You are on page 1of 16


(VII Means Septuaco, Houston Texas)

A new way to look at the use of Plasma

Developers of Green Energy Projects

Waste to energy High Technology Zero Impact No Emissions

SRE offers a paradigm shift solution to the disposal of all non-nuclear waste
employing Electrode Vacuum Reformation
By Frank DiNoto, Septuaco, Houston Texas
February 21, 2014
The use of Carbon Arc Plasma in a Vacuum (EVR) to process commercial/industrial
waste, without environmental impact, to PRODUCE marketable commodities of value.


Scientifically speaking, is plasma technology at a place in its development where it can be used safely

and efficiently to use hazardous substances to produce marketable commodities while producing little or no

The simple answer is YES. By operating in a vacuum at extremely high temperatures (PLASMA, the

fourth state of matter, is what makes up the surface of our Sun), the feedstock materials are separated at
their atomic level and chemically restructured into syngas, metals and inert glass slag.

Is there any environmental impact we should know of?

A NO! Unlike other ways of converting a PLASMA environment, Electric Arc under Vacuum has no
impact on the environment (Air, Ground or Water). If the Syngas is used as a combustible fuel, then there
would be secondary air emissions, but even these would be less than burning Natural Gas because of the
higher Hydrogen content in the Syngas.
Q Regarding crisis remediation situations like pandemics, oil spills, ground water contamination and low
level nuclear waste; what are the capacities and characteristics of Septuacos EVR Technology?

The technology is capable of reducing any known substance to its elemental (atomic) form and then

chemically reforming it to one or more compounds that have market value and are environmentally
acceptable. In the case of nuclear materials, it is a corporate decision to avoid them; as they would
eventually contaminate the physical plant. As for other instances of crisis remediation, it would be
dependent on the amount of materials to be treated. There is a practical lower limit on the size of an EVR
facility (10 tons/hour Municipal Solid Waste [MSW] equivalent) but smaller units are possible if the
economics prove viable to build one, versus buy the necessary basic components (steel mill arc furnace).

If the materials are transportable to a central facility, then there is no problem. As for dealing with highly
hazardous materials, it is an issue of permits. HAZMAT is a world unto itself and heavily regulated by a
variety of Federal, State and Local agencies. Technically it is not an issue and it can prove very lucrative in
the fees associated with these types of waste products (Medical, Petrochemical, etc.) There already exist
facilities to address these materials including disposal wells, special land fills and small plasma facilities
using plasma torch technology (welding torch on steroids).
Q Financially speaking, can your Plasma Technology prove itself in a small commercial model? If so, is it
scalable? And what would the approximate costs be of such a pilot project?

YES, we believe that the technology is best sized in increments of 500 tons/day of MSW equivalent,

but 300 tons/day is about the smallest design that we believe to be financially self-sustaining when
processing MSW and/or industrial wastes where revenues are a combination of disposal (tipping) fees
($/ton) and the sale of the reformed products. If the unit built is designed for a pure destruction facility
with very high tipping fees on long term contract, then the model changes and a smaller (1-2 tons/hour)
is financially feasible. The technology is definitely scalable, with the largest steel furnaces approaching
10,000 tons capacity; however, these are not practical for our purposes unless we are treating materials
that can be induced as a fluid. The limitation is feeding the beast, not the ability of the beast to digest what
it is fed. Remember, steel-making is a batch process and we are dealing in a continuous process under
vacuum. As for the cost of the first commercial system sized at 300 tons/day MSW equivalent, weve
designed a model for use in Greater Birmingham, Alabama The budget developed indicates 80million USD
would be needed to build the EVR on an identified 12 acre plot of industrial land. This would include the
Plasma Reformer, Material Handling and Feeder Equipment, Scales, Heat Recovery / Steam Production
Equipment, Electrical Generator, Refrigeration/HVAC Equipment, Gas Scrubbers, Catalytic Methanol
System and Methanol Storage Facilities.

SRE is a next generation technology developed by Frank DiNoto and Dom Costa,
Septuaco Inc, Houston Texas.

Our Premise

To destroy by plasma and reform by chemistry, any feedstock on the planet, with the exception of

nuclear wastes, in an environmentally-friendly way.


