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NERVOUS SYSTEM

most COMPLEX system in the HUMAN BODY


formed by a network of >100 MILLION nerve
cells (neurons) assisted by many more glial cells

GOLGI COMPLEX
Located only in the cell body
Consists of multiple parallel arrays of smooth
cisternae arranged around the periphery of the
nucleus
Responsible for packaging of neurotransitter
substances

MITOCHONDRIA
Found in soma, dendrites & axon
Most abundant in axon terminals
More slender
Constantly moving along microtubules in the
cytoplasm

CENTRIOLE
Characteristic of preneuronal multiplying
cells during embryologic development
only occasionally encountered in adult
neurons
believed to be vestigial structures (because
neurons do not undergo cell division)

CELLS OF NERVOUS SYSTEM

NEURONS
Functional unit of structure of nervous tissue
For receptive, integrative and motor functions of the
nervous system
5 150 um in diameter

NEUROGLIAL CELLS
For supporting and protecting neurons
Do not receive or transmit impulses
PARTS OF A NEURON
1. CELL BODY / PERIKARYON / SOMA
- Central portion which contains the nucleus &
perinuclear cytoplasm
in CNS:
- generally polygonal with concave surfaces
between many cell processes
in DRG (sensory ganglion of PNS):
- have a round cell body from which only 1
process exits

NUCLEUS

Large, spherical to ovoid, centrally

located

Prominent nucleolus
Contains finely dispersed chromatin
(may appear vesicular)

Less obvious in smaller neurons


(greater conc. of chromatin)

Sex chromatin of females prominent

CYTOPLASM

With abundant RER with many cisternae


in parallel arrays

NISSL BODIES
o stacked RER cisternae & polyribosomes
seen as clumps of basophilic material
o represent sites of protein synthesis

SER
Abundant, extends into the axons and
dendrites
- forms a broad, flat, fenestrated hypolemmal
cisterna
- sequester Ca and contain CHONs and
provide
a pathway for their distribution
throughout the cell

INCLUSIONS
A. Melanin coarse dark-brown/black granules
location:
- certain regions of the CNS (substantia nigra & locus
ceruleus, dorsal
motor nucleus of the
vagus
& spinal cord)
- sympathetic ganglia of the PNS
- thought to accumulate as by-product of the synthesis of
neurotransmitters dihydrophenylalanine or methyldopa
B. Lipofuscin golden-brown granules
- irregular in shape
- remnants of lysosomal enzymatic activity
- increase with advancing age, may even crowd
the organelles &
nucleus to one side possibly
affecting cellular function
Purkinje cells of cerebellar cortex
Iron containing pigments
C. Lipid droplet result of faulty metabolism or normal
energy reserves
D. Secretory granules
- observed in neurosecretory cells
- many contain signaling molecules

CYTOSKELETAL COMPONENTS
microtubules
- 20 28 nm in diameter
- essential role in transport of vesicles &
organelles that move along their
surface w/in the
cell body & along the length of the axon
neurofilaments
- intermediate, 10 nm in diameter
- abundant in perikaryons & cell processes
microfilaments
- 6 nm in diameter

- composed of 2 strands of polymerized G-actin


arranged in a helix
neurofibrils
- up to 2 um in diameter
- possibly represent clumped bundles of
neurofilaments

2. DENDRITE
- cell body projections
-with abundant mitochondria
- receives stimuli from sensory cells, axons and other
neurons
- impulse received are transmitted towards soma

Structure of MYELIN SHEATH

Dendrite branching pattern permits a neuron to


receive & integrate multiple impulses
Some have SPINES (permit dendrites to form
synapses with other neurons)
Sometimes contain vesicles & transmit impulses to
other dendrites

