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) Medical microbiology help physician to deal with
the causative agents ofv infectious diseases, the
ways in which they produce diseases in human
body and essential information for diagnosis and
The science of microbiology, virology and
immunology play an important role in finding and
classifications of thousands of microorganisms
and viruses. It also help in development of
identifying the infectious disease caused by
microorganisms and play important role in
diagnosis and treatment of the infectious diseases.

2.) The invention of a microscope was done by
biologist A.Leeuwenhock from
Holland on 1674. His microscope consisted of a
single biconvex lens that magnified object about
Leeuwenhock discovered and described various
free living and parasitic protozoa, filamentous
fungi and globular bodies from human and animal
feces. He introduced meat and vegetables
infusions in culture medium. He also described 3
morphological forms of animolecules- rod, sphere
and spiral forms.

4.) Robert Koch(1843-1910) a German scientist perfected
bacteriological techniques and introduced methods for
isolation of pure strains of bacteria. He introduced agar as
a setting agent in bacteriological media. He isolated the 1st
bacteria Anthrax bacillus in pure culture on 1876. He also
introduced staining methods. The important discoveries of
Koch was :
1) anthrax bacilli 1876
2) Tubercle bacilli 1882
3) cholera vibrio 1883
He is also known as father of medical microbiology. His
important significance for microbiology and infectious
pathology are:
The organism should be constantly
associated with lesions of the disease.
The organism should be isolated from
the lesion in pure culture.
The isolated organism in pure culture
when injected in susceptible animals should
reproduce the disease.
From lesions produced in experimental
animals the MO must be demonstrated both in
smear and culture.

3.) Luis Pasteur of France (1822-1895) is known as father
of modern microbiology. He was a trained chemist who
was ferment ting wine. While studying fermentation of
grapes in 1857, he noted that alcoholic fermentation of
grapes, fruit and grains was caused by some microbial
agents, which he named as ferments. He derived the
techniques of bacterial cultivation and laid them in 3
1 Every alternation of either wine or beer depends on
development of microorganisms
2. The MO are brought by the ingredients or apparatus.
3. Whenever beer or wine contains no living
organisms(sterile) it remains unchanged (not
His discoveries and contribution in field of microbiology
Development of methods and techniques
for cultivation of MO
Conclusive evidence of MO in disease
Introduction of sterilization techniques
and development of steam sterilizer, hot-air oven
and autoclave.
Studies on pebrine (silk worm disease),
anthrax, chicken cholera and hydrophobia. He
discovered causative agent of rabies was too
small to be seen by microscope.
Live vaccine-introduced attenuated live
vaccines for prophylactic use.

5.) As for Russian scientist Metchnikoff and Luis Pasture
play important role in development of microbiology. Study
about physiological pathogen began by Luis Pasture. The
immunology pathogenicity began by Metchnikoff. He
specialized on Luis Pasture’s ideas. He discovered the
opening of cell immunity. He found that inside the
organism has defensive mechanism for living and non
living agents. He found the cell theory in
organism.Machnikoff 1883 discovered phagocyctic
phenomenon.He said that phagocyctic response is the main
difference mechanism against m/o innervation to tissue.He
also found and produced the cellular concept of
immunity.The other is pool eric which found the
phagocytic action.Is the action on foreign
substance(cell)which has been enters to the animal cell
mainly.They are pathogenic m/o can kill them by
phagocytosis.He opened the human organism and then
found Ab.In the 20th century the development of m/o was
very fast.In this century they discovered :
a) bacteriaphages
b)pathogens of chicken embrio
c)genetic theory of cancer
Pool eric II was the 1st scientist made the drug for syphilis.
Mint and Machnikoff-relapsing fever.
Lowzimbert –virology viral genetic theory of tumor.
Chumachoff –different vaccines against poliomyelitis.

