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Number 9

September 1979

Volume 44

GEOPHYSICS

Acoustic impedance logs computed from seismic traces


M. Becquey*, M. Lavergne*, and C. Willm*
Acoustic
Seismic

impedance,

traces

then into acoustic


logs recorded
nature
To

impedance

by the inversion
at every

of the rock and variations

The

the best quality

in

low

frequencies

impedance

Possible

of the time

logs.

careful

initial

Such calibration

Acoustic

from

impedance,

and density,

It can

yield

nature

of

generanon

velocity

distortions

is necessary:

wave-shaping,

the

the precision;

facies

leadin, (7 to a more

the wells.

information

and

changes

acoustic

Lindseth,

IY76).

impedance

equivalent
concerning

true-amplitude

wave-equation

traces

in

number

are

and

to
the

recovery.

migration,

of

velocity

and

information

moveout

are displayed

series,

zr

Zi

reflection
impedance

Z, is the acoustic

impedance

interface;

first layer

low-frequency

traces,
logs

is inserted
using

component,

such

are described.

con-

calibration
from

of

impedance
velocity

relationship

impedance.

solution,

into

Z,

in the

absent on seismic

on the acoustic

methods.

are displayed

coefficient

to be known.

reflection-moveout

to acoustic

in variable

to convert

Appropriate

as amplitude

corrccticrn

Acoustic

and

decontraces

01 in color,

to acoustic

well logs is performed

veloc-

processing

impedance

amplitude

pseudologs

pseudo-

information

logs

to increa\c

and

derived

the accuracy

of the former.

acoustic

(1)

lateral

be shown
impedance

lithologic

used for detailed


in the ith

the acoustic

is assumed

from

resel.ves.

and ki is the pressure amplitude

and a velocity-density

( 1975).

derived

logs cau bc extrapoled

of hydrocarbon

of

then

1 -ki

in well

imperfection

Iof

at the ith

ity

using the recursive

observed

estimation

and scaling,

to an acoustic

using a

transformed

time

impcdanccs

The

examples

variations

It will

q+,

the short-period

recovery

the pscudolog

The

(Lavcrpne,

by Lavergne

first

ve-

the

litholopy.

will be shown

close to that described

into acoustic

Both

from reflection

of amplitude

accurate

rock property.

previously

pseudologs

seismic

concerning

impedance

has been published

seismic

of

is a basic physical

rock

are inserted.

of calibrating

algorithm

where

information

of rocks.
processing.

are rough11

important

trend computed

are inaccuracies

and difficulties

increases

pseudoreflection-coefficient
verted

stack.

information

and the long-period

the product

important

of

pseudologs

The

yield

initial

logs.

and migration.

distances

technique

Such pseudologs

They

processing

(CDP)

INTRODUCTION

lY75;

series.

property

series by appropriate

lithology

moveout

amplitudes

causes of pseudolog

of deconvolution

acoustic

time

seismic trace location.

pseudologs,

from

from reflection

on acoustic

locity

is a basic physical

and density,

scaling.

computed

to large

velocity

common-depth-point

deconvolution.

amplitude

of seismic

into pseudoreflection-coefficient

in wells drilled

obtain

appropriate

well

the product

are converted

layer,

and for exploration

in several
logs

are

variations,

field

examples

suitable
and

investigation
of offshore

hoI+

for
they

can

of hydrocarbon
continental

how

detecting
be

fields

margins.

Presented at the 46th Annual International SEG Mcctinp October 26, 1976 in Houston. Manuscript recei\cd by the Editor
May 16, 1977; revised manuscript received Februarv 13. 1979.
:i;institute Franc& du Petrole, B.P. 3 I I, 92506 Ruejl-Malrnaison Cedex, France.
0016.X033/79/0901~1~8.5$03.00.
@ 1979 Society of Exploration Geophysicists. All rights reserved.
1485

(I)

(2)

VELOCITY

DENSITY

20,oo

?500

I,5

2;:

(4)

ACOUSTIC
IMPEDANCE

( g/cd

(m/s)
ISO?

( 3)

q5

(5)

SYNTHETIC
SEISMOGRAM

I m4$jDc me3)
, 6000

(71
SEISMIC

PULS,E

#++->

SYNTHETIC
ACOUSTIC
IMPEDANC
LOG

WELL

SEISMIC
ACOUSTIC

IMPEDANCE

PSEUDO LOGS
24

0.5

h=?

