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Denim Washing

Denim Washing – Basic Steps and Guide..

Fashion is today incomplete without denim. Denim comes in all forms, looks and washes to match with every
dress. It would be difficult to believe that the same denim was originally employed in clothing for the pants and
overalls worn by miners on the west coast(US). A number of technological factors have contributed to making
denim the fashion icon that it is today – including vast improvements in spinning, weaving, finishing etc. One of
the most important part of creation of the beautiful denim jeans is the washing . Washing plays such an important
part in the denim chain because of the umpteen effects that the consumers are looking for on their jeans . Lets
talk a bit about denim washing …
BASIC DENIM WASHING PRINCIPLES
Below is the brief introduction to common steps done & followed in denim garments washing in Laundries across
the world. Different kind & make of machines being used across the globe to hit similar results.
Every small step in denim washing makes a big difference because indigo dye has very poor wet & dry rubbing
fastness. All parameters are critical to maintain for repetitive results. Eg Many laundries across the Globe ignore
the importance of pH M:L:R & R P M of machine.

Some important steps in the process of Denim Washing

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Pre treatment ( Desizing, Rinsing, Scouring etc)
Enzyme or Stone wash
Clean up to adjust the desire effect
Bleaching
Tinting / Dyeing
Softening & Much more…..
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This step is also called desizing ( Removal of Size applied during denim fabric making in weft yarn ).There are many types of sizes available in the market but they can be divided in two major groups. Water Soluble (CMC or PVA based sizes ) and 2. Dissolvable sizes in water ( Starch based ).e.e. 1. Hydrogen Peroxide ) · Enzymatic desizing with Alfa amylase . Here the fate of denim garment is decided that its going to appear good or bad. 2. This is eco friendly & convenient .Enzyme & Stone Washing Process Of Denim Garments Page 2 of 13 .Denim Washing 1.. Good Pre treatments avoid streaking.PRE TREATEMENT This is very first & basic step but most important step of washing. starch & stains during handling of fabric. This process removes impurities. stiffness & color loss. Starch based sizes are most commonly used due to cheap prices & readily availability. Acetic acid ) · Washing with Oxidative chemicals ( i. All the woven fabric contains size on them due to reasons to strengthen the yarn for weaving.e. Soda ash ) · Washing with High Acidic agents (i. Methods of Removing Sizes from Denim Jeans…… · Washing with High Alkaline agents ( i.

    Amylase …. The reaction of enzyme can be easily controlled.Denim Washing There are four kind of Enzymes available in market for Denim Laundry business. Where as acidic cellulase give faster results but with too heavy back staining & cuts down the indigo color. Desizing Cellulase …. Any Cellulase used in process must be cleaned/killed after the process completion by simply disturbing the parameters ie. This is also widely known as Anti pilling enzyme. If any of these parameters are not up to the mark. … bio bleaching Catalase …… Peroxide killer Enzyme is kind of protein that is obtained from fermentations method from naturally existing bacteria & fungi. result will not be accurate. By raising high temp. contrast Laccase…. pH . Bio Polishing Cellulase are being used to have protruded fiber removal from denim & oven fabric. Acid and Bio polishing Enzyme. or raising pH to alkaline where no Cellulase withstand. its biodegradable products. so they eco friendly. Cellulase are available in 3 categories Neutral Acidic & Hybrid enzymes. There are mainly three kind of Cellulase being used for Denim washing . Generally called as Cellulase & it works on cotton( Cellulosic fiber ) only.e. Enzyme are living organisms which will attack a specific molecular group. Enzyme are very sensitive with parameters in washing cycle i. Neutral enzyme gives better salt & pepper effect with very less back staining & its generally come sin powder form & also retains better strength of fabric than acidic Cellulase. Temperature & time.. also affects the strength of fabrics. Neutral. For Salt & pepper effect . The structure of Enzyme is a biological polymer and it can be found in every cell. Page 3 of 13 .

This impart greyer cast to blue denim & enhances salt & pepper effect.CLEAN UP After finishing Enzyme wash it is must to add clean up process for better results & garments appearance & that can be done in various ways & methods.Sodium hypo chlorite c.Denim Washing Now a days laundry people needs faster results in less time & money hence chemical suppliers combined Neutral & acid cellulase in such way that it works faster & with better results than acid cellulase with cost effectiveness & known as Hybrid enzyme. laundries do not prefer it. 4. Laccase is bio bleaching agent & alternative for conventional bleaching agents. This process helps to get Greyer cast & also protects the lycra/spandex ..By using non ionic detergents in medium to high temperature c.Hydrogen peroxide d. All processes mentioned below kill/ deactivate the active enzymes process which is necessary in order to protect/retain garment strength……    a.Potassium permanganate First two chemicals are commonly being used for every medium to vintage denim but when it comes to super vintage & light shade its advisable to use potassium permanganate bleach to cut the color faster till half way & then neutralize it & go with Liquid ( Hypo ) bleach to adjust the desired shade.     a.Calcium hypo chlorite b. Page 4 of 13 .BLEACHING This in one an important step in washing denim & can be done by various bleaching agents …. retain elasticity.By doing two good hot water rinse etc…. As clean up is a must process to be carried out after every chemicals steps done for any garments which allows next process to happen smoothly. 3.Hydrogen peroxide in alkaline pH clean up enhances the brightness & rich blue tone of indigo. b. But due to high cost & low self life.