6) Ivanovosky (1892) 1st reproduced mosaic disease of
tobacco plant by applying juice of diseased plants after
filtering all bacteria to healthy leaves. He repeated this
many times. Then he found that Mo which cause mosaic
disease can pass through bacteria filter. So that, the MO
must be very small and cannot be seen under normal light
microscope. Then, he found out that the mosaic disease is
caused by MO which is different from bacteria, which is
later designated as viruses.
Development of virology:
Loeffler and Frosch (1898) transmitted foot and mouth
disease of cattle by filter passing virus.
Walter Read (1902) from Cuba proved yellow fever is a
viral origin human disease.
Landsteiner and Popper (1909) demonstrated that
poliomyelitis was due to filterable viruses and transmitted
this disease in monkeys.
Ellerman and Bang (1908) proved virus may cause cancer
in fowl leukemia.
Rous (1911) isolated a virus from fowl sarcoma.
Ruska (1934) introduced electron microscope to study
direct morphological study of viruses.
Goodpasture (1930) developed techniques of viral
cultivation in nonproliferating suspensions of mammalian
cells and in chick embryos.

8)They are many different kinds of microrscopy for studying
bacterial actions as:
a)optic or light microscopy.
b)phase contrast
c)dark field microscopy
f)electrone microscopy
Dark field microscopy
Reflected light is used instead of transmittd light.A dark field coundense
with circular is the main part of microscope.The condenses less system
arranged in a suchaway that no light reaches th eye,unless reflected
fom the object on microscope stage .The basic or object looks luminous
in a dark background use to detect extremely small organism as
Phase contrast microscopy
Has a special condenses.The different part of cell and its surrounding
have different refractive power and so when the beam of light passing
thru object due to different refractive power and they have different
intensity of light so some structures are dark n other are light.Used to
study internal structures of unstained living tissues,bacterias and
Fluorescence microscopy
In this ultraviolet light is used.Bacteria stained with fluorescent dye and
give visible as bright object against dark
background.Immunofluorocence combines serology with fluorencence
microscopy by using Ig combined with fluorencence dyes are
Rhedamine and Lissamine.
Elecrone microscopy
In microscope a beam of electrons is focused by a a circular
electromagnetic disc to the lenses of light microscope.When electrons
beams pass thru object the electrons get together and produced an image
on screen.The main thing of a elctrone microscope is formation of
shadow casting due to depositing thin layer of metal on object.The
metal coated object is placed in a pathway of beams.The electrone
beams is directed to form of shadow in uncoated area in other side and a
negative image is made.On fluoresencence viscosing screen a (+)
image is made by (-) image.

7) Subject of medical microbiology
The subject of medical microbiological study is
microorganisms and their characteristics and peculiarities.
Aim:1. Study morphological and physiological criteria of
2. Study causative microorganism of clinical disease and
provide treatment.
3. Immunological study and provide vaccination.
4. Study about general characters of microorganism and
their classification.
Parts: 1) General microbiology
Study common character of microorganism
2) Industrial microbiology
Study about microbes which play role in industry for
preparation of object.
3) Agricultural microbiology
Irradiation of some microbes
4) Marine microbiology
5) Veteran microbiology
6) Space microbiology
7) Medical microbiology
Methods using in microbiology:
1) Microscopic method- receive info about shape and
structure of MO
2) Microbiological method- receive info about cultural and
biochemical properties.
3) Immunological / serological- study immune system and
allergic response
4) Biological-for determination of drugs. Use laboratory

Bacteria are prokaryotic unicellular MO which divide by
binary fission and do not possess chlorophyll and true
branching. Bacteria belongs to kingdom protista. Their size
varies frm 0.5 to 15 µm in length and 0.2 to 2 µm in width.
There are 3 types :
1) cocci
2) rods 3) spiral shape
1) cocci is divided into :
a) micrococci - irregular arrangement
b) diplococci – arranged in pairs
c) streptococci – arranged in chains
d) tetracocci – in group of 4
e) staphylococci – grape like clusters.
f) Sarcina – in groups of 8,16,32
2) rods are divided into :
a) non sporing – bacteria
b) bacilli – diameter of spore is same
c) clostridium – diameter of spore is diff.
2) spiral shape can be divided acc. to the no. of curves :
a) vibrio
b) spirillum – many curves
Constant structures are cellwall, cytoplasmic memb.nucleoid,
cytoplasm,ribosomes, mesosomes.
Inconstant stru. Are spores, flagella. Capsule,
- The main part of bacterial cell wall is peptidoglycan.
- They also possess enzymes called autolysins.
- gram +ve cell wall :
a) peptidoglycan layer is thicker and consists of multiple
b) they also contain teichoic and teichuronic acids.