The hydrocarbons present will be gasified to produce common syngases that will in turn either be

used to produce exportable green electrical power or be the feedstock an accompanying methanol
producing facility. The waste heat generated by the process will be used to produce HVAC and ice. the
non-hydrocarbons in the stream will be converted to metals and glass (which the EPA has designated as
non-hazardous even though it may have hazardous components entrained within it). The metals are sold
as scrap (in the case of the pilot plant large volumes of pig iron will be produced from the metals
entrained in the steel mill carbon dust we will process in addition to what may be present in the other
components of the feedstock. The glass will be converted to rock wool to be used in insulation.


Solids in the stream are converted into a mix of molten metals (if present) and environmentally
benign glass slag.
Revenues are generated by a combination of tipping (disposal) fees and product revenues, which
can include electricity, liquids, fuel, scrap metals, and construction materials.
Nothing goes to a landfill.

Septuaco, Inc. is a Texas C Corporation started by Domenick Costagliola, P.E. and Frank DiNoto,
PMP to focus on consulting and development of project opportunities in the alternative energy

Septuaco has identified and entered into agreements with patent holders of several Disruptive
technologies in the GREEN energy field.
The technologies include our EVR Reformer Technology, a proprietary Plasma Arc gasification system.
This technology is based the same plasma furnaces used by the metals industry to produce exotic metals
such as titanium. The main difference is that the metals industry uses a Batch process while ours is a
continuous feed, without losing the vacuum under which both applications operate.
The technology has been vetted by a variety of academics both in this country and in Russia (home of the
biggest concentration of plasma experts in the world), the United States Army Corp of Engineers, the
Power Group of the now defunct ENRON Corporation and by a table top demonstration unit that is no
longer in existence. The technology has been presented to a variety of entities from the Federal
Government to small towns and industries. All see the merits but also have the same question; where is
one running?
To this end, Septuaco is seeking a financial partner willing to invest in the neighborhood of $80 million to
build a small, revenue positive, demonstration plant using a combination of municipal solid waste and
industrial waste as its feedstock.
The location has to be permit-friendly, as well as physically located next to or near both feedstock and
customers for products.
In our search for the right site, we have identified the greater Birmingham, Alabama area as a preferred
area for our first system as it meets the above criteria, having agreed to classify the facility as an
industrial manufacturing plant rather than a waste disposal facility (making permitting much easier).
The greater Birmingham location is ideally suited for the installation of the first commercial scale EVR
facility, capable of processing 300+ tons per day of waste (municipal and industrial); waste which can be
scaled up once the initial facility has proven its claims.
The initial MSW waste stream we expect to have under contract will be in the 300 tons per day range.
A tire disposal company with a large daily volume of automobile and truck tires is also expected to be a
supplier. An Alabama coal burning power-plant is close by and is also a potential client (fly-ash).

Our preferred site is currently shutdown and is an industrial site, on 12 acres, with a double ended
connection to the GRID. Furthermore, it backs up to county facilities which show interest in GREEN
electricity for use in providing hot and cold water for both domestic and space conditioning.
The general area is also a user of distilled water, used in the steel mills. There is a potential market for
commercial ice.
The current proposed site has access to both interstate and rail transport. Also, they are not opposed
to the facility receiving waste from outside of Alabama.
Additional feedstock for the plant could include tires, industrial waste, bio-solids (sewage sludge), fly-ash,
steel mill waste and biomass.
The plant will be sized to process an input of 300 tons per day equivalent MSW.
The plant can be expanded incrementally by 500 tons per day units depending on the volume of waste
available from outside sources.
The investment will prove our claims that the upside to the investment partners is a multi-billion dollar
market worldwide.


The plant will operate at 300 tons per day MSW equivalent input with a blended tipping fee of $21.15.
The outputs will be a combination of green electricity, HVAC and water sold to State or County entities to
comply with a federal mandate to be 20% renewable by the year 2020.
The Facility will produce Ice, scrap metal, construction materials (glass insulation), pure water and
methanol. The capital cost of the facility will be $80 million.


