii, in cadrul ciireia se profileazii o
preponderentii clarii a pieselor de bronz (192) fatii de cele de argint (86) eyi, cu
atit mai mult, fatii de cantitatea infimii de monede de aur (4).
In barbaricum se atestii existenta unei mase monetare, in cuprinsul'ciireia
preponder('! nte sunt monedele de argint; cele de brbnz ~i aur nu lipsesc, insii
sunt mai rare decit in zona romanii. Pentru aceasta din urmii, mai ales pentru
Tyras ~i Orlovka, este specific un schimb comercial mult mai'intens, utilizarea
cu preciidere a moned ei de bronz fiind indiciul elocvent in aceastii pr'ivintii.
Circulatia monetarii intensii din zona roman ii a influentat ~i teritoriiJe invecinate
de mai la nord: densitatea descoperirilor moneta:re de bronz este multmai mare
pinii in zona valului Le~wa-Copanca in comparatie cu teritoriul de la nordul

acestui val.
Afluxul monedelor romane in arealuJ dintre Prut ~i Nistni a .cunoscut in
timp oscilatii destul de pronuntate, deaceea el trebuie urmiirit pe etape (tabelul 2).
Prima etapii este perioada republicanii, din care s ~ au pastrat 22 monede, 3
din barbaricum eyi 19 din zona romanii.
Din sec. I, divizat in douii perioade (Augustus-Vitelius ~i Vespasianus-Nerva)
au fost inregistrate 337 monede,. 230 in barbaricum ~i 74 in zona romanii; din
Insula ~erpilor provin 33 monede. Aceste douii perioade se deosebesc evident
prin numiirul mult mai mare de monede ce' dateazii din a doua perioadii, ey i
anume 268 piese in tot spatiul pruto-nistrean (deci fiirii Insula ~erpilor) in
perioada Vespasianus-Nerva fatii de numai 36 monede in cea anterioarii
(Augustus ~ Vitelius). Se poate remarca totu~i ca. moneda descoperitii izolat nu
atestii declt o cre.~tere destul de neinsemnatii .
Numarul mai mare de piese din intervalul Vespasianus-Nerva se datoreaza
tezaurului din categoria celor mai putin sigure de la Sipinci, cuprinzind 200
monede, care ar fi putut avea in componenta Jui ~i monede din perioade mai
tirzii, ceea ce ar putea schimba total situatia de acum. Prin urmare; nu avem
siguranta ca nionedele la care ne referim ar fi patruns in spatiul viz at in perioada
Vespasianus-Nerva, intrucit e]e au continua! sa circule eyi multa vreme dupii
aceea, facind parte din masa rnonetarii a imperiului. De fapt acelea~i observatii
sunt valabile ~i pentru moneda descoperita izolat, ca ~i pentru etapele unnatoare.
Intervalul cronologic. de la Traianus pina la Septimius Severus inclusiv,
acoperind in general secolul al II ~i primul deceniu din eel urmator (98--211),
reprezintii perioada cu cea mai mare cantitate de monede descoperite in arealul
geografic dintre Prut eyi Nistru: 1111 piese - 684 in barbaricum, .365 in zona

- -240 - 241 -

r.omana interfluvial;l ~i 62 in Insula ~erpilor. Trebuie de mentionat faptul, ca


cea mai mare cantitate de monede in acest interval de timp revine perioadei
Antoninus Pius-Faustina I (138- 161), cu 522 descoperiri monetare. ln tezaure
au fost descoperite 772 piese (146 in barbaricum, 134 in zona romana prutonistreana ~i 62 in Insula ~erpilor).
Perioada Caracalla - Constantinus I (211-306) cuprinde un numar mult
mai redus, dar inca destul de insemnat de descoperiri: 232 piese, 85 din
barbaricum, 88 din zona rom.ana' ~i _59 din Insula ~erpilor. Sunt 35 monede din
tezaure ~i 197 descoperite izolat.
Descre~terea accentuata a numarului de monede are mai multe cauze, dar
cea principal a este retragerea stapinirii romane din zona Tyras-Orlovka, eveni~ent dupa care tezaurele dispar pentru o vreme din toate zonele spatiului prutomstrean. De asemenea, ~i repartitia dupa metal a monedelor romane emise in
intervalul Caracalla- Constantinus I in diferitele zone din spatiul analizat este
deosebita fata de aceea din perioada precedenta. Astfel, in zona romana din
s1:1d ~i in zona vecina acesteia spre nord pina la valul Leova-Copanca, precum ~i
in zona nord-vestica, situata intre cursurile superioare ale Prutului ~i Nistrului,
moneda ce predomina procentual in chip absolut este aceea de bronz, moneda
de argint devenind ~i mai rara. ,Spre deosebire de zonele mentionate, in regiunea
de la nord de valul Leova-Copanca predomina in continuare monedele de argint.
ln prima jumatate a sec. IV, in perioada Constantinus I - Constantin us II
se observa o noua cre~tere a cantitatii de monede romane: 387 piese, din care
270 in barbaricum, 113 in zona romana ~i 4 in Insula ~erpilor. Din datele mentionate rezulta pe-ansamblu o cre~tere insemnata a numarului de monede romane
emise in perioada Constantinus I - Constantius II (7,04 monede/an) fata de
acelea emise in intervalul anterior Caracalla-Constantinus I (2,44 monede/an).
Sporirea mai accentuata a monedei romane are Joe in fosta zona a barbaricului
unde de la 0,89 monede/an in perioada Caracalla- Constantinus I se ajunge I~
4,91 monede/an in perioada Constantinus I - Constantinus II asadar o crestere
de 5,5 ori. In fosta zona romana aceasta crestere este de num~i ~irca 2 2 ori (de
la 0,9 monede/an la 2, 1 monede/an). Pe I~sula ~erpilor numarul m~nedelor
romane scade vertiginos de la 59 piese (0,6 monede/an) in perioada CaracallaConstantinus I la numai 4 (0,1 monede/an) in intervalul Constantinus I Cons.t antinus II, situatie ce se datoreaza probabil incursiunilor pe mare
intreprinse de goti. Scaderea numarului de monede romane de la 4,9 monede/
an la 1,2 monede/an (de circa patru ori) in fosta zona a barbaricumului side la
2, 1 m_onede/an la 0,2 monede/an (de circa zece ori) in fosta zona romani arata
ca diminuarea cea mai drastica are loc tot in aceasta din urma zona.
Dar in perioada Iulianus-Theodosius I aflu~ul monedelor romane scade
brusc: 48 piese (1,4 monede/an), din care 41 in barbaricum ~i 7 zona romana.
Descoperirile monetare din intervalul Constantinus I - Theodosius I (306395) mai atrag atentia ~i prin repartizarea lor dupa metal pe zone. Astfel, in
fosta zona romana de la sud ~i in zona invecinata ei spre nord pina la valul
- 242 -

Leova-Copanca, precum ~i in acea dintre cursurile superioare ale Prutului ~i


Nistrului s-au descoperit aproape exclusiv monede de bronz. ln schimb, in zona
centrala a barbaricumului apar marea majoritate a monedelor de argint ~i aur,
desi nici acele de bronz nu lipsesc. in sfirsit, ultima perioada, Arcadius-Zenon,
este reprezentata prin 22 descoperiri mo~etare, din care 17 in barbaricum, 4 in
fosta zona romana si 1 pe Insula ~erpilor. Schematic descoperirile monetare
determinate dupa. e~itenti pot fi clasificate dupa metal astfel.

~ctrulli

AU

AR

18
248

AB

Total

Pe

Republicana
Augustus-Nerva
Traianus-Septimius Severus
Caracalla-Constantinus I
Constantinus I - Theodosius I
Arca.di us-Zenon
To ta I

1
2

991

92

18
12
37

288
l

1638

3
83
102
126
125
9
448

5
16
11

4
-

36

22
337
l lll

232
435
22
2159

Este evident ca in general moneda de argint a avut cea mai mare raspindire
in arealul vizat, prevalind mult asupra monedei de aur ~i bronz ih epoca: republicana ~i in sec: I, II ~i IV.' Foarte putine piese de bronz ajung pina aici in epoca
republicana, insa treptat numarul lor cre~te, ajungind in sec. III sa depa~easca
cantitativ pe cele de argint. Monedele de aur cunosc o raspindire mai larga in
Sec. IV ~i mai ales in sec. V, cind depa~esc numarul pieselor 'de argint ~i bronz,
luate impreuna.

Unele remarci interesante pot fi facute cu privire la prezenta monedelor


romane de bronz descoperite izolat in spatiul pruto-nistrean. Mai mult de jumatate din numarul monedelor de bronz provin de la Tyras, ceea ce atesta intensitatea circulatiei monetare din acest important centru urban aflat pe limanul
Nistrului. Trebuie de mentionat :insa ca moneda de bronz abunda la Tyras pina
in vrernea Severilor. In zona romana adiacenta, pina la Valul de Sud al lui
Traian, moneda de bronz este prezenta, dar in numarmai redus ~i abia incepind
cu Traianus. Afluxul maxim de monede de bronz in aceasta zona este de obs_ervat
in intervalul de la Caracalla pina la Constantius II.
ln zona invecinatade la nord de teritoriul roman, pina la valul LeovaCopanca, prima moneda de bronz descoperita izolat dateaza din perioada lui
Hadrianus. Cele mai multe monede de bronz sunt insa emisiuni din perioada
Caracalla-Constantinus I si mai ales Constantinus I - Constantius II. In zona
centrala a spatiului prutd~nistrean, aflata la nord de valul Leova-Copanca,
monedele de bronz sunt prezente in numar mai ridicat tot in perioada CaracallaConstantis II. Remarca ramine valabila ~i pentru zona nordica a .spatiului
dintre Prut ~i Nistru. Spectaculoasa ar putea fi considerata prezenta aici in
numar foarte ridicat a m:onedelor de bronz emise'in perioada Constantinus I Constantinus II (306-361). Cu cele 14 piese de bronz; aceasta zona intrece nu
numai zona centrala (6 monede) ~i de sud (9 monede) a barbaricuniului, ci chiar
arealul zonei romane, unde s-au descoperit numai 12 piese.
-243 -

Monedele romane din spatiul pruto-nistrean au fost emise in circa 30 orase


ale lmperiului roman, situate ~tit in Italia, cit ~i in provincii: de la Londiniu~
(Londra) la nord pina la Alexandria la sud, ~i de la Tarraco Ia vest pina la
Panticapeum la est. Locul atelierului de ernisie a fost determinat pentru 983
monede din totalul de 2859 piese descoperite.
Prezenta cea mai numeroasa in zona barbaricului o au monedele provenind
din Constantinopol, Rorria, Sirmium, Siscia, Antiochia, Aquileia ~i Trier. O
raspindire relativ uniforma in intreg spatiul pruto-nistrean au, .alaturi de
monedele emise la Roma, ~i cele ce provin din Siscia, Sirmium ~i Heracleia.
Piesele emise in Tessalonic, Antiochia, Constantinopol ~i Cyzicus au fost descoperite in partea de sud (zona romana) ~i centrala (din barbaricum) a spatiului
discutat. Numai in barbaricum, in zona nordica si centrala a arealului vizat au
fost gasite monede provenind din Trie.r ~i Lugdu~m:n. Pe.de alta parte, din u~ele
ateliere monetare (Olbia, Tyras, Histria, Tomis ~i Deultum) patrund piese numai
in zona romana, iar din altele (Londinium, Tarraco) numai in zona de nord a
spatiului dintre Prut ~i Nistru. Din acest punct de vedere este extrem de interesanta pr~zenta masiva a monedei batute in diverse ate!iere vestice ale lmperiului
roman in zona nordicil,, dintre cursurile superioare ale Prutuh1i ~i Nistrului . .
Prin atelierele de provenienta, monedele romane ajunse in aceastii zona se deosebesc radical de acelea din restul zonei barbaricului ~i de zona romana din sud.
Sunt ~i citeva descoperiri monetare mai deosebite: o piesa emisa la Alexandria,
descoperita in eentrul arealului pruto-nistrean, al ta provenind din Panticapeum,
gasita in nordul acestui spatiu ~i, in sfiqit, o moneda din Arelate, descoperita in
zona romana. Dar ~i aceste exceptii par sa demonstreze, ca in arealul prutonistrean moneda romana patrunde pe doua cai principale: din sud, prin zona
romana, din provinciile orientale ale Imperiului, in majoritatea cazurilor, ~i din
nord, prin zona cursurilor superioare ale Prutului ~i Nistrulu~ , din provinciile
romane din Europa de Vest.
.
.
n unele cazuri monedele romane au fost descoperite in context arheologic,
~i in baza !or s~au fa.cut incercari de a rezolva cu ajutorul lor probleme de cronologie (18, 19, 20, 21,22). De cele mai multe ori monedele provin din stratul
cultural. Sunt cunoscute doar 7 cazuri de depistare a lor in complexe inchise din
a~ezari de tip Sintana de Mure~-Cernjachov: tezaurul de la Holmskoe (sec. IV;
23), descoperirile izolate de la Cucoara II (sec. II), Ruseni (2 monede, sec. II si
sec. IV), Sobari (sec. III) ~i Solonceni .(sec. IV), care au fost gasite in locuint~ .
La Mindre~ti doi denari din sec. II au fost depistati in groapa cupto,rului de
redus minereu (24).
Din 49 complexe arheologice provin 704 monede romane (632 din componenta a 6 tezaure ~i 72 descoperite izolat). Marea majoritate a monecj.elor
descoperite in context arheologic provin din situri apartinind culturii Sintana
de Mure~ - Cernajachov. Astfel, toate cele 6 tezaure provin din a~ezari ale .
acestei culturi (Budai, Caline~ti, Chi~iHau- 1973 , Gru~evci, Holmskoe III,
Lucaseuca).
Patru tezaure sunt din sec. IV. Trei din ele (Budai ' Chisinau,
,

. r

1973 ~i Holmskoe III), continind piese de argint de la Constantius II, au loturile


principale emise in doua si aceleasi ateliere : Constantinopol si Sirmiurn. Cele
doua caracteristici, la ca;e se mai,adauga ~i lipsa de uzura a 1;ieselor, permite
formularea ipotezei ca fondul principal al acestor tezaure a fost primit de la
aceea~i sau eventual acelea~i surse ~i, de ase)11enea, ca cele trei tezaure au fost
constituite la scurta vreme dupa baterea rnonedelor. Foarte probabil ele provin
din plata unor stipendii. Al patrulea tezaur (Luca~euca) consta din piese de
bronz.
In alte 25 asezari de tip Sintana de Mure~ - Cernjachov au fost descoperite
izolat 38 piese:' 32 AR ~i 6 AE. Bin 7 necropole ale acestei culturi provin 13
piese (11 AR, 2 AE).
Purtatorii culturii Sintana de Mure~ - Cernjachov utilizau , pe linga monedele emise recent, ~i monede mult mai vechi, majoritatea din categoria acestora
datind din sec. II. Trebuie remarcat ~i faptul, ca erau utilizate nu numai rnonede
de argint, ci ~i de bronz. Cunoa~te1i1 3 monede din a~ezari ~i 5 din morminte
apartinind acestei culturi, ce erau perforate sau aveau cite o urechiu~a pentn~
atirnare. Prin urmare, folosirea monedelor pentru datarea complexelor cul turn
Sintana de Mure~ - Cernjachov trebuie sa se facii in general cu multa prudenta.
ln mormintele sarmatice monedele romane sunt mult mai rare.
Trei monede de bronz provin din doua a~ezari "de tip Etulia", cinci au fost
gasite in doua a~ezari de tip Mologa II, iar zece piese - in trei a~ezari din
pdmele secole d. Chr., care n-au,putut fi atribuite unei anumite culturi arheolog1ce.
Ipoteze referitoare la rolul monedei romane in viata locuitorilor din spatiul
pruto-nistrean, cit ~i ~lte aspecte ale problemelor abordate in rindurile de mai
sus, vor putea fi nuantate ulterior, prin noi descoperiri ~i cercetari tematice.

-244-

T abelul
Dcscoperiri monetare romane din spatiul pruto-nistrean

~e

AE

Barbaricum

Zona

De>COJ>t.,'>firi izolate

I I I I

AR

AV

141

179

12

35

367

45

1195

Tyras

130

59

191

196

36

,Orlovka

25

34

37

18

57

22

134

192

86

282

221

170

144

31

477

296

Insula

~rpilor

TOTAL

Insula

~erpilor

Tezaure
AR

total

Restul
roma- teritoriului
na
Total.

~i

All

I I I

TOTAL

AV

total

29

372

1641

2008

235

426

37

156

213

394

676

175
16

35

824
- 245--

175
266

1365

29

375

2035

2859

Ta be! ul 2
. Structura descoperirilor de monede romane pe grope de emiten\i ~i zone
Barbaricum

Ins. $erpi Jar

Zona roman<\

Total

Temure

Total

Izola!

Tezaure

Total

Izola!

Total

34
51
61
69

3
14
216
74
469
141
85

4
21
31
52
25
54
69

1
206
40
418
80
16

6
22
52
76
39
250
88

13
16
17
11
14
37
59

16
17
II
14
37
59

22
52
285
161
522
428
. 232

62
19
9
331

,208
22
8
999

270
41
17
1330

12
4
4
276

113
4
4
654

4
3
I
175

4
3
I
175

387
48
22
2 159

lzolat

Republicana
Augustus-Viteli us
Vespasianus-Nerva
Traianus-Hadrianus
A. Pius-Faustina I
M. Aurelius-S. Severus
Caracalla-Constantin us I
Constantinus IConstantinus II
lulianus-Theodosius I
Arca di us-Zenon
To ta I

3
13
JO

21
24
14
196
19

IOI

378

13

NOTE
1

Nudelman A. A. , Rikman E. A. Dva klada i nahodki otdel'nyh monet (rimskih i rannevizantijskih)


iz Moldavii , in Izvestija Moldavskogo fi l\ala .Akademii Nauk SSSR, Chi~inau, 1956.
2
Fedorov G. B. Rimskie i rannevizantijskie monety na territorii MSSR, in Omagiu lui C. Daicoviciu
cu prilejul Jmplinirii a 60 ani, Bucure~ti, 1960.

3
Brajcevs 'kij M. I . Rims' ka moneta na territorii Ukrainy; Kiev, 1959. '
4
Kropotkin V. ' V. Klady rimskih monet na territorii SSSR, in Svod arheologiceskih istochikoy
(in continuare SAI), G4-4, Moscova, 1961.
.
5 Karyskovskij P. 0. Nahodki rimskih monet v Odesskoj oblasti, Jn Kratkiesoobscenija Odesskogo
Gosudarstvenli.ogo Arheologiceskogo Muzeja, 1961. Odesa, 1963.

6
Kropotkin V. V. Novye nahodki rimskih monet v SSSR, in Numizmatika i epigrafika (in
continuare NE), VI, 1966.
7 Rikman E. A. Deneznoe obrascenie u plemen Dnestrovsko-Prutskogo mezdurec'ja v pervyh
'
vekah n .e., in NE, IX, 1971.
8
Karyskovskij P. 0. Nahodki pozdnerimskih i vizantijskih monet v Odesskoj oblasti, Jn M aterialy
po arheologii Severnogo Pricernomor'ja, VII, 19'71.
9 Nudelnwn A.A. Monety iz raskopok i sborov 1971- 1972 gg., in Arheologiceskie issledovanija
v Moldavii (in continuare AIM), III, Chi~inau , 1974.
10
Nudelman A. A. Monety iz raskopok i sborov 1972- 1973 gg., in AIM, IV, Chi~inau, 1974.
11 Preda C. Circulatia monedelor romane postaureliene in D acia, Jn Studii ~i cercetari de isto rie
.
veche ~1 arheol ogie, Bucur~ti, t. 26, 1975, nr. 4.
12
Karyskovskij P. 0. Nahodki anticnyh i vizantijskih monet v Odesskoj oblasti. Kiev-Od esa
1976.
.
'
13 Nudelman A. A. Topografija kladov i nahodok edinicnyh monet, in AKM, 8, 1976.
14
N udelman A. A . Ocerki istorii monetnogo obrascenija v Dnestrovsko-Prutskom regione.
Chi~ iniiu , 1985.
15
Sto/jarik E. S., Postika G. I., Nudelman A. A. Klad rimskih denariev iz s . Rotund a DnestroKarpatskogo regiona, in Severo-Zapadnoe Pricernomor'e - kontaktnaja zona drevnih kul'tur.
Kiev, 1991.

16 Rozumenko I. G. Klad antonini anov iz Bolgradskogo raiona. in. Numizmatika anticnogo


Pricernomor'ja. Kiev, 1982.
- 246 - -

Gudkova A. V., Stoljarik E. S. Kompleks pozdneanticnyh pamijatnikov us. Holmskoe Odesskoj


obi., in Pamjatniki dreynej istorii Severo-Zapadnogo Pricernomor'ja Kiev, 1985 .
1 Fedorov G. B. R imskie i rannevizantijskie monety .. . P. 185.
19 Rikman E. A. Deneznoe obrascenie ...
20 Rikman E. A. Etniceskaja istoria neselenija Podnestrov'ja i prilegajuscego Podunav'ja v pervyh
vekah nasej ery. Moscova, 1975.
2 1 Rikman E. A. Pamjatniki sa1matov i plemen cernjachovskoj kul 'tury, Jn Arheologiceskaja
karta Moldavii (AKM), 5, 1975.
22 Nudelman A. A. Ocerki istorii...
23 Gudkova A. V, Stoljarik E. S. Kompleks ... P. 80.
24 Tentiuc I. S. Poselenie pervyh vekov n .e. us. Myndresty, Jn AIM v 1985 g. Chi~inau 1990. P.
164, fig. 1.5.6; p. 167.

11

Sununary
The article "Finds of the Toman Coins in the Dniester-Pruth Interfluve" reviews the
catalogue-map of the Roman coins distribution within the area . Tl~is code is based on the
:previous map, worked aut by A. A. Nudelman and includes the supplementary data, collected within the recent 10 years. As a result of this the volume of the numismatic 1p.aterial
have been increased almost by 3 times (from 1108 to 2859 units). The research aspects are
various and include deposites and single finds , metal structure of finds (bronze, silver and
gplden coins), coin origination sources (in accordance with the empire mints) ; elaboratiion
of the relative divisoin into periods of the Roman coins influx on the basis of the emperors,
emiting the coins, and zones of the area, archeological context in the cases, when a deposit
or single coins are discovered on archeo logical sites.

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- 247 -

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-249-

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TaK)l(e, KaK I1 B .[(pyrux paiioHax pacnpocTpaueumr KYJI,hTYPhI Tima nyr<IIPaiiKOBeU:IWM. Ho B KOHU:e IX ~ Ha<rane X B. ou;:t B. ceBepHoii <racni
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OTHOCHT J( 6anKaHO-.[(yHaiicKOH KYJihType.

10

Pycmwea Jf. II. CrraBllHCKHe t1peB1IOCTH ... C. 10-16.

A. T, J(03Jloe B:, H. CrraBllHCKoe noceJJe1rne ~0H11a I Tblcl!qenenrn H.3. y c. I1Ia6o Ha


,nm:cTpOBCKOM JJHMaHe fl Apxeonorw1ecK1c1e,.Hcc1iet1onauwll cpemreneKoni,1x naMll'JO
HHKOB B
,nHeCTpOBCKo-IlpyTCKOM Me>KAype'lbe l):rnH. 1985. c. 119-136.
12 '-Je6omapeuKo r r/J. Ma:;epHaJJE.1 K apxeorrorJo\'ICCKOH KapTe naMllTHH~on VIII---X BB. I?>KHOH
'!aCTH IIpyTcKo-,nHeCTpOBCKoro Me>K,[lype'lhll // ,naneKoe nporurroe MorrAaBHH. KruH~ 1969.
C. 213; <l>et1opoB r . E.~ 1.J:e6ornpeHKO r . <I>. flaMl!THHKH ,[lpeBHHX crraBllH ... C. 7.
13 '-Je6omapeflKO r r/J. Karrqia ropO,[IHll.(e VIII--X BB ... .C. 12, 87- 88; qe6ornpeHKO r . <D.
HacerreHHe 1.1e1rrparr.bHOH qaCTH ... C,. 5. .
11

CMU!leflKO

Summary "

The article reviews the essues connected with the correlation of the East-Slav cult~re of the
Luca-Raykovetskaya type and the succesive aincient-Russian and Balcfln-Danubian cultures on
the territory of the Dniester-Pruth Interfluve. The at)thor draws attention to the fact that the
genesis problem of the Balcan-Danubia.n ci1lture is not 'completely solved at present and that the
'
Luca-Raykovetskaya type antiquities present one of i~~ cbmponents.

'

'

1;

n., Pa6HHoBw P.A.

TenbHos H.

APXEOJ10rJ.14ECKME MCCJIEJlOBAHHSI HA nocEJ1EH"1J.1 CKOK


IIPMMEYJAHIUI
1

Pycmwaa Jf. II. CmulllHCKHe ApeBHOCTH VI-IX BB. Me)l(AY ,nHenpoM H 3ana,[IHbIM EyroM //.

CAM. 1973. El-25.


,
2
T:,e!lbfl06 H. II. HeK6Topb1e HTorn H 3a,[laqu u3yqeHHll crraBl!HCKoij KYJJbTYPhl VI -IX BB. Ha
1:eppHTOpl!H Morr,[laBHH // ApxeorrornqecKne wccrre,[loBaHHll B Morrt1aBHH B 1983 r. Kum. 1988.
c . 3- 19.'
3
TUMou1yK E. 0. CrroB'llHH IliBHiqiloi EYKOBHHH V_:IX: CT. KwiB. 1976. C. 24-25, 44; PycaHona M. II.
CrranllHCKHe J1PeBHOCTH ... C. 21; .IIpwxoAHIOK 0. M. <L'.rroB'llHH Ha 1Jot1i.rmi (V-VII er. H.3.). KHin.
197_5. C. 45. IlpHXOAHIOK 0. M. Apxerroriq!'li naM'llTKH CepeAHbOro IlpHAHinpo~'fi VI-IX
H.3.
Kum. 1980. C. 14, 47-59.