watery solution of a single basic dye such as methylene blue or
basic fuchsin are used as simple stain
–ve staining
bacteria are mixed with dyes(India ink or nigrosin). The
background gets stained leaving the bacterias contrastingly
colourless. Useful in detecting bacterial capsule.
impregnation methods
used for bacterial cell and appendages tht are too thin and
It is thickened by impregnation of silver on the surface to
make them visible under light microscope.
differential stains
impart diff. colours to diff. bacteria or their str.
1º staining of heat fixed smear of specimen or bacterial
culture is made with a pararosaniline dye( crystal violet or methyl
violet) for 1 min.
Pour off crystal violet and add dilute solution of iodine, keep
for 1 min.
Wash with water.
Decolourisation with an organic solvent( alcohol) for 10 to 20
Wash with water
Counterstain with a dye of contrasting colour( dilute carbol
fuchsin, safranin or neutral red) for 20 to 30 sec.
Gram +ve bacteria – stain violet
Gram –ve bacteria – stain pink
Gram +ve bacterias :- all cocci except Neisseria and Branhamella
Gram –ve bacterias :- all bacilli except Corynebacterim,
Mycobacterium, Bacillus, Clostridium, Actinomyces, Listeria, and

- gram –ve cell wall :
a) is a complex str. and thinner.
b) bimolecular layer of peptidoglycan.
c) they have an additional outer membrane which is
much thicker than the peptidoglycan layer.
Nuclear membrane
Binary fission
Golgi body
Muramic acid
Diamino pimelic acid

it is the bacteria with defective cell wall
Protoplast : complete removal of cell wall of Gram +ve bacteria
they need isotonic medium to maintain the str.
do not multiply and cannot revert to normal
bacterial morphology.
spheroplast : gram –ve bacteria with damaged cell wall.
they are produced by growth with penicillin
they can multiply by binary fission or budding when
placed in suitable environment.
- they are bacteria without cell wall
- they develop spontaneously or by antibiotic treatment.
- They don’t have any regular size and shape
- they can grow and multiply on suitable medium.

- spores are highly resistant dormant stage of bacteria
formed in unfavourable environmental conditions such as
starvation and dessication.
- 2 types : 1) endospores – formed within parent bacterial
2) exospores – formed extracellularly frm the ends
of parent cells
- spore forming bacterias are Bacillus and Clostridia
- spores are localized in central, subterminal or terminal.
- Bacillus – spores are same size or smaller than bacteria
- Clostridia – bigger than the bacteria
- it may be oval or spherical
they are highly resistant to ordinary boiling , heating and
germination may occur in less than 2 hours under optimal
condition and it consists of 3 stages :
a) activation
b) initiation
c) outgrowth
detection :- Gram method – spores appear as an unstained
refractile body within the bacterial cell
Ziehl – Neelsen method – stain with 0.25 – 0.5 % sulphuric
acid, spores appear red
it is outer covering of thick jelly-like material tht surrounds
the bacterial cell wall.
It contains 98% water and 2% solids
The solids maybe complex polysaccharide or polypeptide or
hyaluronic acid
It serves as protective covering against antibacterial subs., it
enhances bacterial virulence, and the capsular antigen is
hapten in nature.

Capsulated org. are S.pneumoniae, B. anthracis and C.
It is best seen is specimens like pus, blood and sputum
Detection :- Gram’s method – appears as an unstained halo
around stained bacterial body
- -ve staining – it appears as a clear halo around the
- immunological method – stained by serological method,
capsule appears swollen
are filamentous, cytoplasmic appendages protruding through
cell wall.
It is unbranched, long, thread-like str. composed of
They are for locomotion
4 types of flagellar distribution :monotrichous – single polar flagellum
- eg : cholera vibrios
2) amphitrichous – single flagellum attached to each end
- eg : alkaligenes faecalis
3) lophotrichous – tufts of flagella at one or both ends
- eg : spirilla
4) peritrichous – many flagella around the bacterial body 2)
- eg : typhoid bacilli
- flagella consists of 3 parts ; filament, hook and basal body
- detection : -seen under electron microscope, stained with
phosphotungstic acid, appears as hollow tubes.

