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Solid Waste as Substitute Energy for Bislig City

A Research Report

Submitted to
The Faculty of Engineering Department
University of Southeastern Philippines
Bislig-Campus

In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements


for the Degree of Bachelor of Science
in Mechanical Engineering

Submitted by
Kirby T. Abanil
Shela Mae C. Baliad
March 2015

APPROVAL SHEET

This undergraduate thesis entitled SOLID WASTE AS SUBSTITUTE


ENERGY FOR BISLIG CITY prepared and submitted by Kirby T. Abanil and Shela
Mae C. Baliad, in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree, Bachelor of
Science in Mechanical Engineering, has been examined and recommended for
acceptance, and approval.

FELICISIMO P. PIANDONG JR.


Adviser
________________________________________________________________________
ADVISORY COMMITTEE
APPROVED by the Committee on Oral Examination.

ANASTACIO G. PANTALEON JR.


Chairman
GERVACIO C. MORGADO JR.
Member

NOEL C. OCAP
Member

________________________________________________________________________
ACCEPTED as partial fulfillment of the requirements for the Degree of Bachelor
of Science in Mechanical Engineering.

AMOR D. DE CASTRO
Dean
March 2015

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

It is a pleasure to thank the many people who made this research possible. We, the
researchers would never have been able to finish this research without the guidance of
our Almighty God, to the committee members, help from friends, and support from
family.
We would like to express our deepest gratitude to our advisor, Engr. Felicisimo P.
Piandong, Jr., for his excellent guidance, caring, patience, knowledge and providing us
with an excellent atmosphere for doing research. We are also thankful to Engr. Adam C.
Macapili for the suggestions which helped to a great extent in the study.
We wish to thank Engr. Anastacio G. Pantaleon Jr., Engr. Noel C. Ocap and Engr.
Gervacio C. Morgado Jr. who give their best suggestions. Our research would not have
been possible without their helps.
We would also like to thank our families for the love and support they provided
through our entire life. They are always there cheering us up through the good times and
bad.
Lastly, and most importantly, we wish to thank our Almighty God for giving us
strength and answering our prayers despite on our hectic schedules in academic, thank
you so much Lord God.

The Researchers

Abstract

We, Abanil, Kirby T. and Baliad, Shela Mae C., the researchers from College of
Engineering in University of Southeastern Philippines, Bislig Campus, conducted a study
entitled Solid Waste as Substitute Energy for Bislig City . The purpose is to determine
the following objectives; (1.) the volume by category of solid waste in Bislig City (2.) the
heating values of each category (3.) the available energy for conversion (4.) to compare
to the previous study. The researchers used secondary data that was taken from City
Administrators Office of Solid Waste Management Division. It was presented and
analyzed using calculations. This study reveals the following conclusions; (1.) there was
6,989,253.6 kg/year, the estimated total volume of biodegradable waste generated in
Bislig City as of 2014, (2.) the selected biodegradable waste namely papers, yard wastes,
and woods were used for incineration. The heating values used in calculations are in dry
basis, (3.) there was 943.6556 kJ/sec. total energy content available across the entire year
only from the biodegradable waste collected in Bislig City as of 2014. (4.) the total
energy content available per second across the entire year in previous study is high
(3,476.95 kJ/sec.) compare to the present one (943.656 kJ/sec.). It was because the
researcher used the total volume of biodegradable waste in present study while the
previous, the total volume of solid waste was used for calculations.

TABLE OF CONTENTS
Page
APPROVAL SHEET

ii

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

iii

Abstract

iv

LIST OF TABLES

Chapter
1

INTRODUCTION

Background of the Study

Statement of the Problem

Objectives of the Study

Significance of the Study

Scope and Limitation

Definition of Terms

Conceptual Framework

REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

METHODOLOGY

16

Research Design

16

Locale of the Study

16

Respondents/Participants

17

Research Instrument

17

Research Procedure

17

PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS OF FINDINGS

19

SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION

24

References

26

APPENDICES
Appendix A
Appendix B
Appendix C
Appendix D Calculations
Appendix E Approval Letter
Appendix F Curriculum Vitae

LIST OF TABLES
Table 4.0 Volume of Biodegradable Waste Generated in Every Barangay within Bislig
City (kg/day)
Table 4.1 Physical Composition and the Heating Value in dry basis
Table 4.2 Energy Content of the Selected Biodegradable Waste from Previous Study
and Present Study