ACOUSTIC

25

SYNTHETIC

WELL#l

ACOUSTIC

ACOUSTIC

IMPEDANCE
LOG

IMPEDANCE
LOG

LITHOLOGY

FIG. 2. Gas field no. I-comparison

SHALE

SAND

GAS-BEARING

SAND

of seismic acoustic inlprdance pseudologswith synthetic acousticimpeda

1488

Becquey et al
FIELD EXAMPLES

Two examples, each from a gas field, and one


example from a continental margin in an offshore
basin are illustrated.
Gas field no. 1
The first example (Figures I to 6) consists of a
3.5km long seismic section from a sand-shale sequence containing a gas reservoir. Logs from well
WI were used to calibrate the pseudologs.
Data acquisition.-Seismic
records were recorded In shallow water, 8 to !2 m in depth, with:
1200 inch3 aigun array at a depth of 4 m, 33 m between shotpoints, 32 hydrophone-groupstreamer, 50
m between groups, binary gain recorder with a 4-msec
sample interval, and an 8-62 Hz prefilter.
Initial processing.-The
initial processing sequence was: demultiplexing and editing, trueamplitude recovery and application of a gain program, muting, deconvolution before stack (DBS),
reflection-moveout velocity analysis, 12-62 Hz
filtering, moveout correction and 24-fold commondepth-point (CDP) stacking, deconvolution after
stack (DAS), wave-equation migration, and amplitude scaling.

The initial processing was conducted such that


amplitudes of the processedsection would be, insofar
as possible, proportional to the reflection coefficients
derived from the well logs. All factors affecting
amplitude variations that do not contain subsurface
information, such as source strength variation and
source and detector coupling, were tentatively eliminated by trace-amplitude equaliwtion, together with
subsurface dependent factors such as geometrical
divergence, absorption, and focusing effects due to
reflector curvature (ODoherty and Anstey, 1971;
Sheriff, 1973).
Well ! !ogs were used to compute synthetic seismograms and synthetic acoustic impedance logs by
the method describedby Lavergnc and Willm (1977).
These are displayed in Figures 1 and 2 for comparison
with well logs, pseudologs, and lithology.
True-amplitude recovery was applied to remove the
effects of variable gain in field recording. The gain
program was derived from the observation of amplitudes of synthetic seismogram (4) of Figure 1. A
geometrical divergence correction program (Newman, 1973), consisting of multiplying each traceamplitude sample by a factor proportional to TV2
where V is the root-mean-square(rms) velocity and 7
is the two-way reflection time was tried first. This
led to an essentially constantaverage absolute value

-0.5

-1.0

.I.5

BLACK

POSITIVE

SEISMIC

FIG. 3. Gas field no. I-24-fold

SIGNAL

CDP stack.

Acoustic

Impedance

1499

Logs

.0.5

.I

.o

4 .5

BLACK

POSITIVE

SEISMIC

FIG. 4. Gas field no. l-migrated

of the amplitude over 600.msec time intervals, except within the zone of the gas reservoir, where it
was 15 percent larger. Experience showed that in
the 0.5-I .7-set interval, the divergence correction
program was practically equivalent to applying an
average amplitude equalization over 600.msec windows. The amplitude obtained by this method was in
agreement with the synthetic seismogram.
Long-offset traces were muted to eliminate reflections with incidence angles greater than 26 degrees. DBS then was performed by a predictive operator, 96 msec in length. One operator was computed
for each trace from the autocorrelation of the 1240
to 1700 msec trace sector. The main purpose of DBS
was to remove the very intense water layer reverberations present on initial records. A 12-62 Hz
prefilter also was used to eliminate a very strong
low-frequency wave with a predominant frequency
of 8 Hz, propagating horizontally at 800 misec.
Reflection-moveout velocity analysis was performed~aboutevery 20 shotpointsto determine moveout corrections and velocity-time curves. The curves
obtained are practically the same on both ends of the
section. The velocity increases linearly from 1480
m/set at the surface to 2300 m/set at 1400 msec and
remains practically constant thereafter.
Trace-amplitude equalization was performed be-

SIGNAL

section.

