For a standard 9th student, the files gives good explanation about work done concept and energy, types of energy etc..

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For a standard 9th student, the files gives good explanation about work done concept and energy, types of energy etc..

© All Rights Reserved

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WORK:

When a force acts on an object causing the object to be displaced in the direction of force, then

work is said to be done by the force.

Work = Force x displacement

W = F.S

Work is a scalar quantity.

Unit for work: N-m or Joule

If 1 N force displaces the object by 1 m in its direction, then the work done is said to be 1 Joule.

Note: SI unit of work is Joule

CGS unit of work is erg

1 Joule = 107 erg

WORKDONE BY A CONSTANT FORCE:

If the force is making an angle with the direction of the displacement, then it is expressed as,

Work = F S Cos

Where = the angle between the force and

the

Displacement

ur ur

W F .S

Work is the dot product of force and

displacement.

Case 1:

If force and displacement are in the same direction, = 00

Therefore, work done = F S cos 0

W=FS

Case 2:

If force and displacement are perpendicular to each other, = 900

Therefore, the work done = F S Cos 90

Since Cos 900,

W=0J

Case 3:

If force and displacement are in opposite directions, = 1800

Since Cos 1800 = -1

=> W = - F S

Work done by the force is negative in this case. That means, here the force opposes the motion of

the object.

Force Displacement graph:

Area under Force Displacement graph gives the work done.

ENERGY:

An object which is capable of doing work has energy. Then the ability of doing work is

called as energy.

Energy and work are similar quantities.

Unit of energy:

Unit of energy is Joule same as that of work.

FORMS OF ENERGY:

In nature, energy appears in many forms namely light, sound, heat, electricity etc.

KINETIC ENERGY:

Energy possessed due to the motion of the objects is called kinetic energy.

If an object of mass m is moving with a velocity of v, then

Kinetic energy

1

KE mv 2

2

POTENTIAL ENERGY:

The energy possessed by a body due to its position or configuration is called potential energy.

EXPRESSION FOR POTENTIAL ENERGY:

When an object is lifted to a height from the ground, work is done against to gravity. This work

done is stored in the object in the form of potential energy.

Let the object is lifted to a height of h.

= mg x h

PE = mgh

The object of mass m is at a height of h

At the maximum height, the object has zero initial velocity. So its kinetic energy at that position

is zero.

Hence the object possesses potential energy only.

The work done to move the object to height h is given by F.h

Here the force is equal to its weight. Hence

P.E. = F.h

= mg.h

E A PE KE

Therefore, total energy at A is,

mgh 0

mgh

E mgh

Energy neither be created nor be destroyed. It is transformed from one form to the other.

The total energy is of the system is always constant. This is known as conservation of energy.

TRANSFORMATION OF ENERGY:

1. In fans, electrical energy is converted into mechanical energy

2. In generators mechanical energy is converted into electrical energy

3. In fire crackers, chemical energy is converted into sound, light and thermal energy

APPLICATION OF LAW OF CONSERVATION OF ENERGY:

Let us consider an object which is under free fall described as shown in the figure.

At point A:

The object of mass m is at a height of h

At A, the object has zero initial velocity. So its kinetic energy at that position is zero.

Hence at A, the object possesses potential energy only.

E A PE KE

Therefore, total energy at A is,

mgh 0

mgh

E A mgh

At point B:

At point B, the object is fallen by x m and

at a height of

(h-x).

As the body is falling down, its potential

energy decreases as the height from the

ground is decreasing and kinetic energy

increases since the velocity is increasing.

At B, the object has a velocity of VB.

Therefore

the

object

has

both

The potential energy PE = mg (h-x)

Final velocity at B is = VB

Distance travelled s = x

Acceleration a = g

v 2 u 2 2aS

vB 2 0 2 gx

vB 2 2 gx

potential

1

KEB mvB 2

2

1

KEB m(2 gx )

2

KEB mgx

EB PEB KEB

Therefore total energy at B is

EB mgx mg (h x )

EB mgh

EB mgh

At point C:

When the object strikes the ground, the entire energy of the object is converted into kinetic

energy. At the ground, the potential energy is zero.

If the object hits the ground with a velocity of vc

Ec PEc KEc

Total energy at C is,

1

Ec 0 mvc 2

2

1

Ec mvc 2

2

v 2 u 2 2aS

vc 2 0 2 gh

vc 2 2 gh

1

Ec mvc 2

2

Total energy at c,

1

Ec m(2 gh)

2

Ec mgh

E A EB EC mgh

RELATION BETWEEN KINETIC ENERGY & LINEAR MOMENTUM:

Linear momentum P = mv

K

Kinetic energy

1 2

mv

2

1 m2v 2

2 m

(mv) 2

2m

P2

2m

P2

2m

WORK-ENERGY THEOREM:

To increase the kinetic energy of a body, net force has to be acted on it. Thus the work done by

the force is equal to change in its kinetic energy. This is known as work energy theorem.

Proof:

Let the object is moving with an initial velocity of u.

Due to the net force (F) acting on the object, the velocity changes to v and it moves a distance

of S.

W F .S

v 2 u 2 2aS

v 2 u 2 2aS

v2 u 2

2a

v2 u 2

W ma.

2a

1

m (v 2 u 2 )

2

1

1

mv 2 mu 2

2

2

KE f KEo

W KE f KEo

POWER:

Power is defined as the rate of doing work.

Power

work

time

Power

F .S

t

Power F .v

Therefore,

If force is making an angle with the direction of displacement, then

Power F v cos

ur r

P F .v

Unit of Power:

SI unit of power is J/sec or watt

1 watt = 1 J/1 sec

If one joule of work is done in one sec, then the power is said to be one watt.

ELECTRICAL ENERGY:

The energy possessed by an electron which in motion is known as electrical energy.

It is measured in watt hour (Wh)

1 watt hour

1J

3600sec

1sec

1Wh 3600 J

1000 3600 J

3.6 106 J

Note:

Electron volt is also used to measure the energy.

It is defined as the amount of energy required to move an electron/proton in an electric field of

potential 1 V. it is denoted by eV.

1 eV 1.6 10 19 J

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