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Computer Software

Computer software is set instructions that instruct the computer on what to do and how to do it. Computer software
is also called programs. Unlike computer hardware, computer software cannot be seen and cannot be touched.
Computer software is categorized into two:1) System software
2) Application software
System software
It is a type of software that controls the general working of the computer. System software consists of programs that
control the operations of a computer and its devices. System software serves as the interface between a user, the
application software, and the computers hardware. Before application software can be run, the operating system,,
must be loaded from the hard disk into the computers memory. The two main examples of system software are
Operating System (OS) and utility programs.
Operating System
-It is a set of programs that controls how the application software interacts with the computer hardware. It enables
the application software to use the computer hardware and other resources.
It is software that controls the general operation of a computer.
Functions/roles of an operating system
The OS has many functions including the following:
1. Input and output control
2. Error handling
3. Resource allocation
4. Providing a Human Computer Interface.
5. File handling.
6. Managing the computer system security
7. Interrupt handling.
8. Job scheduling.

Functions/roles of an operating system


1) Input and output control The OS controls all input and output and the transfer of data within the computer to ensure proper functioning
of application software.
2) Error handling
The OS manages all errors that occur while the computer is working by displaying an error message so that the
user can correct the error. E.g. when printer is out of paper.
3) Resource allocation
It ensures that all processes have access to the different resources they need for smooth running. Allocates
memory space and CPU time for programs and data. It keeps track of parts of the memory that have already
been allocated and those that are free.
4) Providing a Human Computer Interface
The OS provides a way of interaction/communication between the computer& the user. It enables a user to
issue commands to the computer and display responses from the computer in a way that the user understands.
5) File handling.
The OS handles all files stored on the computer allowing the user to name them, save, edit, copy delete e.t.c.
6) Managing the computer system security.
Monitors and restricts access to data &programs in the computer. It prevents unauthorized access to the system.
7) Interrupt handling.
Handles interrupt signals whenever they occur while using the computer. Interrupts are signals sent to the
computer to enable it perform tasks.
8) Job scheduling.
The OS arranges the tasks being performed by the computer so that they can be performed in the right order.

Utility programs
These are programs that perform routine tasks that help the user to maintain the computer making other
application software to run better. To carry out routine tasks that is often needed by the user
Functions of utility software
1) compressing a file to save space on backing storage
2) Defragmenting a disk drive
3) Recovering data from damaged file
4) Checking a disk for faults and recovering them
5) Formatting a storage disk.
6) Checking the files on a dish for computer viruses - checking a dish for faults and recovering them.

APPLICATION SOFTWARE
Application software consists of programs designed to enable the user to perform specific tasks. It is software
designed to do a specific task or job.
a) Custom designed / tailor made/ in-house software
Is a type of software designed to save a specific problem within a specific organization
Advantages
1.) It is a designed to solve the problem it was meant for exactly
Disadvantages
1.) It is an expensive type of application software.
2.) Doesnt come with health instructions.
Application specific software
Is application software used to solve a specific problem that is common in different organizations?
Examples
Stock control software
payrou software
Advantages
1.) It can be used in more than 1 organization
2.) The program is well tested and document
Disadvantages
Is only meant to solve specific tasks
General purpose application software
Is an application software used to save more than 1 task. Examples include:
i.)
Word processors
ii.)
Desktop publishers
iii.)
Databases
iv.)
Spread sheets
v.)
Graphics software
vi.)
Presentation software
vii.) Web authoring software
viii.) Project management software
ix.)
Control software
x.)
Integrated software

Word processors
These are programs used for preparing documents. Examples of documents include letters, summary reports and
memos?
Features of Word processors
1) Has text formatting tools such as underlining, bolding, italics etc
2) Has spell checking and grammar checking tools
3) Has a verity of font faces
4) Has facilities for printing and addressing a set of letters
5) Has templates that control the layout of documents e.g. changing magazines, pg numbering etc
Application of Word Processors
1) Writing letters/ summary reports and other documents an office
2) For producing of articles issued letters-producing
3) For producing personal used letters a set of similar letters to be posted to a number of people
Examples
i.)
ii.)
iii.)
iv.)