fore stack, adjusting the average amplitude over an


interval of O-1800 msec such that the average amplitudes of the traces were comparable, thus compensating for amplitude variations due to offset and
instrument gain variations.
DAS was performed to obtain an appropriatewavelet shape. Our experience shows that the best shape
is a zero-phase wavelet, which introduces minimum
distortion of acoustic impedance. DAS performed
with a 140.msec operator obtainccl by a leastsquares method gave a wavelet 64 msec in length
with a 24-msec period, a positive central lobe, and
two negative side lobes whose peak amplitudes did
not exceed 0.4 times that of the central lobe.
The CDP section then was migrated by the finitedifference wave-equation method which eliminated
part of a diffraction hyperbola causctl by faulting.
Amplitudes of the migrated seclion finally were
scaled such that the sum of sampled values of the
central lobe of each reflection was made equal to the
reflection coefficient derived from the acoustic impedance log (log 3 in Figure I).
The CDP section after DAS is shown in Figure 3,
and the corresponding migrated section is shown in
Figure 4. The high-amplitude event due to gas is
clearly visible in the center of the section, its lateral
extent is about 3 km, and its two-way time is I.25

1490

Becquey et al

Acoustic

Impedance

Logs

1491

Becquey et al

1492

set (3600 ft). Black bands(peaks) correspondroughly

to positive reflection coefficients, and white (troughs)


correspond to negative reflection coefficients. The
negative reflection coefficient at the top of the gas
sand gives a large negative central lobe (white) preceded and followed by smaller positive lobes (black).
The front black lobe is clearly visible; the back lobe
interferes with later reflections, probably with the
gas sand bottom reflection or with reflections from
interbedded shale layers.
Acoustic

impedance

computation.-Acoustic

impedance was computed from the pseudoreflectioncoefficient time series (Figure 4) from equation (I),

using an initial impedance value of 3600 at 0.45 set


(velocity 1800 misec, density 2.0 g/cm3). Before
computing the acoustic impedance, the traces of Figure 4 were resampled from 4 to I msec, for direct
comparison with well logs converted to a time scale
with amplitudes at I-msec intervals. The seismic
pseudologs obtained are displayed in Figure 2 in
variable amplitude and in Figure 5 in color. Figure 2
shows the amount of distortion in the seismic pseudologs. which is due to the following:

1) The high and low frequencies are missing due to


the limited frequency spectrumof the seismic data;
in particular, the low-frequency acoustic impedance trend is absent.
2) The basic wavelet is not a spike, but a wavelet
with negative side lobes. This introduces artifacts
such as positive lobes prior to large decreasesand
negative lobes prior to large increasesof acoustic
impedance; the positive lobe at I .2 set just above
the gas sand is probably such an artifact.
3) lnterbed multiples have not been attenuated. This
can cause distortions, such as the small changesin
wavelet character observed within the reservoir
between I .2 and I .3 sec.
In Figure 2, 48 acousticimpedance pseudologsare
shown which were computed from 38 migrated traces
close to well 1, without inserting the low-frequency
trend: thus only relative variations of acoustic impedance are represented. The correlation between the
well I acousticimpedance log (log 3 in Figure I) and
the seismic pseudologsis fair, and helps to correlate
the seismic section to the lithology The acoustic impedance variations are directly lclated to the lithology and hydrocarboncontent, as indicated by the two

-1.5

-2.0

2.5

-2.5

BLACK

NEGATIVE

FIG. 7. Gas field no. 2--4%fold

SEISMIC SIGNAL
CDP stack.

Acoustic

Impedance
w

Logs

w2

-1.5

1.5,

-2.0

2.5,

-2:5

3.0,

-3.0
BLACK

= NEGATIVE

SEISMIC

FIG. 8. Gas field no. L-migrated

impedance minima opposite the gas bearing sands


(Figure 2). We notice on the right side of Figure 2,
close to trace 33, that the gas sand event character
changes;the top of the gas sand seems to be shifted
38 msec downward by a fault.
Figure 5 shows the acoustic impedance section
computed from the migrated section of Figure 4 using
equation (I). Low frequencies were not included;
thus, only the relative variation of acoustic impedance is representedin color. White representsthe
average, green the lowest, and purple the highest
impedance. The low-impedance gas sand is represented by the dark green zone in the middle of the
section between 1.24 and I .27 set; it is underlain
by a high-impedance layer (red) between 1.27 and
I .30 sec. The faulting is clearly shown, especially
by the low-impedance shale layers (light green)
located between .90 and 1.25 sec. The fault throw
decreasesupward, and the 40-msec throw in the gas
sand reduces gradually to zero in the overburden.
Low-frequency information was inserted using
reflection-moveout velocity analysesand an approximate velocity-density relation to convert velocities to
impedances (Lavergne, 1975). The spectrum obtained from these velocity analyses is estimated to