Chapter 1
INTRODUCTION
Background of Study
Waste is usually buried or burned. Burning waste is no longer a common practice,
primarily due to inadequate pollution control measures in the past (Vesilind et al., 2002).
Municipal solid waste (MSW) landfills are now the method by which most municipalities
dispose of their solid waste. Certain components of the waste stream lend themselves
inherently to reuse or recycling under the right economic and geographic circumstances
(Curlee et al.,1994). For other fractions of the municipal waste stream (e.g. the wet
putrescible organic fraction), beneficial recycling or re-use is infeasible in the North
American context because it is more expensive than landfill disposal (FCM, 2004).
However, this fraction of the waste stream, subsequent to some processing, may have
value as fertilizer (Parker and Roberts, 1985).
The biological degradation of organic materials almost always yields energy in
some form, and in the right conditions such energy can be harnessed (Kayhanian et al.,
1991). Similarly, components of MSW such as paper, cardboard, and plastic have an
inherent energy value that can be realized by combustion or other means (Anderson and
Tillman, 1977). This thesis discusses the technical aspects and feasibility of various
techniques of converting MSW into energy in rural Saskatchewan in the context of a
study of waste composition.Waste composition has a major influence on the economic
feasibility of waste-to-energy (Lamborn, 1999). Many studies show waste composition

varies from community to community based upon demographic and socio-economic


factors (Dayal et al., 1993. In order to determine the feasibility of waste-to-energy in
small cities and towns in Saskatchewan, understanding of the composition of the
municipal solid waste (MSW) is essential.
Many authorities and communities are aware of the challenges associated with
municipal solid waste and are seeking cost effective and environmentally acceptable
solutions (Millrath and Themelis, 2003). Not only is the quantity of waste increasing, but
alternative waste management strategies are limited as a result of environmental
regulations and political and social realities associated with the location of waste
management facilities in willing host communities. In order to rationally evaluate
alternatives, the first step for municipalities is to conduct a waste composition study.
Determining the composition of their waste will provide a firm basis upon which to
determine the technical feasibility of future waste diversion projects such as recycling,
composting, and waste-to-energy.
Hundreds of small municipal landfills are located throughout the province of
Saskatchewan. In many communities, recycling programs are not economical due to
insufficient amounts of waste to compensate for the distance to market. Many of these
landfills require continuous expansion to accommodate the growing amount of waste
being produced. One option many municipalities are considering for reducing their MSW
is waste-to-energy (Vesilind et al., 2002). Several different types of waste-to-energy
technologies are available, all differing in their associated costs and environmental
effects, and the types and quantities of waste they can use. Using municipal solid waste
for energy results in a reduction in the total amount of waste going to the landfill.

In some cases this reduction can be very significant, reducing landfilling costs and
environmental impact. Waste-to-energy can be very appealing to many municipalities,
because it turns a liability into a resource that can generate revenue.
Waste-to-energy is renewable because its fuel source and garbage is sustainable
and non-depletable. As the world population grows, so do the amount and type of wastes
being generated. Many wastes produced today will remain in the environment for
hundreds and perhaps thousands of years. The creation of non-decaying waste materials,
combined with a growing consumer population, has resulted in a waste disposal crisis.
According to the U.S. EPA, waste-to-energy is a clean, reliable, renewable source of
energy.
In Singapore, the hierarchy is based on waste minimization (reduce, reuse, and
recycle-3R) followed by incineration and landfill. Land is very scarce in this country and
this has resulted in incineration as the most preferred method of treatment (Bai and
Suntanto, 2001). The United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA, 2006)
has ranked the most environmentally sound strategies for Municipal Solid Waste (MSW)
as source reduction (including reuse) the most preferred method, followed by recycling
and composting, and, lastly, disposal in combustion facilities and landfills.
The World Bank defines the types of wastes according to source as: Municipal
solid waste (MSW): Includes non-hazardous waste generated in households, commercial
and business establishments, institutions, and non-hazardous industrial process wastes,
agricultural wastes, and sewage sludge. As part of municipal solid waste, commercial
waste includes all municipal solid wastes emanating from business establishments such
as stores, markets, office buildings, restaurants, shopping centers, and entertainment

centers. The World Economic Forum released its Global Energy Architecture
Performance Index Report (EAPI, 2015), which benchmarks the current performance of
national energy systems and explores how the most successful countries manage the
energy triangle (energy security, energy affordability, and environmental sustainability)
and achieve balance through energy diversity. While ongoing policy is critical to helping
countries achieve energy diversity, so is a commitment to energy innovation.
Thus, the researchers were conduct a study of solid waste as substitute energy for
Bislig City to be able to determine if our City has enough source of energy in waste.
Statement of the Problem
This research was conducted to further understand the study of solid waste as
substitute energy for Bislig City. This study was probably answering the queries of the
following questions:
1. What is the volume of biodegradable waste in Bislig City?
2. What are the heating values of each category?
3. What is the available energy for conversion?
4. Compare to the previous study.
Objectives of the Study
General Objective
To conduct a study of Solid Waste as Substitute Energy for Bislig City
Specific Objectives
1. To determine the volume of biodegradable waste in Bislig City.

2. To determine the heating values of each category.


3. To determine the available energy for conversion.
4. To compare to the previous study.
Significance of the study
Through this study, we will be able to know or determine the volume by category
of solid waste in Bislig City, heating values for each categories and the available energy
for conversion. This study will also evaluate the significance of land-based sources of
solid waste as substitute energy. Solid waste to energy is very essential because it make
use of the systems approach which helps reduce the environmental impacts. If there will
always have a waste of human, there is also a reliable source of fuel. This will also serve
as a guide for those who want to conduct a study related to this.
Scope and Limitation
This study focuses mainly on collected biodegradable waste as substitute energy.
This covers the disposal of all biodegradable waste within the City of Bislig. The amount
of collected garbage is being utilized in order to produce energy. The collected datas
(see Appendix A and B) is from the office of Solid Waste Management, it includes the
the City average solid waste generation, the volume of waste generated in every barangay
within Bislig City and the total number of population in the City as of 2014.