Microsoft Word
Word perfect
Word star
Wang Writer

DESKTOP PUBLISHER (PTP)


CHARACT RISTICS
1) HAS THE FACALITIES to divide a document into pages and the pages might be divided into colors
2) Has good word processing civility a verity of fonts
3) Has facility for importing pictures and drawing files from other application
4) Has good facilities for arranging reset pictures
APPLICATION
1) to produce noels papers/ newsletters and magazines
2) to produce posters , to add picks, logos etc to let us to make attractive
DATABASES
Is a program for handling a tile and retrieved information?
For them
CHARACTRESTICS
1) Data is stored in the form to record is a collection of related fields
2) Has facilities for information retrieval i.e. producing lists of cell record that need certain conditions

4) Has the fasciitis to combine results into reports


APPLICATIONS
1) Main ting personal lists such as details of customers / addresses and accounts
2) Allowing access to a large stones at information such as encyclopedia on a cd rom
EXAMPLES OF DATA BASES
1)Microsoft access
2) Oracle
3) Fox pro
4) Open office databases
5) D base ii plus
SPREAD SHEET
Is a program which displays information in form of a table. The table is divided into rows and color of individuals
and boxes known as cells the spread sheet program allows calculations to be done on cell or in group of cells.
CHARACTERISTICS OF SPREAD SHEET
1) Has the feature that allows the user to enter text, numbers of a formula into any cells
2) Formula and other data can be copied into groups of cells
3) Has formulas that allows calculations to be done on other cells
4) Allows a Varity of operations to be done on rows and column e.g. :-resign rows and column inserting and deleting
rows and columns
APPLICATIONS
1) Displaying and calculating accounts and other financial information
2) Performing calculations on data collected in experiments and surveys.
3). Producing columns of data from which graphs can be drawn
EXAMPLES OF SPREADSHEET PROGRAMS
1). Microsoft excel
2).lotus 1-2-3.
3).Quadra pro.
4). Open office spreadsheet.
GRAPHICS PACKAGES (SOFTWARE).
Is a general purpose application software used to produce graphics e.g. graphs and charts, drawings painted images.
FEATURES/ CHARATERISTICS OF GRAPICHS PACKAGE.
1). Has tools for drawing e.g.: pens, paint brushes etc.
2). has a color palette to enable the user to select different colors.
30. Has asset of predefined shapes.
4). has facilities to import and export graphics.

5).has tools to edit pictures or drawings.


6).has a tool for arranging objects in different lay us.
7).has a 200m tool for enlarging part of an image.
8 )has a facility to group or ungroup an object.
9 )Has a
tool for erasing (rubbing) out parts of a picture.
10) Has a tool for rotating objects
Types of graphic packages painting packages
Are graphic software that produce images by changing the color of pixals on the screen images are produced by
painting packages are called bit mapped graphics.
Advantages of bit mapped graphics.
Individual pixels can be changed which makes very detailed editing.
Disadvantages of bit mapped graphics
1) They take up a lot of memory space.
2) The quality of the image is affected when its size is enlarged or reduced.
3) Individual parts of an image can be resized.
Examples of painting packages
Ms Paint
Application of painting and drawing programs
1) For drawing on the screen
2) For producing simple illustrations for instant front cover of the school projects.
Images produced by drawing packages
-images produced by drawing packages are known as vector format images/graphics.
-vector format images/graphics are represented by mathematical codes.
Advantages of vector format files
-they dont take a lot of memory space
-the quality of the image is not affected when its size is changed
-allows part of the to be resized.
Disadvantages of vector format files