The EVR process uses high temperature thermal plasma to convert municipal solid waste to syngas,
molten metal and vitreous slag with no ash produced and nothing to go to the landfill. Air emissions are
lower than the combustion of natural gas, and are easily within environmental standards. The syngas is
used to generate methanol and electricity in a steam bottoming cycle tied to an absorption refrigeration
system. The molten metal is cast as scrap steel and the slag is cast as building material aggregate or spun
into mineral wool. Both the slag and steel are sold as by-products, generating additional revenue.
In summary, major impacts to the community would be:

Slag is cast as building material aggregate or spun into mineral wool


Air emissions are less than the combustion of natural gas


Syngas is used to produce methanol which is sold to the chemical industry


Molten metal is cast as scrap steel and sold to steel mills


There is no ash the need for landfills is reduced

Within the EVR process:

Everything is converted to energy or liquid fuels or saleable materials
100% participation and 100% recycling all in one simple process
Converts waste to gases that are formed into a clean feedstock for electrical generation and/or for
Syngas can be efficiently converted to methanol for the production of chemical products or as a fuel
additive similar to ethanol
Eliminates hazardous by-products


According to the US EPA, 32% of municipal solid waste in the United States is recovered and recycled or
composted; 14% is burned at combustion facilities, and the remaining 54% is disposed of in landfills. The
proposed project offers an environmentally sound and technologically advanced waste to energy solution
for the disposal of municipal solid waste.

Septuacos EVR Graphite Rod Plasma Gasification Process reduces greenhouse gas emissions in two
ways. First, the process produces far lower CO2 and NOX emissions than incinerations. Second, landfills
are a major source of methane emission and have 21 times more greenhouse gas effect than CO2. The
EVR process redirects waste away from landfills.


Graphite electric arc plasma technology has a very high energy concentration capability.
Plasma torches have smaller power capacity per torch.
Dilution air or other inert gasses have a dilutive effect on syngas BTU value.
EVR gasifier excludes air as much as possible and does not need a working gas for plasma
EVR graphite arc plasma system does not require cooling.
Plasma torch requires cooling. The heat lost through torch cooling can range up to 28% of the torch
input power. This is a significant energy penalty, as well as an additional utility requirement.
The proposed project utilizing the EVR process will produce attractive cash flows and ROI while
having a positive impact on the environment. Winston County and the surrounding participating area
will mitigate landfill disposal volumes and improve the areas image thereby making it more attractive
for industry relocation.


Conventional Disposal Techniques

Incineration of MSW
Co-firing of MSW in boilers
Artificial tire reefs
Discharge of treated effluents
Disposal of sewage sludge
Illegal dumping

Conventional Solutions Issues

Insects & Vermin
Increases Threat to Ground Water and Site Run Off
Haz-Mat Materials not welcome
Exhaustion of Limited Permitted Landfill Space
Reduction of Property Values of Adjacent Properties
Increasing Tax Burden
Requires Special Permitting, Monitoring, & Reporting
Legacy Issues
Green House Gas Emissions

Clean Renewable Energy - The Total Recycling Solution
EVR - Not Incineration; No Fly Ash, No Bottom Ash, Nothing Left To Landfill
Not Traditional Gasification - No Combustion or Ash, No Char, Nothing Left To Landfill
Next Generation SME Plasma Gasification - No Plasma Torches
EVR Graphite Arc Plasma Field - No Co-Reactants, No Dilutive Working Gas
Rich, Clean Syngas - No Combustion Gases, No Dioxins And No Furans
Not Experimental - Proven Technologies In Related Industries


Municipal Solid Waste (MSW)
No presorting
No preprocessing
Construction & Demolition (C&D)
Minimum preprocessing
Asbestos and hazardous materials
Bio - Mass
All types of biomass
Efficient and economical

Bio - Solids
Destroys all pathogens
Moisture tolerant
Industrial Waste

Hazardous wastes
Pulp & paper mill
Petroleum refining byproducts
Smelting byproducts
Drilling mud

Carbonaceous Resources

Totally clean
Maximum Carbon Conversion Ratio
Coal gasification Tar sands
Oil shale
Waste Coal
High Sulfur Coal


Plasma energy is created by a GRAPHITE ARC SYSTEM in the EVR under a Vacuum
It is similar to an arc furnace in steel industry.
No plasma torches are employed.
The result is a much higher efficiency process that produces a cleaner and richer Syngas
Is scalable to much larger or smaller systems.
Safely recycles any and all waste, even hazardous waste.
Significantly longer operation time between shutdowns.
Unsorted waste arrives at the plant and is fed into the reactor. The reactor is designed and
constructed for maximum performance at high temperature. The reactor is sealed under
negative pressure so that there is no combustion and hence no ash is produced and no gases
escape into the atmosphere.