Definition of Terms
Biodegradable waste - a type of waste which can be broken down, in a reasonable
amount of time, into its base compounds by micro-organisms and other living things,
regardless of what those compounds may be.
Bislig City - a third class city in the province of Surigao del Sur, Mindanao, Philippines.
According to the 2010 census, it has a population of 96,578 people. It is approximately
208 kilometers (129 mi) northeast of Davao City, 152 kilometers (94 mi) south of Tandag
City (the provincial capital) and 158 kilometers (98 mi) southeast of Butuan City.
Energy - the capacity of a physical system to perform work.
Heating value - calorific value of a substance, usually a fuel or food is the amount of
heat released during the combustion of a specified amount of it.
Incineration - a waste treatment process that involves the combustion of organic
substances contained in waste materials. Incineration and other high-temperature waste
treatment systems are described as "thermal treatment". Incineration of waste materials
converts the waste into ash, flue gas, and heat.
Solid Wastes - any discarded or abandoned materials. It can be solid, liquid, and semisolid or containerized gaseous material.
Waste-to-energy - the process of generating energy in the form of heat from the
incineration of waste.

Conceptual Framework
In Figure 1.0 Conceptual Framework, human mainly produced biodegradable
waste namely paper, wood, and yard waste into solid waste management. This solid
waste is being process to convert fuel as a substitute to coal or fuel due to the presence of
solid waste, prior to conversion to a fuel; a drying process is required to remove the
moisture from such waste to allow the solidification of the waste in suitable shapes and
densities.

Independent Variable

Dependent Variable

Biodegradable Waste

Fuel

Figure 1.0 Conceptual Framework

Chapter 2
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
Wastes are inevitable part of human activity. The problems associated with waste
can be traced back to the very beginning of civilization, when humans gathered in
communities (Priestly, 1968). Wastes generated then were contained and disposed of by
natural processes. However, as population increased and villages grew into towns and
then into cities, the amount of waste generated increased. Consequently, wastes were
dumped indiscriminately into waterways, empty lands and access roads. The appalling
conditions gave rise to epidemics like the Black Plague that destroyed large
population of Europe in the 14th century (Priestly, 1968). Similar conditions were also
experienced in the other continents.
Environmental Aspects of Solid Waste Management
Environmental degradation due to unplanned waste disposal and improper waste
management in urban areas was not the prime concern even a few decades ago in the
developing countries like Bangladesh (Bhuiyan et al., 2003). But the increasing urban
population made the environmentalists thinks about the scientific waste management with
topmost priority in urban planning in the developing countries. It has only been in the
very recent times, when certain NGOs started working and highlighting the pathetic state
of municipal waste services provision in the country. Then the decision-makers began to
realize the importance of this particular aspect of environmental management (Rahman
et al., 2000).

Waste Stream Characterization


Waste stream characterization is important for developing solid waste
management programs; such as recycling, composting, landfill design, and waste-toenergy facilities. Each type of waste-to-energy utilizes certain components of the waste
and thus, waste composition plays a major role in determining which type of waste-toenergy is technically and economically feasible for a given waste stream. According to
Khan and Burney (1989), the success of any recovery or recycling effort is directly
related to accurate determination of solid waste composition.
Pyrolysis and gasification can be done very efficiently for the conversion of
cellulose, so therefore paper products and other materials high in cellulose are better
suited for this type of waste-to-energy (Mantell, 1975). Pyrolysis could be considered for
waste streams that contain higher amounts of paper waste. These processes are also well
suited for mixed waste streams that contain high amounts of organics (Kumar, 2000).
As with anaerobic digestion, the amount of methane available from a sanitary
landfill also depends upon the amount of biodegradable material. Municipal solid waste
composition also affects the leachate quality, landfill gas composition and quality, and
waste degradation rates, which are important to landfill gas utilization, and particularly
bioreactor landfills (Reinhart and Townsend, 1998).
Incineration
Incinerated municipal waste leaves a residue approximately equal to the inert
content (Wilson, 1977). Knowing the composition of the waste will allow for appropriate
design of a system to handle the amount and type of residue produced. The waste

