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A Novel Integrated Full-Bridge- Bidirectional DCDC Converter

for a Residential Microgrid Applications

Vasanthakumar.s 1st
Bharath university, Chennai

Abstract- A novel integrated dc-dc

converter topology for interfacing between
the energy storage system and the dc bus for
a residential Microgrid application is
present. The proposed integrated residential
Microgrid system is used to efficiently
utilize the distributed generation sources like
solar and wind generation. It has some
additional features such as to provide supply
to ac and dc loads and it has energy storage
system to meet the peak power demands. In
proposed system we are using DAB dc-dc
converter which has more compared to the
converters usually applied to similar
applications, low input and output current
ripple, high voltage conversion ratio,
bidirectional power flow, and galvanic
isolation. This converter is approached in
detail in this paper, including different
energy sources which are analyzed and
compared. The structures, principle of
operation, analysis, design methodology,
simulation results of the proposed topology
are presented.
Index TermsDistributed generation
(DG); renewable energy source (RES);
operation; dual active bridge(DAB)
ELECTRICAL energy consumption
has been increasing in recent years, and this
fact has been essential to the increase of
electric power generation.
Distributed generation (DG) is becoming an
increasingly attractive approach to reduce
greenhouse gas emissions, to improve power

Mr.Baskar.D 2 nd
Associate professor
Bharath university, Chennai

system efficiency and reliability, and to

relieve todays stress on power transmission
and distribution infrastructure.
In recent years, DG systems based
on renewable energy source (RES) or microsources such as fuel cells, photovoltaic (PV)
cells, wind turbines, and micro turbines are
experiencing a rapid development, due to
their high efficiencies and low (or zero)
emissions. The micro-source based DG also
presents a challenge in terms of interaction
to the grid, where the power electronic
technology plays a vital role [1, 2].
However, the uncontrolled use of individual
DG units can cause various problems
thereby compromising their benefits [3], [4].
Difficulties in connecting these units
directly to the bulky ac system due to their
variable and intermittent power generation,
voltage oscillation in the line to which the
sources are connected, and protection issues
are some of these problems.
As an alternative to reduce such problems,
the Microgrid concept has been gaining
more notoriety each day [5], [6]. Some
advantages of the micro grids are the
possibility to generate electric power with
lower environmental impact and easier
connection of these sources to the utility,
including the power management capability
among their elements.
The residential microgrid under
study here shown in fig-1, comprises two
DG sources (photovoltaic panels and wind
generator), an energy storage system (one
battery and one supercapacitor bank), and a

Electronic copy available at:

plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV).

Moreover, it is able to supply both ac and dc
loads. The microgrid has two buses: one
main dc bus in which the DG sources,
storage devices, and dc loads are connected,
and one ac bus in which the ac loads are
connected and the point of common
coupling (PCC) with the utility grid is
located. The arrows beside each converter
indicate the possible power flow directions.
The proposed DAB dc-dc converter also

The proposed residential microgrid energy

storage system composed of a battery bank
and a supercapacitor bank has two main
functions. The battery bank acts as a backup
device due to its high energy density [7],
providing energy under the steady-state
condition when the other sources are not
A dcdc converter is necessary to connect
the energy storage system to the microgrid
dc bus. Once the battery bank voltage is low
and not controlled, the dcdc converter must
have a high voltage ratio between the input
and output stages. Moreover, it must be able
to operate under a wide output power range.
Since the battery banks are not demanded at
the same time according to the microgrid
operation, the same converter is used for
both, including a selector switch to choose
the appropriate storage device for each
topologies employing a battery bank to
complement the energy supplied by other

sources, such as fuel cells, batteries, or

generators, have been proposed in the
literature [8][10]. These topologies are
applied to hybrid vehicles, uninterruptable
power supply (UPS) systems, buses in
general, and critical loads, among other
Dual Active Bridge (DAB) converter:
It contains two voltage sourced full
bridge circuits or half bridge circuits (or
even push-pull circuits) and a HF
transformer. The reactive network simply
consists of an inductor L connected in series
to the HF transformer; hence, the DAB
directly utilizes the transformer stray
inductance. Due to the symmetric circuit
structure, the DAB readily allows for
bidirectional power transfer. The main
advantage of the DAB is the low number of
passive components, the evenly shared
currents in the switches, and its soft
switching properties. With the DAB
converter topology, high power density is

Three-Phase DAB Converter:

It uses three half bridges on the HV
side and another 3 half bridges on the LV
side. It requires 3 converter inductors and 3
HF transformers (which can be consolidated
on a single three phase HF transformer. The
three-phase DAB is operated with a
modulation scheme similar to the

Electronic copy available at:

conventional modulation scheme employed

for the single-phase DAB (phase shift
modulation. However, different to the
single-phase DAB, further performance
enhancements using alternative modulation
schemes are not feasible for the three-phase