- there are 3 types of actinomycetes :
1) Actinomyces
2) Nocardia
3) Streptomyces
1) Actinomyces :
- Gram +ve, non-motile, non-sporing- non-acid fast org.
- strict or facultative anaerobes
- They are part of normal flora in oropharynx and GIT
2) Nocardia :
- strictly aerobic, Gram +ve bacteria, non-sporing, weak acid-fast
- they are prevalent in soil
3) Streptomyces :
- Gram +ve, strict aerobes, can form spore
- prevalent in soil and water
Actinomyces :
A. israelii – lives in oropharynx and alimentary tract of man.
Causes human actinomycosis.
A. eriksoni – “ “ “ “ “
A. bovis – oropharynx of cattle. Lumpy jaw in cattle
A. naeslundii – Oropharynx of man and animal. Causes caries and
dental plaque.
A. odontolyticus – “ “ “ “ “
A. viscosus – human oropharynx. Causes caries and dental plaque.
Nocardia :
N. asteroids – causes pulmonary nocardiosis
N. brasiliensis – causes subcutaneous nocardiosis
N. madurae
N. otitidis-caviarum - causes subcutaneous nocardiosis
Streptomyces :
S. somaliensis – causes mycetoma





has 2 families : 1) spirochaetaceae (Treponema and Borrelia)
2) leptospiraceae (Leptospira)
- general character :- large, motile helical org
Treponema :
slender cork-screw like filamentous helices.
6 – 14 µm x 0.2 µm with 6 -14 evenly spaced coils
Borrelia :
Gram –ve, motile
10-30 µm x 0.4-0.7 µm with wide and open coils
Leptospira :
spiral org, 5-20 x 0.1 µm with many closely set coils and
hooked ends
the body consists of a central protoplasmic cylinder bounded
by the cytoplasmic membrane and a cellwall
fine fibrils runs btw the thin peptidoglycan layer of cellwall
and the outer cytoplasmic membrane which are fixed at the
knobs at the 2 poles of the org. These fibrils constitute an axial
filament which constrict and distort the bacterial cell body to
give rise to a spiral conformation.
Treponema – T. pallidum subsp. pallidum – cause venereal
- T. pallidum subsp. endemicum - causes endemic
- T. pallidum subsp. pertenue – causes yaws
- T. carateum – causes pinta
Borrelia – B. recurrentis – causes relapsing fever
- B. vincentii – causes vincent’s angina
- B. burgdorferi – causes Lyme disease
3) Leptospira – L. interrogans – causes leptospirosis

- smallest free-living bacteria (≈ 0.2 µm)
- Occur as granules and filaments
- lack cell wall
- require cholesterol or sterols for growth in culture
- fired egg colonies
- facultative anaerobes except M. pneumoniae (grows
- contain both RNA and DNA and can reproduce in cellfree media
- most species utilize glucose
- resistant to penicillin due to lack of cell wall
- reproduce by binary fission or by budding
- Gram –ve, motile, non-capsulated
Mycoplasma pneumoniae
extracellular pathogen of respiratory tract
transmitted by air-borne
treatment is by tetracycline and erythromycin
Mycoplasma hominis
causes puerperal fever, non-gonococcal urethritis, pelvic
inflammatory disease (PID)
transmitted by sexual contact or during birth through
vaginal tract
treatment is by tetracyclines and macrolides
Ureaplasma urealyticum
causes non-specific urethritis or genital infection
transmission and treatment same like 2)