composition will also affect the amount of energy that can be obtained. Waste streams
high in moisture and non-combustible materials may not be suitable for incineration.
Incineration, also referred to as combustion, is a specialized process that involves
the burning of organic (putrescible, combustible and plastic) materials in any state to
form gases and residue (Vesilind and Rimer, 1981). The basic elements of an incinerator
include a feed system, combustion chamber, exhaust gas system and a residue disposal
system; whereas modern incinerators use continuous feed systems and moving grates
within a primary combustion chamber lined with heat resistant materials (Vesilind and
Rimer, 1981). The waste must be mixed, dried, and then heated, all for specific amounts
of time and at controlled temperatures (Mantell, 1975). Four different types of
incinerators are in common use: mass-fired combustors, refuse derived fuel combustors,
modular combustion units, and on-site commercial and industrial incinerators (Salvato et
al., 2003). Four types of incineration have been put to use in Canada: rotary kiln
incineration, mass burn incineration, starved air incineration and fluidized bed systems
(FCM, 2004). The first three of these are types of mass-fired combustors. Fluidized bed
systems do not fall into any of the categories mentioned by Salvato et al.(2003).
The primary objective of incineration is to combust solid waste, reducing its
volume and producing non-offensive gases and non-combustive ash residues (Wilson,
1977; Vesilind and Rimer, 1981). Volume can be reduced by 80-95% and weight by 7080% and thus incineration significantly reduces the land required for disposal of
municipal wastes (Baum and Parker, 1974; Vesilind and Rimer, 1981; Salvato et al.,
2003;). Although incineration produces air pollutants primarily in the forms of nitrogen
oxides, sulphur dioxide, and hydrogen chloride, these emissions can be reduced

substantially through combustion modifications and air pollution control equipment


(California Air Resources Board, 1984).
Methods of Waste Stream Characterization
Municipal solid waste is a very heterogeneous mixture of materials, which makes
characterization quite difficult. Two basic methods exist for characterizing municipal
solid waste (Kaldjian, 1990; Embree, 1991; Martin et al., 1995; McCauley-Bell et al.,
1997): a.) Site specific sampling, and b.) The materials flow approach.
Site-specific sampling can be done by one of three methods: 1) single sampling of
the waste stream, 2) characterization of numerous samples taken over a period of time to
account for seasonal variation, or 3) landfill excavation (Martin et al., 1995). Generation
rates of municipal solid waste usually peak in the summer and are lowest during the
winter. The composition also changes with the season (Klee, 1993); for example, more
organic waste will be present in summer and fall due to an increased inflow of yard
waste. Site specific sampling methods are typically suitable for defining local waste
streams and may be more accurate than the material flows approach; a disadvantage is
that the number of samples taken is limited (Embree, 1991). Therefore, the limited
number of samples is assumed to represent the entire population from which they were
taken. However, a common misconception about waste composition sampling is that
exact values need to be obtained. Knowing the exact composition of one waste collection
vehicle has limited value, since each truck has different waste (BC Environment, 1991).
In the materials flow approach, the number and types of products sold are used to
make predictions with regards to the quantity and composition of the resulting waste
(Martin et al., 1995). A major consideration used to develop such predictive models in

this system is the estimated product life (Embree, 1991). The advantage of this method is
that an estimate of the overall solid waste stream composition can be accomplished for
very large geographical areas. Some drawbacks include the fact that some material
components may be left out or poorly estimated because they are not part of the
production sector (such as yard waste) (Embree, 1991). Gay et al.(1993) found the
materials flow approach (or the economic input/output method as they refer to it) to be
comparable to estimates obtained from sorting studies, and could prove to be a useful
complement or alternative to conventional sorting. However, their study did not attest
that the materials flow approach could replace conventional sorting methods.
The Effects of Demographics and Socio-economic Factors on Waste Stream
Characterization
The waste generation rate has increased over time in North America due primarily
to income and population growth (Chang et al., 1993). The generation rate may also vary
with many demographic factors; for example it is significantly less for farm households
(Rhyner, 1976).
Composition of municipal solid waste varies from one community to another, as
well as with time within any one community (Weiner and Matthews, 2003). According to
Grossman et al. (1974), four basic factors affect the solid waste generated by a
community or household:

population

dwelling unit size and character

income level

cultural characteristics

Khan and Burney (1989) used multi-linear regression techniques to determine the
relation between categories of paper, plastic, food, and certain demographic factors
(persons per dwelling, income, climate, population and GDP). The first three of these
demographic factors were found to be the most influential. The model uses waste stream
composition data (% weight) from various major centres from around the world. More
paper in the waste stream was found to be related to higher income. Higher occupancy
rates resulted in higher percentages of food; lower occupancy rates resulted in higher
percentages of glass. The percentage of metal increased with increasing average
temperature. Richardson and Havelick(1978) used a very similar technique for selected
United States cities, and developed an equation to determine the quantity of components
of waste based on income, household size, percentage of people 18 to 61, percentage of
black people, and a random disturbance variable. Their results indicate higher income
families produce more newspaper and less clothing, and that household size, household
age and income were important factors affecting the waste composition and quantity, but
no consistently strong statistical relationship was evident.
Hocket et al.(1995) researched the determinants of per capita municipal solid
waste generation in the south-eastern United States. They studied the effects of per capita
retail sales, per capita value added by manufacturing, per capita construction costs, cost
per ton to dispose of waste, per capita income, and urban population percentage on the
amount of waste generated, and found retail sales and the waste disposal fee were the
most influential.