SIGNAL

section

extend from 0 to 8 Hz. It is impossibleto obtain information at frequencies higher than 8 Hz, because
interval velocities based on reflection moveout become very inaccurate for intervals smaller than
approximately I25 msec. On the other hand, there is
no information at frequencies lower than I2 Hz on
seismic traces, due to the low-cur lilter. There is,
therefore, a gap between the low-frcclucncy(O-8 Hz)
and the high-frequency (12-64 HY I portions of the
spectrum, leading to some distortioll of the acoustic
impedance pseudologs. The amount of distortion obtained can be estimated in Figure I by comparing
the synthetic acousticimpedancelog (6) with the well
acousticimpedancelog (3). For example, the acoustic
impedance trend between I, I5 and I .35 set is not
exactly duplicated on the two logs. Higher-frequency
seismic data, providing more detailed reflectionmoveout velocity analyses, would have given better
results.
The velocity-density relation used to convert the
velocity to acoustic impedance is given by Gardner
et al ( 1974), which is approximately correct for brinesaturated sedimentary rocks, over a wide range of
basins, geologic ages, and depths. If velocity V is
expressed in ftisec and density D iu g/cm, this re-

Becquey et al

1494
lationship is
D = 0.23 V.25.

If velocity is expressed in misec, equation (3) becomes


D = 0.3 1 V.25,

(4)

and the relationship between velocity and acoustic


impedance is given by
z = 0 31 Vl.2

(5)

where V is velocity in misec and Z is acoustic


impedance in (m/set) (g/cm3). This enables velocity
to be computed from acoustic impedance, and vice
versa, in most sedimentary rocks, except for salt,
anhydrite, and hydrocarbon reservoirs.
Fi_pure6 shows the acoustic impedance section
with low-frequency trends included. The acoustic
impedance values are represented by a color scale.
The impedance increasesfrom 3500 to 5.500(miscc)
(g/cmJ) as indicated by the color which changes
downward, generally from light blue to green, yellow.
red, purple. violet. and dark blue. The low impedance
due to the gas sand is represented by the greenyellow zone in the middle of the section between 1.24
and I .27 set: the gas sand impedance is about 3X004000, and that of the overlying and underlying layers
is. respectively. 4600 and 5000 (misec) (g/cm).
Well i encountet-edgas in ihis i~~W-i~llpd2lKCc
mm
(Figures 5 and 6). Well logs indicated an average
impedance of 3800 in the gas sand, 4600 in the overlying. and 5200 (miaec) (g/cm) in the underlying
layer.
This first example indicates that acoustic impedancepscudologsare sufficiently accurateto define
the position and to detect thickness and structural
variations of the gas sand.
Correlation of seismic pseudologsto well logs provides accurate detection of lateral facies variations
along the seismic section. The vertical resolution of
the method, however, is limited by the resolution of
the seismic data. Our experience shows that for a
basic wavelet with a 24msec dominant period, it is
possible to measure the thickness and acoustic impedance of beds for which the two-way time is no
less than 15 msec.
Gas field no. 2
The second example (Figures 7 to I 1) consistsof a
7-km long portion of a 25.km long section containing
gas reservoir reflections. Well W2 was used to calibrate the seismic pseudologs.