Converter contains a voltage sourced

full bridge on the HV side and a current
sourced full bridge on the LV side (using the
DC inductor LDC2). The power flow is
typically controlled with the duty cycle D.
Additionally the LV side full bridge needs to
be appropriately controlled in order to allow
for bidirectional power flow. The
bidirectional and isolated full bridge
converter facilitates ZVS operation of the
switches of the HV side; the switches of the
LV side switch at zero current. Thus, a high
switching frequency and a high power
density are feasible (at
low power levels, however, additional
circuitry is needed;. Different to the DAB
and the LLC converters, usable values for
the transformer turns ratio are limited
according to (2.2) (i.e. V1 > nV2; for
operation with V1 nV2, e.g. during system
start-up, additional circuitry is required.
The isolated full bridge converter
achieves a smooth current iLDC2 (t) and
therefore, compared to the DAB, a
considerably lower capacitor RMS current
ICDC2 results. A disadvantage is the
additional volume required for the DC
inductor. Furthermore, the LV side switches
repeatedly connect the DC inductor LDC2 in

series to the transformer stray inductance L

and thus, a snubber circuit is needed in order
to avoid voltage spikes when switching.
Instead of the LV side full bridge converter,
different ACDC converter topologies can
be used; typical substitutes are the current
doublers topology or the push-pull topology.
A solar panel (photovoltaic module
or photovoltaic panel) is a packaged,
interconnected assembly of solar cells, also
known as photovoltaic cells. The solar panel
can be used as a component of a larger
photovoltaic system to generate and supply
electricity in commercial and residential
applications. Because a single solar panel
can produce only a limited amount of power,
many installations contain several panels. A
photovoltaic system typically includes an
array of solar panels, an inverter, and
sometimes a battery and interconnection


Solar panels use light energy
(photons) from the sun to generate
electricity through the photovoltaic effect.
The structural (load carrying) member of a
module can either be the top layer or the
back layer. The majority of modules use
wafer-based crystalline silicon cells or thinfilm cells based on cadmium telluride or
silicon. The conducting wires that take the
current off the panels may contain silver,
copper or other conductive (but generally

not magnetic) transition metals. The cells

must be connected electrically to one
another and to the rest of the system. Cells
must also be protected from mechanical
damage and moisture. Most solar panels are
rigid, but semi-flexible ones are available,
based on thin-film cells. Electrical
connections are made in series to achieve a
desired output voltage and/or in parallel to
provide a desired current capability.
Separate diodes may be needed to avoid
reverse currents, in case of partial or total
shading, and at night. The p-n junctions of
mono-crystalline silicon cells may have
adequate reverse current characteristics that
these are not necessary. Reverse currents
waste power and can also lead to
overheating of shaded cells. Solar cells
become less efficient at higher temperatures
and installers try to provide good ventilation
behind solar panels.
Some recent solar panel designs include
concentrators in which light is focused by
lenses or mirrors onto an array of smaller
cells. This enables the use of cells with a
high cost per unit area (such as gallium
arsenide) in a cost-effective way
photovoltaic panels can produce electricity
from a range of frequencies of light, but
usually cannot cover the entire solar range
(specifically, ultraviolet, infrared and low or
diffused light). Hence much of the incident
sunlight energy is wasted by solar panels,
and they can give far higher efficiencies if
illuminated with monochromatic light.
Therefore another design concept is to split
the light into different wavelength ranges
and direct the beams onto different cells
tuned to those ranges. This has been
projected to be capable of raising efficiency
by 50%. The use of infrared photovoltaic
cells has also been proposed to increase
efficiencies, and perhaps produce power at
night. Currently the best achieved sunlight
conversion rate (solar panel efficiency) is

around 21% in commercial product,

typically lower than the efficiencies of their
cells in isolation. The Energy Density of a
solar panel is the efficiency described in
terms of peak power output per unit of
surface area, commonly expressed in units
of Watts per square foot (W/ft2).
The use of equivalent electric circuits makes
it possible to model characteristics of a PV
cell. The method used here is implemented
in MATLAB programs for simulations. The
same modeling technique is also applicable
for modeling a PV module. There are two
key parameters frequently used to
characterize a PV cell. Shorting together the
terminals of the cell, the photon generated
current will follow out of the cell as a short
circuit current (Isc). Thus, Iph = Isc, when
there is no connection to the PV cell (opencircuit), the photon generated current is
shunted internally by the intrinsic p-n
junction diode. This gives the open circuit
voltage (Voc). The PV module or cell
manufacturers usually provide the values of
these parameters in their datasheets.
The simplest model of a PV cell equivalent
circuit consists of an ideal current source in
parallel with an ideal diode. The current
source represents the current generated by
photons (often denoted as Iph or IL), and its
output is constant under constant
temperature and constant incident radiation
of light.
The PV panel is usually represented by the
single exponential model or the double
exponential model. The single exponential
model is shown in fig. 3.