Waste-to-Energy Schemes
After determining the composition of the waste, the appropriate waste-to-energy
system, if any, can be selected. Several techniques for converting waste-into-energy will
be discussed in this section. The principal components involved in recovering the energy
from the heat, steam, gases, oils or other products produced in the waste-to-energy
process are similar and typically include: boilers for the production of steam, steam and
gas turbines for motive power, and electric generators for the conversion of motive power
into electricity (Tchobanoglous et al., 1977). This section provides an overview of the
waste conversion processes that may be used to yield valuable products such as heat,
steam, gases, and oils from the waste.
Refuse Derived Fuel (RDF) systems treat waste to produce fuel that can be used
to substitute conventional fossil fuels, typically coal, in industrial manufacturing, utility
power generation, and institutional applications (e.g., district heating). In Canada, one
such facility is in operation in Caledon, Ontario, however commercial use of their gas has
yet to occur (FCM, 2004).
Waste-to-energy plants can also produce useful heat, which improves process
economics. Japanese incinerators have routinely implemented energy recovery or (Japan
Ministry of the Environment, 2006).

Chapter 3
METHODOLOGY
The researchers were used descriptive type of research in this study and this was
conducted within the City of Bislig. The respondent of this study was the head of solid
waste management. The instruments used in gathering data are the Record of Solid Waste
available within the City of Bislig, Table (heating value), Calculator, Ball pen, Paper.
Research Design
The researchers will employ descriptive type of research in this study. According
to Polit & Hungler (1999), this type of research describes what exists and may help to
uncover

new

facts

and

meaning.

The

purpose

of

descriptive

research

is

to observe, describe, and document aspects of a situation as it naturally occurs. This


involves the collection of data that will provide an account or description of individuals,
groups or situations. Furthermore, the Office of Human Research Protections (OHRP)
defines a descriptive study as Any study that is not truly experimental.
To determine the energy value of a typical municipal solid waste with an average
composition shown in Table 4.1, it is recommended to follow the steps below:
Step 1: Determine energy content using data in Table 4.1
Step 2: Calculate the Energy Content of MSW using
Total Energy = (Biodegradable waste (kg)) * (Heating value (Btu/lb))

Locale of the Study


This study was conducted within the City of Bislig. This study was concern about
the solid waste as substitute energy.
Respondents of the Study
The respondent of this study was the head of solid waste management.
Research Instruments
The instruments used in gathering data are the following:
1. Record of Solid Waste available within the City of Bislig
2. Table (heating value)
3. Calculator
4. Ball pen
5. Paper
Data Gathering Procedure
The researchers used the following procedures to gather information.
Step 1. The researchers gathered information through internet related to the topic.
Step 2. The researchers dug up previous studies related to the topic.
Step 3. The researchers asked permission to the Head of Solid Waste Management to
gather data for the study.

Step 4. After the permission was given, the researchers gathered data regarding to the
objectives.
Step 5. Compute and list down the data gathered from solid waste management.
Step 6. After the given span of time, the researchers evaluate gathered data.

Chapter 4
PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS OF FINDINGS

This chapter presented the data from the series of analysis of information gathered
by the researcher and its interpretation. The following data presented below is relevant to
the study. This study presents the following data to provide clear appearance on the case
being analyzed and being interpreted.
The solid waste management gives or produces exact information in presenting
the data. Before the solid waste has been collected by the carts men, it has been imposed
by the administrators of the Solid Waste Management Office the rules of the segregation
at source, meaning that the proper segregation will first be done at household level. For
incineration process, the researcher used only the selected biodegradable waste namely
paper, wood, and yard waste.
Table 4.0 shows the volume of biodegradable waste generated in every barangay
within Bislig City as of 2014 and the total number of population provided by the City
Health Office. This table provides the data in determining the volume by category of
solid waste in Bislig City. In relation of making calculations, the total volume of
biodegradable waste would be the basis in solving the energy content.

Table 4.0 Volume of Biodegradable Waste Generated in Every Barangay within


Bislig City (kg/day)

NO. OF POPULATION
CY 2014 (CHO)
12,032

BIODEGRADABLE
WASTE
Volume (kg/day)
2526.72

2. Mangagoy

30,398

6383.58

3. Poblacion

8,885

1865.85

4. San Roque

6,099

1280.79

5. Maharlika
6. Bucto

2,510
667

527.1
140.07

7. Burboanan

1,577

331.17

8. Caguyao
9. Coleto

693
1,336

145.53
280.56

10. Labisma

2,507

526.47

11. Lawigan

1,347

282.87

12. Mone

1,785

374.85

13. Pamaypayan

1,556

326.76

14. San Antonio


15. San Fernando

1,306
2,482

274.26
521.22

16. San Isidro


17. San Jose
18. San Vicente

1,927
3,802
2,397

404.67
798.42
503.37

954
857
928

200.34
179.97
194.88

22. Pamanlinan
23. Kahayag

783
1,192

164.43
250.32

24. Cumawas

3164

664.44

91,184

19,148.64

BARANGAY
1. Tabon

19. Sta. Cruz


20. Sibaroy
21. Tumanan

TOTAL

Table 4.1 shows the selected biodegradable waste in dry basis, with their heating
values and composition by mass. Since the solid waste management has no available data
about composition by mass, the researchers took a data base from previous study. In
calculating the energy content of such biodegradable waste you need to consider the
composition by mass and heating values of each category. In making calculations,
convert first the unit of heating value (see conversion below the table).
Table 4.1 Physical Composition and the Heating Value in dry basis

BIODEGRADABLE
WASTES

HEATING VALUE
(Btu/lb.)