,
4
Pycafl06a11./I. crr'aBllHCKHe APCBHOCTH ... C. 10-16.
5
TUMOUJYK E. q CrroB'llHH IIiBHi'IHOi ,EyKoBHHbl... C. 98-99.
6
Muxaii!lufld 0J.9IJ,:;' Tu.Mo1AJyK E. A . CrraBllHCKHe naMl!THHKH 6acceiiHa BepxHero IIpyTa. VIIIX BB. //. ,CrraBiiHe Ha ,nHecTpe H ,ny*iae. Kuen. 1983. C. 205 - 219; Mwxaii1inHa JI. rr.
CrraBllHCKHe APCBHOCTH BepxHoro IIbnpyTbll VIII-X BB. AnTopeijlepaT ;:iwcc .... KaHA. u~.
HayK. K~en. 1984; MaKCHMOB E. B., IleTparneHKO B. A. CrraBllHCKHe naMl!THHKH y c.
MoHaCT.b1peK Ha Cpe,[IHeM ,nHenpe. Kuen. 1988; IleTpallleHKo B. 0. Crron'~HCE.Ka KepaMiKa
.VIII-IX CT. npaBo6epe)i(bll CepeAHhoro IIot1HinpoB'll. K11in. 1992.
7
XblltKy Jf. r K Bonpocy 0 paccerreHHH THBCpl\eB 11 YJJHqefi B Ilo,[IHeCTp,OBbe // IOro-Bo(,'TOqHall
EBpona B cpe,[IHMe ~eKa. KrnH. 1972. c. 159- 175; qe6ornpeHKO r. <I>: K Bonpocy 06
3THHqecKOH np11Ha,[IJJC)l(HOCTI1 6arrKatlO-AYHUHCKOH KYJJbTYPbl B IO)l(HOii tiaCT11 ' flpyTCK.O.nHe(,'TpOBCKOro MC)l(,[1ype%ll ii 3THH'Jec1<a.ll HCTOpHll BOCTOqHblX poMaHl..\CB. M. 1979. C. 86105; qe6oTapeHKO r. <I>. HaceJJem1e 1.1eHTpaJJbHOH 'IaCTH .nHeC'I'POBCKO-IlpyrcKoro Me>KAype%ll
BX-XII BB. Krnn. 1982; Ilne-rnena C. A. EarrKaHo-AyHaHCKall KYJJE.Typa // CTenH EBpa3HH B
311oxy cpe,[IHeBeKOB.bli. Apxeorrornll CCCP. M. 1981. C. 75- 77.

8
r/Jeoopoe r. E., 'le6orriapeHKO r. <P .. IlaMJITHHKH ,llpeBHHX CJJaBl!H (VJ _'.._XJII BB. //
ApxeorrornqecKall Kaprn Mo'rr'.riaBcKOH CCP. Bhm. 6. Krun .. 1974. C. 5- 11.
9
'le6omapeHKO r r/J. Kampa - ropO,[IHme VIII-X BB. Ha ,nneCTpe. Krun. 1973; qe6ornpeHKO r. <I>.
K BOnpocy 06 3TH!fqecKOH npHHa,[IJJe>KHOfTH ... 8,6-105; <l>eAOPOB r. E., IlqJJeBOH JI. JI .
. ApxeoJJorHl! PyMbIHHH. M. 1973. C. 264.

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w1n1ui

flnaHhI H pa3pe3hl nony3eMJlllHOK

46, 49, 50, 52, nern 30.

B 3arra.n;uoM yrJiy I<OTJIOBa);ia rrorry3eMJIHHKH


75 CM B Bepxtteil 11acTn c1010I-Ia n ua 60 CM B r-rmr<ueil oT ypol3H}l oforapy)Kemrn.
C r eHKH MaTepnKOBhre , npHMbie , OTBCCI-Ihie . YrrrhI KOTIIOBai-Ia cJr en<a
cKpyrrreHbI. ITorr ropn30HTMI>HhIH , poBI-IhIH, MaTepHKOBhitt'. B norry 3 rmio-IOM
yrrry KOTIIOBaI-Ia BbrnBIICHa HMKa, B03M0)KH0, CTOJ160Ba}l, 01rn OB<Ulbl-la5I B
nrrar-re, .zmaMeTpOM 20 CM H yrrry6rrer-ra B norr Ha 1'5 CM .

"'

pa3Meu~arrach

rreq1>-KaMeHKa .

' Omi: 6bma CJIOIKeHa 113 KaMHeil 6orrhm11x 11 cpe,n;Hnx pa3MepoB . B wiaHe pa3B<U1
HMCII COBeprueHHO HenpaBHJihIIYIO q)OpMy pa3MepoM 130x 140x 160x200 CM H
B03B1>uuar1c5I ua.n; ypoBr-reM rrorra r-ra 30 CM . MaTep11KOB1>IH rro.n; 61>m OBaIIhHbIH,
rrpH6JI111KaIOll.(HHC5I I< Il0,D;Ilp5IMOyrOJihHOH rliopMe, p33MCpOM 60x70 CM. rrry6HHa
rrpO)!(Ora COCTaBJI5IIIa 6 CM. y CTbCM neq1>-KaMCHI<a 6hT.fla OpHCHTHpOBaHa I< ceneponocroqHOH cTeH1<e I<orrrcrnatta r10Hy3eMJI5IHKH .
- 255 -

B 1arr0Jmemrn KOTJIOBaHa 6brnll Hali.lleHhI 1<epaMn'lecirne npncnm.1,a (pHc.


1, 11 , 12), HeCKOITbKO l\lparMeHTOB KpacHOI'JIHH5IHbIX aMcpop, a TaK>Ke rrerrmrn
cnaBnHcKa5l KepaMrma nma JlyKH-PaliKoBeUKOii. TaKan )J(e i<epaMHKa 6hma
Hatt)J,eJ-Ia Ha rr'ony H B pa3Barre ITe'lH-KaMeH!<H. no KepaMH'leCKOMy MaTepuarry
nony1eMJIHHKy 46 MO)J(J-IO )J,aTHpoBaT& VIII- HarnnoM IX BB.
J:... -

--

~/

"""----'

..

.,

'

_e_

Puc. 3. l1nan&111 pa3pe3&I nony3eMJJJIHOK 47, 48, 51A, 51E, c&1pot1yrn&1x rop1100 12, 13.

- 256-

IloJiyJeMJrn:Hlca47. (pHc. 3, 1) 6brna BbrnBnena B Bepxnell: 'laCTH nQceneum1


B03ne neca, Ha paCCT05IHllH 7,5 M K IOI'O-BOCTOKY OT nony1eMn5IHKll 46.
KonioBaH nony1eMn5IHKH B nna11e HMen TIO.llITPHMoyrorrhHYIO qiopMy pa1MepoM
325x330x350x320 CM, 6brn opHeHTHpOBaH yrnaMH no crpaHaM CBeTa, yrny6ne11
1
Ha 50 CM B aepxHell: qacTn cKno11a H Ha 30 CM a HH)J(Heii oi ypoBHH oforapy)J(eHHH.
CTeHKH rrp5IMbie, MaTepHKOBbie, OTBeCHbie. y I'Jlbl KOTnOBaHa CKpyrneHbI. non
ropn10HTaJihHhiii poBHhiii MaTepHKOBhiii. B nony, nocepe.llHHe roro-BOCTO'!Hoii
cTeHr<n BI>rnBneHa o.n;na, a nocepe.n;1me 10ro-1ana.n;1-10ii CTemm -;- eme .[(Be
cTon6oBhie HMKH. Bee HMKH oBaJibHhre B nnaHe, pa1MepaM11 20- 25 CM 11
yrny6neHHhre a non Ha 20 n 45 CM.
B aocTo'lHOM yrny KOTnoBaHa nony1eMnHHKH pa1Memanach ne'lh-KaMeHI<a,
npHMOyronhHOH a ,nnatte cpopMbI, pa1MepoM 110x120 CM ll B03BbIWaJiaCb Ha.n;
nonoM Ha 50 CM. ne'lb 6bma CJIO)J(etta H3 KaMttell: 6onhIUHX ll cpe.[(HllX pa1MepoB.
ne'!h-KaMem<a nony1eMnHHKH 47 HMena .n;Ba cTponTenbHhIX nepHo.n;a. TaI<oii
BbIBO.ll CJie)J,yeT ll3 <llaI<Ta rrepeI<pbIBaHml .D:BYX TIO)J,OB ne'!H. l1epBOHa'!anhHblll
no.n; MaTep11KOBhIH, 6brn yrny6nett OT YP.OBHH nona Ha 4-5 CM, nMen
no.n;npHMOYI'OJlbHYIO qiopMy pa3MepOM 30x40 CM M rny6HHY npO)J(OJ'a 5 CM.
Y CTbeM ne'lI>-KaMe1rna 6&rna opnettT11poBaua I< roro-1ana.n;Holl: cTeHI<e
KOTJIOBaHa, H cy.n;H no pacnono)J(eHHIO 110.n;a 6bma 6JIII)J(e Bb([(BHHyTa K Heil,
'leM BO BTopoll: neptto.n;. 3aTeM ne'!h 6brna nepecrpoetta. nepBoHa'laJihHhiii no.[(
6bIJI 1acbmaH CMeIUaHHOH 113 I'JIIIHbl M qepH03eMa 3eMJI5IHOH npOCJIOHKOH
TonIIwnoii 4-'--5 CM. no.n; y)J(e .nepecTpoemrnii nern 11Men npHMoyrorrhHy10
cpopMy pa1Mep'oM 80x50 CM 11 rny6Htty npo)J(ora 4 CM. YcneM.rrepecTpoetttta'H
neqr, TaK)J(e 6hrna' opttetti ttpoBatta I< roro-1ananuoii cTeHI<e KOTJIOBaHa.
B :mnosrneH:HH KOTJroBaua nony1eMJIHHKH 47 6bmH Haiineubr KepaMH'lec1we
npHcmu.1,e (pHc. 1, 13), qiparMeHT )J(epHoBa, a TaK)J(e cpparMeHThI nenuoll:
panuecnaBHHCKoii nocy.[(hI VI-IX BeKoB ll 1 cpparMeHT crettI<ll canTOH.llHOii
qeptton0IIJ,eHOH CTOnOBOH I<epaMllKII. no ne11HOH KepaMHKe, HaH)J,eHIIOH B pa3BaJie
ne'lH-KaMeHKH H Ha nony, nony3eMJIHHKY 47 MO)J(HO nan1poBaTh VI- VII BB. ,
IloJIYJeMID1H1ca 48. (pn'c. 3, 2) 6hma BhrnBneHa B Bepxneii 'laCTII nocenen11H,
B03Jie s1eca, B 2 MI< 10ro-1aml.llY OT nony1eMnHK1147. KoTnOBatt nony1eMnHHI<ll
B nnane HMeJJ TIO.llTIPHMOyrOJibHYIO cpopMy pa3MepoM 300x280x320x310 CM ~
6bIJI OplieHTHpOBaH CTettaMII no CTpanaM CBeTa, yrny6neH Ha 65 CM B BepxHeii
qacnt CKJIOHa If Ha 50 CM B HH)J(J-Ieii OT ypOBHH o6ttapy)J(emrn. CTeHKil
OTHOCHTeJibHO pOBHhie. YrJihl KOTJIOBaHa CI<pyrneHhl. non pOBHbIH ,
MaTepHKOBhiii, KaMeHHCThIH. B nony nocepe.n;IIHe 1ana.[(noll:, IO)J(Hoii u
BOCTO'!HOI-i: CTeH, a TaK)J(e B IOI'O-BOCTO'!HOM yrny KOTJIOBaHa o6Hapy)J(eHbI 4
CTOJI60Bbie HMKH, OBaJlhHbie B nnaHe, pa1MepOM 20x25 'CM H yrny6neHHbie B
llOJI Ha 10- 30 CM.
B ceBepo-1ana.[(HOM yn~y KOTJIOBana -nony1eMJIHKH pa1MeII1.aJiach 11e'lh1<aMeH1<a . B nnaHe ona npnMoyronhHOH cpopMbI pa1MepoM 120xl35 CM H
B03BbIIIIaJiaci;, Ha.[( HOJIOM Ha 80-90 CM. ne'!b 6brna CJIO)J(eHa H3 KaMHeii
60.TihIII11x II cpe.[(HHX pa3MepoB. MaTepuKOBhIH no.[( HMeJ1 non0Banhny10 cpopMy
-257 -

pa3MepoM 58x65 CM n rny6m1y rrpo)!{ora 4 CM. YcTheM rre'lhKaMeima 6hIJia


opneHTHpOBaI-Ia K lO)!{HOH CTeHKe .I<OTJlOBaHa.
B 3arromiettnn norry3eMJJHHKH 6hurn tta.HJ(eHhI cpparMeHT )l(eJte3Horo
KOJlbIJa, cpparMeHT KepaMR'IeCKOro npHCJlHIIa (pnc. 1) 15), J(Ba TO'IHJ1hHhIX
KaMHH, cpparMeHThI nermq.H nocyJ(hI VI --VII BB. n rottiapttoii KepaMHKH T11rra
IleTpyxa-Jlyr<ameB, ~a. no KepaMHKe, HaHJ(eimOH B pa3Bane Ue'lH-KHMeHI<H,
nony3eMJrnHI<Y 48 MO)l(HO J(aTnpoBaTb VI--'-VII BB.
ITonyJeM,JUIHKa 49" (pnc. 2, 2) 6hIJia Ta.I<)l(e B_
h rnBnetta B Bepxtteil qacrn
noceneHHH, B03Jle neca, na paCCTOi!H1111 40 MK 3atiaJ(y OT nony3eMJIHIIKH 46.
KoTnoBaH nony3eMni!HKH B nnane HMeJ1 npHMoyronhny10 cpopMy pa3M~poM
300x340x320350 CM, opnenTnpoBan yrnaM11 no CTpamlM CBeTa, yrny6neH Ha
50 CM B BepxHeH 'laCTH CKJIOHa H Ha 25 CM B HH)l(HeH OT ypOBHil o6Hapy)i(eJrnH.
CTefIKH MaTepHKOBhie, npHMhie, OTBeCHhie. Yrn1>1 enema CKpyrneHbl. non
ropH30HTaJlbHbIM, poBHhIH, iviaTepHI<OBbIH. B nony nocepeJ(HHe ceBepoBOCTO'lHOH H IOrO-BOCTO'lHOH CTeHOK; a TaK)l(e B ceBepHOM yrny KOTnOBaHa
HMeIOTCH TPH CTOJI60Bbie HMKI1. nepBbie J(Be, OBaJlbHbie B rrnane,, pa3MepaMH
25x30 CM, yrny6neHbI.B non Ha 20 CM. 51/'1Ka, pacnono)!{eHI-IaH B ceBepHOM yrny
KOTnomrna, Ta.K)!{e yrny6neHa B non na 20 CM, OBaJJbHHH B rmaHe, pa3MepOM
55x60 CM.
l
B BOCTO'lHOM yrny I<OTJIOBa.Ha nony3eMJIHHI<H pa3Meruanacb ne'Ih-I<aMe~I<a,
IIO'lTH npHMoyronbHOH B IIJiaIIe q)OpMbI, pa3MepOM 1_
5 0xl 70 CM, ll B03BbllIIaJJa.Cb
mlJ( ypoBHeM rrona I-Ia 55 CM. KaM1m 6bm11 B ocI-IOBI-IOM I<pynBhIX H cpeJ(HHX
pa3MepoB. noJ( MaTepHI<OBbIH 65x60 CM. YcTheM rre'lh 6bma o6parueI-Ia I<
10ro-3anaJ(HOH CTeI-II<e I<OTnoBaHa. Tonru11m1 noJ(a J(OCTHrna 5 CM .
B 3anonHemm I<OTnoBaBa nony3eMJIHHI<M 6bmM BaiiJ(eHbI )i(eJJe3Boe
KOnhIJO, I<epaMH'IeCI<Oe npHCJlIIIIe (p11c. 1) 14) II 3aCTbIBIIIaH KarrnH IIBeTHOro
MeTi[lJIJJa. KpoMe Toro, B 3anonHeHIIH H B pa3Bane ne'lII-I<aMemrn (/hma fHU1J(eHa
p<nrnecnaBHI-ICI<aH nenHaH I<epaMm<a, no I<OTopoii nony3eMnHHI<Y 49 fy!O)l(HO
J(aTttpOBaTh VI--VII BB.
,
,ITonYJeMlllHKa 50. (pIIc. 2,5) 6hma BbIHBneHa B cpeJ(I-Ieil no BbICOTe prnona
'laCTH noceneHIIH, B 38, 7 MI< cesepo-BOCTOI<Y OT nony3eMnHHKrr 49. KoTJJOBaH
nony3eMJIHHKll 50 HMen npHMOyrOJlhHYIO cpopMy pa3MepoM 180xl80xl 85xl 75
-CM, 6brn OpHeHnrpoBaH CTeHaMH no CTpaHaM CBCTa, yrrry6neH J(O 70 CM , B
BepxHeii 'laCTH cI<nona II J(O 50 CM B 1-rn:a<Heil OT ypOBfIH o6Hapy)!{eHHH. CTeHI<ll
MaTepHKOBhie, npHMl>Ie, OTBeCHbie. Yrrr1>1 KOTnoBaHa enema CI<pyrneHbI. non
OTHOCHTeJlbHO pOBHbIH, MaTepHKOBbIH. CeBepO -BOCTO'IHbIH yrorr nony3eMJlHHKH 50 6brn 'laCTH'lHO nepepe3aH 6onee n03J(Heii HMOH 128. B030)l(HO B
'.HOM yrrry KOTJIOBaHa non:y3eMJIHHKH l1 pa3Meruana~h ne'lb-KaMeHKa, KOTopaH
Morna 6bITh pa3pymeHa HMOH. noJ( 06m1py)KIITh He yJ(anocb. ~Ho HMhI, B TOH
ee 'laCTH, KOTopaH pacnonaranacb B MaTep11Ke 3a npeJ(enaM11 KOTnoBam1, 6hrno
Ha 2 CM BbIUie norra nony3eMJJHHKH :
B 3anoJrneH1111 nony3eMJIHHKII, cocroH[IJeM II3 TeMHoro rpyHTa, HaCbI[IJeHBoro
yrrreM II 1<yco'lKaM11 )l(ene3Horo umaKa, 6hm HaiiJ(eH o6pa6ornHHbIH por (pHc. .1,

-- 258 -

.I
4) 11 cpparMeHTbI nemroii pauHecnaBHHCKoii nocyJ(hI VII- VIII BB. no 3TOMY
MaTepttany rrony3eMJIHHKa 50 cooTBeTCTBemrn 11 J(aTIIpyeTCH VII- VIII BB.
nptt pa36ope nHTHa , HaXOJ(IIBWerocH B 1) 7 M K ceBepO-BOCTOKy OT
nony3eMJiirHKM 50, BblHBIInOCb rrepepe3aHMe KOTnOBaHOB J(BYX nony3eMJIHHOK
51A II 51E (pHC. 3, 3).

I10JJYJeMJ1BIUrn 51A. KoTnOBaH B mraHe HMCJl npHMOyronhHYIO c!JOPMY


pa3MepOM 410x400x415x390 CM , 6bm opIIeHTHpOBaH CTeHaMII no c1'paHaM
caen1, yrny6neH Ha 115 CM B'' aepxHeH 'laCTH CK'JlOHa H Ha 85 CM B HlI)!{Heii OT
ypoBH~ 06napy~eHIIH. CTeHKII npirMhie , o'fheci'1h1e, MaTepm<oBbie . Yn1bI
KOTJlOBaHa cnerI<a CI<pyrneHbl. non ropH30HTMhHbIH, pOBHhIH, MaTepHKOBbIH,
KaMeHIIC'r1>1ii. B rror1y rrocepeJ(r:rne cTeI-IOK n B yrrrax KOTJIOBaHa 6bmrr BbrnBJICHbI
16 CTOJ160BhIX HM. 0.[(I-Ia CTOn6oBaH HMI<a 6brna BbIHBJleHa B ueHTpe
nony3eMJIHHKH. Bee HMKII OBanbHbie B rrrra1-re pa3Mep oM 2 0x25 CM II
yrny6JreHHb1'e B non, KaK npaBirno, ua 25---40 CM. Ko'TrroBaH nony3eMJIHHKH
51 A IIMen .[(Ba CTpOIITeJibHbIX nepHOJ(a. 3To BH.D.HO 113 Toro, 'ITO Bee CTOn60Bbie
HMKH, HaXOJ(HBmIIeCH BJ(OJih ceBepHOH I1 BOCTO'lHOM CTeHOI<, pacrrorraraIOTCH
nonapno 11 rrapanrrenhHO J(pyr J(pyry c rrpIIMepHo ommaKOBbIM paccTOHHHeM
Mei.tiy co6oli. 0'leBH.r:\HO, 'ITO KOTJIOBaH nony3eMJIHIIKH 51A pacmIIpHJICH B
,
'.
''

ce:BepHy10 ii BOcTO'lHYIO cropoHbI.


B 10ro- 3arraJ(HOM yrny KOTJlOBaHa pa3Me1IIIarracb ne11>-I<aMe1-IKa. Ee
pa3MepbI neorrpeJ(emfMbI , nocKOJlbKY npII 6oJiee n03J(HeM nepepe3anH coopy)l(eHHH rrony3eMJTHHKII 51 B .- rre'lb-KaMeHKa n ony3e~rn~HKH 51 A 6bma
pa3pymeHa. 0.[(HaKO HaJlH'lIIe J(BYX HOJ(OB Ha MeCTe ne'lH-KaMeHirn roBOpIIT 0
TOM 'ITO rre'lb-KaMeI-IKa rrony3eMJJHHKH 51A HMeeT TaK)J<e .[(Ba CTpOHTeJibHbIX
nep~OJ(a. IlepBOHa'laJlhHbIM 110.[( MaTepHKOBhII1, HMen rIOJ(OBaJJbHyro cpopMy
pa3MepoM 50x40 CM II rny6HJIY rrpO)KOI'a - 3--"4 CM. YcTheM ITC'lb-KaMeHKa B
3TOT rrepIIOJ( 6bma o6paruefla I< BOCTO'lHoi1 creHI<e KOTJIOBana. BTopoi1:, 6orree
rr03J(Hi1ii rro.n; 'lac1wrno nepe1<pbrna1011~ni1 nepBbIH, TO)l(e Marepn1<0B1>1i1, m .;rerr
1
npHMoyrom:Hyr-0 cpopMy'pa3i...fep 0M 50x6) CM II rny6m1y rrpo)l(ora 4 CM . Y CTbeM
nepecrpoenHaH rre'lb-KaMenKa TaK)Ke 6T>rna opn eun1p0Ba1-rn K BOCTO'lnoii
CTCHI<e KOTJIOBana.
B ueHTpe rrorry3eMJJHHKII 51A B rrony 6hma BhrnBrrena HMa, onanhHaH :B
nnaHe , pa3MepoM 50x58 CM II yrny6nenHaH B non Ha 15 CM . 5IMa 6bma
3aITOJIHeHa J(O ypoBHH nona 30JIOH.
TaKHM o6pa30M, nony3eMnHHKa 51A IIMeeT .[(Ba crpoHTeJlhHhIX nepnoJ(a.
IIepecTpaHBanCH KOTJIOBaH nony3eMnHHKII, rrepecrpaHBanacb ee rre'l1>-I<aMeHKa .
BnJ(IIMO y)l(e rrocne Toro, I<aI< KOTnoBaH 3a6pomeHHOH nony3eMnHHI<H 51 A
6bIJI 'laCTH'lHO MITH IIOJlHOCTbIO 3aCbirta1:r, ero rrepepe3an 6oi;ree 1103.[(HHH
KOTnoilaH rrony3eMJIHHKH 51 E.
'
. I10Jiy3eMJ1BHKa 5lli. KoTJIOBaH nony3eMJIHHKII, rrpHMOyrOJibHOH .q)OpMbI
pa3MepoM 425x420x420x435 CM, 6bm opIIeIITHpOBaH yrrraMH no CTpanaM CBCTa
c He6onbUIHM OTKJIOHeimeM, yrny6nen Ha 110 CM B Bepxneii 'laCTH CKJIOHa H
Ha 80 CM B HH)l(HeH OT ypoiiHH o6napy)KeHIIH. CTeHKII rrp.siMbie, MaTepIIKOBbJe,
- 259-