3. AXON (axis cylinder)


Varying diameter
Usually very long processes (may be up to 100cm in
length)
1 neuron: 1 axon
Conducts impulses away from the soma to other
neurons, muscles or glands
Axolemma - cell membrane
Axoplasm axon cytoplasm
Axon Hillock where axon arises, absent RER
Collateral branches
Axon Terminal
Nerve Fiber - axon + certain sheaths of
ectodermal origin
SYNAPSE region where impulses can be
transmitted between cells
Functions:
Impulse conduction
Axonal transport
crucial to trophic relationships
(within axons & between neurons &
muscles and glands)
Interruptions lead to atrophy of
target cells
Anterograde transport from cell body to
axon terminal; MAP : kinesin
Retrograde transport from axon terminal to
the cell body; MAP : dynein
Clinical Correlate

Retrograde Axonal Transport


pathway followed by toxins ( e.g., tetanus toxin)
and neurotropic viruses (e.g., herpes simplex
and rabies) to penetrate and invade the CNS

Axon : MYELIN SHEATH


MYELIN

Fatlike substance covering axons

concentric layers of mixed lipids alternating with


thin layers of the protein neurokeratin

associated only with axons


* Unmyelinated Axons
* Myelinated Axon

Produced by Oligodendrocytes (CNS), Schwann


cells (PNS)

Nodes of Ranvier sites of discontinuity


between successive Schwann cells along the axon

Internodal segments consists of a singular


Schwann cell & its concentric lamellae of myelin around
the axon, delineated by successive nodes of Ranvier

Incisure of Schmidt-Lantermann aligned


sites of local separation of the myelin lamellae by
residues of cytoplasm trapped in the spiral
Functions of Myelin Sheats
A. Increases the speed of conduction from 1 m/s in
slender unmyelinated axons to 120 m/s in
heavily myelinated axons of large caliber
B. Serves as a high-resistance low-capacitance
insulator
C. Role in nutrition of the axon
D. Protective role assuring continuing conductivity

MECHANISM OF MYELINATION
- Schwann cell (or oligodendrocytes) concentrically
wraps its membrane around the axon to form the myelin
sheath
- wrapping may continue for more than 50 turns
- cytoplasm is squeezed back into the body of the
Schwann cell bringing the cytoplasmic surfaces of the
membranes in contact with each other forming the major
dense line that spirals through the myelin sheath
PERIPHERAL NERVE SHEATHS
EPINEURIUM
outermost sheath
envelops the nerve & sends extensions into it to
surround the separate nerve fascicles w/in it
thick & strong investment composed of dense
irregular connective tissue
PERINEURIUM
covers each bundle of nerve fiber (fascicle)
more dense; consists of a few to several layers
of flattened fibroblast-like cells bounded both
internally & externally by a basal lamina

barrier to passage of particulate tracers, dye


molecules/toxins into the endoneurium, thus
protecting the perineural compartment

between sensory & motor neurons and other


interneurons
Synapse

ENDONEURIUM
surround individual nerve fibers (axons)
delicate, loose connective tissue consisting of
small fibrils of collagen, fibroblasts, fixed
macrophages, capillaries, perivascular mast
cells, & EC fluid

Site of transmission of nerve impulses


Point of contact of a neuron & another cell
Allows neurons to communicate with each other
or with effector cells (muscle & gland)
Types of SYNAPSES

Classification of NEURONS
A.
ACCORDING TO MORPHOLOGY:
BIPOLAR
posses 2 processes emanating from the soma, a
single dendrite and a single axon
found in the vestibular & cochlear ganglia & in
the olfactory epithelium of the nasal cavity
PSEUDOUNIPOLAR
when a single process, morphologically an axon,
leaves the body and soon bifurcates
BRANCHES:
A. peripheral proceeds to its destination in the
body
B. central enters the CNS

B. CHEMICAL
impulse transmission occur mostly through the
release of neurotransmitters at axon terminal
Components:
A. Presynaptic membrane
B. Synaptic cleft
small gap between that separates the
pre- & postsynaptic membranes
12-20 nm
may contain polysaccharides & some
fine intersynaptic filaments
Postsynaptic membrane

present in the dorsal root ganglia & the ganglia


of some cranial nerves
MULTIPOLAR
most common
possess various arrangement of multiple
dendrites emanating from the soma and a single
axon
most are motor neurons
some are named according to morphology (e.g.,
Pyramidal cells) or after the scientist who 1st
described them (e.g., Purkinje cells)