Composition by Mass
TOTAL (%)

Paper

7,587

9.96

Wood

8,430

1.46

Yard wastes

7,731

12.3

Conversion: 1 Btu/lb. = 2.326 kJ/kg.


Source:
https://books.google.com.ph/books?id=5JNfFfSpHyoC&pg=PA172&dq=standard+heatin
g+value+of+solid+waste&hl=en&sa=X&ei=UGH1VP_IM5SD8gXtq4IQ&redir_esc=y#
v=onepage&q=standard%20heating%20value%20of%20solid%20waste&f=false

Table 4.2 shows the comparison of energy content between the previous and
present study of each category namely paper, wood, and yard waste. From previous study
the total volume of solid waste was 16,929,235.28 kg/yr. The total volume of solid waste
namely biodegradable waste, recyclable, residual and special waste was being used in
getting the individual amount of energy in each category. While in present study, the
researchers used only the total volume of biodegradable waste (6,989,253.6 kg/yr.) for
calculations in getting the total energy content.
Table 4.2 Energy Content of the Selected Biodegradable Waste from Previous Study
and Present Study

Biodegradable
Waste

Energy Content of the


Present Study (kJ/sec)

Energy Content from


Previous Study (kJ/sec)

Paper

390.007

895.97

Wood

63.447

640.58

Yard waste

490.2016

1,940.40

Total

943.656

3,476.95

Note: The unit of heating value needs to be converted to J/kg, see Table 4.1

Discussion
For incineration of waste-to-energy process, a drying process is required to
remove the moisture from such biodegradable waste to allow the solidification of the
waste in suitable shapes and densities.
Table 4.0 provides the volume of biodegradable waste generated in every
barangay within Bislig City (kg/day). By this given data, we can now easily determine
the total biodegradable waste per year. The estimated total biodegradable waste given by
the administrators of the Solid Waste Management is 6,989,253.6 kg/yr. This will be the
bases in getting the individual energy content of each selected biodegradable waste
namely paper, wood, and yard waste.
Table 4.1 provides the heating values and composition mass, it is necessary to
consider it in determining individual energy of selected biodegradable waste. Heating
values should be in dry basis.
To solve the energy value of a typical municipal solid waste with an average
composition by mass shown in Table 4.1, we can now easily determine the individual
energy of selected biodegradable waste using:
Energy = (Biodegradable waste (kg)) * (Heating value (Btu/lb))
See Appendix C for calculations.

Chapter 5
SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION
This chapter is to summarize the thesis research and suggest research and policy
recommendations for further analysis. The focus of the study is to determine the available
energy of the importance in conducting a study of solid waste as substitute energy for
Bislig City.
Solid waste as substitute energy offer important benefits of environmentally safe
waste management and disposal. The Solid waste generated in Bislig City are classified
into five types which is the biodegradable waste, special/toxic waste, recyclable A,
recyclable B and residual waste. The researchers focus in biodegradable waste categories
in getting the energy content namely papers, yard waste, and woods. Since the study is all
about solid waste as substitute energy, each solid waste having different energy content
depending on its composition by mass. In order to determine the energy content from
biodegradable waste, it is necessary to consider the heating values, physical composition
and the total volume of biodegradable waste generated in Bislig City. The total energy
content in selected biodegradable waste is 943.6556 kJ/sec based from the total
biodegradable waste collected in Bislig City as of 2014.
This study was conducted for the purpose of looking answers to the problems on
determining energy. The researchers made an intensive research by studying every single
details and information collected in City Administrators Office of Solid Waste
Management Division. Based from the study conducted, the main conclusions are as
follows:

1. There was 6,989,253.6 kg/year, the estimated total volume of biodegradable


waste generated in Bislig City as of 2014.
2. The selected biodegradable waste namely papers, yard wastes, and woods
were used for incineration. The heating values used in calculations are in dry
basis.
3. There was 943.6556 kJ/sec total energy content available across the entire
year only from the biodegradable waste collected in Bislig City as of 2014.
4. The total energy content available per second across the entire year in
previous study is high (3,476.95 kJ/sec.) compare to the present one (943.656
kJ/sec.). It was because the researcher used the total volume of biodegradable
waste in present study while the previous, the total volume of solid waste was
used for calculations.
Based on the foregoing findings of the study, the researchers recommended the
following:

The management should further improve solid waste segregation

The City should introduced incineration of solid waste as renewable energy

The management should further enhance the policies of solid waste

They should enhance monitoring and record-keeping of wastes

The solid waste management should be subjected from further researches

The solid waste management should provide more facilities

References
Dong, Y. (2011). Development of WasteToEnergy in China; and Case Study of the
Guangzhou

Likeng

WTE

plant.