OTBeCHJ?Ie. YrnhI KOTJIOBana CJierKa cKpyrneHbI. ITon ropH30HTaJibHhiii ,


poBHhiii, pacnoJiarancH Ha 7- 10 CM Bhirne noJia noJiy3eMJIHHKH 51 a. ITo yn raM
nony3\:!M,JIHjIKH 5LE no.n: MaTepHKOBbIH, HOB )'_\eHTpaJibHOM, OCHOBHOH~ tiacnr
nonoM CJIY:>KHT yTpaM6oBamrne 3aIIOJIHeHHe npe.[(,[(OHHOM 'laCTH 6oJ;Iee
rny6oKoro KOTJIOBaHa nony3eMnHHKH 51A. B nofJ y rrony3eMnHH/rn 51B 6JIH3
IO:>KI;IOrO yrna BbIHBJ;IeHa .IIMKa, O,BaJihHaH B nnaHe, pa3MepoM 20x22 CM H
yrny6neHHair B noJI Ha 25 CM.
B 3arra,[(HO,M yrny KO;JIOBaHa nony3eMJI.III;II<H 51 B pa3MeUJ,anach ne'l.bI<aMeI-II<a. B nnaHe oHa npHMoyronhnoii cpopMbi'pa3MepoM 175xJ80cM 11
B03Bh1rnanach ua.n: rronoM ;ia 50 CM. ITe'lh 6hma cno:>Keua n3 KaM1-1eii 6onhrnnx
u cpe.n:unx p.a3MepoB . ITo.n:, tJacT~1'1H.0 M<nepm<OBhiii, ~rncTrtmo ne:>KaU(Hii Ha
3anoJiueumi: npe.[(.[(OHHOH tJaCTH nony3eMJIHHKH 51 A , HMen npHMoyron hHyr-0
cpopMy pa3MepoM 90x60 CM H rny6m1y npo:>Kora 4-5 CM. Y CTheM netJL-KaMe1ma
nony3eMJI}!HKH 51 B 6bifl~ op11eHT11poBaHa I< ceBepo-BOCTO'IHOI1 cTe1-II<e
KOTJIOBaHa .
MecTonoJIO:>Keune pa3Bana neti11-I<aMeHI<n nony3eMJIHHKtt 51 B OTHOCHTenhHO CTeHOI< H yrJia I<OTJIOBaHa IIOJiy3eMJI.IIHI<H 51A, a TaI(:>Ke <lJaI<T
nepeI<phrna1-nrn qacThIO no.n:a nequ-KaMeHKH nony3eMJI}!HI<H 51 B 3anonHeHM,H
npe.n:.n:orrnoi1 tJaCTH nony3eMJIHHKH 51 A H cTon6oBOH HMI<H 1~o;n<'>Ba1-ia
noJiy3eMJI}!HKH S1A }!BJI}!IOTC}l CTpaTttrpacptttieCI<H~M .n:oI<a~aTeJihCTBaMH Toro,
'ITO pony3eMJIHH:i<a Sl ,B 6l.rna coopy:>Ke1-ia no3.n:1-ree nony3eMJI}!HI<H Sl A,
B03MO:>KHO y:>Ke B TOT MOMein, I<or.n:a' KOTJIOBaH nony3eMnHHI<.M SlA 6hrn
qacn1"'IHO 3achrnaH.
,
B 3arroJine:i-iuu noJiy3eMJrnttoI< Sl A u 5, I~' cocTO}!UJ,~M 113 TeMHOBaToro
HaCbIUJ,eHHOro yroJII>KaM11, KycotJI<aMH :>Kene3Horo w JrnKa rpyHTa 6hrn11
I-IaH,[(eHbl :>Kene3HblH I<pI-O'IOK, :>KeJie3HhIH, npo6oii:HHK, :>KeJie3HaH .D:Y:lKKa
' "
.
' ' .
1
acTparan (puc. I, 8, 7, 9, I), a TaK:lKe cppar:MeHThI nenuoii nocy.n:hr Trma JlyKnPaii:KoBeL\KOii: M roHtiapHo:li KepaMHKH. Ha .n:ue noJiy3eMnm-JKH SIB 11 B pa3B~e
ne~u-KaMel;IKH H3 nee 6bmH TaK:>Ke Haii:.n:en.hI cjJpar~eH:rhI nemwii n roHtJapHoii
KepaMHI<H . ITo KepaMn"'IeCKOMY MaTepnany c ne'ltt-I<aMeHKH nony3eMJrnHI<Y SIB
MO:>KHO .n:aTIIpoBaTh KOHL\OM IX- X BB . ITocI<OJihKY KepaMnKy' H3 KOTJIOB'"fHOB
noJiy3eMmp-10K SIA n SIB crpaTIIrpacpII'lec1rn pa3.n:ennTh npaKTH'leCKHe He
y.n:aJIOCh , 3a MCKJIIOtJeHHeM KepaMHKH, uaii:.n:eHHOH B ne"'!Ke-KaMeHKe
nony3eMJI.IIHKli SlE, TO MO:lKHO, OCHOBhIBa}!Cb liCIOUO'IHTeJibHO Ha CTpaTilrpa(jJH'leCKMX na6Jim.n:emrnx, JIHWh c.n:enaTh BhIBO.[( o TOM , "'ITO no.rry3eMJrn1ma Sl A
cyUJ,eCTBOBaJia paHhIIJe, <J:eM nony3eMJI}!HI<a SIB .
. IloJiyJeMJlllHKa 52. (puc. 2, 3) 6bma B,hUIBJieml B I 6 M K ceBepO-BOCT0I<Y OT
nony3eMJI}!HOK Sl A , SIB. KoTJIOBaH nony3eMJI}!HKH B nnaHe np}!MoyronI>Hoii
q)OpMbI pa3MepoM 3SOx380x360x380 CM, 6blJ1 OplieI-iTHpOBaH yrnaMM no
CTpaHaM CBeTa, yrny6nen Ha I 00 CM B BepxHeii: 'laCTH CKJIOHa H Ha 90 CM B
HH:>KHeii OT ypoBH}l o6Hapy:>KeHH}l. CTeHKH npHMhie, MaTepHKOBhie, oiBecnbie .
YrnhI KOTJIOBaHa cJierKa CKpyrneI-IhI. ITon ropH30HTaJihHbIH, poBHhn1 ;
MaTepttKOBhitt. B BOCTO'IHOM yrny I<OTJIOBaHa nony3eMJI}!HKH pa3Mer:-(anach
-260 -

ne'lh-KaMem<a, B03BhIJlJa}!Ch Ha.[( ypoBI-IeM nona Ha 70 CM. B rtnaHe :oHa nMena


no.n:npHMoyronbHYI-O cl)OPMY pa3MepoM l 90xI4S CM . ITel.Jb 6bma cno:lKena 113
I<aMHeii cpe.n.Hnx pa3MepoB. ITo.n: neq11 MaTep1;11<oawi i ,- nMen nP}!MO~ronhHym
qiopMy pa3MepoM 80xSO CM n rny6l-rny npO)KOra 4-5 CM. YcneM ne"'Ih-r<aM:eHKa
6hIJia opHCHTHpOBaHa I< mro~ 3ana.n:uof1 CTCI-IKC KOTJIOBaHq. '
B 3anonHe1-i1ur I<OTJIOBaHa nony3eMJIHI-II<l1 52 QhIJIH ua11.n:eI-IhI .[(Be I<OCT}!Hhie
npoKoJIKH (pttc. 1, 2, 3), TO'IHJihHhlii I<aMeI-Jb . Ha .[(He I-Jaii.n:ett nentto:li roplllOK
oTuocnTeJihI-IO cTpoii:HhIX nponopL\ttii (pHc. I, ,13). Han6onhmee pacll!npenne
npnxo.n:nTCH tta Bepxnmm qa~h cocy.n:a. BeH"'IHK 'OTTornyr. KocO'cpe3am-Ihitt
I<paii: BCH'IHKa yI<pareH nanhU:eBhIMH B.[(aBneHHHMH . OpI-IaMen~ 01~cyTcrnyeT.
Bhlcorn ropwr<a - 2S CM, ,tiuaMeTp ~Ha - 10,7 cM., .n:11aM((Tp Be1-rti11I<a - I4
CM, .n:11aMerp 1-1a116onhrnero pacllll1pen11H - 19 ,2 CM. KpoMe Toto, B 3anohneH1111
6bmH Haii:.n:eHhl cpparMeI-ITJ?I nenHoii .nocy.n:h1 Tttn<;t JlyKn:-PaiiKoBeL\IWH. Ha
nony n Bpa3BaJ1e ueq11-I<aMeHKM phmH 1-iaii.n:eHhI cpparMeHThI I<epaMIIKH pam-reii:
clm3hl KYJihTYPhI Tmra JlyK11-PaiiK0BeL\I<Oii:. ITo I<epaMHtJeGKOMY MaTepuany 113
:rnnonHeI-IHH,' c nona 11 netJ11-I<aMeHKH nony3eMn11nr<y 52 MO:lKI-IQ .n:aTnpoBaTh

VII----;-VIII BB.
TaI<HM o6pa3oM, BhrnBJieHI-IhIC II IIccne.n.oBaI-II-Ibie B npO,L\CCCy pacKonor<
noneBoro ce3,0Ha 1987 r. :>KHJIMUJ,a IIOJIY3CMJI}!I-10"'II-IOro Tnna KQHCTPYKTHB,HO
n.e OTJll1'Iru:IHCb OT HCCJIC,[(OBaI-IHhIX panee Ha 3TOM nocenernm.
B I987 r . 6hmu rnK:lKC nccne.n:oBaHhI .[(Ba Ch!pOJ(YTI-IhlX ropna.
Cb1po.ny-rnb1n rop11 12. (pHc. 3, 4) 6hm Bh1m1m01H B Bepx1-rei1 qacT11 noc.enettnH,
B03JIC JICCa, B 6,3 MK BOCTOI<Y OT UOJiy3CMJIHHI<l-I 49. fOpl-1 CHJihI-10 noBpC:>K.[l.CI-1
np pacnaw1<e rmyroM. Bero KOHCTPYI<U:HH 6bma .D.Ba cno51 o6Ma3KIL Pa3MepbI
OBaJihI-1011 B nn atte neru;a.n:u 4Sx30 CM . 01-ra nom1:>Kam1ch I< 3a.n.ae11 c-reHKC .
CTeHK~ coxpaHMJIHCb n '?- BhICOTY ~O CM OT ypoBI-15,I nema.n:II. Y 1.riema.n:H cre,-11<1-I
pacrrmp}!JIHCh,B BepxHeii: qacJ;H ccy)l(aJr'.Hcb. Tonmrrna o6Ma3KH cTe1-11-rn BhTGOTe
40 cM oT ypomrn nema.n:II paBrnmach S- 6 CM. Tommm npo:>Kora. MaTepm<a
,[(OCTnrana 10- lS CM. fopr-I 6bIJI OpHCI-ITHpOBaI-J Repe.n:HeJ1 CTCHKOH K CCBCpOBOCTOKy, TO CC'l'h BI-IH3 no C](JIOI-Iy. Apo'IHOC OTBCpCTMC He coxp~HHJIOCb .
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nepe.n.Heii cTeHI<Oii ropHa pacnonaraJiach npe.n:ne'!Ha1l 5!Ma, OBaJihI:-I<UI B nn aHe,
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B 3anonHeHHH ropHa 6hm Haii.n:en l c)JparMeJ-IT ci:en rm nerprnro cocy.n:a Tnna
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Bepo}!THOCTH MO:lKHO .n.aT11p oBaTh IX Ber<oM.

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ropna 12. B ero KOHCTPYI<L\1111 6hm Ol(HI-I cnoii o6Ma3I<H. Pa3Mep oBaJihHOH B
- 261 --

mraHe J1euw.n.rr 54x38 CM . CTeHKH coxpattmIHCh tta BhICOTY 1O CM OT ypoBHlI


nema.n.11 . Tonmi1 rrn o6Ma3KH CTeH Ha BhlCOTe' 10 CM OT ypOBHlI nema;:J.11 6 CM.
TonmnH~ npo)!(or~ MaTepuKa .n.ocnffa;ra 10~12 CM. fopH 6wr ci'puerni:ipoBai-r
nepe.n.HeH <?TCHKOH K CCBepO-BOCTOKy, TO CC1'.b ' BHH3 no CKJIOHy . Apotrnoe
OTBepcT11e ne coxpamrnoch.
ilpe.n..ne'q noii lIMOll .[(Jl5! r opHa 13 CJ1y)!('HJia Ce'BepO-BOCTO'IHalI 'IaCTb
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o6~apy:>KCIUi51. B 3aIIOJIHCflHH ropua 13, COCTOlIIUCM H3 TCMHOro rpyHTa, fo,mo
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nocerreHm1 rbpHaM. (2)'KpoMe riocenemrn CI<oI< no.n.o6HI>Ie cI>rpo:D.yTHI>Ie ropnbr
.Ha Tepp1nioprrn Morr.n.oBbI 6nmH ucc3re.n.onalihi na TaI<Hx rrocenenuirx, r<ar<
fnm-I:>KCHhI (3), Er<ttMayuhr (4), An<re.n.ap (5), Xaucr<a (6), ileTpyxa (7). fopHbI,
OTJil1t-Jar-0mm~C>I JIIUUb KOHCTpyr<1u1err neura.n.H, 6blJIH HCCJIC.[(OBaHbI na
rrocene1rnu Py.n.h XX (8). AHanornLinhre ropnbr 6bmH uccm~.n.oBaHbI ~ 3a
npe.n.enaMn Mon.n.osI>r ua nocene1mn VIII--IX BB. y c. fpuropOBKa Bumrnurwli
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52. Tom:i~r-ra51 KaMepa B rrnaue IIMena OBaJibHyr-0 qJOpMy pa3MepoM 90x 100 CM.
ilo.n. neLIM naxo.n.unclI Ha tny6une 30 CM oT ypdBHlI o6napy)Kentt 51 cnerr<a
~
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YCTI>>I - 40 CM. YcTI>eM ne<rb 6brna opueHTnpoBaHa K ceBepy, TO eCTI> BHII3 no
CI(JIOHy . 1
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pa1MepoM 11Oxl25 CM. ilpe.n.neqHa51 lIMa 6bma yrrry6neHa Ha IO CM OT ypo'm rn
o6Hapy:>KeUH5!. non >IMbI rOpll30HTaJibHhIH, pOBHhIH . CTCHKll rrnaBHO
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KepaMuqecKoro TllfCJibKa~ 'BnyTpCHHUM .[(HaMeTp THTCJihKa - 2 CM, TOJII-UHHa
crenoK - OT 0;2.n.o 0,5 CM. Bb1corn coxpaHHBllleii:cJI qacrrr - 2,2 CM. KepaMHKH

B rrern H npe.n.rreqHoii: 51Me Hali.z:i;eHo ne 6bIJIO.


HecMoTplI m:i. HeKoTopoe cBoeo6pa3ue B yinpoii:crne uo.n:a, ne<rh 30
a1-1anoruqna r<aK y:>Ke ttccne.n.oBaHHbIM neqaM Ha nocenemm: CKoK, TaK u ne<ra~,
--262

Ha:H.n.eHHhIM Ha .n.pyrnx rrocenemrnx B jVIoJI.!J:OBe-- AnLie.n.ape (1 O), E1I1Mayrrax


(11), XancKe (12) , Xyqe , 0.[(ae (13) , Py.[(u (14) H .n.p. Tarrne 1Ke rreq11 H3BCCTHbI
u 3a npeLJ;enaMH Mon.n:oBbI --- Ha )];06pm-I11:BCKOM ropo.n.nme (15), Ha nocenemrn
PamKoB (16) , Ha ropo.n.m.ue MoHaCTbrpeK (17). ilo.n o 6nI>re ne.trn no
KOHCTPYKTHBHbIM oco6eI-IHOCT51M .OTHOCnTca I< nmy no.n.6oi1:Hb1x, KYITOJlhHbIX,
H HMeJIH, BH,!J;HMO , IIpOI13BO,!J;CTBeJ-IHOC Ha3HaLICHHe (18).
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Hali.n.enhr .n.Ba s1ennh1~ ropmKa.
,
1. JlenHOH ropwoI< (pu,c. 1, 17) HMCCT OTHOCHTCJlbI-10 CTpoi1Hbl~ nponoprrHH.
Ha116onI>ruee paCillHpei-me npuxo.n.HTCJI 1-ra Bepxnior-0 TpeTI> cocy.n.a. BeHquK
cnerna ' OTOrHyT . Ko co cpe3aI-IHhIH Kpa11 Ben<r111<a yr<'pameH hanbt\CBbIMn
B.D:aBnemrnMH. llieih<a .K'o p'OTKa51, BI>1.n.enei-ma5!, nne1rnK11 ,noI<aTLie. Op1-iaMeHT
Ha TynoBe OTCYTCTByeT. Bb1C0Ta ropmKa - 26,8 CM, .n.m\MeTp '.n.1-ia - 10,4 CM ,
.n.uaMeTp BeHqnKa - 1~ ,4 CM, .n.uaMeTp ua116onhmero pacnrnpemrn ~ 18,4 CM.
2. JienHOH ropmoK (puc. 1, 19) HMCCT OTHOCHTCJlhl:IO CTpOHHbIC nponopum1 .
Hau6onbIIIee pacirmpe1-rne npuxo.n.11TC5l 1-ia Bepxmor-0 qacTh cocy.n.a . BeHqHK
,OTorHyr, 1<pali Koco cpe;rnH, yKpawc:;H naJJbIICBh.IMHB.D:<\BJieJ-IH51MH. Wei\:Ka H
IIJieqHKH ;i-re BhJ.n.eJJeH'b!. OpuaMeHT }!:a T,YJIOBe oTcyTCTByeT .. BI>rcoTa ropm1<a
- 30 CM ,' .n.ifaMeTp ,!J;Ha - 12 CM , .n.11aMeTp BCHL!HKa - 26 CM\ .n.naMeTp
liaH60Jibll1ero paCll1HpeHH5! - 21 ,6 CM.
.
KepaMnKa, uaii:.nemra51 B nporrecce pac1<orroK 1987 r ., 11.n.eaTuqf!a KepaMur<e,
uai1.n.e1-r noli B npe.n.bI.n.YlUHC rO,!J;bl pacKOIIOK Ha 3TOM naMlITHHKC, H c OIIHCClHHCM
ee MO)!(HO 01HaKOMHTI>C5! 'n o npe.n.bI.n.YlUHM rry6nuKarr115IM. (19) Ee MO:>i<Ho
pa3.n.enHTb na cne.n.ywrutte KYJihTypHo-xpot-10noruqecKHe rpyrmhI: a) nerrna51
KepaMnKa VI- VII BB ., OTHOC5!1l.la51C5! I< .n.pemrocTHM npmKcI<O-Kopqai<cKoro
THna; 6) JJenHa5! KepaMnKa Kor-rua VII- VIII BB., OTHOC511l.la5!clI K .n.peBHOCT51M
THIIa pairne:H <jla3bI KYJibTYPbl J1yKu-Pai1KOBC1IKOi1; B) nemia51 I<epaMHKa,
rro.n.rrpaBneHHa51 Ha'rou'1apifoM Kpyre I<om~a IX - ml l.f<Uia X BB., OTHOClIJ.Ua51C51
i< '.n.pesttOCT51M no~.nHeli cpa3I>r pa1Burm1 KymTypI>I Jlyrrn-P;iih<0nem<'oi1.
Tio.n.BO.D:5! HTOrH, MO)!<I-JO 3aMCTHTh, qTO MaT~pHaJJbI .pacI<OrIOK Ha
noceneHHH CKOK B 1987 r. cyruecTBCHHO pacIIIHpHntt ucToq1n11<0Be.n.qecKyr-0
6a1y no ncTopm-1 )J;HeCTpOBCKo~ilpyTcKoro MC)K.n.ypeLib51 B VI - X BB.
occi6ei-rno B nnar-re u3yLieHHH pa3nHqJih1xacneKTOB MaTepuanhHOH KYJII>TYPbI
MCCTHOro cnaB5!HCKOrO HaCeJICHH51 B yI<a3aHHbIH nepno.n. Ha TeppHTOpirn
perHOHa.
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H. n. MCCJICJ:\OBatrne lKCJIC30ACJiaTeJibttblX cpopyJKettmi noceJiettllll CKOK II AI1M B


1982 r. K11lll11HeB, 1986, c. 84-96; Ott JKe: l1ccnetiQBatt11J1 cJiaBJIHCKoro cemm1a CKoK II ~MM
B 1983 r. Km1rnHeB, 1988, c. i'Ol- 113; Ott JKe: PacKOnKH nocenett11J1 CKoK II AMMB 1984 r .,
Kmmrne~, 1989, c. 187- 192; Ten1>HOB H. II., Pa611HOBH'I P. A . :pe3yJihTaTh1 pa6oT Ha

l TeRbH06

- 263 -

nocerrerrnH ,C1<oK II AMMB 1085 r.,, K11mHHeB,'.19,90,, c.,194-212; 0HH lKe: Apxeorrorwiecirne
pacKOflKH Ha nocen eHHH, CKpK II AHM B 1986 r. KumHHCB 1992 c 208-223 ,
1
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,,
I'o!l1>4eGa Ff. B. Paq<0nKH CJJaBJIHCKoro noc~JJeHHJJ VIII-X BB. I'J1imlKeH1>1 V II AO 1978 M
1979:' c. '485 '
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~;~~poe r E. IToc31.1 EKH~~y~i<~~o (JOCC~e!IHJI. II Kynt.Typa LJ:penHeH PycH. ~-, 1966, t. 275-

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B. Pa60Thl ITpyTCKO-.QHeCTpOBCKo'113KCflCJ.llll!H~IB1960_:'1961

99; 1964, C. 81--84.

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B 1970--1971 rr. Kmmrnm, 1973, c.- 192-193. , ,

y c. XaucKa ~
,1970-- 1971 i;r. II AHM
.
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.XbmKy ff. I' ITocq1eH!"JJ ,XI--XIV Be1<0B'B Opreenc1<Hx Ko1.1pax Mon1.1anHH. Km;,rnnes 1969
c. 40'._43.
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Te!l1>Hoe H. 17., B11acemw JI. r Pac1<on1<tt CJJ~~~Hc1<orn noceneHHJI Py~1>, XX n


,, ,
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9
Ap1:1aM011oe M: lf. ,Apxeonorn,rec1<11e uccne.t1ona1mJ1 B IOJKuol1 IT011orr11'H B 1952-1953 rr. II
KCI1I1MK, Bbm . .59, 1955, c., 100-;-l/ 7; ,OH lKe: , Cna13J111~1<He lKCJJe30!IJiaBHJ1bH1>.te nern era
Cpe1.1ueM 1J,Hecrpe. ll <:;006ll(eHHlISocy1.1apcrBerrn,o ro 3pMHralim, VII, 1955. ,

,
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rf:ieoopoe i'I' E. Pa6oTbI. .. c. 81-84. ,
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12
PaefJqnoeu1 lf. 'A., I'o11bi1eea H. B. .Hccne1.10Ba11ue' pa11i-1ecminJ1Hc1<oro nocerreHHll , Xilr-rc1<a I II
, '
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:: Pa<jJaf/Oeut H~ A., CnanJJHe VI-;-I:X se1<0B, B Mon1.1an11H. 'Kmnm~e.s , 19p, c. 99- lol.
Powanb M. f ., !J>~r)~poe r B. )KHJ!b!C H npOH3BO.[\Cl'~CHHble c~opylKCHHJI LIPCBHepycc1<oro
noceJ1cm1JJ Py1.1&. II AHM n 1970~1971 rr., Kmli11HeB', 1973, c. 165- 166.' ' '
'
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Bapau B. /{. ,Paq<0n1<11 cnasm~c1<oro noceilemrn y c. 'PamKon na ,[(Heerpe. II AG 1970 M
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1971,c.'291 - 292.
17 17
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3eMJJH 10lirnol1 P'ycH B IX-XIV ns. 'K11e0, 1985, c. 82.
,

18
TenbHOB H. ll. 'Pac1<on1<tt 'noceneHHJI C1<01< ... c. 188--189.
19
Tenb110B H. 17. l!lcCJ1e1.10.BaHHJ1 cnaBl!Hc1<oro cenm.ga C1<0IL. ~ .. l0l -,.,ll3; OH JKe: Pac1<onKH
1
noceneHHJI ~.1<01,< . ,.. ,c. 191.
, ,
,

Beil~eK'lU B. C.,

l1'

Summary.