Wind power:
Wind power is the conversion of
wind energy into a useful form of energy,
such as using wind turbines to make
electricity, wind mills for mechanical power,
wind pumps for pumping water or drainage,
or sails to propel ships. At the end of 2009,
worldwide nameplate capacity of windpowered generators was 159.2 giga watts
(GW). (By June 2010 the capacity had risen
to 175 GW) Energy production was 340
TWh, which is about 2% of worldwide
electricity usage; and has doubled in the past
three years. Several countries have achieved
relatively high levels of wind power
penetration, such as 20% of stationary
electricity production in Denmark, 14% in
Ireland and Portugal, 11% in Spain, and 8%
in Germany in 2009.As of May 2009, 80
countries around the world are using wind
power on a commercial basis.
connected to the electric power transmission
network; smaller facilities are used to
provide electricity to isolated locations.
Utility companies increasingly buy back
surplus electricity produced by small
domestic turbines. Wind energy, as an
alternative to fossil fuels, is plentiful,
renewable, widely distributed, clean, and
produces no greenhouse gas emissions
during operation. However, the construction
of wind farms is not universally welcomed
because of their visual impact but any
effects on the environment are generally
among the least problematic of any power
The intermittency of wind seldom
creates problems when using wind power to
supply a low proportion of total demand, but
as the proportion rises, increased costs, a
need to upgrade the grid, and a lowered
ability to supplant conventional production
may occur. Power management techniques
such as exporting and importing power to

neighboring areas or reducing demand when

wind production is low, can mitigate these
Wind Energy:
The Earth is unevenly heated by the
sun, such that the poles receive less energy
from the sun than the equator; along with
this, dry land heats up (and cools down)
more quickly than the seas do. The
differential heating drives a global
atmospheric convection system reaching
from the Earth's surface to the stratosphere
which acts as a virtual ceiling. Most of the
energy stored in these wind movements can
be found at high altitudes where continuous
wind speeds of over
160 km/h (99 mph) occur.

Eventually, the wind energy is

converted through friction into diffuse heat
throughout the Earth's surface and the
atmosphere. The total amount of
economically extractable power available
from the wind is considerably more than
present human power use from all sources.
The most comprehensive study as of 2005
found the potential of wind power on land
and near-shore to be 72 TW, equivalent to
54,000 MToE (million tons of oil
equivalent) per year, or over five times the
world's current energy use in all forms. The
potential takes into account only locations
with mean annual wind speeds 6.9 m/s at
80 m. The study assumes six 1.5 megawatt,

77 m diameter turbines per square kilometer

on roughly 13% of the total global land area





Wind Turbine Power Curve

(though that land would also be
available for other compatible uses such as
farming). The authors acknowledge that
many practical barriers would need to be
overcome to reach this theoretical capacity.
The practical limit to exploitation of wind
power will be set by economic and
environmental factors, since the resource
available is far larger than any practical
means to develop it.
Electricity generation:
In a wind farm, individual turbines
are interconnected with a medium voltage
(often 34.5 kV), power collection system
and communications network. At a
substation, this medium-voltage electric
current is increased in voltage with a
transformer for connection to the high
voltage electric power transmission system.
The surplus power produced by domestic
micro generators can, in some jurisdictions,
be fed into the network and sold to the
utility company, producing a retail credit for
the micro generators' owners to offset their
energy costs.

The proposed converter must be

designed for both charging and discharging
processes. The maximum designed power
for the Microgrid energy storage system
discharging process, which is supplied by
the super capacitor bank. The isolated static
power converter traditionally used in
applications with this power level is the full
bridge converter.
Therefore, the proposed dcdc converter is
the integration of a full bridge and a forward
converter. The full-bridge converter is
responsible for the energy storage system
discharging stage, while the forward
converter is responsible for the energy
storage system charging stage.
MATLAB is a high-performance
language for technical computing. It
integrates computation, visualization, and
programming in an easy-to-use environment
where problems and solutions are expressed
in familiar mathematical notation.
The libraries contain models of
typical power equipment such as
transformers, lines, machines, and power
electronics. The capabilities of Sim Power
Systems for modeling a typical electrical
system are illustrated in demonstration files.
And for users who want to refresh their
knowledge of power system theory, there

are also self-learning case studies. The Sim

Power Systems main library, power lib,
organizes its blocks into libraries according
to their behavior. The power library window
displays the block library icons and names.
Double-click a library icon to open the
library and access the blocks. The main Sim
Power Systems power library window also
contains the Powergui block that opens a
graphical user interface for the steady-state
analysis of electrical circuits. This
possible because all the electrical parts
of the simulation interact with the
extensive Simulink modeling library.
Since Simulink uses MATLAB as its
computational engine, designers can also
use MATLAB toolboxes and Simulink
block sets. Sim Power Systems and Sim
Mechanics share
a special Physical
Modeling block and connection line


The customer-driven microgrid is a

promising concept in several fronts because
it provides means to modernize todays
power grids by making it more reliable,
secure, efficient, and de-centralized and
systematic approaches to utilize diverse and
distributed energy sources for DG and
Addresses how to utilize DG more
efficiently and more effectively and
provides more reliable and greener power to
customers. Power electronics is the enabling
technology as power electronics interfaced
DG and power electronics based control
devices can make the customer-driven
microgrid possible and at the same time can
provide many ancillary services to the mains
power grid. To implement all these novel
features, a number of issues related to DGs
control and protection have been discussed
in this paper. There are still a wealth of
issues and challenges to be explored. The

proposed topology presents low input and

output current ripple, high voltage ratio,
high power operation on the discharging
process, galvanic isolation, and bidirectional
power flow, as requested by the application.

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