Retrieval

November

29,

2014

from

http://www.seas.columbia.edu/earth/wtert/sofos/Dong_thesis.pdf
Dr. Reinhart (2004). Estimation of Energy Content of Municipal Solid Waste. Retrieval
January 31, 2015 from http://msw.cecs.ucf.edu/EnergyProblem.pdf

Hamad, T., Agll, A., Hamad, Y. & Sheffield, J. (2014). Solid waste as renewable source
of energy: current and future possibility in Libya. Retrieval December 6, 2014
from http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2214157X1400032X

Tatarniuk, C. (2007). The Feasibility study of Waste-To-Energy in Saskatchewan based


on Waste Composition and Quantity. Retrieval January 31, 2015 from
http://www.engr.usask.ca/classes/BLE/482/Misc%20Info/waste%20to%20energy
%20thesis.pdf

Other Websites
http://www.alternative-energy-news.info/waste-renewable-energy-source/
http://www.cityofsydney.nsw.gov.au/vision/towards-2030/sustainability/wastemanagement
http://www.ipcc.ch/publications_and_data/ar4/wg3/en/ch10-ens10-4-3.html
http://www-tnswep.ra.utk.edu/activities/pdfs/mu-W.pdf

https://books.google.com.ph/books?id=5JNfFfSpHyoC&pg=PA172&dq=standard+heatin
g+value+of+solid+waste&hl=en&sa=X&ei=UGH1VP_IM5SD8gXtq4IQ&redir_esc=y#
v=onepage&q=standard%20heating%20value%20of%20solid%20waste&f=false
http://msw.cecs.ucf.edu/EnergyProblem.pdf
http://www.unep.or.jp/Ietc/Publications/spc/WastePlasticsEST_Compendium.pdf
http://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/284612/pb1
4130-energy-waste-201402.pdf
http://www.intechopen.com/books/integrated-waste-management-volume-i/managementof-municipal-solid-wastes-a-case-study-in-limpopo-province
https://ideas.repec.org/a/jge/journl/615.html
http://www.elfm.eu/Uploads/ELFM/FILE_73D907E9-8225-4B93-91F810F71F59B793.PDF
http://www.no-burn.org/downloads/Timarpur.pdf
http://www.seas.columbia.edu/earth/wtert/sofos/Sustainable%20Solid%20Waste%20Man
agement%20in%20India_Final.pdf
http://www.sciencepub.net
http://infofile.pcd.go.th/waste/AIT061109_sec4.pdf?CFID=2433954&CFTOKEN=13971
061
http://msw.cecs.ucf.edu/EnergyProblem.pdf

APPENDICES

Appendix A

BISLIG CITY AVERAGE SOLID WASTE GENERATION


(kg./capita/day)

WEIGHT
0.003
0.05
BIODEGRADABLE
RECYCLABLE - A

0.03

RECYCLABLE - B
RESIDUAL

0.05

0.21

SPECIAL
TOTAL

WEIGHT
CLASSIFICATION

PERCENTAGE

(kg./capita/day)

BIODEGRADABLE

61.8

0.21

RECYCLABLE A

14.7

0.05

RECYCLABLE B

8.8

0.03

RESIDUAL

14.7

0.05

SPECIAL

0.88

0.003

TOTAL

0.34

PERCENTAGE
1%
15%
BIODEGRADABLE

9%

RECYCLABLE - A
RECYCLABLE - B
RESIDUAL
SPECIAL
TOTAL

14%

61%

Appendix B

HOUSEHOLD
0.35
0.3
0.25
0.2
0.15
0.1
0.05
0

WEIGHT
(kg/capita/day)

HOSPITAL
1
0.8
0.6
0.4
0.2
0

WEIGHT
(kg/capita/day)

ELEMENTARY SCHOOL
0.016
0.014
0.012
0.01
0.008
0.006
0.004
0.002
0

WEIGHT
(kg/capita/day)

SECONDARY SCHOOL
0.009
0.008
0.007
0.006
0.005
0.004
0.003
0.002
0.001
0

WEIGHT
(kg/capita/day)

MARKET
0.45
0.4
0.35
0.3
0.25
0.2
0.15
0.1
0.05
0

WEIGHT
(kg/capita/day)

ESTABLISHMENT
0.5
0.4
0.3
0.2
0.1
0

WEIGHT
(kg/capita/day)

Appendix D
Calculations:
Biodegradable waste collected = 19,148.64 kg/day * (365 days/yr.) = 6,989,253.6 kg/yr.
Total Energy = (Biodegradable waste (kg.)) * (Heating value (Btu/lb.))
Paper = (6,989,253.6 kg/yr.) * (0.0996)
= (696,129.66 kg/yr.) * (1 yr./365days) * (1 day/24 hrs.) * (1 hr./3600sec.)
= (0.0221 kg/yr.) * (7,587 Btu/lb.) * (2.326 kJ/kg.)
= 390.007 kJ/sec.
Wood = (6,989,253.6 kg/yr.) * (0.0146)
= (102,043.1026) * (1/365) * (1/24) * (1/3600)
= (0.00324) * (8,430) * (2.326)
= 63.447 kJ/sec.
Yard waste = (6,989,253.6 kg/yr.) * (0.123)
= (859,678.193) * (1/365) * (1/24) * (1/3600)
= (0.02726) * (7,731) * (2.326)
= 490.2016 kJ/sec.
Total Energy = Energy paper + Energy wood + Energy yard waste
= 390.007 + 63.447 + 490.2016
Total Energy = 943.656 kJ/sec.