-hard to make detailed editing


Examples of drawing packages
1) CAD (computer aided design)
2 )ARCHICAD
Application of drawing packages/ CAD package
-in architecture for producing designs of buildings
-in engineering drawings
Differences between vector format files images& bit mapped files/images
Bit mapped files/ images
Vector format files /images
Is produced by painting packages
Is produced by drawing packages
Quality of the image is affected (lowered) when the Quality of the image isnt affected when the image is
size of the image is resized
resized
Take up a lot of memory space as compared to vector Take up less storage space as compared to bitmapped
format files
file format
Produced by changing the color of pixels
Are represented by mathematical codes
Hardware requirements for drawing packages (CAD)
1. The computer should have a large RAM
2 .the computer must have a graphics card
3. The computer monitor should have high resolution screen
4. The size of the monitor /display screen should be large
5. The computer should have a plotter to be used to output-the hard copy of the drawing
6) The computer should have a high /faster processing speed.
Presentation software
Is a type of software that is used for creating present anion(information)that has to be personated to the
audio
Features for a presentation software
1) has slides where information to be represented is created
2) has designed templates that can allow the user to create the presentation without formatting the back
grounds and lay out of the page

Advantages of using templates


1) they have a attractive background that attracts the eyes of the audience
2) most of them have preset layouts hence the user finds it easy to format the presentation created
3) they provide the present format of how the presentation should work like
4) provides a range of slide layouts that you can use
5) has slide transition that provides movement promote slideshow to another
6) allows sound to be in cooperated in the presentation created
7) provides animination feature that controls the way text is displayed during presentation
8) has text formatting tools that allows the user to format the document to make it attractive
9) has a slide show features that allow the user to set up the number of slides to be presented to the
audience
10) has the printing feature that comes printing of uniformities found on slides
Application of presentation software
Advertising of sales where some people create information about their product on slides and project
this information on a large screen
1) in semidries for training on how to do specific task
2) in presentation of project work
3) used as teaching aid
4) has a per line feature that allows the user to link image in another application

Examples of presentation software.


Microsoft power point.
Project management software.
Is type of software that organizes project in charecteristic and port folios and sub divided the major task into sub
task
Features.
1) Resource management features like resource port frail that organizes resource in hierarchies and port folio
which reflect company.
2) Has calendars feature that specifies the data when the event starts when its ends.
3) Has planning and scheduling task validation, automatic snapshoot and project and resource auction.
4) Has output and analysis feature like output giant.
5) Has program management feature like particular that enable the user to see the history of his successive.

6) Has the importation feature that allows, the user to important feature project, task dependencies, resources,
calendar and allocation from one of several ms project files.
Examples
Microsoft office project management software
Application
1) Designed project plans
.
Web authoring software
-is a type of software that enables the user to develop a website.
-is a web site development system that allows web pages to be visually created like desktop publishing
program.
Examples
A) Micro media dream /weaver
b) Microsoft from page.
C) Html (hyper text market language)
Features.
1) Has facilities that allow text and pictures to the imported.
2) Has tools to create and menu plate tables to petition objects like text and graphics.
3) Has tools to create hyperlink from text or and graphics
-Hyperlink- is a piece of text or graphics that link the user to the specific webpage
4) Has links to create hot spots over parts of pictures
Hotspot- is a small area of a picture or a graphic that links to specific web page
5) Provides multiple view of webpage you are working on e.g. standard or normal design view

Application of web authoring software


Used for designing website
AUDIO, VIDEO EDITING SOFTWARE

It is a software that makes it easy to join, trim and modifying audio and edit the audio and video
separately.
Features of audio video editing software.
1.)
2.)
3.)
4.)
5.)

Has the crop tool for cropping the image.