The article ist devoted_ to th_e results of the ,field sur~eys .of 1987 on the fafrly well uneathed
slav. settlem<::~t of Skok, .el(~sted.,rn the VI-X centm-ies A.P. The archcological materials of this
site w1ll ,ct~,nsrde,btbly ~upplement the source base on the Sfav housing construction iron industry
and ether economic activities, that undoutedly' faciiitates the solution oF cmrtpii~ated is~ues i~
the Med ieval H istory. '
I"

'

'

'Xoxnos
B. A.
,!A
I

.J"

,/

n?cEnEHME VIII - IX BB. OAASI

Cemm.1,e O;:i:aa, pacriono:>Kerr.1rn.e K 1oro-1ana;:i:y OT c . An<re;:i:ap paifotta


illon;:i::rneillTh y ceBepHoii OKpaHHbI XYTOpa 0L(aR, OTHOCHTC5! K na~rnTHHKaM c
r<epaMm~oii rmrn J1yr<a.c...Pa1'1KoBe1u<aa-XnmP-r~ I. .LJ:peattoCTH 3Toi1 1<ymTyph1
pacnpoc:-r')-r rettbI ,?T Cpemrero 'J;(tterrpa;:i:o 3aKapmiTha , Ha eBepe n 1amlL1e
OHn L\OCT1rrar-0T Up1maT11, . B_
<;PXf?BhCB 3arramwro, Byrn H )J;ttenpa, ,Upr1Kap-

- 264 --

naThR H 3aKapnaTh5!, Ha IOre 'BKJIIO<raIOT DOTRCMHHhC, cpeL(Hee TC'lCHHe' lO)KHOro Byra, Ha 10ro-1ana.n:e -Do;:i:HecTpOBhe, TeppHTOpHIO Beccapa6titt II
PyMhIHCKOtt Mon,n:OBhI, ,n:ocTHraa HH)I(Hero .LJ:yHaR.
'
B Hacroarn:ee BpeMa Ha TeppHTOpHH PecnyfomKM MoJI,D;oBa OTKphrTo OKOJIO

140 naMRTHHKOB Tttria J1yKn-PattKOBCU:K6tt. Ma,cuna6tthIM nccne,n:oBaHHM


nOL(Bepriumch 6 H3JIHX (EpatteUIThI I, O,n:aa, Kampa, Xattcl<a I (J1HM6aphK1np1pttR), CKOK,' lJIHH)KeHhI II rr V). Bee rrccne;:i:oBaHHhie naMRTHHKII
RBJIIOTca MHOrOCJtOHHhIMII, 1a HCKJIIO<renrreM cennrn:a O;:i:aa .
Cenlirn:e6Bmo OTKphIT<? B 1958 r. OTpa,n:oM pa1Be;:i:i<rr ITpyro-.LJ:HecTpOBCKOtt
3Kcne,n:rru;Hrr. Tor.n:a )KC rrn cenrrrn:e 6hma Hatt,n:eHa 6poH30Baa BII3aHTHttcr<aR
MOHeTa - qionnttc VI B.H.3. 'DaMHTHHK fam nccJie,[(omiH B 1963 r. OTPL\OM
pannecJiaB5IHCI<OH apxeonor1rn ' IlpyTo-.LJ:tteCTpOBCKOH 3KCne.n:HU:HH rro.n:
pyKOBO.QCTBOM H . A :,ParpanoBn<ra. Cennrn;e pacnonaranoch ml HH)I(Heii H
cpe,n:neif <raCTH nonororo .cr<nona JIOill,HHhI Ha 6epery 6e1hrMmmoro py<r&H, y
Kpaa neca, K ceBepy OT xyTopa O,n:aH. 06rn:aH nnorn:a,n:& pacKona oKon6 3,5
T&Ic M 2 KynhTYPHhrli cnoli ne1HaLinTenen. Docenenne pacKonaHo 'n omrocThIO.
BepoaTno 'tta noM ne6oJI&UIOM no nnorn:a,n:H , cennrn:e o6nTana o,n:tta
naTpOHHMIHfa ceMh. Ha nccne,n:0Ba1rnoif LiaCTH naMHTHHKa BhrnBnen'o 6
)KHJlHill,, 4 X035IHCTBCHHhIC nOCTpOttKH, 8 X035IHCTBCHHhIX 5IM, 2 BhIHOCHhIC IlC'lH
n 8 o<raroB .
)J.(HJihlC nony3,CMJI5IHKH, c ne'lhIO-KaMCHKOH B IIHTepBepe, no CBOHM
KOHCTPYKTHBHhIM oco6enttocTaM TO:>K,n:ecTBCHHhl o6hILIHhIM L\JI 'pa1n-recnaB5IHCKHX cennrn: )KHJIHHJ;M nony1eMnannirnoro THna. Oco6eHnocT5rMrr ,n:Byx H3
HHX 5IBJI5ICTC5! naJIH'IHC B HIIX HapH,n:y c ne<raMH OTI<phIThIX OLiarOB. )KnnHrn:a c
co<reTaHHCM 3TIIX TIIIIOB OTOITHTCJihHbIX coopy)KeHMH H3pe,n:r<a BCTpet!aroTd B
apeane Kyni;Typhr J1yKa-PaifI<oBeu;KaH n ;:i:peBnepyccKoii. Ilo ' KOHCTPYKU:HH
)KHJinrn:a rro,n:pa1,n:ena10Tc5! na Tpn Tnna:
1. I10ny1eMJI5IH'KH co cton60BhIMH aMaMH, pacnOJIO)KCHHhIMH no
nepHMCTPY CTCH;
, 2. )J.(rrnnrn:a 6e1 cTon60Bhix aM, BepoHTHO cpy6Hor1: KOHCTPYKU:HH,
nOBCCMeCTHO OTMC'ICHHOH Ha pa:HnecnaBJrHCKHX H LIPCBHepyCCI<HX naM5ITHHi<'ax;
3. )Krrmtrn:a apxaH'lHOH KOB.CTPYKU:HH c u;einpaJihHhIM orropHhIM CTOJI60M.
Hapa,n:y c :>KIIJI&IMH nony1eMJIHKaMH rro;r:tKBa;:i:paTHOtt rpopM&I na nocenennn
BhI5IBJICHhl Ii nony3eMJI5IHKH HHOro. TIIna. 3TO coopy:>Kenna, HMCIOW:HC BHJJ:
BblT5IHYTOro npaMoyrOJihHHI<a, 6onee MCJIKHe 'ICM )KHJIHrn:a. 'B .D:BYX II3 HHX Ha
nony pactIHill,CHbI O'larH. HanH<rHe B HX KOTJIOBanax ofo.;.a3KH c orne'laTKaMH
,n:epeBa n03BOJI5IeT npe,n:nOJIO)KHTh, 'ITO B HX HHTCpbep BXOL(HJia neJIT~iCBaa
l<OHCTPYI<U:IIH, BCp05ITHO o6JIHU:OBbIBaBUia5! CTCHbI. 06i>r<rHO nOJJ;06Hhie
coopy)KCHH5! Ha panuecnaBHHCKHX cennrn:ax TpaKTYIOTC5! KaK X035IHCTBCHHbIC.
Oco6ennocThIO noceneHna O,n:aa 'aBnHeTCH ttannqrre B03ne )KHJIHW: 1na'IHTCJI&Horo KOJIH'lCCTBa BhlHOCHhIX o<raroB. Ha CCJIHill,C OTMCtICHbI I<OMnaKTflhJe
rpynn&r coopy)Kemili, BKJIIOLiaBUIHX B ce6H 2Irnnnrn:a H no,n:co6nhie noMern:errna .
BhIHOCH&Ie neLin na cennrn:e, KaK n rm .L\pyrnx cJiaB5I'HCKHx naMTHHKax
Mon,n:oBhI, coopy)KaJIHChHa nepmpepnn noceneHna.

-265-

HHBeHTaph noceneHHll 0.nall npe.nCTaBJieH H3.D.eJIHlIMH M3 )J(eJie3a KOCTH


KaMHll H rJI):iHhI. Cpe;;i;11 )J(eJie3HhIX n1.nennii-'lepeHKO Bhie HO)J(H c
cnHHKoii. Cpe.n11 .npyr11x Haxo.noK :>KeJie3Hoe cnnpan.bHoe' cBepno,
KaJia'leBH.D.HOy Kpecano, qepeHKOBhIH HaKOHe'!HHI< CTpeJihI, rJ.iparMeHT
)J(eJie3Horo ceprra. H1.r.1en11ll H3 KOCTH rrpe.D.CTaB_
JieHhI o6hI'IHhIMH Ha CJJaBlIHCKHX
rraMlITHHKax JIOIIJHJiaH, rrpQKOJIKaMH, KOCTJIHhIMH IIO.D.BeCKaMH, aMyneTaMH,
rJ.iparMeHTOM rpe6Hll, rJ.iparMeHTOM KOCTlIHOH pyKOJITKH. HHTepccrrpe.ncTaBJilleT
"MOThI:>KKa", H3rOTOBJieHHall H3 Han6onee rrmpo'i<oii 'laCTH n6nanm pora
6naropo.r.1Horo oneHJI. Ha noceneHHH TaK)J(e Haii.D.eHhI KepaMII'!eCKHe
npJICJIH:U:a. Ha O.D.HOM II3 HHX COJillpHbIH 3HaK B BIIe CBClCTHKH, .r.1pyroe
opHaMeHTHpoBaHo TO'le'IHhIM opHaMeHTOM . EcTh npllcnn:u:e, BhITO'le:irnoe Ha
TOKapHOM CTaHKe II3 MJ!rKoro KaMHll (cnaHe:u:) . }fa.nenHll H3 KaMHll npe.D.CTaBJieHhl TaK:>Ke TO'IHJihHhIM 6pycKOM II cpparMeHTOM BepxHero :>KepttoBa py'IHOH

~plIMO~

MeJihHII:U:hI II3 MeJIKOCTPYKTYPHOro IIJIOTHOro H3BeCTHlIKa. )l{epHOB 6hm min.nett


B O.D.HOM !13 X035IHCTBeHHh~X coopy)J(eHHH.
K 'IHCJIY. HHTepeCHhIX HaXO.D,OK OTHOCTHC5I rJIIIHJ!Ha5I CTaTy'.HKa,
cxeMaTH'IHO II306pa:>KaIOIIJa5I JIOllla.D,h, H BH3aHTHHCI<IIH q)OJIJIIIC .D.OCTOIIHCTBOM
40 HYMMIIii, '!eKaHeHHhIH B Km1cTaHTIIHorrone rrpII lOcTmre II II Cocpmi: (565-

578 rr.).
MaTepIIaJihl noceneHIIJ! 0.naH CBII.D.eTeJihCTBYIOT 0 TOM, '!TO OHO 6hIJIO
o6IITaeMo c py6e)J(a VII-VIII BB . .no Ha'lana X B. KepaMII'ICCI<Hii MaTep11an
II3 pa3JIII'!HhlX I<OMIIJieKCOB rro3BOJI5IeT BhI.D.eJIIITh Ha rraM5ITHIIKe 2 xpOHOJIOrH'!eCKHX 3Tarra . ,[l;nH rrepBoro II3 HHX (1<0He:u: VII- VIII BeK) xapar<TepHa
TOJihKO TOJICTOCTeHHa5I MaCCHBHa5I KepaMIIKa c rpy6hIM TeCTOM, fopIIIKH B
OCHOBHOM He OpHaMeHTIIpOBaHhl. ,[l;mr coopy)J(eIIHH BTOporo xpoHOJIOrH qeCKOro 3Tarra (IX BeK) !Iap5I.D.Y c JieIIHOH HeOpHaMeHTIIpOBaHHOH KepaMIIKOH
xapawreptthl rJ.iparMeHTbI cocy.noB c rpy6hIM JIHHeHHO-BOJlH]iCThIM HJIH
IIITaMIIOBaHHhIM OpHaMeHTOM. nIIHeHHO-BOJIHHCThIH OpH<lMeHT O.D.IIHaKOBO
pacrrpocTpaHeH II B 3aIIa.D.HOH II B BOCTO'IHOCJiaBHHCKOH KepaMHI<e I<OH:U:a
I ThIC. H.3. llfraMrroBaHHbiii opHaMeHT pe.noK .D.JIH O.D.HOBpeMeHHhIX rraMHTHIIKOB
Mon.D,OBhI (XaHcKa I), HO H3BeCTeH Ha .npyrnx rraMJITHHI<ax BOCTO'!HhIX cnaBJIH.
B :u:enoM .D.JIH BOCTO'lHo-cnaBlIHCI<Oii rrocy.D.hI ~o.r.106HaJI opHaMeHTa:U:IIH He
xapaKTepHa, B TO )J(e BpeM5I OHa pacrrpocTpaHeHa B 1arra.D.HO-CJiaBlIHCKOH
KepaMHKe. B coopy)J(eHHHX 3Toro xpoHonorII'lec1<oro rrcpno.r.1a HapJI.D.Y c
nerrHoii BCTpe'laIOTCH 11 rJ.iparMeHThI rpy6oii paHHeroHqapHoii rrocy.n:o1, no

rrepepacTaHHH paHHeCJiaBHHCKOH MaTep11anhHOH KYJihTYPhI B .npeBHepyccKyIO.


Oco6hlii HHTepec npe,ncTaBnHet HaXO.D.Ka B O.D.HOM 111 )J(I1m11:u: r011'!apHoro
roprnKa, OKparnemrnro oxpoii, KOTOphIH MO)J(eT 6bITh OTHeCCH ]( pa3BHThIM
cpopMaM 6anI<aHo-.nynaiicI<oii KepaMHKII. ITo.no6HaH KepaMIIKa Hiff.D.e 6onhrne
Ha naM5ITHHI<e He 6bma HaR.D.CHa, II03TOMY ce c yBepeHHOCTbIO MO)J(HO OTHeCTH
K HMIIOpTy .
ITocenemrn 0.D.aH HBJIHeTCH .r.10 cero.D.HlllllHCro BpeMeHH O.D.HHM 111 Han6onee
rronno nccne.r.1oaBHHhIX o.nnocnoH:Hh1x _rraMHTHHK"B VIII - IX BB . na
Tepp11Topnn Mon.noBhI. K CO)](aJieHHIO, rro HenoHHTHhIM rrpnq1maM,
MaTepnanhI cennIIJa 0.D.aH He 6hIJIH orry6n11KoBaHhl. B rre'laTH o HHX nMeeTcH
,

KpaTKall n Kpaiine npoTIIBope'IIIBaH narJ.iopMa:U:Hll .


MaTepnanhI rroceneHIIH O.r.1aH 1na'IHTenhHO paclllIIpHIOT IICTO'IHHKOBYIO
6a3y Ii rrpe.D.CTaBJI5IIOT HOBbie .naHHhie K peIIICHIIIO Bcirrpoca 0 cy.r.1:06ax HOCIITeneH:
KYJihTypbl TIIIIa nyKa-PaiiKOBe:U:I<all B )J;HCCTpOBCKO-I1pyTCKOM Me)J(.D.ypeq:oe.
0Hll CBll.D,eTeJibCTBYIOT 0 B03MO)](HOCTII nepepacTaHirn B 3TOM perIIOHe
paHnecnaBHHCKOH KYJihTYPhl B .r.1peBnepyccKyIO H MOryT IIOMO'lh B pellleHIIII
cJIO)J(Horo Borrpoca o csH35IX panHHX cnaBHH KaK c noc11TeJIHMH 6anKaHo.nynaiicKoii KYJihTYPhI, TaK II 1arra.r.1nocnaBHHCI<IIX .r.1peBHOcTeH 11,eaTpanhnoii
EBpOIIhl.
ABTOp 6naro.napIIT foJih:U:eBy H. B. 1a n106e1Ho rrpe.r.1ocTaBnem1y10
11nrJ.iopMa:U:IIIO.

IlPIIMEl.JAHllSI
1

Patf!anoeu'I H. A. CnaBJIHe VI-IX BB. B MonnaBHH. Kmnm1eB, 1972. 244 c. ; <l)enopoB f,


l.Je6oTapeHKO

o.,

f. <D. IlaMJITHHKH peBHHX CJiaBJIH (VI- XIII BB .). Apxeonorw1ecKaJ1 KapTa

Mon11aBcKoi1 CCP .

Bbm. 6. Km1111HeB, 1974. c. 58.

Summary
The article is devoted to a settlement of the Vil-IX centuries A.O. in the vicinty of the
farm of Odaia in the ~oldane~ti rygion of Moldova. It gives the main categories of the articles,
uncovered within an area of more than 3,5 thousand sq.m. It derermines the chronological frames
of the settlement existence, draws the conclusions on possibly, retracing the transformation of
the Luca- Raykovetskaya type antiquities into the Ancient-Russian culture.

n. n. 6blpHst, T. <I>. Pst60H

<j_)QpMaM 11 opHaMeHTa:U:IIII CXO.D.HOH c nerrHOH, yKpallleHHOH JillHeHHOBOJIH.l lCThIM opHaMeHTOM. B HaII6onee II03.D.Hllx KOMrrneKcax BhrnBneHa II
KpyroBaJ! rrocy.r.1a c rrpIIMeChIO CJIIO.D,hl B TeCTe, rrony'!aIOIIIaJI lllllpOKOe
pacrrpocTpaHeHIIe B ,[l;HeCTpOBCKO-I1pyTCKOM Me)J(.nype'!he Ha .r.1peBHepycc1<11x
ropo.D.IIIIJax 11 cenIIIIJax c .py.6e)J(a X BeKa. B Ha116onee rro3.D,H11x KOMnneKcax
mlM5ITHHKa rOH'IapHaJ! 1<epaM11Ka COCTaBJI5IeT y)J(e OIIJYTllMhIH npo:u:eHT (6onee
30%) . 3To II03BOJI5IeT rrpe.D.IIOJIO)J(HTh, '!TO ceJIHIIJe 0.naH OTHOCHTCll ]( Kpyry
rraMHTHIIKOB, Ha KOTOphIX, IIO-BH.D.HMOMy, llleJI rrpo:u:ecc Herrocpe.D,CTBeHHOro

rrpOII3BO.D,CTBeHHhIX OTHOIIIeHHH, rrpe.D.CTaBJI5IJI co6oii oco6hIH co:u:HaJihH03KOHOMHtieCKHH opan111M q)eo.r.1anhnoro rocy.r.1apcTBa. On o6na.nan crre:u:11cpw1ecI<oii CTpyI<Typoii, OTpa)J(aIOmeii ero IIOJIIIrJ.lYHK:U:HOHaJibHbIH xapaKTep,

- 266 -

- 267 -

1onorPA<l>MSI 30nOTOOPAblHCKOfO fOPOAA B CTAPOM OPXEE


3onoTOOp.D,bIHCKHH ropo.n, 5IBJI5151Ch coCTaBHOM qaCThIO o6meii CHCTeMhl

CJlO)l(l-la}l KYJihTypa KOTOporo HHKOr)J,a He, 6bIJia orporo KaHOHM'IeCKOH If 3aCThIBIIIeii, npe)J,CTaBJI}l}l co6oii: )l(IfBOM, MCHHIOIQHMC}l If o6HOBJI}II01QHHCH opraHH3M 1.
Col(HaJihHhIM yKJIM cpeo)J,aJihHO.ii 3noxH oTpa)l(ancH B o6nttKe H cTpyKType
cpe.nHeBeKoBoro ropo)J,a, ero TorrorpacpHH, nocpe.QCTBOM crpoeHnii pa3nwrnoro
Ha3HaqeHMH, cpe.nn KOTOpblX cne.nyeT OTMeTMTh )l(lfJIMIQa, X03J!MCTBCHHhJe,
peMecneHHhre n T.opr0Bb1e coopy)l(eHMH. Ho pemaIOIQYIO ponh B onpe.neJreHHH
06m1Ka caM:oro rop<J;a npttMeHnTeJihHO K TOH 1;(HBMJIM3al(HM, KOTopyIO OH
npe)J,cTaBJIHJI, Hrpano caMo npttcyTcTBHe, xapaKTep n pacnono:>KeHHe Ha ero
TeppMTOpirn MOHyMeHTaJihHplX coopy)l(eHHH. 3TO 6bIJIM o6meCTBeHHbie
3)],aI;IHJ!, OTpa)l(aIOIQHe COL(HaJihHbIM yKna.n COBpeMeHHOM HM 3IIOXH, MOHyMeHT<lJihHbie o6beMhI KOTOpbIX onpe.neJIHJIH CHJIY3T ropo.na.
lfayqenHe ropo.ncKOH TOIIOrpaqnm Illexp aJI-)J;)l(e,[IH,[la HMCCT Ba)l(HOe
3Haqeime .z:IIIHpon11MaHHJ1 npol(ecca rpa.noo6pa30BaHHH B cepe.nmre XIV BeKa,
I<Or.na XO.LI CO~HaJihH0-3KOHOMifqecKoro pa3BHTmI )];HyCTpOBCKo-IlpyTCKOrO
Me)l(.[lypeqbjj 6bIJI M3Me:HeH, a cpopMHpOBaHHe q)CO,[laJibHbIX OTHOmemrii
npoxO.EJ.J1IIO B HOBbIX qwpMax BOeHHO-cpeo.nanhHOii cncTeMhI 3oJioToii Op.nhr.
Ilpo6JieMa 3aKOHOMepHOCTeii TOilOrpaqmqecKoro pa3BHTM}l 30JIOTOOp.z:lbIHCKOro ropo.na ,[10 HaCTOHIL(ero BpeMeHH cnel(ttaJibHO He H3yqaJiaCh. IlepBaH
IlOilbITKa OCBelQCHHH .naHHOro BOnpoca IIpe.nnpHHHTa Ha OCHOBaHMH
MaTep11aJIOB, nonyqeHHbIX B pe3yJihTaTe MHOrOJieTHHX HCCJie,[IOBaHHM Illexp
. an-)J;)l(e.z:IH.z:la2
'cno)l(HOCTb H3yqeIJHH BohpocoB, CBH3aHI-Ihrx c Tonorpacpneii Illexp an)J;)l(e.ntt.na ofrhHCHHeTCH TeM, qTo 30JIOTOOp.z:lbIHCKMH Ii MOJI.[laBCKMii ropo.na
CTpOHJIHCh Ha 0,[IHOM MeCTe, I<YJihTypHbie 1-rnmraCTOBaHMJI HaCJiaMBaJIMCh 0,[IHO
Ha .npyroe Ii ,[10 HaCTOHIQero BpeMeI-m MCCJie,[IOBaH TOJihKO I% OT Bee.ii IIJIOIQa,[IM
ropo.z:111IQa.
Illexp aJI-)J;)l(e~M,[I, 30JIOTOOP.z:lhll-ICKHM ropo.1:1, Bbrpoc He B pe3yJihTaTe
.[IJIHTeJihHoro 3KOHOMnqecKoro pa3BHTHH oce.nnoro Hacenei-ma, He B pe3yJihTaTe
OT,[leJieHMH peMecna OT ceJihCKOrO X03HMCTBa, a B03HMK cpa3y, B Teqe1-rne
KOpOTKOrO, npoMe)l(yTKa ~peMeHH 3 11 HBJifl}ICb npo.nyKTOM HOBO.ii l(HBHJIH3al(MH, ropo.n BbITIOJIHJIJI HHbie cpyHKL(HH, B pe3yJibTaTe qero ero TOIIOrpaqmJI
OTJIJiqaJiaCh OT TOIIOrpacpHM nocne.nyIOIQero MOJI,[laBCKOro ropo.na.
Cy;ia no apxeonornqecKMM MaTep11aJiaM, nonyqeIJHbIMH KaK B pe3yJihTaTe
paCKOTIOK ' TaK Ii nyTeM c6opa Ha .IIOBepxHOCTH, 30JIOTOOp.z:lbIHCKMI1 ropo.n
pacnoJiaranca Ha Mh1cy, o6pa3oBaHHOM KpyThrM M3ni;6oM TeqeHna per<H PeyT,
H3BeCTI{bIM no.n Ha3BaHtteM "Ileunepe". BbICOKHe H o6pbIBHCTbre 6epera (.no
100- 120 M) o6pa3yIOT Ha,[le)l(HyIO ecrecTBe1myIO 3al.QHTY ropo.nttl.Qa c Tpex
CTOpOH - ceBepa, BOCTOKa H IOra. 3ana,[IHYIO - "cyxonyTHyIO" rpaHHL(Y MbICa
H3-3a ee He60JibllIOH npOTH)l(Cl-IHOCTH HeCJIO)l(HO 6bIJIO 3aIQHTHTb. fopo.n
3aHHMaJI nIIoma.nh OKOJIO 220 ra (pnc. I) .
IlnaHMpOBOqHO-KOMil03Ml(HOHHhIM l(eHTpOM ropo.na CJIY)l(HJia IlJIOIQa,[lh,
B l(eHTpe KOTOpoii B03BbII1TaJiaCb KaMeHHaa Meqerh - KYJibTOBOe coopy)l(eHHe
ropo)l(aH -MYCYJihMaH.
-268-

Puc. J. 11,eHTpaJlbHaJI 'laCTh ,UtteCTponcKo-IlpyTcKoro MeJK,11ype'lhll, Ha npe3Ke -

nnaH
ropo,1111ll(a Illexp an-,UJKe,1111,11
\ _ Me'IeTh, 2 - KapaBaH-capail, 3 - rowiapHble ropubi, 4 - 6am1,_5 - Ma3aphl, 6 - KJ1a,a;6 1rn.ia, 7.Ha3eMHble )l;OMa, 8 - !OpTbl, 9 - pafi oH " 6oJJbWHX" )l;OMOB, 10 - paHOH lKHJIHlllMaCTepCKllX, 11 - ne%

,a;n~ 06lK11ra 1<11prrll'ia; 12 - neq11 )1)1~ 06lK11ra H3BecTH.

l\ileqeTh (pnc. 2 , I) npe.ncTa:BnxJia co6oii npxMoyronhHOe B nnaHe


MOHyMeHTaJibHOe coopy)l(eHMe, cnerna BblTHHyToe cceBepa Ha Ibr, pa3MepaMH
57 ,7x51 ,5 M, CTeHaMH TOJilQHHOM 1,3 M, IIOKOHIQHMHCH Ha cpyH,[laMeHTC
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BH.z:ll1MO, 3aHHMaJI MOlQHbiii nopTaJI , BhICOTOii IO M, IIIHpHHOii 7 M. B paMe
- 269 -

Me'leT&, HBJIHHCb r<yrr&TOBbIM coopy)l(er-rneM, ' o.uttoBpeMeHHO 6&ma


lI OJIHTM'leCKHM H I<yJI&TypHbIM u:enTpOM ropo.n:a H , pacrrorraraHCb Ha
u:ettTparr&Hoii rrrroma.utt, crry)!(Ima ar<u:ettTttpyrnmeii TO'II<Oli ropo.ua .
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6ora H coBepIIIe1rne MOJIMTBhI. ITocrre,nHHH 3aHHMaeT Ba)l(HOe MecTo B
MycyrrhMaHcr<ttx o6p.ir.n:ax tt C'lHTaeTC>J. o6H3aHHOCThIO r<a)!(.uoro Mycyrr&Manmrn
M MycynhMaHr<H. C 3TMM cB.ir3aHa rroTpe6HOCTh B Me<rernx, KOTOp&1e o6ecrre<rnJIH
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6ory 6
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6,04 M. illifpnHa ITHJIO.HOB 1,52 M, paCCT05IHHe MeJK.UY HHMH 3 M.
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H co6&ITH5IX. Pacnorro)l(eHne I<apaBaHccapa5I B <repTe ropo.ua o6ycrroBnno
cne.uyrnmyrn nrrairnpOBO'fHYIO cxeMy lIOCTOlIJIOro .UBOpa7: BHyTpeHHMH .ll:BOp
OTCTpaHBaJIC5I JIHIIIb IIOMeIIIeHH5IMii .UJilI m-0.n:eil H TOBapoB, a IlOMeIIIeHirn .UJIH
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- 270 -

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- 272 --

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Bhrco1<onocTaBJJeHHoro HJJH .n;yxoBHoro JJHI.(a, TO Ma1ap II 1 cymr no 'lncny
KaMep, Mor 6hITh KOJIJieI<THBHOH HJIH ceMeHHOH YChlilaJJhHHIJeii. 06hI'!HO,:OHH
acer.n;a CTO.aJJH OT.D;eJJhHO OT ropo.n;CKHX KJJa.n;6Hll( H Ha caMOM BhICOKOM,
BHJ:(HOM MeCTe ropo.n;a.
Jfa '!eThipex H3BeCTHhIX a CTapoM Opxee 1<na.n;6Hll(, .n;Ba OTHoc.aTCH K
1on0Toop.n;hrnc1<0My BpeMeHw: 1<na.n;6nme II, pacnono)KeHnoe B 1'ana.n;Hoii '!aCTH
ropo.n;a, H 1<JJa.n;611ll(e IV - Hettccne.n;oBaHHOe --- B BOCTO'!Hoii ero '!aCTH.
Kna.n;6ttll(e II pacnonaranoch, 1<a1< y)Ke OTMe'lanoch, na 1ana.n;noii 01<pa11He
lllexp an-,l()Ke.n;tt.i:la, npttMepHo B 0,4 KM K 10ro-1ana.n;y OT Ma1apa'I, Ha KPYTOM
BhICOKOM CKJJone 1<opennoro 6epera PeyTa. Hccne.n;oBaHHa.a JaCTh MOrHJihHHKa
COCTaBJJHJJa 900 M 2 , Ha KOTOpoii 6hIJJO BCKphITO 136 norpe6eHHH 15
Il9.n;aBJJHJOll(ee 6oJihIIIHHCTBO 1axop0He1rnii coaeprneHo no MycyJihMaHCKOMY
o6p.a.n;y - c nOJJO)Kemi:eM norpe6eHHoro Ha cnmre, ronoaoii ua 1ana.n;, JJHI.(OM
ua BOCTOI<, c py1<aMH BhIT.aHyThIMH HJJH CJIO)KeHHhIMH Ha TYJJOBH:r.e.
HeMHOI'O'lHCJJeHHhie HaXOJ:(KH npe.n;CTaBJJeHhI B OCHOBHOM cephraMH B BH.n;e
"3!-IaKa aonpoca", nyrOBHIJaMH H HO)KHHIJaMH.
)KHJJHll(a ropo)KaH pacn 0 naranttch no Bceii TeppHTOpHH lllexp an,l()Ke.n;tt.n;a. Hatt6onee 111y'leHI>1 a 3TOM nnaHe ceaepna.a, 1ana.n;naH., JO)l(HaH H
IJeHTpaJJhHa.a 'laCTH noceJJeHH~, r.n;e npOH3BOJ:(HJIHCh CnJJOIIIHhie, IIIHpOKOMaCIIITa6Hhie pac1<on1<H. PaiiOHhI )KHJJhIX nocTpoe1< XIV a. cocTOT H3
Ha1eMHhIX H yrny6neHHhix B 1eMJ110 )KHJJHll( ropo)KaH. B uenoM, o nnaHttpoa1<e
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H '!aCThIX nepepe3aHHH . Ho, HCXO.n;.a H3 pe3yJJI>TaTOB HCCJJe.n;oaaHHH, BH.D;HO,
'!TO Ha pac1<onam10ii nnoll(a.n;tt yntt'!Ha.a nnanttpOBKa He npocne)KHBaercH H
.D;OMa no OTHOIIIeHHIO .n;pyr K .n;pyry HMeIOT oceaoe HanpaBJJeHHe.
-

276-

-277-

Ha 3ana,o;ttoM: 0Kpa1me ropo)J,a, Ha y3KOM nepe1nenr<e, o6pa3oBattnoM


KOpeHHhIM 6eperoM PeyTa, Ha BTopoil Ha)J,noiiMe1-rnoii Teppace, pacnorrararroch
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5,

OT rrocJJC)J,HHX coxpa1-mrr11cb Kpyra If3 Ii3BeCTHlIKOBbIX KaMttell:. I1pw1eM, B

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)J,H<lMeTpOM OKOJIO

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16

CocymecTBOBa1-rne mpT Hapll)J,Y c rrplIMoyroJihHhIMH

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TaM6ypaMH, coopy)J(etrnbIMH B BII)J,e IJJJaBHoro IfHH cTyrreaqaToro crrycKa.