As soon as quantity of tint color increases & it cover up indigo. THe comparison of these dyes is given in the chart herebelow: 1-Direct Dyes 2-Reactive Dyes 3-Pigment Dyes 4-Sulphur Dyes Direct Dyes Reactive Dyes Pigment Dyes Sulphur Dyes Economical Costly Cost Efficient Economical Wide range of shades Wide range of shades Styling ( limited Shades are dull to dull shades) Short Cycles Long Cycle Short to long Cycle Short to long Cycle. reaches the level of dyeing. As its not production friendly till laundry have very expertise team to handle this program. • There are various Types Of Dye . depends upon shade Ease of Water Machine Sulphur Odour Page 5 of 13 . This is being done to change hue/cast/tone of indigo. yellowing & skin irritation etc… 4. As it takes longer time to give desired effect. otherwise it will result in many shades & cast. This process takes from 5 minutes to 15 minutes time for better results followed by dye fixing & clean up of superficial dye.Denim Washing Hydrogen Peroxide is rarely used as bleaching agent when very less color loss required or if fabric is sulphur top. bad smell from garment. Proper Neutralizations of bleaching process is very essential in order to get rid of fabric strength . Dyeing is being done on very light shade of Indigo. Potassium Permanganate is also being used on 100% sulphur black denim fabric for bleaching/reducing agent to get unique effects. Tinting being used to give garments a used / vintage & muddy look. Ecru/ grey denim & Ready for dyeing denim.Tinting & Dyeing Tinting is a process where very less amount of tint is involved & mainly direct dye is being used to do this process.

MINIMISATION OF YELLOWING RISK: Its Impossible to eliminate yellowing but it is possible to prolong & reduce the conditions which causes classical yellowing: · Ensure bleaching neutralization & rinsing is proper · Minimize back staining · Avoid use of chemicals which cause yellowing · Avoid leaving garment in open air for longer time · Control drying & curing temperatures Page 6 of 13 .SOFTENING PROCESS Softening process of Denim is very critical. finishes or washing processes. Yellowing in not specific to certain fibers. harsh hand feel Smooth Appearance Smooth Appearance Smooth Appearance Smooth Appearance 5. detergents & chemical contribute to yellowing problems. Temperature of drying & curing can impart yellowing due to scorching of the cotton.Denim Washing application Consumption High contamination. As it’s a widespread problem & there in no single reason for its cause. impurities. Light . acids.e change in shade or loss of whiteness. As denim is very heavy in compare with other fabrics hence its needs softening. Instead a number of condition can singly or in combination lead to the problem. As cotton & all organic polymers develop yellowing in time. & harsh hand but hard to feel obtain consistency. By using normal softener will lead to ozone problem. giving a yellow tint is commonly known as yellowing. Indigo dyed fabric are even more prone to yellowing. Hence its advisable to use Antiozonate softener which prolong ozone reaction of Indigo & keep garment in good condition. It is not specific to chemicals or chemical treatment but certainly some of the factors among these can lead to the yellowing. Therefore good control must be used to minimize this type of damage. During this process there is a big problem -the discoloration of denim i.

Acetic acid) · Washing with Oxidative chemicals (i.Denim Washing · Using right Antiozonate softener with right pH Methods of Removing Sizes from Denim Jeans…… · Washing with High Alkaline agents (i.5-1 GR/LT(dispersing and washing agent) SERA LUPE M-CF0.5-1 GR/LT(anti-crease agent) Page 7 of 13 . Soda ash) · Washing with High Acidic agents (i.. Preventation of creases: One of the main problems in laundry business is creases.e.e. This is eco friendly & convenient. Hydrogen Peroxide) · Enzymatic desizing with Alfa amylase.5-1 GR/LT( amylase enzyme for removing of size) LAVA WET W-LA0. Chemical reaction based creases: These are the creases related to the wetting time of fabric or unevenness auxiliary applications Fabric based creases:   These are the creases comes from the production of the fabric Storage based creases.5-1 GR/LT(wetting and scouring agent) LAVA SPERSE KDS0. DESİZİNG RECİPE LİQOUR RATIO: 1/6-1/10 (DEPENDİNG ON MACHİNE TYPE) TIME : 10 MİNUTES LAVA ZYME DEZ0. We can separate creases into 4 groups related to their reasons.     Mechanic based creases: these are the creases related to the ratio of water. First three methods are difficult. risky and expensive method at laundry business because of this nearly all of the market prefers enzymatic de-sizing. loading capacity and rotation speed of drum.e.

Also used in stonewash / after washing to reduce back staining.Denim Washing WETTING DISPERSING AGENT       Used in Desizing process. Prevents white lines caused by rigid creases. reduces the contrast between warp and un dyed weft Re-deposited indigo stains pockets and labels Re-deposited indigo is more prone to Ozone and yellowing ANTI-CREASE (Lava Lupe M-CF)    Prevents crease formation during the washing procsess . BACK-STAINING:     Re-deposition of loose indigo. Increases the loading capacity of the washing machine Reduses the stone spots risk during the stone wash procsess Page 8 of 13 . stonewashing or enzyme washing. Permits penetration of Amylase to fully desize. Prevents back staining of loose indigo onto weft yarns and pockets. Re-deposited Indigo. Must rapidly wet out jean. or indigo dyed short fibres. removed during desizing.

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