thypi 3.psittaci 2.taken by target cell by phagocytosis -surface membrane forms a vacuole around particle.rabies-bullet shaped.R.C.capable of only limited growthexamples :monkey kidney cell and human amnion cell culture.C.extracellular form of organism -it is a spherical particle.rickettsii 2.prowazekii 2.non-capsulated.tissue culture.R.obligate intracellular.complement fixing. -envelope which is a bilayer lipoprotein is largely of host cell origin -virus coded glycoprotein substances are exposed on the surface of envelope and are called peplomers. c)heteroploid cultures(continuous tumour cell lines)-cells of single type capable of infinite growth in vitro.g.C.protein supplement.paracitic in arthropods.g:HeLa.RNA -They exist in 2 morphological forms: a)Elementary body( EB) -is the infectious. Pathogens A)Typhus group 1.HeP2 -Has 3 Ags: 1 specific soluble Ag on surface. b)diploid cell culture-cells of single type.obligate intracellular bacteria -don’t grow in artificial medium -cell wall contains LPS but does not have a peptidoglycan layer -possess ribosomes and synthesise their own proteins -cannot produce their own ATP. -some r irregular and pleumorphic in shape Difference of viruses frm other organisms Methods of viral classification -toxonomic classification of viruses r based on the following features: 1.HeLa -resistance: heat lable susceptible to dilute solutions of formalin and phenol -Ag:heat stable. -virus symmetry-3 groups---hexonal-cubical-helical and complex -shape-overall shape of the viruses are spherical.R.R.organ cultures r done mainly for highly specialized parasites of certain organ.KB cells .found in alimentary canal.non-flagelatted.2 species capsular AG stable polysaccharide Ag divide by binary fission.destroyed at temperature 56 celcius. explant culturefragments of mixed tissue grown at explants and embedded in plasma clots. Cell culture a)primary cell culture-normal cells obtained frm body.Hela.australis 18.molecular weight.tracheal ring culture for isolation of corona virus 2. -cell wall-3 layers-peptidoglycansor mucarinic acid and diaminopimelic acid sometimes lipopolysaccharid also includes 3 layers proteins. -a metabolically active large reticulate body evolves from small noninfectious elementary body 5-6 hours after penetration of target cell. organ culture-small bits of organ frm man and animal r maintained in tissue culture growth medium.salts.DNA nad RNA both.capsid + nucleic acid+nucleocapsid -capsid is made of large no of polypeptides and are called capsomers. nucleic acid charactheristics:type of nucleic acid.conorii 3. envelope 5.17.R. homology of nucleic acid strands 3.Rhicketsia:morphology and physiology Morphology -pleomorphic coccobacili appearing as either rods or cocci.493 Chlamydia Morphology -gram –ve.R.the fibroblasts derived frm embryo tissues.the growth medium for tissue culture is basically a balanced salt solution and contains 13 essential amino both DNA.usually fibroblast contain same no of chromosomes as the parent cell n diploid.pox-rectangular or brick shaped.tobacco mosaic-rod shaped. Physiology -can cultivate in chicken of nuclear acid strands and segmenta 2.buffering system.contain only one type of nucleic acid DNA or RNA genome is enveloped with a sheeth of proteins called capsid which may hv envelope.e.they derived frm cancer cells.R.nonmotile.polarity. -plasma membrane-trilaminar like gram –ve -has ribosome like particles like intracytoplasmic organells -is an obligatory intracellular parasite(grows only in cytoplasm of eukaryotic cell) Physiology -they don’t grow on artificial media except Riquintaha grows in blood agar medium -yolk sac inoculation:they are cultivated in yolc sac of developing chick embryo -tissue culture:grow on mouse fibroblast.sensitive to many antibiotic.glu.heat labile Phatogens 1.nonsporing.may also be cultivated in suspension.rely on cellular ATP for many of their metabolic actions -nonmotile.Morphology and chemical composition of viruses -smallest. -it is metabolically inert extracellularly b)Reticulate body -replicative form. nucleocapsid symmetry LUKIS CHART pg:492.200-300 nm in diameter with an electron dense nucleoid -EB is much like a spore and resistant to many harsh environmental factors. 3.akari 4.R. cell culture-for identification and cultivation of viruses.they used for isolation of fastidious viruses and production of viral vaccines.pneumoniae Tissue cultures and their characteristics -3 types tissue cultures : 1.felis B)Scrub typhus group Orientia tsutsugamushi C)Spotted fever group 1.they can be serially cultivated indefinitely.susceptible to tetracycline.trachomatis 3.e. morphology shape n size 4.sibrica 5.adenoid tissue explant cultures were used for isolation of adenovirus.Hep2.