Data acquisition.-Seismic data were recorded in


water, 120 m in depth, with: 250 g of explosive at a
depth of 12 m, 2.5 m between shotpoints, 38 hydrophone-group streamer at a depth of 13 m, 50 m between groups. I.F.P. (instantaneousfloating point)
recorder with a 4-msec sample interval, and a 2-62
Hz prefilter.
Initial processing.-The initial processing sequence was similar to that of example no. I, i.e.,
demultiplexing and editing, true-amplitude recovery
and application of a gain progranl. muting, deconvolution before stack (DBS). reflection-moveout
velocity analysis, moveout correction and 48.fold
CDP stacking, deconvolution after stack (DAS),
wave-equation migration, 8-62 HI filtering, and
amplitude scaling.
True-amplitude recovery and the application of a
gain program were similar to thee for the gas field
in example no. I. Initial decon\olution was performed to eliminate the source bubble effect.
Reflection-moveout velocity analysis was performed every 12 shotpoints.Eleven velocity functions
irregularly spaced along the profile were applied for
moveout correctionswith linear interpolationbetween
functions. DAS was performed with a 240-msec
predictive operator obtained from the autocorrelation
of a 2400-msec time interval centcrcd on 1300 msec
r&e&on time The p~dseshape,ohtainedaf~e~ DBS
is very close to a zero-phase wavelet with a large
positive central lobe and two negative side lobes
whose peak amplitudesare 0.4 time\ that of the central
lobe; the total length is 80 msec and the dominant
period is 36 msec.
Finite-difference wave-equation migration shifted
inclined reflections updip to their- proper position,
and restituted the amplitude of convex reflections,
especially on the anticline between 2.6 and 2.9 set
(compare Figures 7 and 8). An X -62 Hz filter was
applied to eliminate low-frequency noise. Amplitudes
of the migrated section finally were scaled to those
of a synthetic seismogram derived from the acoustic
impedance log of well W2.
The CDP section after DAS is shown in Figure 7
and the migrated section is shown in Figure 8. Black
bands(peaks) correspondto negative reflection coefficients. and white (troughs) to positive reflection
coefficients; this is emphasized on the two-color
representation in Figure 9, where red corresponds
to negative and green to positive reflection coefficients. In agreement with well W2 logs, the inclined
red reflection appearingat 2.05-2. IO set is related to
the top of gas-bearing sandstones,and the horizontal

Acoustic Impedance Logs

4
8

.Z

Becquey

at al

Acoustic impedance Logs

1497

1498

Becquey et al

Acoustic
at 2.11 msec to the gas-water

green reflection
It is clear
an

here that the zero-phase

accurate

determination

contact.

wavelet

of

the

Impedance

provides

gas-sandstone

boundaries.

Logs

gressively

to a clean

and higher
cline.

density

reservoir

impedance

produces

coefficient

impedance

was computed

coefficient

time

series

impedance

value

initial

computation.-Acoustic
from

using

thi\

(I).

equation

of 5000

(misec)

with

an

(g/cm:)

at

I .S sec.
frequency
using

sample

interval

information

below

reflection-moveout

Gardners

spaced

acoustic
alonf

Figure
color

and

the

2.10

thickness
from

section

increases

main11

in

from

which

downward

and violet.

is shown

represent

roughly
at 2. I

tact is shown

positive

clearly.

It separates
due

layer.

section,

black

in

the

(misec)

sandstone

6800

facics

shows

variations

vertical

resolution.

solution

of the seismic

which

sandstone

on the

left

on

overlying

impedance

right

side

impedance
of lateral

reservoirs.

is limited

b!

The

the

data. For a basic wavelet


it is impossible
impedance

that neither

of

seismic

tion of reservoir

rcwith

to mea-

of beds for

the IS-msec

the

two-waq

zone limit on the left of the


the true thickness

gas-bearing

records would

zone.

and

Hisher-

give better delimita-

extent.

Offshore continental margins


The

third

example

consists

J 2 I I and J 212 (Figure

seismic

1975).

Mediterranean

J 21 I is

lines,

IO miles east of
basin.

Glomur Challrr~ger drilling

Party,

west section.

of two

12) recorded

in the wcstcrn

(Scientific

14km

and J 2 I2 is a I3-km

near

campaign
long east-

long north-south

section.

Data acquisition.-Seismic

on the left
of the

color change

within

acoustic

zone represents

edge

possible

of the

side

and red. This variation

is argillaceous

The sandstone

actual

inaccurate.

and

time is less than 24 mscc or so. It

therefore.

low-impedance
the

awa!

type of sci\mic

hydrocarbon

period,

in

clean

were known

determination

and acoustic

the two-way

be

to

distribution

This

that

however.

36-msec dominant

sure the thickness

the
reel

for c\timatinp

for

within

on

zone (with

facie\

tentative

are suitable

site 372 of the

4800-6000

in the

by the progressive

voir.

density

example

pseudologs

Minorca,

is

from 5800

on the

facies variation

low

although

drlrv,n

impedance

and pinh color

rcrpective

2CGves very useful information


recoverable
reserves.

the
the

in the water-bearing

that

increases

8.

layer.