0TarrrrnBarruch rrorry3eMJilIHKII rreqaMn:, o<IaraMn: H TaH)J,hrpaM-u. Pe)l(e
rrpOCJie)l(JIBaJiaCb OTOIII1TeJibHalI CHCTeMa, 1-Ja3bIBaeMalI KaHOM.
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rrrroma)J,h OT 6,48 )J,O 48 ,5 M 2. ITon, 1<a1< n: B rrorry3eMJilIHO'lHhIX )!(Hrrmu;ax, 6bIJI
MaTepm<OBbIM HJIII )J,OIIOJIHHTeJibHO o6Ma3blBaJ1ClI rmrnoii . )KlfJIIfll(a. yrrry6rreHbI B MaTepn1< Ha

1,3- 2

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BaphnpyeT OT 7,5 )J,0 9 M, IIJIOll(a)J,b OT 41 ,25 )J,0 48,45 M 2. ITOJI MaTepHKOBbIM, B
O)J,HOM crryqae rrpe)J,CTBaJilIJI co6oM: MaTepHKOBym c1<arry. ITocTpoii:KH
cTorr60Boi1 KOHCTPYKU:Iflf. CTorr60Bb1e lIMbI B KOHif<Iecrne OT

13 )J,O 16 <IaCTHqHo
60 CM, B

pacrrom1raJIIfCh 3a rrpe)J,eJiaMH KOTJIOBaHa, )J,IfaMeTp HX He rrpeBhilliarr

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oca)J,KY )J,epeBlIHHoii KOHCTPYKU:Iflf )j(IfJIIfma. "Borrhllllfe "
yrrry6rrettbI B MaTepnK Ha

1, 15- 1,7 M, 0Tarrmrnarr11cb rre'laMH n

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KanaMif. Cy,o;JI

no pa3MepaM, crpOiiTeJihHbIM rrpHeMaM , HeOp)J,IiHapHbIM HaXO)J,KaM(1<aurnHHalI


'lallla, aJib6apeJIJIO, CTeaTHTOBbIM KOTeJI,

650 IDT. KOCTlIHbIX IIO)J,eJIOK, MOHeTbl),

MO)l(HO rrpe)J,IIOJIO)l(IfTb , 'ITO "6 oJihIIIHe" )J,OMa rrpmIa)J,Jie)J(aJIH 3a)l(HTO'lHbIM


ropo)l(aHaM lllexp an-,IJ;)l(e,o;1ma.

- 278 -

- 279 -

Oco6o OTMeTHM pacrrorrarasrnyIOcH B cesepo-BOCTO'lHOii: qacr11 ropo.na,


Ha paCCTOHHHH 0, 1 KM K BOCTOKY OT "6oJibillI1X" .J:(OMOB, rpyrrrry )KHJIHIUMaCTepCKHX20. OpnettT11posatthI OHH CTporo B o.nttoM ttanpasrrett11n: - cesep10r, npHMoyroJihHOH cpopMbl. ,[l,rrn:Ha CTeH pa3JII1'ltta: OT 6,2 .no 15 M, nJIOIIIa.n:h
OT 62.n:o 75 M2. Ilorr B )KHJIHIIIaX-MaCTepCKI1X o6Ma3hIBaJICH rrrmmii:. IlocTpOHKH
CTOJI6osoii:. KOHCTpyKUHI1: npocJie)KeHO OT 6 .n:o 16 HM, qaCTli'IHO HJII1
IIOJIHOCTbl-0 pacnorraraBWHXCH 3a npe.nerraMI1 KOTJIC>Batta, B OCHOBaHI111
KOTOpblX Hali.nett bl I13BeCTirnKOBhie KaMHH. )l{HJIHIIIa-MaCTepCKHe yrrry6rretthI
B MaTepHK Ha 1,7- 2 M (pnc. 6, 4). ,[l,aHHhie nocTpOMKH Bhl.J:(eJIHIOTCH HaJili'lHeM
.n:syx netfeli, O,n:Ha H3 KOTOpbIX CJIY)KI1Jia B Ka'ieCTBe OTOnHTeJihHOll, a BTOpaH,
cy.n: no KOHCTPYI<UHH, TepMOH30JIHUHI1 H3 Ch1puosb1x Ktt:pn:n:qei1 n HaJIH'lHIO
eMKOCTeii ,n:Jrn so,n:hr, npe.n:ua3Ha'iarracb .n:rr npornBo,n:crsettttoro npouecca, .n:rr
I<OToporo Tpe6osarracb BhICOKaH TeMrrepaTypa :n: ttarr:n:q11e so,n:hr. ,[J,mr
o6ecrreqemrn nOCTOHHHOro pe3epBa BO.J:(bl B6JIH3H MaCTepCI<HX 6hIJIH BhIKOnaHhI
UHCTep11hr-1<orro.n:uhr. Eorree Toro, 01<orro )KlfJIHIII pacrrorrararrHCh coopy)KeHHH,
KOTOpbre ycTynami: no pa3MepaM, rrpo'IHOCTH KOHCTPYKU:HH H accopTHMer-ny
mmer-nap. Bo3MO)KHO, )KHJI:n:ma-MacTepc1rn:e HBJIHJIHCh uenTpaMH peMecrreuHhIX yca.ne6 21 . HarrH'lHe CTOJih pa3JIH'lHhIX T11rros )KHJIHIII rro3BOrrHeT npe.n:noJJO)KHTh, 'ITO nepBbie rrpntta.zi;Jie)KaJIH 6oraTbIM peMecrreHHI1KaM, B TO BpeMH
KaK BTOphre - rrpe.ncTaBHTeJIHM HH3WHX crroes ropo.n:cKoro 11acerreHH~
pa6aM, rro,n:MacTepbHM 22 .
Ha speMH cTpOHTeJihCTBa TaKnx 1<pym-1h1x ropo.n:os, i<aK Illexp arr-,[1,)Ke.n:11.n,
peMecrreI-IHHI<H coopy)KaJIH Heo6xo,n:HMhle CTpOHTeJihHhie KOMnJieKChI: ne'iH )J;JI5!
06)KHJ'a rrnpnn:qa H BbI)KHI'aHH5! H3BeCTH, I<OTOpbre .J:(OJI)KHbl 6bIJIH o6ecne<IHTb
CTpOHTeJibCTBO ueo6xo.zi;HMblMH MaTepHarraMH.
TaK, ua IO)KHOH or<panue ropo,n:a, .Ha paccTOHHHH 0,3 KM K ceBepo-3ana.n:y
OT 6airn I, pacrronaranach .n:syxKaMepuaH ne'lh ,n:rrH o6)K:n:ra r<npnH'ia,
rrpHMoyrorrhnoii qiopMhI, pa3MepaMH 2,5x4 M. KBa,n:paTHhie KHpnH'iH,
H'.ffOTOBJieHHbie B BH,n:e TOHI<OH IIJIHTKH, nrnpOKO npHMeH5IJIHCb B CTpOHTeJibCTBe ropo.n:a np:n: coopy)KeHHH Ma3apol3, ne'ieii,' KaHOB 11 T..zi;.
Ha ropo.n:nIIIe TaK)Ke H3BeCTHO nHTh neqeit .n:rr o6)KHra 113BeCTH: o.n:11a B
uei-upe ropo.n:a, Me)K,n:y Me'leTbI-O n r<apasau-capaeM, n 'leTbrpe. - rm IOro3ana.nHoii OI<pamre ero, na paccT05IHI1H 0,1 KM r< ceBepy OT EyTy'leHcr<oro
MOCTa23. Ile'lH HMeJIH rrepeBepHyTyIO yceqeHHO-KOHH'leCKYIO <jJopMy, BepxHHH
JJ;l'IaMeTp KOTOpbIX BapbHpOBaJI ot 1,4 .no 5 M, ,n:HaMeTp no.n:a OT I .n:o 2,05 M,
TOJIIILHHa o6Ma3r<H CTeH .n:ocTnrana IO CM. Ci:ponTeJibHhIH MaTep:n:an, Tar<
Heo6xo.n:11MblH JJ; JIH coopy)KeHH5! MOHyMeHTaJihHbIX H )KHJlblX 3)J,aHHH,
H3rOTOBJI5IJI CH Ha MecTe , T .e . B ropo.n:e. Ile'lb .J:(Jl5! o6)KHra H3BeCTH,
pacnoJIO)KeHI-Ia5! B ueHTpe ropo.n:a, BH)J,HMO, cpyHI<UHOHHpOBana TOJlbK() Ha
B'peMH CTpOHTeJibCTBa Me'leTH H KapaBaH-capaH , B TO BpeMH Kar< OCTaJihHhie
ne'iH rrpe.n:Ha3Ha'laJIHCh )J,JIH 6orree )J,JIHTeJihHoro speMerrn pa6oThl.
Ha nesoM 6epery p. PeyT, Ha TeppttToprrn cospeMeirnoro cen a Tpe6y)KeHhI ,
3a npe.nenaMH Illexp arr-,[1,)Ke.n:tt.D.a, Ha paccTOHHI1H 1 KM K cesepy OT Hero ,
\.

- 280 -

pacnorrararrcH rOH'iapHhIH paifoH. 3.nech 6hmo 11ccrre.noBaHo ,n:Ba roH'iapHbIX


.
M
ropHa ,nrrH ofoirnra KepaM11KH H rOH'iapHaH MacrepcKaH .
ro1-1qapHa5! MaCTepCKa5! pacrronaraJiaCh Ha paCCTCJHHHH 20 M OT neqeJi H
npe.n:cTaBJIHJia co6o:ii 3eMJIHHKy, yrny6rreHHYIO B MaTepHK Ha 1,8 M. ,ll,nttHa ee
2
cbcTaBnHna 6 M, ruttpttHa 4,5 M, o6maH nnoma.n:h 27 M . IloMHMO <jJparMeHTOB
r<epaMJ;IKH, B MaCTepCKOH 6bIJIO Haii.n:e1,IO 60JibillOe ~OJIH'leCTBO TpeyrOJibHblX
rro,n:CTaBOK , rrpttMeHHI-OIIIHXC5! B Ka'leCTBe rr,poKna,n:oK Me)K.n:y 'iaIIIaMIL
,[l,syxbHpyCHbie ropHhI, OKpyrrroii <jJopMbI, cy,n:H no 60JibIIIOMY KOJIH'leCTBY
o6JIOMKOB so.n:onpoBO.J:(HblX Tpy6 , KBa,n:paTHblX KHpnH'leH H HeIIOJIIIBHOH
nocy.zi;hl, Hatt)J,eHHblX 6JIH3 HHX, npe,n:Ha3Ha'iaJIHCb, BH.J:(HMO, .J:(Jl5! 06)K11ra
KepaMHKH, a TaK)Ke .n:pymx KepaMH'leCKHX H3.zi;enn:ii.
PacnoJIO)KeHHe roH'iapI-Ioro pa:Ho1rn 3a npe.nenaMH ropo.n:a MO)KHO
o6bHCHHTb TeM, 'ITO npH o6)KHre KepaMHKH neo6xO.J:(HMbl TaKHe KOMIIOHeHTbI
KaK rnnHa, Bo.n:a 11 BhICOKaH TeMnepaTypa. B uenHX 6e3onacnocTH, a TaK)Ke
naJIH'lHH CblpbH IIO)J, pyKOH, ronqapbl pa6oTaJrn H npOH3BO)J;HJUi Heo6xo.n:11MyIO
rrocy.n:y .n:nH ropo)KaH BI-Ie ropo.n:a.
Ey.zi;yq11 co3.zi;an s cneu11<jJH'ieCKHX ycnoBHHX Illexp an-,[l,)KeJJ;H.D: ne HMen HM
THUH'lHOro apKa-UHTa.n:errH, HH o6mero TOproBo-peMecrreHHOrO npe.n:MeCTbHpa6a.n:a, HH ropo.zi;cKOH creHhl, KOTOpaH Ha BocTOKe o6hI'lHO OKpy)KaeT ropo.n:
co BCeMH ero npe.n:MeqhHMH25 3TO II03BOJIHeT BbIJJ;eJIHTb ero B oco6oe H_:3JleHHe,
OTJIH'lHOe OT 30JIOTOOp.D:bIHCKHX ueHTpOB, pa3BHBaIOIIIHXCH B paHOHaX c
oce.n:noii unsnn113auneii B BoJI)KCKOH Eynrapnn, Xope3Me, KphIMy. Ilo3TOMY
11 TorrorpaclmH Illexp arr-,[l,)Ke.n:tt.na 3asncerra OT <jJynKlLI1M, ypoBHH, pa3BHTHH n
o6rrm<a ropo.na.
IlPMMElJAHlUI

KyJJbTypa H HCKYCCTBO cpe11tteaeK0Boro ropo11a. M. 1984. C. 3.


A6bl3oea _ H., Ebipua II. II. Tonorpac}Jm1 H KYJlbTypttall CTpaTHrpac}lHll CTaporo Opxell II
AHM B 1982 r. Kurn. 1986. C. 115- 126.
' <t>eoopoe-lfaebiooe r. A. KynbTypa H06111eCTBeHHblil 6bIT 30JJOTOOPAblHCKHX ropo11on. M. 1964.
C.11.
'
'
'
Eblpfla JI. JI. KaMeHHoe coopylKe~me I B CTapoM Opxee II Apxeonorw1ecKHe Hccne11onaH.H~
cpe11HeBeKODblX naMJITHHKOB B ,[{HeCTpoacKo-IlpYTCKOM MelK11ype'lbe. KrnH. 1985. C. 24- 3).
s CMupuoe r. p. J13 HCTop1rn CTaporo Opxell II HM<DAH CCCP. N:! 4 (70). KrnH. 1960. C. 80.
' <t>ay3 u Mycmacjm. Cpe11HeBCKOBb1e Me'leTbl Cpe11Heil A'.mH H CHpHH II ABTopeqi. AHC . .,.. Ka.HA.
HCT. HayK . CattKTIleTep6ypr. 1993. C. 5.
7 Eapmonbo B. B. Pa6oTbJ no HCTO'IHHK0Be11enmo . T. VIII. M. C. 277 .
.
s Maccon B. M. ,[(peBHe3eMne11enb'!eCKall KYJJ&Typa MaprnaHbI II MMA . .I\\! 73. M . 1959. C.

15- 16.
'
'9Bceo6111aJ1 HCTOpHll apXHTeKTYPbI n 12ToMax. T. VIII. M. 1969. C. 146.
10 TaM lKe. C. 146.
11 Ebipua II. II., JunueuucKaa 3. p., EaHH CTaporo Opxell II CpeJ.IHeBeKoB&Ie naMJITHHKH
JJ:neCTponcKo-ITpyTcKoro MelK11ype'lbJ1. KrnH. 1988. C. 4-27 .
12A6b13oBa E. H. , E&1pua II. II. Tonorpa<!iHJI ... C. 117- 118.
,
" Ebipua II. JI. 113 HCTOpHH Hccne11oaaHHJ1 CTaporo Opxell (1946-1958 rr.) II ApxeonornqecKHe
Hcc11e11onaHHJ1 n CTapOM Opxee. KrnH. 1991. C. 11- 12.
14 Bceo6111aJ1 HCTopHll apXHTeKTyp&!. T. 1. M. 1958. C. 655.
- 281 -

15

BelluKaNoea M. C. AttTpononornll cpeAHeBeKoaoro HaceneHHll MonAaBHH (no MaTepHaJiaM


~I-aIMl!THHKa CTaporo ?pxell)// Ap;:ceonorn'leCKHe 11ccnei:1aaaH11J1. KH. 3. MaTepHan1>J K cepHH
apOAhl H Kyn1>Typhl '. B1>m. X. M. 1993. C. 11- 12.
16
A6bt3oea E. H. , Eb1pw1 fl. II. Tonorpa<jimi ... c. 117.
17
Ezopo.e B. JI. )K11nH11.1a Hoaoro Capal! II IToaomKbe a cpei:1H11e aeKa M ' 1970 c 1.92
,
//
Apxeonor~'leCKHe

18 P116 T <fl )K
ou HJIH!lla 3onoToopi:11>rncKoro apeMeHH H3 CTaporo Opxell
HccneAoBaHHll B,CTapoM Opxee. Kum. 1991. C. 72-91
' 9A6bt3oea E. H. KoMnneKc coo py)l(eHHH ycaAb 6 bl X IV 'a. .a CTapoM Opxee II Apxeonorw1ecKHe

7~~~~A~~~~~'.'._cf e:.H;:~KOVDbIX naMllTHHKoa a ,lJ,H,?CTpoacKo-ITpyTCKOM Me)l(Aype'lbe. Kum.


'
OH T. <1>. K aonpocy o 6on1>umx" AOMax H3 Cniporo Opxell II
~~ei:1HeBeK0Bb1e naMllTHHKH ,lJ,HeCTpoacKo-ITpyTcKoro MC)l(Aype'lbl!. Kum. 1988. c. 112~ 121

20

ne~':::;~ I~~~... ~b~~~t~2~~~re!lbMa1I A. A. ,lJ,peBHOCTl-J C:raporo Opx~l!. 30JIOT00p/:lb!HCKH~

A6bt3oea E. 11., Eb1pN11 fl. II., Hyoefl&Ma11 A. A. TTpeaHoCTH c 30


0
77
'
,...
...

e opoe-~aebwoe I' A. 06u~eCTBeHHbIH CTpoi1 3onoToH OpAI>I. M. 1973. c. 88- 89.


A6r.13oea E. H., Eb1pN11 II. II., Hyoefl&Ma11 A. A. ,LJ,peBHOCTH ... c. 37_ 38 .
24 A6b13oea E. H. Tonorpa<jJHll ... C. 119.

25
~~{~~ecKull A. IO. Capai1-6epKe, CT.~nm~a 30.r10To~ OpAbI. <l>eoi:1an113M Ha BocToKe. h. 1932.

pacI<onoK, o'IeHh pa3uoo6pa3na 11 ttacq11ThrnaeT 6onee

40

BH.L\OB 1rncTpy-

MenTapM5I 11113,n;emili H3 :>Kene3a: H3 peMecneHttoro MeTam1006pa6aThIBaiomero


HHCTpyMeHTap1rn -

I<Y3HeqHbie 1<nem11 H HaITllJibHHKH; cpe,n;H .n;epeB0-

06,n;eJIOlJHOrO HHCTpyMeHTa -

TOilOpbI, Teena, IlllJlhII ,D;OJIOTO, c1<06en11; 113

ceJihCKOX035IHCTBeHHhIX H npOMhICJIOBhIX opy.L\HH -

MOTbirH, neMexa, 'Iepecna,

ceprrbI, 6oTarro H p&160JIOBHbie CHaCTM; H3 X035IHCTBeHHOrO M


HHBeHTap5I -

~oMaUIHero

HaBeCHbie H HaKJia,L\Hbie 3aMKH, Kmoqlf, IlO,!l;CBelJHHKH, HO:>KH,

HO:>KHHI!hl H .n;p.

lfa

CHap5I:>KeHH5l BCa,D;HHI<a H sepxosoro KOH5l -

CTpeMeHa,

UII!Opa , nyThI, y.n;nna , IlO,L\I<OBbI , cI<pe6HHIIhI, IIO.L\IlPY:>KHbie rrp5I:>KKH,


Jie,D;OXO,!l;Hbie HJIH .n;peBOJia3Hbie IIIHilhI. 0,n;B:HM H3 IIOKa3aTeneii ypOBH5l
pa3Bl1TH5l KY3He'IttOro peMecna aBJI5IIOTC5l rrpe,n;MeThI soopy:>KeHHH: I<HH)l(aJI,

21

22<1J
,,
2

ane6ap,L\a, ,L\OCnexH, HaKOHe'IHHKH CTpen.


Oco6hIH HHTepec ,L\JI5l H3y'IeHH5l I<Y3He'IH6ro peMecna npMo6peTaIOT
semeB&Ie KJia.L\&I, cocroj{mtte H3 :>Kerre3HhIX npe,n;MeTOB pa3n11qHoro Ha3Haqemrn,
Haii.L1eHH&Ie B pa3Hhie rO.L\hI Ha ropo.L1ttme IIIexp an-,n:>Ke.L\H.L\.
B 1963 r. B roro-3ana,n;Hoii 'IaCTH ropo.L\HIIIa npn o6pa6oTKe BHHOrpa.n;ttuKa
6&m ttaii,L\eH KJia.L\ 3eMne,n;eJI&'IeCI<HX opy.L\HH, npo,n;aT11poBaHHhIH

Summary

CMHpHOBhIM cepe.n;11ttoli

H Fdor the first time an attempt is made in this article to characterize the topography of a Golden
d or e town on the terntory of the contemporary Moldova. The archeological data obtained
unng the survey of the toun of Shekhr al-Gedid, situated at the rerritory of Orl;~iul Ve -h
served as a basis for such an mvestigation.
c I,
Th~ article is based on the thesis that the social order of the Feudal epoch was reflected in the
appearance and structure of the town and its topography.

XIV

se1<a 1 Kna.n; cocT05IJI H3

42 qepecen, 1<permen115l ,n;nH ,L\epeBHHHhIX qacTeii nrryra,

68

r.

,n.

nny:>KHhIX neMexoB,

coc1<pe6a, o:i<oBKH .n;na

,[\epeB5IHHOH nonaThI, MOThirH H opy,n;H5l THIIa KYJihTHBaTopa .


BTopoli semeBoli I<rr<l.L\
paC'IHCTKe coopy)l(eHHa

(1988

r.) Hali.L1eH B TOH :>Ke 'IaCTH ropo.L\a rrpH

59. Kna.n;, HacqHTbIBaIOill;HH 295 IIeJihIX H cpparMeHTap-

HhIX npe,L\MeToB; COCT05!Jl, rJiaBHbIM o6pa30M, H3 npe,L\MeTOB CHapH:>KeHH5l


BCa,D;HHKa H sepxosoro I<OH5l, 3aill;MTHOrO BOOpy)l(eHH5l, cenbCKOX035IHCTBeHHblX

lihl,PHSI

opy.L\HH 11 rrpe,n;MeTOB ,n;oMaIIIHero 0611xo,L\a. Ha oCHosaHHH HYMH3Ma~11'IeCI<oro


2
MaTepttana 1<rra.n; 6bln npo.L1aT11posaH cepe.L111noli XIV se1<a

n. n.. Psi6ol1 T. <1>.

l1ccn,e ,L\oBaHH5l IIIexp an-,D;:>Ke,L\H,D;a .L1arr11 ocHOBHOH cpaI<TH'Iec1rnii

>KEnE3HblE M3AEnMSI XIV BEKA M3 CT APOfO OPXESI

MaTep11an-HaXO,!l;KH MeTaJIJ1Hqec1<oro HHBeHTap5I -

CBH,[\eTeJlbCTByIOru;He 0 TOM,

'ITO 3Ta OTpaCJih peMecna ' 06ecneq11,BCU1a HY:>K.L\hl ropo:>KaH B ueo6xo,n;I, MhIX
Apxeonoru'IeCKoe H3y'IeHue ocTaTKOB 30JIOTOOp.L\bIHCKoro
CrapoM Opxee -

ropo~a

IIIexp an- ,,...,:>Ke,D;H,L\a


n
Il03BOJIHJIO IlOJIY'IHTb 3Ha'IHTeJ1bHOe

KOJiuqecTBO :>KeJie3HhIX II3,L\em1li. Oco6oe _3uaqeuue cpe.L\II HHx MMeIOT

opy.L\H5IX 11 H3,L\eJIH5IX H3 :>Kene3a. 3TOT MeTannoo6pa6aThrnarom11ii, T.e. Ky3tte'IHhIH HHCTpyMeHTapHH, npe,L\CTaBJieH KJieU.J,aMM H Hal1HJlhHHKOM.
Ky3He'IH&Ie 1<nem11 (pnc.