ELECTRICAL
Uncommon
Few places in the brain stem, retina & cerebral
cortex
Transmission is much more rapid
Transmit impulse through gap junctions that
cross the pre- & postsynaptic membranes
Ions pass freely through these gap junctions

Types of CHEMICAL SYNAPSE

UNIPOLAR
posses only 1 PROCESS emanating from the
cell body
exists in early embryonic life

AXONDENDRITIC axon synapses with a dendrite


AXOSOMATIC axon synapses with a cell body
AXOAXONIC axon synapses with another axon
DENDRODENDRITIC
SOMATODENDRITIC
SOMATOSOMATIC
SOMATOAXONIC
DENDROAXONIC
AXOAXODENDRITIC

ACCORDING TO FUNCTION:

Presynaptic neuron neuron that transmits the


impulse

Postsynaptic cell cell that receives the impulse


(neuron, muscle or gl.)

Bouton expanded portion of the process that is


involved in the formation of a synapse

Synaptic
vesicles

contain
neurotransmitters, fill the bouton

A.

SENSORY (AFFERENT) NEURONS


Receives & transmits impulses to the CNS
for processing

B. MOTOR (EFFERENT) NEURONS


Originates in the CNS & transmits impulses to
effector organs throughout the body
C. INTERNEURONS
located completely in the CNS
function as interconnectors or integrators that
established networks of neuronal circuits

NEUROGLIAL CELLS
1. Astrocytes

chemical

o
o
o
o
o
o

largest & most numerous


star-shaped & have numerous, branching
processes
involved in metabolic processes
form scar tissue in damaged areas
Have bundles of intermediate filaments made of
glial fibrillary acid protein that reinforce their
structure
Bind neurons to capillaries & to the pia mater

o
o

flattened cells whose cytoplasm contains a


flattened nucleus, small golgi apparatus and few
mitochondria
form both myelinated & unmyelinated coverings
over axons of the PNS

Origin and Principal Functions of Neuroglial Cells


Glial Cell Type Origin

Location

Oligodendrocyte Neural ectodermCNS

Types of Astrocytes
A. Protoplasmic
o many short branching processes
o abundant cytoplasm & bigger & palerstaining nucleus
o found mainly within the gray matter
B. Fibrous
o with few long processes mostly unbranched
o closely associated with the pia mater &
blood vessels
o located chiefly in the white matter
o possess euchromatic cytoplasm containing
only a few organelles, free ribosomes, &
glycogen
2. Oligodendrocytes
o smaller, fewer & shorter processes
o scanty cytoplasm & smaller ovoid/spherical
nucleus
o located in the white matter where they form the
myelin sheath
3. Microglia
o Dense elongated nuclei
o small cell with short processes
o cytoplasm scanty & contains many lysosomes
o phagocytic in nature
o Represent the mononuclear phagocytic system
in nervous tissue & derived from precursor cells
in the bone marrow
o Involved with inflammation & repair in the adult
CNS
o produce & release neutral proteases & oxidative
radicals
4. Ependyma
o Low columnar to cuboidal epithelial cells that
line the cavities of the CNS
o posses short cytoplasmic processes, free
surface possesses microvilli
o cytoplasm contains abundant mitochondria and
bundles of intermediate filaments
o some are ciliated, a feature that facilitates the
movement of CSF
5. Schwann cells

Schwann Cell
Astrocyte

Neural ectodermPeripheral
Nerves
Neural ectodermCNS

Ependymal Cell Neural ectodermCNS


Microglia

Mesoderm

CNS

Main Functions
Myelin production,
Electric insulation
Myelin production,
Electric insulation
Structural support,
Repair processes,
BBB,
Metabolic
exchanges
Lining cavities of
central
nervous
system
Macrophagic
activity