(g/cm3)

(g/cm3)

represent

separating

gas-bearing

10 shows

from green to yellow

due to water-

as in Figure

value

section,

sandstone

peaks

ably due to a lateral

and

interpretation,

color-coded

assumtxl

was not known.

i\

interprc-

sandstone

These tno

but their

the well

resolution

the low-impedance

the overlying

as indicated

The
con-

zone is shown,

of the

(misec)

coefficients.

zone (purple)

impedance

Figure

gas-bearing
to 7200

in

the gas-water

gas-bearing

coefficients,

(g/cm3)

and 8000

to

When

from

acoustic

reflection

msec indicating

reflection

sandstone.

from

the

impedance

ot

LarIation

line has been

sandstone

on the right.
W2.

facies

on

sandstone).

time nor the green-yellow

negative

side

iandstone

sandstone:

to the right

to bc argillaceous

in the gas-bearing

the

of the reflectIon

low-acoustic

a high-acoustic

section

top of the gas-bearing

left

impedance

10 black peaks of the migrated

sandstone.

(misec)

from

color

\sithin

the IitholoFic

A rig-~12

separating

assumed

LOW.

of the m-

\elocit\

increase

to right

lateral

superposed

is likely,

from the high-impedance

the

15 msec.

display

been

impedance.

bound-

bearing

The

has

tentatively

left,

left

I I where

of the reservoir

(yellow-green)

gas reservoir

The

to decrease

70 msec to about

on the same

in black and the acoustic

flat event

W2.

at

higher

immediately

9. The

in Figure

This

The

is visible

to the left of well

from

The

by a color

changes

determination

aries. In Figure

section

to I 1,500.

pratcd section
permits

lineal

black.

is iisible

the water-bearing

4000

red. pink.

of the gas-sandstone

presentation

low-

with

impedance

color

zone

tation

from

a sign inversion

in Figure

iisualired

in wjell

yellow,

right to left,

The

applied

due to the gas-sandstone

set,

and

Eleven

are represented

by the color

impedance

about

were

values

scale: the impedance


as indicated

reinserted

analyses

them.

migrated

from blue to green,

Lou-

time curves irregularly

the acoustic

impedance

was

relation.

profile

between
IO shows

acoustic

low

8 Hz

velocity

impedance

the

interpolation

in

was maintained.

velocity-density

frequency

W2

acoustic

The I-msec

with

the right side of the anti-

at the top of the gas-bearing

in\crsion

well

the pseudoreflection-

sandstone

toward

It should be noted that the progres\l\c

of acoustic

Acoustic impedance

1499

is probthe reser-

in deep

water,

Flexichoc

at a depth

of

shotpoints,

24 hydrophone-group
100

20

m.

corder

and changes

Hz pretilter.

m between

with a 3-mscc

records were obtained

m in depth,

of

with low velocity


pro-

unit

2500

I6

with:
111.

one

streamer,

proups.

sample interval,

123-20

SO m between

binary

at a depth
gain

re-

and a 12.5-80

1500

Becque y et al

Initial processing.-The
initial processing sequence was: demultiplexing and editing. trueamplitude recovery and application ofa gain program,
muting, reflection-moveout velocity analysis, moveout correction and 24-fold CDP stacking, deconvolution after stack (DAS), wave-equation migration,
12-80 Hz filtering, and amplitude scaling.
The initial processingsequence was similar to that
of examples I and 2, except that no DBS was performed due to the absence of water-layer reverberation; the gain program also was different. The gain
program applied consistedof multiplying each traceamplitude sample by a factor T1.aaT~~o),where (Y is
the absorptioncoefficient taken equal to 0.23 Npisec
(2 dB/sec), T is the two-way reflection time and
To is the two-way water-bottom reflection time The
program was designed to compensate both for geometrical divergence and absorption.
Continuous reflection-moveout velocity analysis
was performed along both sections, and I7 and I3
velocity-time curves irregularly spaced were applied, respectively, on lines J 21 I and J 212 for
moveout corrections, with linear interpolation between them.
DAS was performed with a 200-msec operator obtained by a least-squaresmethod from the recorded
Flexichoc wavelet (Lavcrgne, 1975; Cholet et al,
1975). Finite-difference wave-equation migration
was applied using known velocity information. The
migration moved the dipping reflections to their
proper positionsand eliminated most of the diffraction
hyperbolas associatedwith the basement.
In the absence of well logs for calibration, amplitudes of the migrated sections were scaled such that
the sum of the sampled amplitudes of the waterbottom reflection central lobe was made equal to the
water-bottom reflection coefficient. This was estimated close to 0.3 from the amplitude ratio of bottom
reflection and water reverberation before stacking.