1, 1), ,D;JJHHOii 40,5

CM. fy6&111MeIOT

Uiap1~np c

npHBe,n;e~Hbie B ' ,n;aHHOH CT~Tbe npe,n;MeThI, o6uapy:>KeHHhie B 3aKpbITbIX

I<OJieH'IaThIM BbICTyIIOM, T .,e. BIIOJIHe cospeMeHHYIO KOHC:rpyI<I!HIO. Ilo MHeHHIO

KOMITJieKcax (:>KHJIHru;ax, X035IHCTBeHHbIX H peMeCJieHHbIX coopy:>KeHII5!X, KJia,L\aX

B. A .

H .Lip.), Morymux CJIY:>KHTb 3TaJIOHaMH ,!l;JI5! ,L\aTHpOBKH KY3HeqHbIX H3,L\emi:li H

60JihllIHX H3,L\eJIHH npH I<OBKe 3 IlpttMepHO ,D;O cepe,D;llHhl (co CTOpOHhI ry6)

B nepByIO 01:Iepe,L\b, ,L\Jl5! n:icrpyMeHTapH5! H )l(eJie3HbIX opy,L\IIH,

KJieru;H B ceqeHHM 11p5IMOyrOJihlihie, a 6JIH3KO K pyK05ITI<e -

npHMeH5!BUIH~C5!

B pa3HbIX OTpaCJI5IX X035IHCTBa, xapaKTepHbIX ,[\Jl5l 30JIOTOOp,L\blHCI<Oro BpeMeHH.


3TOT MaTepHaJI CTaJI OCHOBOH ,L\JI5I Bbipa60TI<l1 nepBOH TllITO.i:ror1111 11

KonqnHa, attanom'IHhie Knemn npe,L\tta3Ha"IaJIHCh ,L\JI5l y.L1ep:>K11BaHH5l

HarrHJihHI1K (p11c.

I<pyrJihie .

1, 2\ xopoIIIeli coxpaHHOcTH c ,L\ByxcTopomreli ttace'IKOH,

11JIOC,KHH, rrp5IMOyrOJihHhIH B cel.JeHHH, c 'IepeHKOM ,!J;Jl5l B,[\eBaHH5l B ,L\epeB5IHHYIO

22,8 CM.

B.

xapai<repllCTHKll I<Y3HeqJ-IhIX 113,L\eJillH l'.13 coopy:>KeHHH 30JIOTOOp.L\bIHCI<llX

PYI<05ITI<y . ,nnttHa IIOJIOTHa

ropo,L\OB, 'IeMy 11 IlOCB5IIll;eHa 3Ta,CTaTb5l.

HHCTpyMeHTOB, rrp11MeH5IBUIHXC5I npu OIIHJIOi3Ke H r py6oii UIJIHCllOBI<e MeTanJla,

06pa60TKa MeTanna B 30JIOTOOp.L\blHCKOM ropo,L\a, eCJill H He 3aHllMaJia


6onee ;maq11TeJihHOro MecTa, qeM, uanp11Mep, rOH'IapcTBO, TO BO BCJII<OM cnyqae
He ycTynana eMy. CB11,L\eTeJihCTBO TOMY -

Haxo,n;I<11 pa3uoo6pa3HhIX n 3,L\en11M:

113 :>KeJie3a 11 :>KeJie3HbIX UIJiaI<OB. I1pO.L\YI<IIH5l I<Y3Hel!OB, nonyqeHHaJ,I B XO,[\e

- 282 -

no MHeHHIO

A. PbI6aI<oBa, 3TO O,!l;HH H3

naxo,L\5IUJ,eroc5l B xono,n;HOM coCTOJIHHH. Ky3tteIIhI npttMeHAAH Ta1<11e HanHIIhHHKH


4

,[\JI5I caMhIX pa3JIHqHbIX pa6oT I<aK no IIBeTHhIM, TaK M ITO qepHOMY Merarrrra,1v1

_nepeB006.L1enoqH&IH HHCTpyMeHT rrpe,n;cTasnen TOnopaMH, TecnaM11,


UIHJiaMH, ,D;OJIOTOM H c1<06eJI5IMH.

-283-

Puc. 2 .

~OHbJe TOTIOpbl
)l(eJJ ~

H3 lllexp an-,[(lKC.11HAa: 1 -

Tbnop I THTia, 2.-

TOl10P Ill THTia.

Puc. 1. )l(ene3Hhle 113.11emU1 m lllexp an-,[(JKe.11w.11a: 1 - Knemn ; 2- HamrnhHHK, 3- 4- MOThirH

Hau6onee yttuBepcaJihHhIM Bu,noM ,nm1 o6pa6oTKH ,nepeBa 51BJIHIOTCH


TonophI. lfa uMe10ro;eroc51 MaTepuarra MO)J:(HO BhI,nerruTh 'IeThipe nma:
Tun I -Torrop (puc. 2, 1) y,nmrneHHOM cpopMhI c y3KUM rre3BHeM u yrnKaMH
Ha o6yxe. BepxHH51 'IaCTh o6yxa ocpopMrretta B Bu,ne ropu30HTaJihHOM
nrroro;a,nKU . .lJ:rruHa 10,2-18,5 CM, rnupuHa rre3BU5I 5,5- 7 CM. Ilo,no6Horo BU,na
TorropbI 6hITOBaJIH i3 :moxy pa3BHToro cpe.ri;HeBeKOBMI B Borr)J:(CKOM Bynrapuu5.
Tim II - Torrop (pnc. 3, 2) y,nrrutteHHOM cpopMhI, co crrer:i<a' pacrnupmoro;uMcn Jie3BUeM. 06yx OBa.JlhHbIM . .lJ:rrmra rre3BU51 21 ,5 CM, rnupnHa 5,4 CM,
BhICOTa o6yxa 4,6 CM.
Tun III - Torrop (puc. 2, 2) 6e3 ro;eKOBUU:, c rrp5IMhIM rnnpoKHM ne3BUeM.
06yx OBaJihHbIM . .lJ:rruHa TOrropa 22,5 CM, IIIHpuHa 6 CM. no MHeHUIO A. II.
CMupttoBa, pa3ttoo6pa3ue TorropoB CBH,neTeJihCTByeT o 6orrhIIIOM 3Ha'Iennu
,nepeBa B CTpOUTCJihHOM ,nene u 6hITe ropo)J:(aH, H UMeHHO TaKOM BH.IJ; T5I)J:(CJ1hIX
TorropoB Bh1pa60Ta.JICH B 30JIOToop,nhrncKoe BpeM5I. T.e . B XIV B.6
Tun IV - Torrop (pttc.
1) c currhHO BhITHHYThIM I<JIHHOBH.IJ;HhIM B rrrratte
ne3BUeM H Tpaneu:HeBH.ll;HbIM B IIJlaHe o6yrnKOM: '.lJ:rrirna TOIIOpa 16,3 CM,
nau60JlhIIIaH IIIHpHHa Jie3BU51 12 CM, BbICOTa o6yxa 5,2 CM.

3,

- 284 -

Puc. 3. )l(ene3ttble Tonop&I 113 lllexp an-,[(JKe.11w1-1a: l - Tonop IV Tttna, 2 - Tonop II Tttna.

- 285 -

,D;mr II3I'OTOBJiemur "BbieMOB" B .nepeB5IHHbIX II3.nenmrx peMeCJieHHIIKII


npIIMeH5IJ1II Teena, II3I'OTOBJieHHbie II3 ueJibHOH :>KeJie3HOH nnaCTIIHbI, pa6o'Ia5I
'IaCTb KOTOpblX IIMena TpaneuIIeBII.D:HYIO opMy, 60KOBbie :>Ke CTOpOHbl 6bmII

~nerna II30I'HYTbl. 0THOC5ITC.ll K rpyrme BTYJlb'IaTbIX II IICI10Jlb3YIOTC5I ):(Jl.ll


MenKIIX pa60T 7 ,ll;nIIHa Tecen BapbIIpyer OT 5 .no 10 cM, nmpmra ne3BIIH OT 4
):(0 7 CM.
Oco6o cne.nyeT OTMeTIITb Haii.neHHbie IlIIJlbI, OTHOC.llll\IIeCH K .D:BYM
pa3HOBII.D:HOCT5IM. K rrepBoii OTHOC5ITC.ll nIIJibI rrpMoyronhttoH: B ce'IeHIIII

BapbIIpyeT OT

11 .no 20 ,8 CM, llIIIPHHa OT 2, 1 .no 3 CM, .nnmi:a pyqeK He

npeBbrwana 11, 5 CM.

_
,ll;n cr<perrneHII.ll .nepeBHHHbIX TopuoBbIX y3noB nnn: rrpo.nonbHbIX WBOB B
8

.nepeBaHHbIX KOHCTpyr<uIInx npIIMettahIICh CK06b1-cr<pe6&1 Cr<o6hr OTHOC5ITC5I


K Tmry .D:BYXWIITIHbIX. Coe,D;irnIITCJibttan rrnattr<a cr<o6 pa3JIII'IHbIX pa3MepoB
-

OT 9 ):(0 24,5 CM.


Cy.nn rro BbrrueorrIIcaHHbIM n:3.nenIIHM, Ba:>KHYIO pon& P~.Mecna: cocTaBnnno

.nepeBoo6.nenO'IHOe .neno. 3TO o6b5ICHHeTC5I TCM, 'ITO panoH, r.ne CTpOIIJ1C5I


ropo.n, 6bIJI, .na l1 B HaCTOHIIIee BpCM5I OCTaeTCH, OJJ:HHM II3 HaII6onee 6oraTbIX
neCHbIX o6nacTeH ,D;neCTpOBCK0 -11 pyTCKOfO MC){():(ype'Ib5I, ll .nepeBO 6bIJIO'

/;
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'{

~I
4

5
6
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Puc. 4.

ITnoTHHL\KHti 11 X03JIHCTBeHHb1ti HHBeHTllpi.: 1 5-6 - KJll-0'111 .

qiopMbI, pa3MepaMII 3x7 CM -

.[IOJloTo,

2- 3 -- 1111ni.1, 4 -

6oTano,

4,8xl,2 CM, war 3y6beB 0,3 CM (pIIC. 4, 3),

npn:MeHHBIIIIIeCH..D:JIH pacrrIIJIIIBaHII.ll .D:OCOK. BTopaH pa3HOBII.D:HOCTb rrIIn (pIIc.


4, 2) rrpIIMerrnnacb ):(J15I BbIIlMJlIIBaHII.ll KpyrnbIX OTBepCTMM, B ce'ICHIIH Otta
UIIJlMH.D:PII'IeCKOM qiopMbI. ,ll;IIaMeTP TIIIJlbI 3,8 CM, llIIIpI-rna TIOJIOTHa 2,5 CM.
,lJ;pyrnM He06XO.D:IIMbIM B IlJlOTHHUKOM .nene opy.nneM 6bIJIO .D:OJIOTO,
IICTIOJ1b30BaBweec5I .IJ:Jl.ll .non6neHII5I B .nepeBe rra30B, 5J:<reer<, OTBepCTHH ll T ..n.
Hai-i..neHHhie npII pacKonr<ax ropo.na; OHII (pIIc . 4, 1) OTHOCHTCH I< Tnny
BTyn&'IaThIX. Xopowo coxpattnnIIc& pe:>Kymue '!acTn, BTynr<II :>Ke Hecr<OJibKO
pa3pyweHbl. ,D;nmm HaKOHe'IHIIKOB .D:OCTIIrna 18,3 CM, .nnaMerp BTYJII<ll 3,5 CM.
,D;n.ll CTporaHII.ll 6pe_BeH II TeCIIH B fIJlOTHIIUKOM .nene rrpIIMeHHJlllCb
:>Kene3Hbre c1<06enn: , npe.ncTaBmnomn:e co6or'-i HO:>KeBn.nr-roe ne3Bn:e c
rrpO):(OJlbHbIMII (I Tnrr) M rronepe'IHblMII (II TIIIl) py'IKaMII . ,D;nn:ml ne3BIIM

- 286 -

Puc. 5_

C11MMerpwrni.1ti neMex 11x Illexp an-UJKe.[IH.[la.

ecTeCTBeHHO, O.D:HIIM ll3 OCHOBHbIX rro.neno.'II-IbIX MaTepIIaJIOB B X03HHCTBe


ropo:>KaH.
,
06 orrpe.neneHHOM ypoBHe 3eMne.nenbqecr<oH: KYJibTYPbI CBII.neren&CTBYIOT
HaXO,!l,KII JieMeXOB - HaI<OHe'IHIIKOB, Ha,!l,eBaCMbIX Ha .nepeBHHI-IYI-0 I-IOry (noJ13yH2
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urnpn:Ha OT 20 ,!l,0 28 CM . 11axoTHbie opy.nmr npe.ncTa,BJICHbl nepeXO,!l,HbIMM OT
10

'

CHMMeTpII'IHbIX K aCIIMMeTpII'IHbIM .
lfopecrro - rmy:>KHbIB HO:>K, ycraHaBJIMBaCMbIH B rpl1)].IIJlb Bnepe,ZJ;M neMexa, IIMeeT
cpopM.y 60JibIIIOI'O MaCCIIBHOI'O HO:>Ka c 'IeTbipexrpaHI:lbIM 'IepeilIKOM, B ce'I~HHH paBHo6e.npeHHbIH TpeyronhHIIK (p11c. 6, 1, 3). Pa3Mepbr 'lepecen Bapb11p0Ban11. o6maa
)].JlllHa OT 42.no 57,2 CM, )].JlIIHaJie3BII5I OT 11,!l,025 CM, I1I11pIIHaJie3BII5I OT 6,6 ,!l,0 9 CM.

- 287 -

X035IHCTBCHH0-6bITOBbIX II3,L(CJ1IIH, II03BOJ1JJ:CT I'OBOp11Th 0 BbICOKOM ypoBHe


KY3HCtJHOro peMecna c 0,L(HOH CTOpOHbl, a c ,n:pyroH: -

ycTaHOBHTh OCHOBHbie

TCXHH:tJCCKHe onepau:mi, KOTOpbIMII Bna,n:eJIH 30JIOTOOp,n:bIHCKHe MaCTepa. 3TO


CB06o,n:ttaa KY3He'lttaa KOBKa, XOJlO,L(Haa pe3Ka Ii OITHJIOBKa MeTanna.
TaKMM o6pa3oM, KY3HetJHOe peMecno B lllexp an-)J::lKe,n:II,n:e 3am1Mano
Ba)!(HOe MCCTO B ropo,n:CKOM rrpOH3BO,L(CTBe H o6ecrretJHBaJIO BCe OCTaJihHble
OTpacnH ropo,n:cKoro X035JHCTBa Heo6XO,L(l:!MbIMII )!(eJie3HbIMH H3,L(eJIHJJ:MII.
IToMHMO pa3JIIItJHhIX IIttcrpyMeHTOB 11 opy,n:uH: Tpy,n:a, rrpuMeHaBIIIuxca B

pa3mi~IHbIX OTpaC'.15IX X03JJ:HCTBa, B lllexp an-)J:)!(e,L(II,L(ev ttaH:,n:eHbl pa3JIHtJHh:e


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X03JJ:MCTBeHHbIH HHBCHTapb Ii 6bI'I;OBbIC BeII.l;I:!, IICIIOJib30BaBUil:!eC5! KaK B

X03HHCTB~, TaK H B 6bITy. '


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11 HO)!(HMU:bl.
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cooppI<eHH5IX lllexp an-)J:)l(e,n:11,n:a. B. 1rnCToaiu:ee BpeM5I H3BecTuo 6onee 40
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OT 8 ,n:o 18,1 CM , IIIttputta

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(p11c. 6,

2).

Pa3MepbI ceprroB pa3Jil1tJHbI: ,n:n11na pytJKH BapbHpyeT OT 7,5 ,n:o

10, l CM, war 3y6a OT 0 , 3 ,n:o 0.,5 CM, rnttpttHa ne3BUH OT 1, 5 ,n:o 2 , 1 CM: IT o,n:o6ttaJJ
KOHCTPYKU:HJJ ceprrbB cyu.:iecn~yeT y)!(e c IX B.U

yfa

npOMbICJIOBbIX opy,n:Htt B 30JIOTOOp,L(bIHCKOM ropo,n:e B.CTpetJaIOTC5I

pb160.110Bttbie KpIOtJKII , TaK)!(e HBJI5IIOII.l;Hec51KY3HetJHbIMH113,n:entt5IMH. Kp10tJK11


)!(eJie3Hhie, c Jy6u:aMH , a mror,n:a c rreTeJibKOii: ,n:n51 nec1rn . ITo 1macc11cprmau:1111
B . A. ManhIM, rro,n:o6Horo .BH,n:a KpIOtJKH OTHocwrcH Ko

II nmy II

ynoTpe6mr-

12

IOTC5I ,L(JI}l JIOB.TIH KpyIIHOH pb16b1 )J:murn KPIOtJKOB ,L(OC'rIIraJia ,L(O 12 CM.
Amwrr3 KY3He tJHbIX IIJ,n:enIIli II3

ill exp

an-)J:)!(e,n:11,n:a, BKJI10tJa10mero

HeCKOJibK O ,L(CCJJTI<OB pa3H OBH,L(HOCTeJ.i: )!(CJIC3HbIX I1HCTpyMeHTOB, opy,n:HJ.i: H

-288 -

l.J:epeHKOBhie l:IO)l(H pa3JIHtJHbI no pa3MepaM: ,L(JIHHa OT 7,6 ,L(O 21 CM, IIIHpmra


Jie3BH5! OT 1 , 2

~o

1,7 CM. 3TO, BH,L(HMO , KYXOHHbie HO)!(H, qepeHKII KOTOpbIX

BCTaBJI5IJiliCh B ,n:epeB5IHHhre unu KOCT5!Hbre pyKoaTKH .


Huiepecua H<lXO,n:Ka ychMOpe3ttoro HO)!(a CTau,n:apTuoii cpopMbI. Jle3BHe
HMeeT rronyny1rny10 .clJOpMy. BnToii qepeuoK ~aKaH'lHBaeTc5I JanryThIM B
KOJibU:O KpaeM, Ky,n:a BCT aBJIJJ:JIOCh )l(CJie3HOe KOJihU:? ,L(JI5I IIO,L(BCUIHBaHH5I.
)J:JIHHa HmKa ,L(OCTlffaJia 20,5 CM, IIIHpnua JIC3BHJJ: 2, 1 CM. I1o,n:o6uoro BH,L(a
HO)!(If rrpHMCHJJ:JIHCh B KO)l(eBCHHOM ,n:ene ,L(JIJJ: pa3pe3amrn KO)l(H ,L(BlI)!(CHHCM OT
13

ce6JJ

HO)!(HHU:hl OTHOC5!TCH K THhy IIIapHHpHbIX, ,L(JIHHa HX BapbHpOBana OT 7 ,5


,n:o 16,5 CM . ITo KOHCTPYKU:HH pytJeK om1 ,n:enaTCH Ha ,n:Ba Tuna: CKo6a PYtJKH
3arnynl, o6pa3ya OBaJihHOe KOJihU:0, 1H CK06a co CIIJlOIIIHbIM CBapeHI-IblM 11
cnerKa BhITHHYThIM rraJibU:eBblM KOJlb!l;OM. l1MeHHO BTOpoii Tl1Il HO:lKHHU:, rro
MHen1110 uccne,n:oBaTeneH: , rroasnHeTCH nHIIIh B XIV seKe

14

Xo3HHCTBCHHhIH n ,n:oMaIIIHIIH m-rneruaph ropo,n:cKux :lKHTeneii pa3uoo6pa3eH 11COCTOHT113 TaKHX KY3HC'IHO-CJiecapHb1X .113,L(CJIHM KaK 3aMK11, KJIIOtJ11,
Kpecana, no,n:csetJH11K11, 6oTano, u:errn, rrpo6on, naKna,n:K11, 3arropbr 11 T.,n:.
0cT'auOB11MC5! na Ha116onee Ba)l(HbIX 113 HHX.

--,- 289 -

3aMKH, IIUf pOKO rrpIIMemieMhie

.zurn: 1arrwpaHH5! ,ZJBepe:ii )J(f!JlbIX

X035!MCT-

BeHHb!X H o6mecrneHH)>IX 3,ZJaHMH, a TaK)J(e CYH.lIYKOB, KOHCTPYKTMBI-;O ,ZJeJ15!TC5!


Ha ,ZJBe rpynIIbI: CbeMHhie M HeIIO,ZJBM)J(Hhle.

BbICTyn y .lIYIKKH 1aMKa. P a1Meph1: BbICOTa BapbHpyeT OT 4,3 .lIO 9 , 8 CM , ,ZJi-raMeTp

E. A. Kon'IHH
XV- XVI BB . 15

6onbmoro u:nmrn,ZJpa OT 1, 9 .lIO 4 , 5 CM. Ilo,ZJo6Horo BM.lla 3aMKH


OTHOCHT K T11ny

E 11

onpe,ZJernreT HX BpeM 5! 6hITOBaHH5!

2. 3aMOK (p11c . 7, 4) HMeer KOpnyc U:HJlMH.lIPM'IeCKOM <tiopMbl H o6bl'IHYIO


.lJY)J(Ky, HO c I-IOBOi1 JJa6HpHHT006pa3HOH KJlIO'IeBOll CI<Ba)J(HHOH , pacnono)J(eHHOH Ha ,ZJonu:e 6onbmoro U:HJJHI-I.llpa. Pa1MepI>1: BhICOTa BapbHpyeT OT 6,3

E. A. Kon'IHH C'IHTaeT, 'ITO


XIV BeKa H no npe,ZJJIO)J(eHHOii

.lIO 9,8 CM ,ZJHaMeTp U:HJJHH.llpa ot 2 .lIO 2,8 CM.


rro,ZJ06r-10ro BH.lla 1aMKH 6bnoBanH

:B

cepe,ZJnne

HM KJiaccmlrnKaLI;H!f OTHOCHTC5! K THUY )]; 16


Heno,ZJBHIKHhie nnH mlKna,ZJHhie 1aMKH (pnc. 7 , 5) rrpy)J(HHHI>Ie, cocTOHIQHe
H3 ,c\Byx 'IaCTeii, O,ZJHa 113 KOTOpblX npe,ZJcTaBJIHeT co6oii npaMoyrOJihHYIO
rrn acTHHY c BhIT5!HYThIMH yrnaMH . Ha 1i:enTpanbHYIO 'IaCTb, BhmonHeHnyro B

BH,ZJe BhmyKnoro TpeyronbHifKa, rrp11mrntta I1-06pa1HaH rrnacTHHa. BTopaH


'IaCTh 3aMKa -

np5!MOyrOJihHa5! nnaCTHHa, u:eHTpanhHaH 'JaCTb KOTOpoii

octiopMneua B BH,ZJe BI>myKnoro rronyKpyra. Pa1Meph1 3aMKOB BaphHpyIOT OT


6,7x7 CM ,ZJO 8x8,5 CM.
Ilpu pacKOIIKaX ropo,c\a 6bIJIH Haii,ZJeI-IbI KJIIO'IH K BhIUJeOITHCaHHblM
3aMKaM. 01-rn JfMeIOT o6hI'IHYIO norraCTh,

CTep~eHb,

Ha'IHHaIOIQHH,C}l OT Hee,

IIJJOCKHll H lliHpOKHH, HO no TOJIII~HHe COOTBeTCTBYIOl.QlfH ui:enrr Me/K,ZJY


ll1HTKaMH. Pa6o'Ian 'IaCTb 1rn1-0'Ieii ocpopMnetta B 1aBHCHMOCTH OT KJIIO'IeBoro
OTBepCTI1H 3aMKa B Blf,ZJe "Il" , " H " H

'T" -o6pa3HOH qiopMhl , a 1-IH)J(HHH KOHeu;

3arttyT B BH,ZJe neTJIH HJUf )J(e BblKOBblBaJIC5! B BH,ZJe KOJihU:a c OTBepCTHeM ,ZJJ15!

y.1Io6crna HOIIIeHH5! (pIIc. 4, 5-6) .


qaCThIMH HaXO,ZJKaMH B 30JIOTOOP.llhIHCKOM ropo,ZJe 6hIJIH TaKHe 6bITOBhie

npe,ZJMe'l'hI, KaK no,ZJcBe'IHHKH. OcBeTHTenhHbie rrpn6opI>I -

IIO.lICBe'IHHKif -

OTHOC5!TCH K nmy BTYJih'IaTb!X II npe,ZJCTaBJIHIOT co6o:H 'IeThipeyronhHhie BHTbie


HJlH rJla,ZJKHe CTep)J(HH, corHyTbie rro.n; rrp5!Mb!M yrnOM HJlH np5!MbJe,
1aKaH'IHBaI01Qlfec51 BTynKoii. BI>1c0Ta BTYJIK!f -'\OCT!frana 6,2 CM, ,ZJJJHHa cTep)J(H5!
12 CM. B O.lIHOM cny'Iae 6hiJI Haii,ZJeH .1IByxpo1K1(0BhIH Btynb 1-IaThIH no,ZJcBe'IHifK
pa3MepaM!f: BbICOTa rrepBOlf BTYJIKH 6,5 CM, BTOpOH 7,5 CM, ,ZJHaMeTp BTYJJOK
O.lIHI-Iar<os -

2,3 CM. Hecr<OJihKO o6oco6neHI-IO B ,ZJattnoil: rpynne 6hITOBbIX

rrpe,ZJMeTOB CTOHT 0,ZJHOJIY'IHUHh!H CBeTe1i:, HaH,ZJeHHbIH B 1arronnemrn I!Mbl 176,


,Il;JlHHOH 15, 7 CM.

Yl3,ZJeJIH5!MH r<y1He'IHOro peMecna 5!BJI5!IOTC5! TaK)J(e npe,ZJMe'IhI cnap5!)J(eHHH


KOH}! H BCa,ZJHHKa: cTpeMeHa, Y.lIHJia, rnnopa, nyThI, IIO,ZJKOBbI, CKpe6mIU:hI H

Puc. 7-

HaBecHhie H HaKJiaJiHhie 3aMKH H3 lliexp aJJ -)J:lKeJiHJia:

1-4 -

HaBeCHhic 3 a.MKH,

5_

HaKJia.jjHOH 33.MOK.

CbeMHI>Ie 3aMKH no
.lIBanma.

1. 3aMO~

(prrc.