The EVR-SRE plasma reaction breaks down organic molecules into energy rich Syngas which is
scrubbed and cooled to be used to generate electricity to power the plant. Excess Syngas can
provides additional electricity that can be sold to the grid or feed a gas to liquid reformer to
produce green fuels. Heat from the process can drive a distillation process to produce potable
This energy can be used to power the plant and excess can be sold to the grid. Simultaneously
inside the reactor reducing atmosphere molten materials are tapped to be cast as scrap steel for
sale to steel mills. Slag is tapped separately to be used as building material aggregate or spun into
mineral wool.


Process All Carbonaceous Waste Materials
Non-Burning Process
Not an Incinerator or Boiler
No Emissions from Gasifier
Reduced Air & Liquid Emissions from Facility compared to Conventional Solutions
Best Available Technology for Destruction of Hazardous Waste Materials
Moisture is a Good Thing in the Waste Fuel (INPUT)
No Ash is Produced
Recoverable Metals and Vitrified Slag Available for Sale
Easily Scalable to Gasify Large or Smaller Amounts of Wastes

The EVR plasma reaction breaks down organic molecules into energy rich Syngas which is
scrubbed and cooled to be used to generate electricity to power the plant. Excess Syngas can
provide additional electricity that can be sold to the grid or feed a gas to liquid reformer to
produce green fuels. Heat from the process can drive a distillation process to produce potable
water. This energy can be used to power the plant and excess can be sold to the grid.
Simultaneously inside the reactor reducing atmosphere molten materials are tapped to be cast as
scrap steel for sale to steel mills. Slag is tapped separately to be used as building material
aggregate or spun into mineral wool.


AN option is to pass the scrubbed Syngas through a carbon activated filter and
use it in a simple reciprocating or steam cycle to generate electrical power. Power
generated can be used to power the plant and excess can be sold to the grid.


The range of products from this option can be:

Liquid fuels
Oils lubricants

Can landfills be eliminated?
The Plasma Arc process is a more efficient, more reliable, and less capital intensive method to
convert municipal solid waste (MSW) to energy and recycled materials. Because there is total
recycling and no ash residue, landfills could become a thing of the past.
Is clean energy really possible?
The process converts waste to gases that are formed into a clean fuel that drive a turbine
which generates electricity. A benefit of the process is that it eliminates hazardous
byproducts. Plasma gasification of MSW is classified as a renewable energy source by the US
Is total recycling achievable?
The process provides 100% participation and 100% recycling all in one simple process. All
household garbage goes out in one container No sorting, no additional transportation pickups, and no discarded material result in 100% participation and total recycling. Everything is
converted to energy or saleable materials with the process.
Can greenhouse gases be reduced?
Greenhouse gas emissions are reduced in two ways: First, the process produces far lower CO2
and NOx emissions than incineration. Second, landfills are a major source of methane
emissions which, on a pound for pound basis, have 21 times more greenhouse gas effect than
the CO2 that comes from this process.
Does a technology exist to efficiently convert MSW, biomass, etc. to liquid fuel?
Yes. Utilizing proven commercially available processes, Syngas produced by the process can be
efficiently converted to liquid fuels such as gasoline and biodiesel, or converted to feedstock
such as methanol for the production of chemical products. The Syngas can also be fed back to a
chemical unit as feed stock.
What can the heat from the process be utilized for?
The heat is recaptured and used to generate steam. Steam is used to make efficient green
electricity and drinking water.

Because there is no ash, the need for landfills is reduced.
Air emissions are less than the combustion of natural gas, and are easily
within EPA standards for Power Generation Plant Options.
The Syngas is used to generate clean renewable electricity which is sold to
the power grid.
The molten metal is cast as scrap steel and sold to steel mills.

The slag is cast as building material aggregate or spun into mineral wool.