4.Biosynthesis -synthesis of nucleic acid of virus.sterile zones r found on some Petri dishes. Reproduction of viruses(phases of viral host cell interaction)it has 6 stages. d)SS RNA(+ve strand)-the viral RNA codes for all proteins needed for replication is acts as mRNA itself.incubated. 1.the halloe core is pushed into the bacterial wall.nucleic acid r non-infectious.the viral genome directs protein synthesis which stops normal metabolism of cell n causes synthesis of viral structures.The naked nucleic acid is thus formed.the bacteria is called lysogenic bacteria.m/o are added to the test tubes.max dilution which causes death of m/o=phage titre 2.Phages ( viruses of m/o ):morphology and ultrastructure -general str maybe characterized by str of Coli-phage of E.RNA dependent RNA polymerase of virus causes transcription of mRNA in cytoplasm. .The host cell remains unaffected. Types of virus-host cell interaction 1-Infectious/productive-form of new viruses-release 2-Integrative-DNA integrate into chromosome to form viruses 3-Abortive-abortion of process at different stages of replication like anembly Titer of phage 1.this is the destruction of capsid.only BP will be filtered. 3.Mrna is using newly formed DSDNA as template.fimbriae hv receptors.Can occur by: a)lysis-destruction of host cell b)budding-in which enveloped viruses obtain their supracapsid frm cell or nuclear membrane.prophages confer new population to bacteria.19.m/o r cultivated.when RP level falls-prophage switches to lytic state.number of sterile zones r counted and multiplied by dilution+phage titre Prophage Integrated phage nuclic acid into the bacterial chromosome in the phage cycle of temperate phages.Penetration -entering of virus into the host cell by 2 mechanisms: a)for naked viruses-a process called ‘ viropexis’ which resembles endocytic as a result the virus is engulfed.DNA polymerase enters nucleus causes replication of viral DNA.capsid protein and also enzymes required for synthesis and release.Uncoating/Deproteinisation .If the receptors on host cell are specific for the virus only attachment take splace 2.Occurs in nucleus ( influenza virus)-Transcription of mRNA occurs in nucleus.prophage in S. c)SSDNA-occurs in cytoplasm.empty head+tail remain outside as ghost or shell. Tail: cylindrical n is composed of central hollow core surrounded by protein.the filtered liquid is diluted and added to Petri dishes.the prophage multiplies synchronously with bacterial DNA.some phages such as P1 do not integrate into chromosome but exist as autosomal proviruse plasmid. LUKIS GAMBAR Phases of interaction with cell of virulent n moderate phages -Virulent phage:virulent/lytic phage undergoes the virulent/lytic cycle 1.assumes spherical shape a)DS DNA containing viruses-viral nucleic acid enters nucleus of host cell.retrovirus and paramyxoviruses which synthesise paiths in nucleus -in general the following steps occur: 1. cell DNA polymerase is used to make viral DNA double stranded.the tail sheeth contracts so that the blood plate+tail fibres r held tightly against the bacterial wall.for example.These proteins include enzymes which initiate synthesis of viral components like DNA polymerase 20.part of nucleic acid enters the bacterial wall. -Using host cell RNA polymerase . Maturation and multiplication The viral genoms and protein capsid are assembledin form daughter virions.transcription of Mrna frm viral nucleic acid by host cell RNA polymerase 2. a vacuole is formed b)for coated viruses-the host cell membrane+te virus supracapsid forms together and the nucleocapsid is released into the cell 3. -bacteriophage is tad-pole shaped with: Head:hexonal shape n contains core of nucleic acid covered by capsid. Basal plate at the terminal of tail.transcription of mRNA is achieved . Fimriae/tail fibre or prongs-attached to the basal plate.the state of presence of prophage in bacteria without phage productionlymphogeny.It may occur due to action of lysosymal enzymes in the vacuole or by cellular proteases in the cytoplasm.continuous synthesis of receptor protein by cell is maintained lysogenic state.translation of mRNA into early proteins in cytoplasm.toxin production by C.penetration(infection of bacteria by naked phage nuclic acid-transfection).this can also occur due tophysical/chemical factors. e)SS RNA(-ve stranded)-they hv viral RNA polymerase.applemon method-pore specimen thru bacteriological filter.This occurs in the nucleus( terpes.attachment occurs by tail.only double stranded DNA can be integrated as prophages.Grace method-on Petri plate with agar. b)SS DNA containing viruses-b4 all other steps.Attachment and adsorbtion -virusses come in contact withhost cell by random collision.diptheria.thypi converts into new antigenic surface str.adenovirus) or in the cytoplasm (picorna +pox viruses) 6.release-during replication bacterial wall is weakened by basal plate enzymes.mRNA moves into cytoplasm-induces synthesis of protein including DNA polymerase. 2. 4.Also regulator protein are synthesized to shutdown the host cell’s normal metabolism -site of viral protein synthesis in all cases-host cell cytoplasm -site of viral nucleic acid synthesis -in DNA containing viruses-host cell nucleus except pox virus -in RNA containing virus-host cell cytoplasm except orthoxyxovirus.coli.Adsorbtion on the surface of bacterial cell according to specific affinity of bacterial receptors to specific phages.This RNA is infectious. Release -the viruses leaving the host.liquid obtained frm this should be serially diluted into 10 test tubes.maturation+anembly of new virions 5.synthesis of phage components-immediate transcription of part of nucleic acid in cytoplasm helps further injection of nucleic acid.