1;

cliop~e

Koprryca H KJJIO'IeBoro ornepcTmr .1IeJJ5!TC5! Ha

IIO.lITIPYIKI-Ibie npH)J(KH. Cro,ZJa )Ke MO/KHO OTHeCTH H ,ZJOcnexH. BOHHa: KHH)KaJI'hI,


cTpenhI 11 rrnacTHHhI no.zi:6011.
Cpe,ZJH npe,ZJMeTOB c1rnp11)J(eH1111 Bca.zi:HttKa oco6o cne.zi:yeT OTMeTHTb
uaxo,nKH )J(ene3I-IbIX cTpeMHH. OcnOBI>rna11ch Ha 6onee pauu11x pa1pa6on<ax

1-3) HMeeT 6omrno:ii U:HJlHH.lJP c o6oHx CTOpOH,

yKparneHHhIII Me,ZJHbIMH HJlH )J(eJJe3HbIMH rrnacnrnaMH , MaJlhIM r.iHJlHH.lJP


3aMeHeH .lIBYM5! BblCTyrraMH c OTBepCTH5!MH, OTXO,ZJ5!1QHMH OT KOHU:OB 60JlhlliOro
KOprryca. Ilp5!MOM COe,ZJHHHTeJlbHhIM CTep)J(eHb 3aMeH5!eT ,ZJyroo6pa3HhIM

HCCJie,ZIOBaTeneil: 17 , Mb! IIOilbITaJIHCh BbI,[(eJIHTb BH.libI CTpeM5!H 110 <tiopMe


Bepxueil: 'IaCTH -'\YIKKH, a THllhl CTpeMeHa

BH,Zia -

no <tiopMe IIO,ZJHO)l{KH.

c pacnnromennoil: Bepxneii 'IaCTbIO .lIY)l{KH, KOTopa11

06pa1yeT TpeyronhHhIH HJJH 6nH3KHH K ,ZiaHHOH <tiopMe BbICTyrr. Ilp5!MOy-

- 290 - 291-

l 'OllbHaJI IrnH OBMhHaJI rrenrn He OT.n;eneHa OT AY)J(Kli li COCTaBn lleT e.n;HHOe


u:enoe c Heil:. ,[(y)J(Ka, npHMoyronhHoro cetieHHJI:, nnaBHO 1aKpyrsrnJ1Ch,
rrepexo.n;HT B no.n;HO)J(Ky. B tieTb1pex cny<rnHx rro.n;HO)J(Ka 3au11Mana oKorro 1/3
BbICOTbl neTnH, B ceMH - rrpocne)J(eH ne6onblIIOH BbICTyrr HH)J(e rrpope3IL
T11rr I. C IIIHpoKoli, oBanbnoii cpopMbI rro.n;ttO)J(KOM, KpaH KOTopoH.
YTOH"tfettbI H cnerKa OTOrHyTbI. KonTyp - JI:HU:eBH.l(Hblii, apotIHhiii u pe)J(e
- OKpyrnbIH . BbICOTa CTpeMJIH He rrpeBbilllaeT 15,2 CM, illHpHHa 13, 6 CM ,
ll1Hp11na rro.n;HO)J(KH BapbttpyeT OT 7 ,8 .n;o 10, I CM. Ilo.n;o6Horo BH.n;a cTpeMeHa
.
A. <De.n;opoB-,[(aB:bl,[(OB OTHOCHT K OT.n;eny ,[(,I THrry 18

THrr

II.

C urnpoKoii , oBanbHOH , c11nI>HO BOrHyToil no.n;HO)J(KOil ,

3anHM<:uomeii oKono 1/3 Bceii BbICOTbI rreTnH . KottTyp - apotIHbiii. Bb1c0Ta


13- 13 , 1 CM, illHpHHa 13- 14, l CM , illHpHHa no.n;HO)l(KH 5,1 ~6 , l CM. no
Knaccm[mKaU:Hii
A. <De.n;opoBa-,[(aB.bl,[(OBa rro.n;o6HI>Ie CTpeMeHa OTHOCJITCll

r.

23

K oT.n;eny B , I THny .

THrr III. TaKoe )l(e crpeMH, TOJibKO c y1Koii rro.n;HO)l(KOH. BI>1c0Ta crpeMeHH
13,4 CM , illHpHHa 12, 1 CM, illHpHHa rro.n;HO)l(KH 5,6 CM .
Tnn IV. C npHMoyronhHOH, lllHpOKOH no.n;HO)J(KOH co CKpyrneHH.hIM~H

r.

yrnaMH, Kpaa KOTOpo:ii yTOHtI.eHhI H 1arHyThI BHH3. KoHTYP -

Tim. II. TaKoe )J(e crpeMJI:, TOnbKO c y1Koli rro.n;HO)J(KOH. Bb1c0Ta 12- 14,5
CM, illHpHHa 13,1-14,5 CM, illHpnnano.n;no)J(KH 5,1 __:5,8 CM. Ilo Knaccm)mKaU:HH

BI>ICOTa 13, 1 cM, ll1Hp1rna 13,4 CM , ll1Hp1rna rro.n;HO)J(KH 7 CM .


Tmi V. C npaMoyronhHOil, y3Koi1, rrnocKoii no.n;HO)J(KOH, c on!epcTHeM B

r.

u:enTpe. BI>1coTa 15,3- 15,7 cM, IIIHpHtta rro.n;HO)l(KH 5,2- 5,3 CM, pa1Mepb1

A. <De.n;opoBa-,[(aBbI.n;OBa aHMOrH'fHble crpeMeHa OTHOCJITCJI: ~ OT.n;eny


THny 19

r,I

T11rr. III . CTpeMH c OBanhHOM, BO r ttyToii:, illHpOKo:ii rro.n;HO)J(KOH,


3aHHMa10meii: 1/3 BCeii: BbICOTbl IIeTnH. napy)J(HOH CTOpOHbl no .n;oneBOH OCH
- Kperrmu:ee pe6po. KouTyp - HttU:eBH.l(HbIH. B:o1c0Ta cTpeMeHH 14,3 CM ,
illHpHHa 13,5 CM, U1Hp1rna IIO.l(HO)J(KH 7 '7 CM .
T11rr. IV. TaKoe )J(e crpeMJI:, TOnbKO c y1Koii: no.n;HO)J(KOH u 6e1 pe6pa.
BbICOTa 14;5- 15 CM, lllHpHHa 14,4-14,5 CM, ll1Hp11na rro.n;HO)J(KH 4 , 1- 5,3 CM.
Ilo.n;o6noro THrra crpeMeHa OTHeCeHbl r. A. <De.n;opOBbIM-,[(aBbI.n;OBbIM K OT.n;eny
,[(, II THny20

T11rr V. C illHpOKOii, rrnocKo:ii rrpHMoyronhHOH rro.n;HO)J(KOH, KpaH KOTop~ii:


YTOH'feHbI H cnerKa 1arnyTbI BHH3. KoHTYP - apotIHbIH. Pa1Mepb1: BbICOTa
14,6- 16,2cM, illHpHHa 13- 14cM, UIHpHHarro.n;HO)J(KH 6,1 - 8,1 CM.
T11rr VI. TaKoe )J(e cTpeMJI, TOnbKO rro.n;HO)J(Ka 1an11MaeT 1/3 BceH. .n;nHHbI
rreTnH. Pa1Mepb1: BbICOTa 14,6 CM, lllHpmrn 13 CM, illHpHHa rro.n;HO)J(KH 7 CM .
T11rr VII. AHanorH'IHhI CTpeMeHaM V THna, TOnbKO c y1Koii: rro.n;HO)J(KOH.
BbICOTa crpeMeHH 14,6 CM, IIIHpHHa 13,6 CM, umpnHa no.n;HO)J(KH 4,5 CM . B
.n;aHHbIH THil BKnIO'IeHbI H .n;Ba .n;eTCKHX ,CTpeMeHH pa3MepaMH: BbICOTa 9, 19,3 CM, illHpHHa 9,7-10,1 CM, urnpHHa IlO,l(HO)J(KH 3,3 - 3,6 CM. Ilo
KnacCHcpHKaU:HH, rrpe.n;no)l(eHHOH
A. <l>e.n;opOBbIM-,[(aBbI.n;OBbIM, rro.n;o6Horo
Tnrra cTpeMeHa OTHOCJITCJI K oT.n;eny E, II THny21

r.

CTpeMeHa II BH.n;a - c rrpHMoyronhnoii BbITJIHyToii: ropH30HTanhHoii


rrerneii . IleTnJI: He OT,r(eneHa OT .n;y)l(KH H npe.n;craBnJI:eT co6oii pacrrn10meHn y10
tiaCTb .n;y)J(KH. ,[(y)l(Ka rrpJ1MoyronbHoro cetieHHJI, rrnaBHO 3aKpyrnJIJICb (B 0,l(HOM
cnyqae rro.n; yrnoM90), rrepexo.n;HT B no.n;HO)l(Ky. Ilo.n; npope3hIO He6onI>illOH
0Kpyrnb1ii: BbICTyrr. CTpeMena II BH.n;a no <JwpMe rro.n;HO)l(KH rro.n;pa1.n;eneHI>I Ha
IlJITb THITOB.

THrr I.
illHpOKOH , OBanbHOH, rrnoCKOH rro.n;HO)J(KOH, KpaH: KOTOpoii
YTOH'IeHbI H enema OTOrHyT.hl BHH3 . KOHTyp - Tpaneu:HeBH.l(HbIH H apO'IHbIH.
Pa1MepI>1: BbICOTa 13- 16,1 CM, illHpnna 13,4- 14,6 CM, ll1Hp11na rro.n;HO)J(KH
6- 7, 3 CM. IJo.n;06HOro BH.n;a CTpeMeHa
.A . e.n;opOB-,[(aBbl,[(OB OTHOCHT K
OT.n;eny B , THrry 1122

r.

- 292 -

apotIHhm.

OTBepCTHH 1,2x0 ,7- l ,3x0,6 CM.


CTpeMena III BH.n;a c pacrrmomeHHOii aepxne:H. 'IaCTbIO .n;y)l(KH,
o6pa 3y 10me:H. oKpyrnhIH BbICTyn Ha.I( rrpope3hIO nyTanHma. B ceMH crryqaax
npocne)J(eH ne60nbll10H BbICTYil BH113Y HO.I( rrpope3bi-O. no <jJopMe IIO.l(HO)l(Kli
~

~
cTpeMena III BH.n;a TaI<)l(C rro.n;pa1.n;enettbI Ha ITHTh THnoB.
Tttrr I. C ll1Hpo1<oii:, rrrroc1<0H., oBanhHOii rro.n;HO)l(I<OH, 1<paJ1 1<0TopoH

yTontieHhI H OTOrHYThI BI-IIi3. KoHTYP - apotIHhIH H J1iiueB,\i.I(HbIH. Bb1corn


crpeMeHH 13, 1- 15,2 CM, illHpHHa 1 J - 14,6 CM, llllipHHa IIO.I(H01iKI<H 6,5- 9,2 CM.
THrr II. TaKoe )l(e CTpeMll, TOnhKO c y1Koii: rro.n;HO)J(KOH. Pa1Mepb1: BbICoTa
13 5~14 6 CM illHpmrn 12,9- 13, 1 CM , illlipHHa IIO.I(HO)l(KH 4,2- 5,5 CM .
y11<oii:, OBMbHOH, BOrHYTOH IIO.l(HO)J(I<OH, 3aHHMarome:H. 1/3 BCeii
' THII

in.c'

.n;nHHbI rreTnH. KoHTYP - apotIHhIH. BhICOTa 13,9 CM, illHPHHa 13 CM , ump1rna


IIO.I(H0)1(1<11 5,3 CM. CTpeMeHa 3TOrO THIIa 6nH3I<Ii no KnaccHcpHI<aU:Hii
A.

r.

<De,D.op0Ba-,[(aah1.n;oaa K oT.n;eny E, II THny .


THn IV. C illHpOKOH, oBanhHOH, rrnocKoii: no,ri:HO)J(KOii:. KoHTYP o6I>I'IHO
apo'IHbIH , pe)J(e --,. OBMbHhIH . BbICOTa CTpeMeHH He rrpeBbilllaeT 13 ,7 CM ,
illiipHHa 13 ,4-14 CM , urnp1rna IIO)J.HO)J(l<Ii 7, 1- 8,1 CM . no KnacCHcpHI<aU:HH
A. cDe.n;opoBa-,[l,aBbI,D.OBa CTpCMCHa IIO,D.06HOrO THIIa OTHOCJITCJI K OT,D.en y

r.

E, II TMIIy 25 .

Tnrr V. Ta1<oe )J(e cTpeMa , TOnhKO c y1Koil rro,ri:HO)J(KOii. BhICOTa 12,812,9 CM, illHpHHa 13- 13,2 CM , umpHHa IIO.I(HO)J(Kli 5,5 - 5,9 CM.
CTpeMJI IV Btt.n;a - c pacrrn10meHHOH BepxHeii 'faCThIO .D.Y)J(KH, KOTopaa
06pa1yeT TpaneuHCBH.I(Hblll BbICTyn. npJIMOyronhHaJI neTnJI: He OT.n;eneHa OT
.n;y)J(l<Ii H cocTaBnaeT e.n;nttoe uenoe c Heii: ,, ,[1,y)J(Ka crpeMeHM, rrpJ1MoyrorrbHoro
cetICHHJI', nnaBHO 3aKpyrn JIJI:Cb, rrepexO,D.HT B illHpOKYIO OBanbHYI-O, rrnOCKYIO
rro,D.HO)J(KY , Kpaa KOTopoii: yTOHtieHbI Ii oTmyTbI BHH3. KoHTYP cTpeMeHH apO'IHbIH. BbICOTa 14,7 CM, um pmra 15 CM , umpuna IIO.I(HO)J(Kli 6, 1 CM.
CTpeMJI: V Bn.n;a - co enema pacrrn1-0meHHOH Bepxnei1: tiaCTbI-O ,ri:y)J(KH,
06pa:1y10mei1: OKpyrnbIB BbICTYII Ii 6e3 rrpope3H . ,ll,y)J(Ka CTpeMeI-m:, IIpJIMOyron bHOro Ce'IeHHJI , IIJiaBI-IO 1aKpyrnJ1J1Cb, rrepeXO)J.IiT B ClinbHO BOfHYTYI-0 llliipOKYI-0
n o,D.HO)l(Ky, 3aHHMaI-OI.UYIO nO'ITii 1/2 BCeii BbICOTbl n enm:. KoHTYP CTpeMeHH

- 293 -

6JII130K K HiiueBH,lJ:HOM qiopMe. BhICOTa CTpeMeHH 10,9 CM, umpntta 12 CM,


lliHpm-ra IIO,JIHO)Kl<H 5,3 CM. Bo3MO)J{H0, 3TO CTpeM5I 6bIJIO Hey,Jial._ll-IOM IIOIIhITKOM
rIO,llpa)J{aHil5I HMeIOUJ;HMC5I qiopMaMil.
EcJJH B ttacrnrre . cpe,JIHHX BeKOB KOl._leBHHKH rrpe.llIIOl._!HTarru OI<pyrrrh1e
CTp.eMe1-ra, a oce,JIJibie H norryoce,JIJibie mlpO,llbI - c ITJIOCKOM IIO,JIHO)J{l<OM, TO
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npe.uycMaTpHBaIOIIIHX HaJIHqHe HaKaTaHHbIX .uopor .[(JIH KynetJ:eCKHX
KapaBaHOB 38
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BepoHTHO, 6I>ma .uepeBJIHHOH H r<pemrnac1>
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HecOMI-IeHHbIH MHTepec rrpe.n.cTaBmieT M 6oeBoiI Torrop-ane6ap,L\a.


MaccHBHbIH, c .n.nnttoil: weiiKoiI 11 wnpoKHM, TpeyronhHOH qiopMbI, ne3BHeM.
06yx orpopMJieH B BM.D.e BTYJIKH. ,[(mrna weiIKH ane6ap.D.bI 21,2 CM, ttan6onbUia5!
UIHpHf!H 15,8 CM.
OnncaHHbie Bbiwe rrpe.n.MeTbI OTHOC5ITC5I K opy:>Kmo 6mr:>Kttero 605!. Opy:>Kne
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KnaccmpnKauuu A. <I>. Me.n.Be.n.eBa, cTpenbI no.n.pa3.n.enm-0TC5I Ha BTyn.hqaThie
H qepewKOBhie41 . ITocne.n.Hne npe.D.cnrnnettbI .D.BYMR rro.n.rpynnaMn : nnocKne n
rpaHetttthie. BTynh'laThie cTpenhI c ocTpMeM B BII.D.eTpeyronbHHKa 11nn ocTporo
nHcTa. ITepo B ceqemrn - y3Kaa, BbIT5!HyTaJI nmna. BTynKa KOttycoBHJJ.HaJI.
Pa3Mephr cTperr: .L\JIHHa HaKoHe'-JUIIKa 5, 7- 11 CM, .n.rrnHa nepa .no 5 cM. ITrrocKue
qepeIIIKOBbie HaKOHeqHifKH CTpen OCTpOJIIICTHOH HJIH poM60BH)J.HOH cliopMhI,
B ceqettnn - nmna. Pa3Mep:p1: .n.mrna ttaKotteqanKa 5,8- 12 CM, .n.mrna nepa
3- 6 CM. I1o.n.o6Horo BH.D.a cTpenhr HaiI.n.eHhI B.EpaBwrettax npH pacKonKax
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HX COBCeM BbJTeCHHJIO ornecTpenhHOe opy:>KHe. 43
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noKa3anH, qTo .ropo.n.cKoe KY3J-IeqJ-Ioe peMecrro B paccMaTpttBaeMoe BpeMJI
o6ecneqnBarro Heo6xo.n.uMbIM pa3nnqHhie peMecna (.n.epeBOOT.n;eno'-rnoe,.
canO:>KHOe H .n.p.), HeKOTOphre' OTpacnu ceJihCKOro X03lIHCTBa H npOMblCJlbl
( o6pa60TKa IlO'lBhI, ph16onOBCTBO, OXOTa), npe.D.Me'nlMII CHap5I:>KeHH~. 6oeBbIX
I<OHeH ll BCa)J.HHI<OB, a ropo:>KaH - ymrnepcanhHbIM HHCTpyMeHTaptteM H
.D.OMaIIIHHM HHBeHTapeM IIOBCe.n.ueBHOro IIOJ1h30BaHII5r.

K Bonpocy o nameHHOM :ieMne11emm B Mon11aBHH B CBll3H c HaXOAKOH Kna11a


ceJibCKOX03l!HcrBeHHbIX opyAHH XIV. II Te3HChl AOKJiaAoB Hcoo6U1eHHH Ha VII (KmrrnHeBcKoi1)
cecc1111 c11Mno311yMa no arpapHoi111cropHH Bocro'IHOH Esponb1. Kurn. 1964. C. 41- 42.
2
Eb1p11R n. n., PR6ou T: <P. Or"ier 0 pacKOnKax BCrnpoM Opxee B 1988 roJIY II ApXHB MA3 AH
PM.
'
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Kon'lu11 E. A. )l(ene3006pa6aT1>JBa10U1ee peMecno HosropoA~ BenHKoro II MI1A N2 65. T. 2.
M. 1959.C. 17.
4
Pb16a.Koe E. A. PeMecno J:WesHei1 PyCH. M.-JI. 1948. C. 215.
5 CMup1100 A. IL BonlKCK3ll .6ynrap11ll II CTePH EBp3.3Hll B :moxy cpeAHeBeKOBbll. Apxeonornll
CCCP. M. 1981. C. 208-212. P11c. 78, 51.
6 TaM lKe. C. 211.
7 Koll'IUH E. A. YK3.3. CO'i. C. 29-31.
8 TaM lKe. C. 113.
9 i<pac11oa JO. A. )].peBHHe H cpe11HeBeKoB1>1e naxoTHhie opyAHll Bocro'IHOi1 EBpon1>1. M . 1987.
C. 29.
10 lloneeoi,i JI. JI. T11nonorHll 3eMnenarneHHhJX opy1111i1 11 nollBJieHHe nnyra Ha TeppHTOpHH
c]leo)'.(aJihHOH MoJIAaBHH II Apxeonorn'iecKHe 11ccne110BaHHll cpe11HeBeKOBhJX naMllTHHKOB B
,[(HecrposcKo-IIpyTcKoM MelKAype'lbe. }\rnH. 1985. C. 81.
CMup1100 I' J(.

-298 -

" P t>16aK06 E. A. ,QpeBHO~H qeptt11rosa II MI1A NS!


12 MallbM B. A . ITpoMhICJlbI ,n:peBHei1 Pyc11 II QqepKH

11 . M. 1949. C. 44.
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no 11crop1111pyccKoH11epe
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II Tpyui,1 HIM. Bbm. 32. M. 1956. C. 117. P11c. 4, 5.


II MMA NS! 32 M
" KoR'IUH E. A. '-:lepHa.ll MeTannyprnll 11 Merannoo6pa6oTKa. DApeBHe11 Pyc11
-
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14 Koll'IUH . A. )KeneJ006pa.6aTbJBa10U1ee peMecno ... C. 60 .
15 Kon'luH E. A. YKa3. co'I. C. 84.
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i1 Ilnem11eea C. A. ,n:pem10crn qepH1>1x Kno6yKoB II
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A~BblAOB r. Ko'l~BH11Kl1 Bocro'IHOH EBpOnbI llOA B!l3.Cfh!O 30JlOTOOPAhlHCK11X xaHOB. M.
1966. C. 11- 16.
. .
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19 TaM lKe. C. 12. P11c. 1.
20 TaM lKe. C. 13. P11c. 1.
21 TaM lKe.
22 TaM lKe. C. 12. Pnc. 1.
21 TaM lKe.
24 TaM lKe. C. 13. P11c. 1.
25 TaM lKe

M
H A lOlKHbIHV Vpan B VI-VIII BB. II CTem1 EBpa31111 B :moxy cpeAHeBeKOBhll.
26

A.

a:>1cumoe

Apxeononrn CCCP. M. 1981. C. 24. P11c. 72, 43.


27 JlJ1em11eea C. A. Ile'leHern, TOpKH ... C. 258. P11c. 82, 62.
IX XIII
.II CAH
28 Kupnu'IHUKOB A. H. CHaplllKeH11e scaAHHKa 11 BepxoBoro KOHll Ha Pyc11
BB.

.
XIV
)C
Esp3.3HH
Bi,m EI-36. JI. 1973. C. 50.
wK .
JI JI AcKH3CKall KYHhTypa (cpe11neBCKOBhie xaKac1>1 X- .
BB. Tenn
bl3RGC08

p
74 64
:moxy cpeAHeneKoBhll. Apxeonornll CCCP. M. 1981. C. 248. 11c. ,
8
30 JlJ1em11eea c. A. IIe!eHem, TOpK11, nonOBl..lhl ... c. 258. P11c. 82, 5:.
.
EB 331111 B
31 MozuJlbHUKOB B. A. IlaMllTHHKH Ko'leBH11KOB C11611p11 11 CpeAHeH A311H II CrenH
P
noxy cpeAHCBeKOBhll. Apxeonomll CCCP. M. 1981. C 246. P11c. 73, 7.
3
32 Kupnu'IHUK08 A. H. CHaplllKelme BC3.AHHKa. ... c~ 54.
33 <Peoopoe-/{aebiooo r. A. Ko'leBH11KH Bocro'IHOH EBpon1>1. .. C. 18- 20 .
"Kupnu'IHUK08 A . H. Cna.plllKeH11e BCaAHHKa. .. . C. 16.
35 Ta.M lKe. C. 17.
' 6 Kupnu'IHUKOB A. H. YKa3. co'i. C. 35.
37 TaM lKe. C. 79.
38
TaM lKe. C. 83.
T 2 M 1959 C 190
39 Meoeeoee A <P OpylK11 e HoBropoAa Ben11Koro II MMA J\~ 65

XIV
.
.
6
.
e
coopylKeH11e
BTOpOH fiOJIOBl1Hbl
40 r.
. M B Monrono-TaTa.pcKoe o opoH11'IeJI1>Ho
~P:~~:na
n. II KynHKOBCK3ll 6HTBa B 11 crop1111 11 KYJII>Type Harnett PoAHHbI (MaTep11an1>1
m611nei1Hoi1 Konc]lepeH111111). M. 1983. C. 251. Ta.6n. III.
'
41 Meoeeoee A. <P. OpylK11e ... C. 157.
42 rr 6
KO I' "' !{ BOilpOCY 0 KJiacc11"'11Kal.ll1ll cpeAHeBeKOBblX MOJIAa.BCKHX H3.KOHe'IHHKOB
.,e omape1<
.,,,
'
,
III O
1959 C 147
crpen II MaTepia_1m 3 a.pxeonorii niBHi<moro Il.PH'IOpHOMOp ll. B11n. Aeca.

43 TaM lKC. C. 148.


'
v

XV

Summary

For the first time an attempt is made in this work to define the characteristies and tJ~oloJf
of the XIV century iron articles, found in the closed complexes (dwellings, prem1s~s anh da~.
craft workchops, deposits etc.), that allows us to consider them to be the standar~~
_t ; ~_mg
of forged pieces and in the first place those of tron and other tools, used m va11aus m us ues,
which were characteristic of the Golden Horde tnne.

o:

- 299 -

MHorocnoiiHoe ueoJIHTWiecKoe nocen eutte CopoKH II . )J:aneKoe nponrnoe Mont1aBHH .


KmnuHeB, 1969, p. 3-34.
HxTuo<PayHa HeoJIHTw1ecK11x nocencHufi y r. CopoKH . AHTponoreH Mont1an1111, K11wm1eB,
1969, p. 89-103 . (ln colaborare).
MHoroc11oiiHoe noceneHue Honble PycewTI>I I. KCHA AH CCCP, 123, M., 1970, p. 56-68.

VSEVOLOD MARCHEVICI

LISTA DE LUCRARI PUBLICATE

Volum
IlaM11TH111<11 :mox Heonwra 11 3Heon11Ta. ApxeonornqecKaJI Ka)Yfa Morrt1ancK ii CCP, ni,myc1<
9
2, KHWHHCB, 1973, 164 p.
Eyro-)J:HeCTponc1<aJI KyrrI>Typa Ha Tepp11rnp1111 Moni1amm. Kmmrnen, 1974, 176 p.