differentiate light green and dark green zones, with


velocities of about 1800-2200 m/set. yellow Lanes
with velocities of 3200-3800 misec, red zones with
velocity of 4500 misec, and blue zones with velocities
higher than 5500 misec.
DSDP site 372 was drilled a few miles southof line
J 2 I I. The borehole penetrated 884 m of sediments,
down to Lower-Burdigalian mudstones and sandstones. A core analysis was made, yielding velocity
variations with depth very similar to the seismic
velocities; however, velocities measuredon cores are
systematically IS to I8 percent less than seismic
velocities. This is perhapsdue to decompaction when
core samples are brought to the surface. Using the
core velocity analysis, an attempt was made to
identify lithology. The light green and dark green
zones probably correspond to Plio-Pleistocene and
Upper-Miocene marl formations, the green-yellow
zones to Lower Miocene mudstones;the orange zone
in the central trough of J 2 I2 could be related to
Oligocene sandstones, the yellow pillows on J 2 I I
to anhydrites, and the high-velocity blue and red
layers on the right side of J 21 I to salt.
It is interesting to notice the velocity variations in
the Plio-Pleistocene and Miocene formations; they
could correspond to lithologic facies variations and/
or compaction. The color display is well adapted to
facies representation: variable-amplitude displays
are better adapted to bed delimitations.
Correlation of seismic sections to the lithology is
difficult here becauseno well logs are available, but,
even in this case, velocity pseudologscan help in the
detection of facies variations.

CONCLUSIONS

These examples show that seismic pseudologs


representing acotistic impedance or velocity can give
useful lithologic information. The pseudologscan be
used for detailed investipations of oil and gas fields
by indicating the reservoir structure and the limits of
Velocity computation.-Velocity
was computed hydrocarbon zones. Correlation with well logs imfrom the migrated traces using equation (1) and as- proves the accuracy and helps identify facies and
suming a constantdensity. The initial 4-msec sample facies changes at large distances from the wells.
interval was maintained. The low-frequency trends Pseudologs also provide an efficient geologic tool
were inserted using the reflection velocity analyses. for deep-water offshore exploration.
When the low-frequency information is inserted,
Figure I2 shows migrated sectionsin black and the
velocity in color. The velocity scale increases from the pseudolog is more complete than that obtained
1000 to 6000 misec, correspondingto color changes only from the migrated section, for it contains
from light green to green, yellow, red, and blue. On acoustic impedance variations in both the seismic
the section the velocity increases downward from frequency band and the low-frequency band. Even
1500 m/set in the water to 6000 m/set in the base- when the low-frequency trends are not inserted,
ment. In the sedimentary zone, it is possible to acoustic impedance pseudologs are more directly

Acoustic

Impedance

correlated to lithologic variations than are corresponding conventional seismic traces. They contain
the same information as the seismic traces, displayed
in a manner more directly correlatable to geologic
layers.
The accuracy of the acousticimpedance pseudolog
depends on the accuracy of amplitude scaling, quality of wave shaping, and the amount of low- and
high-frequency information. The proper form of the
seismic wavelet is essential. Wavelet shapingdepends
on the nature of the initial seismic sourcepulse; if it is
short, reproduceson each recording, and is recorded
on an auxiliary channel, the effectiveness of wavelet
shaping is greatly enhanced.
Future enhancements are directly related to improvements in field data acquisition. These should
include higher-resolution sources, smaller hydrophone-group intervals, and wide-band recording.
Data acquisition and processing should provide 3-D
migration of reflections, accounting for lateral dips
and nonvertical raypaths. In the future, we believe
that it will be possible to obtain acoustic impedance
logs from seismic traces in structurally complex
areas, by the iterative use of seismic sections and
models. In reservoir evaluation, this migration
should improve the accuracy of detailed maps displaying lithologic and petrophysical variations between wells.
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
Our thanks are due E. Maffiolo and B. H&not

Logs

1501

of I. F. P., who have been involved in all stages of


the data processing.
We are indebted to SociCteNationale Elf-Aquitaine
(Production) who provided some of the seismic data
and gave permission to publish these. We are particularly indebted to J. Lacaze of SNEA(P), who took
an active part in the interpretation of the acoustic
impedance sections.
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Gardner, G. H. F., Gardner, L. W., and Gregory, A. R.,
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