translocation of radicals-large molecules are broken down by enzymes into smaller radicals outside the cell and the radicals pass across cell membrane inside the cell. a) phototrophs-derive energy frm sunlight b) chemotrophs-derive energy frm inorganic substances(o2. medium should contain all nutritive components(O2. Nutritional requirements for the growthof the m/o 1. 2.stab cultures -semisolid -liquid-blood culture 4.bile peptone transport medium for stool.Ex-DEAmedium.facilitated diffusion-molecule is transported across the cell membrane with help pf carrier protein.microbes r divided into: 1.according to assignment 1.according to origin -natural media-blood. 3. 22.yhis process doesn’t require energy 2.they contain substances like bile salts or deoxycholate citrate which inhibits or poisons all bacteria except those of particular type of group of wanted organisms. selective media-in addition to basal media. common media-for growth of all m/o 2. moisture is an essential requirement for bacterial growth compounds) 2.McConkeys agar.for example:nutrient broth.2-7.Na+ required in trace amounts for enzyme function.autotrophs-autotrophic m/o mk use of inorganic compounds or natural sunlight.any preparation that contains nutrients essential for bacterial growth=medium.McKonkeys agar 3.C. sterility 4. optimal pH should be maintained usually 7.microbes receive nutritional substances on surface of the cell 2.when certain incredients added to a basal medium to study special characteristics or to provide special nutrients require for the growth of organism is called complicated media.the molecules r reformed. differential media-culture medium contain certain substances helps to distinguish different properties of different bacteria.this process requires energy.this process requires energy and carrier protein. transport media-for transport of specimen example:stuart’s transport medium for urethral discharge(conococci).heterotrophs-m/o which require preformed organic substances for growth a)saphrophytes-use dead organic matter b)parasites-use living organic matter mechanisms of the transport of substances into the cell 1. 5.according to composition -simple media-containbasic substances-N. coenzymes .found in water c)nitrogen-needed for formation of proteins.for example=blood agar.minerals-K+.for example:blood serum.bacteria can grow without such factors but presence of accessory factors enhance the growth of m/o.h2) and synthesize organic substances 2. Types of nutrition According to source of nutrition.For example:glucose enriched media 5. e)phosphorus+sulphur-S forms part of coenzymes.Ca2+.n2.source-free inorganic PO42-.obtained frm carbohydrates by oxidation or fermentation processing ATP.nucleic acids and other cell constituents.minerals.bile salt agar 4.P is part of nucleic acid.milk -artificial media-a)synthetic-prepared frm pure chemicals b)semisynthetic 2.peptone water -complicated media-for example-enriched medium containing true enriched matter.according to physical condition -solid-stroke.4 .occurs according to concentration gradient.egg or meat pieces add to basal medium. b)oxygen =in cultural media.process does not require energy. 3. transport-substance is transported against concentration gradient (concentration of substance is higher inside).high speed of metabolic processes. 3. special media-for m/o that require special substances. ATP.Mg2+.C.sugar medium-hiss’s medium when certain indicator(neutral red.some organic compounds must be degraded into smaller components b4 being transported into cells.( contain substances like bile salts groth of all other m/o except one.glycerol saline transport medium for stool(bdysenteriae) 6. indicator medium-includes indicator (dye) or reducing substance(ktellurite) color or indicator changes with bacterial growth example:wlson+blair medium.21.obtained frm ammonia or deamination of amino acid d)carbon-used for generation of energy and biosynthesis.Culture media .they can use both organic or inorganic substances 4.essential elements a)hydrogen.any medium that has been successfully inoculated=culture medium Classification 1.simple diffusion-small molecules which pass across cell membrane frm the region of higher concentrationoutside the m/o into the region of lower concentration inside the m/o.bacterial nutrition 1.bromothymol blue) is incorporated in culture medium Main requirements for culture media 1.nutrient agar.m/o hv the ability to change the type of nutrition according to external condition 3.n2) to synthesize essential growth factors-some bacteria require organic compound which cant be synthesized by themselves a)essential growth factors-bacteria cannot grow without such factors because the home lost ability to synthesize them b)accessory factors.N2.H.