Has the feature for loading of multiple video and audio clips for editing
Has the features for splitting and joining audio and video clip
Has the feature for converting video and audio files between format
Has a feature for full cross interrogation audio and video and control of volume and video
brightness
Examples of audio video editing software
1.) Cyber link power director
2.) Corel video studio
3.) Sony Vegas moving studio platinum
4.) Raxio creator
5.) Nero
Applications
1.) Used in audio and video editing
2.) Used for preparation of video clip or video film
Control software
Is a software that controls the action of movement of a the object
Examples
CTT
S P C software
Features of a control software
1.) Work independently without being controlled by a human being
2.) Can be able to repeat the action over and over again

3.) Is capable in communicating with sensors and actuators


4.) It is able to accepts more than one input at the same time
5.) It is capable of being used in dangerous awkward environment where the life of peoples can be in
danger e.g. in nuclear reactor, volcanoes

Application
1.) Washing machine
2.) Microwave cooker
3.) Dish washer
4.) Electric kettle
5.) Video recorder
6.) Fridge
7.) Remote control television
8.) Control heating system
9.) Bugler alarm system
10.) Air conditioning system
11.) Lifts
12.) Automatic dotes
13.) Factory robots
14.) Traffic light system
15.) Car park barriers etc
Integrated software
Is an application software that consists of several general purpose program which can use the same
data .
Features of integrated software
1.) It includes a word processer, a spread sheet, a data base, graphic and desktop publisher
usually
2.) The program come together in one package
3.) Data produced in one program can be easily transferred for use in another program
4.) Menus ,icons and other features are similar to each program
5.) The individual program may not be quite as powerful as separate programs to do the things
Applications

1.) To produce report which consists of a well presented document that includes list facts and
finger and graph

Used in situations where a spread sheet, database or graph are used but not often enough to justify. The expense of
buying separate package.
EXAMPLES OF INTERGRATED SOFT WARE
1) Microsoft office
2) Open office
3) Lotus suite
REVISION
1) processing hard ware
CPU -alu
2) control unit
3) Ram
4) Rom
ALU (ARITHMETIC LOGIC UNIT)FUNCTIONS
1) To perform logical Booleans function
2) To perform mathematical calculations
CONTROL UNIT (FUNCTIONS)
1) controls the flow of instructions
2) fetches decides and executes instructions
RAM FUNCTIONS
Stores screen
HUMAN COMPUTER INTERFACE
An interface is an interaction between the computer and the user .
- is a method through which the user communicates with the computer
TYPES OF INTER FACES
1) Command line driven
2) Menu driven inter face
3) Graphical user inter face
COMMAND LINE INTERFACE

Is a type of interface that allows the user to, interact with the computer typing in commands
E.g. C: 17cdwindows
ADVANTAGES OF COMMAND LINE INTERFACE
1) Fast in execution
2) Does not require a computer with a large ram or memory
DISADVANTAGES
1) requires the knowledge of commands
2) it is prom to syntax/typing errors
3) it is not good interface for novice
MENU DRIVEN INTERFACE
It is a type of interface that allows the user to choose options from the list
MAIN MENU
1) load program
2) back up files
3) exit
ADVANTAGES
1) easy to use
2) it does not need knowledge of commands
3) go interface for novice
Disadvantages
1.) has to go through a series of steps before reading the required options
2.) not fast execution

Graphical user interface (gui)


it is a type of interface that allows the user to interact with the computer by the use of icons ,pointer ,menus,
Features
1.) Has an icon, which is small pictures of graphic that represent program files folder and data base.
2.) Has pointer e.g. mouse cursor that is used for selection of options or icons
3.) Has dropped down menus that allow the user to choose options
4.) Has windows which are rectangular boxes that display information

My document

recycle bin

my computer

Advantages
Doesnt require the knowledge of commands
Good interface for no voice
It is not pron to syntax/typing errors
It is a user friendly
Disadvantages
Require a computer with large RAM memory
Slow in execution
Uses of ict system
Simulation and modeling
Simulation is the use of computer system to predict the outcome of real situation by using a model of that situation
Is the creation of a model of areal system tin order to study the behavior of the system
Is a program that models the real system
Is a special type of computer model which recreates a real system from outside the computer
Examples of simulations
1.) A flight simulator that is used for training pilots