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UNCERTAINTY OF MEASUREMENT FOR HARDNESS

This spreadsheet has been drawn up to be inaccordance with the EN ISO specifications covering Brinell, Vickers and
Rockwell hardness. It supersedes version 2 in order to follow the calculation method given in the UoM sections of these
standards but is in fact considered technical inferior to issue 2 which was more consistent with the ISO Guide to uncertaint
and more representative of actual machine performance.
The estimate of uncertainty is applicable to all common systems i.e. Rockwell, Vickers and Brinell and would also be
applicable to portable systems also.
The spreadsheet should be copied and completed for at least one, ideally 2 values of each range on each machine use
within the lab. Each sheet should be labeled with the range and approx hardness.
The analysis requires the following inputs to be made (these are highlighted in Green in the worked example attached).
Identification of testing Machine
Certified value of reference block
The units of the hardness scale (i.e.HRc, HV30)

The permitted tolerance from the calibration standard in units of hardness. These are extracted from tables in the calibrati
section of the relevant specification. These tables have been reproduces in the 'Tolerance tables' sheet of this workbook (
eample for a Brinell machine at around 250HB the tolerance is +/- 2% of the hardness = 0.02 * 250 = 5HB)

The resolution to which the scale can be read, note for anolgue scales this is not the scale division but the level to which th
scale graduations can be reliable sub-divided by eye. This must be input in terms of the hardness scale in question. i.e if
the resolution for Vickers is taken as unit of the 1 ocular sscale, this must be equated to a corresponding difference in
hardness at the region of interest on the harness scale for the assessment.
Uncertainty of reference block (from certificate). The analysis assumes this is quoted at the 95% confidence level. If no
uncertainty is available from the certificate, take the certified range of values and divide this by 1.73 (i.e. the root of three)
The values obtained by 5 impressions on the test block

The values of 5 impressions on a typical but homogeneous sample, prepared to the normal finish and flatness by the lab a
ideally be of hardness in the same general region as the test block (i.e. within the same third of the hardness scale). Ideal
the sample should be re-prepared before EACH of the five indents.

The required input values should be entered into the boxes that are highlighted with a pale green background.
Values of expanded uncertainty are given for a single test impression and the mean of 3 impressions

Note: This analysis is for the Uncertainty of the test method and does not consider the effect of temperature or material no
homogeneity.
Also, the analysis does not consider the effect of rounding the final result in accordance with any specifiction requirement,
i.e. it is the uncertainty of the as measured result based on machine and method application limitations
Issue 3 March 2007

homogeneity.
Also, the analysis does not consider the effect of rounding the final result in accordance with any specifiction requirement,
i.e. it is the uncertainty of the as measured result based on machine and method application limitations
Issue 3 March 2007

ering Brinell, Vickers and


the UoM sections of these
h the ISO Guide to uncertainty

rinell and would also be

ange on each machine use

worked example attached).

ed from tables in the calibration


bles' sheet of this workbook (for
* 250 = 5HB)

vision but the level to which the


dness scale in question. i.e if
rresponding difference in

95% confidence level. If no


by 1.73 (i.e. the root of three)

nish and flatness by the lab and


of the hardness scale). Ideally

een background.

essions

of temperature or material non-

any specifiction requirement,


imitations

any specifiction requirement,


imitations

Test machine identification

HD-03

Certified value of test block

41.4

Resolution scale can be read to


in units of hardness

Units

HRC

0.2

Five determinations on test block

Five determinations on typical sample


1
2
3
4
5

Mean
Standard Deviation
Std uncertainty

41.6
41.2
41.4
41.4
41.0

1
2
3
4
5

41.3
0.228
0.102

43.8
44.8
45.0
45.0
44.6
44.6
0.498

Uncertainty of Measurement for a Single Indent


Uncertainty of test block from cert (units)
Maximum permissible error ( not percentage)
Repeatability on CRM
scale resolution
Repeatability on sample

Distribution
0.3 Exp. Uncert
1.5 Specified
0.102 Normal
0.2 full range rect
0.498 Normal

Divisor
2
2.8
1
3.46
1

Sum of squares
Combined uncertainty

Std Uncert
Std Unc^2
0.150
0.023
0.536
0.287
0.116
0.014
0.058
0.003
0.568
0.322
0.649
0.805

Degrees of freedom
Coverage factor
Expanded Uncertainty for a Single Indent

1.6E+00 HRC

Uncertainty of Measurement for the Mean of Three Indents


Uncertainty of test block from cert
Maximum permissible error
Repeatability on CRM
scale resolution
Repeatability on sample

0.3 Exp. Uncert


1.5 Specified
0.102 Normal
0.2 full range rect
0.228 Normal

2
2.8
1
3.46
1

Sum of squares
Combined uncertainty

0.150
0.536
0.116
0.058
0.260

0.394
0.628

Degrees of freedom
Coverage factor
Expanded Uncertainty for the Mean of Three Indents

0.023
0.287
0.014
0.003
0.068

1.3E+00 HRC

(includes allowance for t=1.14)


(includes allowance for t=1.14)

Brinell

Vickers

Rockwell