Apxeonor11<1ecK11e HaXOJ:IKH I<YJII>TypH.blX 3HaKon Ha nepno6I>JTHblX noceneHmrx IlpyTo)J:HeCTponcKoro MClKJ:IYPC4bil. HHTPOAYKLIHll I<YJibTYPHbJX paCTCHHH. KHWHHCB, 1970, p. 83110. (Jn colaborare).
Xo311HCTBO 11 cj>ayHa Heorr11Tw1ec1<11x nocerreHuii Cpet1Hero Ilot1HeCTponI>11. <DayHa 1<attH030il
MonJ:laBHH. KuUIHHeB, 1970, p. 53- 74 (ln colaborare).
Especes de plantes cultivees des statio ns primitives au Sud-Ouest de l'URSS. VIII Congres
in ternational des sciences prehistorique et protohistoriques (Belgrad, 1971). Les raports et !es
comunications de la delegation des atcheologues de l'URSS. Moscou, 1971 , 13 p. (extras) (Jn
colaborare).
l1Tor11 noneBI>IX pa60T, .npoBeJ:1cHHI>1x n 1969 r . Mont1anc1<oii Heon11Tw1ec1<oli 3KCHCJ:IHL1Heli.
AHM n 1968- 1969. r. Km1111Hen, 1972, p. 49- 64.

Ilo3J:1HeTp11nonLc1<11e rrrreMeHa CenepHo~ Mont1aB1111: K11w11Hen, 1981, 196 p .


HccneAOBamrn MoHAaBcl<oli HCOJl HTH'lecKoii 3KcrreAHL\Hl1 n 1970- 1971 r. AHM n 19701971r.K111lll1HCB, 1973, p. 52- 78.
l1ccHeJ:10Bamrn M0Ht1anc1<ofi HeoJJHTH'lecKofi 3Kcnet1m11111. AHM B (1972 r.) K11lll11Hen, 1974,
p. 26- 51.
KyrypclllTCl<HH MOHCTHO-BCll\CBOH I<JlaJ:I XV B. TpyJ:lhJ foCyt{apCTBCHf!Oro HCTOpl1K01<paeBCJ:1'leCKOfO My3e11 (3a 1960 r.) KmmIHen, 1961 , p. 75- 112. (Jn colaborare)
MaTepHaJII>I K KapTe Heon11T11'lec1<11x naMllTH111<on Ilpyro-)J:Hec-rponI>11. KpaT1<11e coo61L1CHl1li
Ot1eCCKOfO rocyi1apCTBCHHOro apxeonorw1ec1<oro My3eJI (3a 1962 r.) Ot1ecca, 1964, p. 85-91.
Heorr11TH'lCCKaJI CTOllHKa Copo1<11-Tpm]laytornfi nee. Manp11anbl 11 11ccrret10BaHHJ1 110
apxeonorn1111 3THorpacj>1111 Mont1anc1<oli CCP. Kulll11Hen, 1964, p. 91- 101.
l1ccrre.noaaH1111 Heorr11rn Ha Cpe.nHeM )J:HeCTpe. KCHA AH CCCP, 105, 1965, p. 85- 90.
)J:aHHb1e 06 opHl1TocjiayHe tteon11Ta 11 3Heorr11Ta MonnaBHl1. l13BeCT11J1 AH MCCP, cepmi
611onorw1ec1<11x 11 x11M11'lec1<11x HayK, N2 1, 1966, p. 58-68 . (in colaborare).
<DayHa MJieK011HT3IDll\HX paHHeTp11noJ1hCKoro rroce11et11111 Honb1e PyceUITbI. H3BeCT1111 AH
MCCP, cep1111 611orrorw1ec1<11x 11 x11Mu'lec1<11x nayK, J\~ 4, 1967, p . 3- 25. (in colaborare).
HeoJJ HT MoH.nan1111 (naMllTH11KH 6yro-.nHeCTpoacicoi1 I<YHbTYPbl). AnTopecj>epaT .n11ccepniL11111 Ha COl1CK3.HHC CTCilCHl1 KaH.1111.naTa HCT. HayK M, 1968, 30 p .
.

-300-

HonI>Ie J:1aHHL1e o 3anaJ:1HI>1x cnJ1311x no3J:1Hero TpHnOJJbJI. ConeTc1<a11 apxeoJ1or1111 N2 3, 1974,


p. 150- 163 (in colaborare).
TiepeXOJ:I K np0113BOJ:IJlllleMy X0311HCTDY. 3THOKYJibTYPHblC o6pa30BaHHll Heomna. HCTopHJI
Mon):\aBcKofi CCP. T. I. Kmmrnen, 1987, p. 39-45. (in colaborare).
Hacene~rne

B nepHOJl 3HeorrITTa. HCTop1111 Morr.nanc1<ofi CCP. T. I. KHlllHHen, 1987, p. 45-66.

)J:oMo.cTpOHTCJi bCTBO nneMeH I<YJlbTypbI Tp11nonhe-Ky1<yTcHh I. floJJen oli ceMMHap.


PaHHC3eMHeJ:1eJib1ec1<11e noceneH1111 - r11raHTbl Tp11nonhc1<oli KYHhTYPhI Ha Y1<pa11He. TC311Chl
J:IOKna.non. TaJ1h11H1<11-Becenb1tt KyT-Mafi.naHeL11<oe, 1990, p. 47-51.
AKTyanI>Hhle npo6neMhl apxeonor11<1ec1<Hx 11ccrre.nonaH11fi 11 nponaraHJ:lbI .noCT11JKeHHH. Apxeonorl1J1, 3TI-10rpacj>111111 l1CCI<YCI'BOBe.ne1me MOJJAOBbl: HTOl'H 11 rrepcneKTHBbl. MaTepHaJibl pecny6J111KaHCI<OH KOHcj>epeHl{l111 8- 9 a.aryCTa 1989 r. KHllll1HCB, 1990, p. 86-95.
AHTporrorV!opcj>113M n xy.no)l(eCTDeHHOH I<YJibType Tp11110J1be- Ky1<yTeHb. IlaM11THHKl1
ApeaHelilllero 11c1<ycCTna Ha Tepp11Top1111 MoJJ.nan1111. K11lll11Hen , 1989, p. 26- 36.

301 -

Pam1eTpHnon1>cKoe nocene1-me KowepHHlla I. AMM 1986 r. K11w11HeB, 1992, p. 25-45 .

Mccne,lloBaHHll n03.I1Herp11noJ1bCKHX naMllTHHKOB B A1-1eCTpoBcKo-IlpyTcKoM MelKJ:1ype1be.


ApxeonornqecKHe OTKpbITHll 1974 ro}:la. M; 1975, p. 441 - 442.

A~ezarea culturii Cucuteni-Tripolie de la Riidulenii Vechi (II) R . Moldova. Memoria


Antiquilatis, XIX, 1994, p. 127-141.

Vase zoomorfe eneolitice din Republica Moldova. Cucuteni aujourd 'hui. Bibliotheca
Memoria Antiquitatis, II. Pialra Neamt, 1996, p. 253-262.
A~ezarea

cucutenianii Stilnca lui I-larascu. Tyragetia, IV- V,

Chi~iniiu,

1997, p. 81- 94.

Ilaneo}:leMorpacjJHll Tp11noJ1bll H BonpOCbl J:IHHaMHKH pa3BHTHJI TpttnOJJbCKOfO 06u1eCTBa


(no MaTep11anaM paHHe:JeMJ1eJ:1enbqecK11x noceneHHi1 CesepHoil Mon,llaBlm). 150 neT 0AeccKoMy
apxeonorw1ecK0My My3e1-0 AH YCCP. Te3HCbI J:IOKJJa}:loB ro6Imei1Hoi1 Kompepe1-1111111. K11es, 1975,
p. 31- 32. (in

cola borare~.

HccneJ:10BaH11J1 naMJITHHKOB Tp11nonbcKoi1 KyJ11>Typi,1 Ha: Tepp11Top1111 MonJ:1aB1111. Apxeonorw1ecK~1e OTKphITHJI 1975 ro}:la. M; 1976; p. 471-472. (in colaborare) .

Rezumate, note

HccneJ:10BatrnJ1 Mon}:laBcKoi1 HCOJJHTH'tecKoi:i 3Kcne}:IHLIHH . Apxeonorw.iecK11e OTKpblTHJI


1977 ro}:la. M; 1978, p. 466- 467.

Apxeonorw1ecK11e naMJJTHHKH B 6accei1He HHlKIWro Te.ieH11J1 peKH l.Jepaa. I;fasecTirn


Mont1aBcKoro cjmmiana AH CCCP, N! 5 (25), 1955, p. 131.

I1ccneJ:10Ba1-111J1 MoJtJ:laBcKoil neon11Tw1ecKoj:1 3KcneAHLIHH . Apxeonorw1ecKHe OTKphlTHJI


1978 rot1a. M; 1979 , p. 487.

Hccne}:losa1-1HJ1 Heon11Ta ua CpeAHeM Jl,HeCTpe. TpyJ:lhl III Kompepe1-11111u MOJIOJ:lhIX y'-leHblX


Mont1as1111 (cep11J1 061.1.\ecmeHHbIX HayK) . Kurn11HeB, 1963, p. 83.

HccneJ:10BaH11J1 Apxeonoro-3n10rpacpw1ecKoH 3Kcne.UHLIHH. Apxeonorw1ecKue OTKphlTHJI


1980 rot1a. M; 1981 , p. 390- 392.

TpunonbcKoe noceneHue BapaapoBKa VIII. Te3HChI JIOKHaJIOB Ilepsoro cuMno3uyMa no


apxeonornu u 3rnorpa.c]n-m IOro-3anaJ:1aCCCP. K11w11neB, 1964, p. 15- 16.

PacKonK11 no3J1HeTp11noJJhCKoro nocenet111J1 fipbIH3eHM IX. Apxeonorw1ecKHe OTKphlTHJI


1981 rot1a. M; p. 398- 399 (in colaborare).

Mccne}:loBaHHJI paHHero HeonuTa BCpet1neM IloJ:1HecTpOBbe (6yro-t1HecrpoBcKM Kym>rypa).


Te:JHChI JIOKllaJ:IOB Ha. IlepBoM cuMno311yMe no apxeonornu 11 3n10rpacp1111 I0ro-3anat1a CCCP,
KHllil1HCB, 1964, p. 10- 11.
_/

I1Torn pa6oT M9nJ:1aBCKOH 3KcneAHLIHH. Apxeonorn:1ecKue OTKpblTHJI 1967, M. , 1968 , p.

O KYllbTOBbIX coopylKeHHJIX Tp11nonhcKoil Kyn&Typhl B Jl,HeCTpoBcKo-IlpyTcKoM MelKJIY pe'lhe'. Jl,peBHeiirnue 061.1.\HOCTH 3eMJJe}:lellblleB 11 CKOTOBOJ:IOB CeBepHoro IlpuqepHOMOphll _(V
Tb!C. LIO H. 3. - v B H.3.) . MaTepuanhI MelKJIYHapOJ:IHOH KOHcjJepel-ILIHH KurnmteB 10- 14 }:leKa6pll
1990. Kues, p. 50-51.

288-290 (in colaborare).

Folosirea cornului de cerb in eneoliticul Moldovei ~i a altor teritorii. Revista arheologica, 1,


Pa6oThI Mont1aBCKoi1 3KCneAu11uu. Apxeonortt'leCKHe OTKpb!THJI 1968 ro.ua. M., 1969 rot1a.
M. , 1969, p. 387. (in colaborar~).

Ch i~iniiu ,

1993, p. 120- 123.

Le neolithique aceramique sur le cours moyen du Dniestre. From the mesolithic to the
HccJJet10BaHHJ1 no3JIHeTpunonhcKoro noceJJeHHJI fipbIH3et-1b1-IJ.b1ra11Ka B 1970- 1971 r.
Te3HChl J:IOKJla}:IOB Ha ceCCHH H nneHyMax, rtOCBJILI~eHHblX uroraM noneBh!X HCCJJC,UOBaHHH B 1971
r. Apxeonorw1ecKaJ1 ceKL1HJ1. M., 1972, p. 47- 49.

neolithic abstractsi Szolnok, 1996, p. 24- 26.


Duruitoarea. Situri arheologice cercetate in perioada 1983- 1992. Braila, 1996, p. 45.

11-rorn pa6oT Mon,llaBCKoi1HeonHTH'lecKoi13Kcnet1HL1HH. Apxeonoru1ecKHe OTKphlTHJI 1970


r. M; 1971, p. 356-358.

Sur l' industrie du cuivre pendant la periode Cucuteni dans l'espace entre Prut et Nistru. The
thracian world at the crossronds or civilisations. Bucharest, 1996, p. 210- 211.

HccJJeJ:10BaHHJ1 MOJJJ:laBcKoi1 HeonuT11 11ecKoi1 JKcnet1u11uu. Apxeonorw1ecKue OTKpbITHJI


1972 r. M; 1973, p. 411 - 412.
Kna}:I III- IV BB. H.3. 113 oyKOBHHhl. CoBeTcKaJI apxeoJJOrHJI NQ 4,
colaborare).

~973,

p. 260-26 1. (in

MccneJ:10BaH11J1 a IlpyTo-Jl,HeCTposcKOM MelKJ:1ype%e. Apxeonorw1ecKue OTKpb1THJ1 1973


rot1a. M; 1974, p. 423- 424. (in colaborare).

- 302 -

Aniversiiri

Nico lae N.
colaborare).

Moro~an (1902~ 1944).

Tatiana S. Passek (90 de ani de la

Revista arheologicii, 1,

na~tere).

C hi~in iiu,

1993, p. 150- 151. (in

Revista arheologica 1, Chieyi niiu, 1993, p. 152.

303 -

Gheorghe D. Smimov (90 de ani de la

na~tere).

Revista arheologicii, I,

Chi~inau,

1993, p .

153.
Doi savan ti: fratii Ion

~i

Nicolae

Moro~an.

Destin romanesc, Nr. 1, 1995, p. 79- 85.

Prezentiifi, albume

. INFORMATJI DESPRE AUTO RI


,ll,aJ1eKoe-6n113Koe. M3pTyp nii ane TpeKyTynyii. I<nwnHeB, 1985, 168 p.

Borziac llie Alexandru


Virtor Sorokin

- Doctor in istorie, oolaborator ~tiintific coordinator, ~eful sectiei


de Preistorie ~i Traoologie a Institutului de Arheologie a A. ~ a R. M.

Bicbaev Viaccslav Murat - colaborator ~tiintific inferior al Institutului de Arheologie a A . ~ a


R.M.
Barnea Pavel Petru

-Doctor habilitat in istorie, seful sectiei de arheologie antica ~i medievalii a lnstitutului de Arheologie a A. ~ a R . M.

Bubulici Valerio Grigore - Doctorant la Universitatea "Al.I.Cuza", Ia~i.


Cebotarenco Gheorge
Fcoctist

- Doctor in istorie.

Chetraru Nicolae Anton - Doctor in istorie.


Ciobanu Larisa Theodor - Colaborator ~tiintific inferior al Institutului de Arheologie a A. ~a
R.M.
Covalcnco Serghei Ion

- Doctor in istrorie, colaborator ~tiintific superior al Institutului de


Arheologie a A. ~ a R. M.

Croitor Roman Vasile

- Docrorant la lnstitutul de Biologie a A . ~ a R . M.

Curciatov Serghci Ion

- <:;olaborator ~tiintific inferior al Institutului de Arheologie a A.~ a


R.M.

David Anatolii Ion

- Doctor habilitat in biologie, ~eful sectiei de paleontologie a lnstitutului de Biologic a A. ~ a R. M.

Demcenco Tatiana Ion

- Colaborator ~tiin~fic inferior la Institutul de Arheologie a A.~ a R. M.

Dergaciov Valentin Anisim - Doctor habilitat in istorie, Directorul Institutului de Arheologie a


A.~ a R. M.
Gukin Vasile Dumitru

- Doctorant la Institutul de istorie a Culturii Materiale al Academiei


din Rusia (Peterburg).

Haheu Vasile Petru

- Colaborator ~tiintific al Institutului de Arheologie a A . ~ . a R.M.

Hohlov Vladimir Alex.

- arheolog.

Larina Oliga Vasile

- Doctor in istorie, colaborator ~tiin(.ific superior al Institutului de


Arheologie al A. ~ a R . M.

LevitJ<i Oleg Cheorge

- Doctor in istorie, colaborator ~ti in tific superior al Institutului de


Arheologie a A. ~ a R. M.
- 305 -

Pascari Viorica Nicolai - Colaborator al Institutului de Biologie a A.

a R. M.

Rabinovici Roman Aron -Doctor in istorie, colaborator ~tiintific al Institutul Jui de Arheologie
a A. ~.aR. M.
Riaboi Tatiana Theodor - Doctor in istorie, colaborator ~tiintific superior al Institutului de
Arheologie a A. ~ a R. M.
Sorokin Victor Iacov

- Doctor in istorie, colaborator ~tiin\ific superior al Institutului de


Arheologie a A. ~ a R. M.

Telnov Nicolai Petru

- Doctor in istoric, colaborator ~tiintific superior al Institutului de


Arheologie a A . ~ a R. M.

Vechler Klaus-Peter

- Doctor in istorie, Seminar fur Ur-Und Friihgeschichte, Freie


Universitat Berlin.

LISTA ABREVIERILOR, UTILIZATE IN LUCRARILE ~TIINTJFICE


DIN CULEJEREA "VESTIGII ARHEOLOGICE DIN MOLDOVA"
AI1M
- Apxeonorw1ecK11e accne.110BaHan n Mon.11a.n11a.
AKM CCP
- ApxeonorwiecKall Kap-ra Mon,!laBCKOH CCP.
AO
-- Apxeonorw1ecK11e OTKpblTH51 B CCCP.
30AO
- 3arrncKH 0.11eccKoro apxeonorn1ecKoro 06mecrna.
- l13Becr11J1 Apxeonorw1ecKoii K0Macc11u.
MAK
lfan. AH MCCP
- l13Becr11n A1<a..11eM1111 HayK Mon.11aBCKOH CCP.
I13n. MCI> AH CCCP - l13BeCTHJI MoJJ,[laBcKoro (Dmrnana AKa,!leMHH HayK CCCP.
KCHA
- KpaTKHe coo6u~e1rnn I1HCTHTy~a apxeonorna.
KCI1I1MK
- KparKHe coo6meHHJI I1HCTHTyTa MaTepttaJihHOH Kym,Typb1 (C- IT.)
KCOf AM
-- KpaTK11e coo6memrn 0.11eccKoro rocy.11ap(..'TBeHHoro apxeonorwrecKoro
My3eJI.
- - MaTepttaJI&I no a.pxeonorn11 CeBepHoro I1pw1epa0Mophn
MA CIT
- My:ieii apxeonorna a nHorpacjnm AKa,!leMHH aayK MoJJJ:IOB&I.
MA'.3
- MaTep1m.%1H11ccJie.110Ba1111J1 no apxeonorn11 CCCP .
MI1A
- MaTep11aJ1b1 H 11ccne.110BaH11J1 no apxeoJior1111 H 3TI-!Orpacjrna Mon.11aBcMl1A3MCCP
KoI1 CCP.
CA
- ConeTc1<ai1 Apxeonor11n.
- CBOi{ a.pxeoJI-Ofl1'IecK11x 11cTO"IHHKOB.
CAM:
- Arheologia Moldovei. Ia~i.
AM
- Studii ~i cercetiiri de istorie veche eyi a.rheologie. Bucure~ti.
SCIVA
- Arhiva lnstitutului de arheologie ~i istorie veche a Academiei de ~tiinte
Arhiva IAIV
a Republicii Moldova.
OJA
- Ox~ord Journal of Archaeology.

CUPRINSUL
CONTENTS

COPOK111-l B. 51.. K npo6J1eMe 1,yJibrypHblX c1rn3~ii npe1,y1i:yre11c1w-1ia1111er1>,11110JI1>c1mx 11J1cMc11


c 06~ec-rnaM11 KYJibTYP I>aJI1rn110-)J,y11aiicKoro per11011a ......................... ................. ........ 138
On the Issues of Cultural Relations between the Pre-Cucuteni- Eady Tripolye Tribes and
the Culture communites oft.he Balkan-Danube Area.
)J,EMllEI-IKO T.11., J1EB11I..l;I<l1M 0. r. l1CCJIC):IOBa1111e KyprallOB )llOXll 6Jl0113bl BKaymallCIWM
paiione ... ..................... ............. ................................ ...... ............... ........ ...... : ....... .. .155

BORZIAC I. A. Unele considera{ii cu privire Ia e''olu{ia paleoliticului superior timpuriu in spaul


dintre Carpati~i Nistru .................. :............ ....................................................................... 5
On the Issues of the Early Paleolithic Genesis and Development in the Dnister-Carpathian
Area.

Survey oft.he Bronze Age Barrows in the Causani Region.


HAI-IEU V., GUKIN, V, Rezultatele investiga{iilor unor cumplexe tumulare din raionul Flore~ti.
Results of the Barrows Survey int.he Flore~t.i Region ........ .. .... .. ............. .. .......... .. ...... ... 188

I>OP3l151.K 11. A. HeKoropble nmoJiorn<tecK11e :>J1eMc11rb1 I<:ocre11KoncKo-Bnm1e11):1oplj>cKoro


1i:yJibTyp11oro C):lllllCTBa B R03):111CM naJICOJIH'l'C Ilo):lllCCTpOBbll .................................. ... .. ... 11
Some Tipological Eleme nts of the Kostenki-Villendorf Cultural Entity in the Late
Paleolithic of Dnister Area.

CEBOT AREN CO G. F . Cetatea Halsstattianii tiirzie de la Hiirtopul-Mare .. ....... .................. .... 21 I


Late Hallsttat Town of Hartopul-Mare.
CURCIATOV, S. I., BUBULICI V. G . Necropola de la Badragii-Vechi ~i problema fazei finale a

)J,ABH)J, A.11., KPOl1TOP P. B. Cenep11b1ii oJieHb (Rangifer Tarandus L.) n naneoJmTe MoJI):IOnbI.

culturii sarmatice ..... .... .. ....... ...................................... ............. ..... .. 220

- Reindeer in the Palaeolithic of Moldova .. .. ..... .. .. ...................................................... .18

Burial Ground in the Vicinity of the Village of Badrajii- Vechi and the Final St.age of the
Sannatian Culture

KOBAJlEHKO C. 11., KETPAPY I-I. A. Honb1e ):la1111b1e o MC30JlllTll'1ecKoii CTOllmm CapaTCllbl


n Hm1meM Ilonpyri.e .............................. ... .... ......... .... .... .. .......... ..... .......... ..................... 36
New Data on the Mesolithic Site of Sarateni in the Lower Pruth Area.
PAS CARI V. N. Microteriofauna de la statiunea pluristratigraficii gravetianii CosiiuV de pe Nistrul
Mijlociu ..... ......... ..... ............ .................. ............................. ................ ............... .......... .. .. 59
An imal microfauna of the Multi-layer Late Palaeolithic Site of Cocautsy.

CIOBANU L. Th. Descoperiri monetare romane in spa{iul Pruto-Nistrean .......... ... .. ..... .......... 234
New Finds of Roman Time Coins !n the Pruth-Dniester Area.
TEJlbHOB I-I. IL O cooTnomemrn A1>en11ocreii rnna Jly1rn-PaiiKonc11Koii c 11ocJie):ly1011111M11
1i:yJibrypaM11 n ,!l;necqioncKo-IlpyTctwM Me;K):lype'lbe ............... ...... ..... ... ...... ................ 246
On the Correlation of the Luca-Raycovetskaya Tipe Aniquites and the Successive Cultures in the Dniester-Pruth Interfluve.

JlAPl1HA 0. B., K-JI. BEXJlEP, )J,EPrAqEB B. A., KOBAITEHKO C.11., Bl1KEAEB B. M.


HORblC ROJICBblC llCCJIC):IORallllll MC30JIHTa II HCOJUITa MOJI,ll.OBbl .............................. ;..... 62

TEJlbHOB H. n ., PAE11HOBM~ P.A. ApxeoJIOr1t<tec1<:11c 11ccJie):lona111111 na noceJ1e111111


CKOK .. ..... ...... .. ..... ... ............... ........ ... .... ................. .................... .......... ............ ......... 252

New Field Surveys on the Mesolitic and Neolithic of Moldova.


- Archeological Surveys on the settlement of Skok.
)J,ABl1)J, A. M. ct>ayna MJieKomnam11111x MelOJIH'Ill'lecKHX 1111eoJIHTH'lec1mx noceJie1111ii Pecny6JIHKH MoJI,ll.ona .... ........................................ ..... .. .. ... ..... .................................................. 1I I
COPOKl1H B. 51.. McCJie):lona1111n M11orocJioii11oro 11oceJie111111 IlynmemTb II.

XOXITOB B. A. Ilocc.rie1111e VIII-IX an. 0Aall ................................................................ ......... 263


- The VIII- IX century Settlement of Odaia.

Surveys of the Multi-layer Settlement of Putine~ti II ... .. ............. ............... ...................... 122
-

308 -

309 -

oblPH51 fl. n ., P5loO:tl: T. <D. Tonorpaj>H!l 30JIOTOO]>J.lblllCIWl"O ropo1.1a 8

Crn]>OM

Opxce ...... 266

- Topography of the Golden Horde Town in Orheiul Vechi


obIPH51n.n., p5IEOti: T. <l). )l\eJIClllblC 113}.ICJill!I XIV

BClrn 113

Craporo Opxc!I .. ...... 281

- Iron Articles of the XIV Century from Orheiul Vechi.

V. Marchevici. Lista de lucn"iri publicatc (V. Sorokin) ........ .. ......... .. ... ..... ..... ......... ..... .... ..... ...... 299
lnformatii despre autori ............. .............................. ........... ... ..... ... ............. ... ............ ..... .. .. .. ........ 302
Lista abre,icrilor .......... .... .. .............. ..... ....... ........... ................... .... ........ ... ... ........ .... ........... .. ... 303

Coli de tipar 19,5. Formal 60x90 1/16'


Tirajul 1500 ex. Comanda 127.
Tipografia Academiei de ~tiin\e RM
str. Petru Movil ii, 8, Chi~iniiu, Republica Moldova