Republic of the Philippines


University of Southeastern Philippines
Bislig Campus
Maharlika, Bislig City
March 20, 2015
ENGR. FELICISIMO P. PIANDONG JR.
Instructor
USeP Bislig Campus
Sir:
Greetings of peace!
In line with the curriculum of Bachelor of Science in Mechanical Engineering, we should
comply the requirement with the course Methods of Engineering
Research/Undergraduate Thesis.
Thus, we are conducting the final defense of our thesis entitled Solid Waste as Substitute
Energy for Bislig City, this coming March 24, 2015 (Tuesday 8:00 am to 5:00 pm).
As one of the member of the advisory committee, we would like to request your presence
this utmost time.
We look forward for your positive response and vigorous support.
Thank you and God bless!

Respectfully yours,

KIRBY T. ABANIL
BSME

SHELA MAE C. BALIAD


BSME

Republic of the Philippines


University of Southeastern Philippines
Bislig Campus
Maharlika, Bislig City
March 20, 2015
ENGR. GERVACIO C. MORGADO JR.
Instructor
USeP Bislig Campus
Sir:
Greetings of peace!
In line with the curriculum of Bachelor of Science in Mechanical Engineering, we should
comply the requirement with the course Methods of Engineering
Research/Undergraduate Thesis.
Thus, we are conducting the final defense of our thesis entitled Solid Waste as Substitute
Energy for Bislig City, this coming March 24, 2015 (Tuesday 8:00 am to 5:00 pm).
As one of the member of the advisory committee, we would like to request your presence
this utmost time.
We look forward for your positive response and vigorous support.
Thank you and God bless!

Respectfully yours,

KIRBY T. ABANIL
BSME

SHELA MAE C. BALIAD


BSME

Republic of the Philippines


University of Southeastern Philippines
Bislig Campus
Maharlika, Bislig City
March 20, 2015
ENGR. ANASTACIO G. PANTALEON JR.
Instructor
USeP Bislig Campus
Sir:
Greetings of peace!
In line with the curriculum of Bachelor of Science in Mechanical Engineering, we should
comply the requirement with the course Methods of Engineering
Research/Undergraduate Thesis.
Thus, we are conducting the final defense of our thesis entitled Solid Waste as Substitute
Energy for Bislig City, this coming March 24, 2015 (Tuesday 8:00 am to 5:00 pm).
As the chairman of the advisory committee, we would like to request your presence this
utmost time.
We look forward for your positive response and vigorous support.
Thank you and God bless!

Respectfully yours,

KIRBY T. ABANIL
BSME

SHELA MAE C. BALIAD


BSME

Republic of the Philippines


University of Southeastern Philippines
Bislig Campus
Maharlika, Bislig City
March 20, 2015
ENGR. NOEL C. OCAP
Instructor
USeP Bislig Campus
Sir:
Greetings of peace!
In line with the curriculum of Bachelor of Science in Mechanical Engineering, we should
comply the requirement with the course Methods of Engineering
Research/Undergraduate Thesis.
Thus, we are conducting the final defense of our thesis entitled Solid Waste as Substitute
Energy for Bislig City, this coming March 24, 2015 (Tuesday 8:00 am to 5:00 pm).
As one of the member of the advisory committee, we would like to request your presence
this utmost time.
We look forward for your positive response and vigorous support.
Thank you and God bless!

Respectfully yours,

KIRBY T. ABANIL
BSME

SHELA MAE C. BALIAD


BSME

Name:

Abanil, Kirby Tiempo

Home Address:

P-1 Cacayan Village, Mangagoy, Bislig City

Mobile Number:

09207437347

Email Address:

kirbyabanil@gmail.com

PERSONAL BACKGROUND

Birthdate

December 26, 1994

Age

20

Civil Status

Single

Citizenship

Filipino

Weight

50 kg

Height

57

EDUCATIONAL ATTAINMENT

Tertiary

University of Southeastern Philippines (USeP)

Course

Bachelor of Science in Mechanical Engineering (BSME)

Secondary

Saint Vincent de Paul Diocesan College (SVDPDC)

Primary

Agusan del Sur Pilot Laboratory School (ADSPILS)

AFFILIATION

Mechanical Engineering Students Society (Member)

Name:

Baliad, Shela Mae Contreras

Home Address:

P-3 Centro, San Vicente, Bislig City

Mobile Number:

09089941287

Email Address:

shela08balz@gmail.com

PERSONAL BACKGROUND

Birthdate

June 08, 1995

Age

19

Place of birth :

San Vicente, Bislig City

Civil Status

Single

Citizenship

Filipino

Weight

52 kg

Height

53

EDUCATIONAL ATTAINMENT

Tertiary

University of Southeastern Philippines (USEP)

Course

Bachelor of Science in Mechanical Engineering (BSME)

Secondary

San Vicente National High School (SVNHS)

Primary

San Vicente Elementary School (SVES)

AFFILIATION

Mechanical Engineering Students Society (P.I.O)