NERVE REGENERATION: CNS


-

Connective tissue sheaths are absent in the CNS

Injured cells are phagocytosed


macrophages (microglia)

Spaced liberated by phagocytosis is occupied by


proliferation of glial cells form cell mass (GLIAL
SCAR)

Glial cell mass hinder the process of repair thus


damage to the CNS is permanent

by

special

NERVE REGENERATION: PERIPHERAL NERVE


FIBER
Neuron attempts to repair the damage,
regenerate the process, and restore function
Axon reactions localized in 3 regions:
1. site of damage (local changes)
2. distal to the site of damage (anterograde
changes)
3. proximal to the site of damage (retrograde
changes)
Some changes occur simultaneously, others
weeks or months apart
LOCAL REACTION

Involves repair & removal of debris by neuroglial


cells
ANTEROGRADE REACTION

Portion of the axon distal to an injury undergoes


degeneration and is phagocytosed
RETROGRADE REACTION & REGENERATION


Proximal portion of the injured axon undergoes
degeneration followed by sprouting of a new axon whose
growth is directed by Schwann cells

SER

CNS
GRAY MATTER
- contains neuronal cell bodies, dendrites & the
initial unmyelinated portions of axons & glial cells
- Region where synapses occur
- Prevalent at surface of cerebrum & cerebellum
- Nuclei aggregates of neuronal cell bodies
forming islands of gray matter embedded in the white
matter

Nissl Bodies
clumps of intensely chromatophilic
material
consist of cisternae of granular ER
in ordered parallel array
ribosomes are arranged in rows,
loops & spirals on the outer surface
of the cisternae

CNS
WHITE MATTER
contains the myelinated axons & the myelin
producing oligodendrocytes
it does not contain neuronal cell bodies
the myelin sheath imparts the white color

Axon Hillock

area from which the axon arises


ER is absent

Parts of a NEURON
NUCLEUS
spherical/ovoid
with
unusually
large,
euchromatic (pale
staining) nucleus with
prominent nucleolus
Nerve Processes
DENDRITES
Provide the surface for receiving signals from
other neurons
Relatively thick but taper gradually along their
length
Fairly short & confined to the immediate vicinity
of the soma
Bifurcate, at acute angles, into primary,
secondary, tertiary & higher orders of branches
Found abundant in nerve cells (considerably
increase the receptive area of the cell)

C. AXONS

Arise from the cell body at the axon


hillock

A cylindrical process that varies in


length & diameter according to the type of
neuron

Constant diameter & do not branch


profusely

All axons originate from a short pyramidshaped region, the Axon hillock, that usually
arises from the perikaryon

When severed, its peripheral parts


degenerate and die
MOTOR COMPONENT

AXON

CELL TYPES
Nerve cells or neurons - show numerous long processes
a. Glial cells
- have short processes
- support & protect neurons
- participate in neural activity, neural nutrition, &
defense processes of the CNS
b. PERIKARYON OR CELL BODY
1. ORGANELLES

Abundant
extends into the axons & dendrites
forms a broad, flat, fenestrated
hypolemmal cisterna
sequester Ca & contain CHONs &
provide a pathway for their
distribution throughout the cell
transport vesicles & synaptic
vesicles may bud off from it

SOMATIC SYSTEM

Impulses transitted directly via a single


neuron to skeletal muscles
AUTONOMIC SYSTEM

Impulses transmitted to an autonomic


ganglion via 1 neuron

second neuron (from autonomic ganglia)


transmits impulses to smooth muscles, cardiac
muscles or glands

QUIZ!!
identify picture shown: fibrous astocyte
(answer)
2. identify: perineurium
1.

3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.

what are microglia for? Phagocytic


(answer)
identify types of synapse: axoaxoneme
(answer)
identify type: pseudounipolar (answer)
give 2 functions of myelin: protective
and conduction of impulse
microtubule for anterograde transport:
Kinesin (answer)
draw a neuron include the three main
structure:
axon, dendrite and
soma