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# Leaving Cert.

Notes

## Limits and Fits:

Introduction:
In production engineering it is not possible to make components to an exact size
every time. If a component cannot be made to an exact size then the amount by
which it can be in error must be known and included with the dimension.
The maximum and minimum sizes of a component are known as Limits. The
difference between the maximum and minimum sizes (limits) is known as the
Tolerance.
The ISO system of Limits and Fits
This system of limits and fits gives a range of sizes to which parts should be
made if the type of fit is known. The following is an example of the types of fit in
common use.
(a) Clearance Fit.
(b) Interference Fit.
(c) Transition Fit.
(a) Clearance Fit.
With this type of fit there is Space between the two parts. The shaft is
always smaller than the part it fits into.
(b) Interference Fit.
In this assembly there is No Space between the parts. This means that force
is required to assemble the parts.
(c) Transition Fit.
This is a range of fits which can be either clearance or interference
depending on the tolerance. i.e. the shaft can be either smaller or larger than
the part it fits into.
Tolerances:
The type of fit between two components depends on the size to which each
component is made Since no size can be exact then each part must be made
within two sizes. These two sizes are called the Limits.
e.g. 20.02
- Upper Limit.
19.98
- Lower Limit.
The Tolerance is calculated by subtracting the lower limit from the upper limit.
e.g. 20.02
19.98
Tolerance = 00.04
Bilateral Tolerance.
This is when the tolerance is specified above and below the nominal diameter.

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## Leaving Cert. Notes

e.g. 25 0.02
Unilateral Tolerance.
This is when the specified tolerance lies to one side of the nominal diameter.
e.g. 25 + 0.02
Systems of Fits.
There are two systems of fits in use.
(i) Hole Basis System.
(ii) Shaft Basis System.
The Hole Basis System.
This is the preferred system. It involves manufacturing the hole to a fixed size and
the shaft size is varied.
The Shaft Basis System.
In this system the shaft size is fixed and the hole size is varied.
Limit Gauges.
Limit gauges are use to ensure that components are within the specified limits.
Two gauges are used.
One for the Upper Limit - GO Gauge
One for the Lower Limit - NOT GO Gauge.
Types of Gauges.
Gap Gauge
Ring Gauge
Plug Gauge

## - used for checking Shafts

- used for checking Shafts
- used for checking Holes.

Interchangeability.
In this system the parts are manufactured within certain limits and when selected
at random will fit together.
Selective Assembly.
In this system the parts are measured before assembly. The parts that give the
most satisfactory fit are assembled together
Example 1.
Determine the limits on a shaft and a bearing of 20mm nominal diameter, which
fit together with a clearance fit. The tolerance on the shaft is g6 and on the
bearing H7
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Calculate.
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)

## The tolerance on the shaft.

The tolerance on the bearing.
The maximum clearance.
The minimum clearance.

Solution:
Basic dia. = 20mm
From Tables.
Tolerance.
Bearing (H7)
Shaft
(g6)
Largest size
(Upper Limit)
Bearing. 20.021
Shaft
19.993

= + 0.021, 0
= - 0.007, - 0.020
Minimum size
(Lower Limit)
20.000
19.980

## Tolerance. (Difference between the limits)

Shaft.
19.993 (UL)
19.980 (LL)
0.013

Bearing.
20.021 (UL)
20.000 (LL)
0.021

Maximum Clearance.
Largest hole size - Smallest shaft size.
20.021 - 19.980
= 0.041
Minimum Clearance.
Smallest hole size - Largest shaft size
20.000 - 19.993
= 0.007
Ans.
(a) 0.013
(c) 0.041

(b) 0.021
(d) 0.007

Example 2.
Determine the Limits on a shaft and a pulley of 40mm nominal diameter. The
tolerance on the shaft is h6 and on the pulley is H7
Calculate.
(a) The tolerance on the shaft.
(b) The tolerance on the pulley.
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## (c) The maximum clearance.

(d) The minimum clearance.
Solution:
Basic dia. = 40mm
From Tables.
Tolerance.
Pulley (H7)
Shaft (h6)

Pulley.
Shaft

Largest size
(Upper Limit)
40.025
40.000

= + 0.025, 0
= - 0.016, 0
Minimum size
(Lower Limit)
40.000
39.084

## Tolerance. (Difference between the limits)

Shaft.
40.000 (UL)
39.084 (LL)
0.016

Pulley.
40.025 (UL)
40.000 (LL)
0.025

Maximum Clearance.
Largest hole size - Smallest shaft size.
40.025 - 39.984
= 0.041
Minimum Clearance.
Smallest hole size - Largest shaft size
40.000 - 40.000
= 0.000
Ans.
(a) 0.016
(c) 0.041

(b) 0.025
(d) 0.000

Example 3.
Determine the Limits on a shaft and a pulley of 45mm nominal diameter. The
tolerance on the shaft is g6 and on the pulley is H7
Calculate.
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)

## The tolerance on the shaft.

The tolerance on the pulley.
The maximum clearance.
The minimum clearance.

Solution:
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## Basic dia. = 40mm

From Tables.
Tolerance.
Pulley (H7)
Shaft (h6)

Pulley.
Shaft

= + 0.025, 0
= - 0.025, - 0.009

Largest size
(Upper Limit)
45.025
44.991

Minimum size
(Lower Limit)
45.000
44.975

## Tolerance. (Difference between the limits)

Shaft.
44.991 (UL)
44.975 (LL)
0.016

Pulley.
40.025 (UL)
40.000 (LL)
0.025

Maximum Clearance.
Largest hole size - Smallest shaft size.
45.025 - 44.975
= 0.050
Minimum Clearance.
Smallest hole size - Largest shaft size
45.000 - 44.991
= 0.009
Ans.
(a) 0.016
(c) 0.050

(b) 0.025
(d) 0.009

1.

## Explain the following terms.

(a) Limits.
(b) Tolerance.
(c) Upper Limit
(d) Lower Limit
(e) Nominal diameter.

2.

## State and explain the three common types of fit in use.

3. (a)

Explain the difference between the Hole Basis System and the Shaft
Basis System.
(b) Give examples of where both might be used.

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4.

## Explain the following.

(a) Bilateral Tolerance.
(b) Unilateral Tolerance.

5.

## The Limits of a Bearing and Shaft assembly are shown.

Bearing
40.028
40.00

Shaft
40.042 UL
40.030 LL

Determine:
(a) The Tolerance on each Part.
(b) The maximum clearance
(c) The minimum clearance
(d) The type of fit.
6.

## (a) Explain the difference between a GO and a NOT GO gauge.

(b) List three types of gauges and describe their use.

7.

## Explain the following.

(a) Interchangeability.
(b) Selective Assembly.

8.

Discuss the reasons for using a system of limits and fits in precision
engineering.