Anaerobes Cultural conditions 1.Bacillus b)facultative anaerobes-normally one aerobic but can also grow in absence of O2. 4.Microaerophilic bacteria-grow in presence of small amounts of O2. decline phase-after aperiod of time in the stationary phase. aerobic bacteria-require oxygen for growth a)obligate aerobes-grow only in presence of O2 -Pseudomonas.this is followed by deposition of cell wall material and finally the 2 daughter cells separate.but less abundantly majority of pathogens are facultative anaerobes.bacteria undergoes a period of adaptation.obligate anaerobes die in presence of O2 3.this phase brought by exhaustion of nutrients. 2.the bacterial population starts to die.there is a slow rate of cell death.the total cell count slowly increase but viable count remains stationary.the number of total cells remains constant. 8 hours.Streptococus.thecell division is initiated when a bacterial cell reaches a critical mass in its cellular constituents.a transverse septum grows across the cell frm cell membrane.H2 donor-organic substances -enzymes this process are found in cell wall-mainly cytochrome oxidase -organic compound completely oxidized to CO2.quality of culture medium. optimum pH(7.during necessary enzymes and intermediate metabolites a built up with increase in its size and meatabolic activity.Growth and division of microbes -bacteria divide by binary fission.4) 4.the length of lag phase depends on type of bacterial species.duration varies frm few hours to few days.2-7.coli-20 minutes.m/o can br divided into 1.Vibrio cholera 2.replicated DNA distributed to 2 daughter cells. Generation time-is interval of tieme between cell divisions or time require for bacteria to double.1-4 hours.H2O and a little H2O2 is found C6H12O6 + O2+ADP  CO2+H2O+ATP+ (H2O2) -H2O2 thus formed is broken down by catalase/peroxidase found in m/o 2.the bacteria attains a critical stage for count-living+dead.Borrelia Scheme of biological oxidation 1.bacterial growth ceases almost completely due to exhaustion of nutrients or accumulation of toxic products.duration ranges frm few hours to few days.(34 ATPs are formed) -ultimate H2 acceptor is O2.bacterial nucleus.tetanus-grow in absence of O2.Aerobes -obtain energy by process of oxidative phospharilation where ADP is converted to ATP by the formation of energy rich phosphate bonds.less than 20 . Phases of division 1. log/exponential phase-the cell division then proceeds and the members increase. moisture 5.anaerobic bacteria-Cl. all necessary nutrients 2. 24.viable countcapable of multiplication.example:C.2 circular double stranded DNA molecule sequences in 2 starands.size of inoculation.bacterial count.accumulation of toxins and autolytic enzymes.the logarithm of viable count when plotted against time a straight line.23.nuclear division precedes bacterial cell division.Classification of m/o by the type of respiration -according to requirement of oxygen for growth of m/o. sterility of the medium thermophiles-55-80 mesophiles-25-40 psychrophiles. lag phase-immediately after inoculation of culture medium. optimum temperature(36-37) 3. stationary phase-after sometimes. 3.

genetic material are organized in chromosome which is presenting cytoplasm. GENOTYPE. Transformation – uptake of naked DNA 0. Changes can be 2 type 1. can be genotypical or phenotypical Mutation acc.PLASMID :MAIN TYPE AND THEIR CHARCTERISTIC . Absorbtive – this do not intergarated to blodd cell DNA before neutralize inte cytoplasms and change the activity.CHEMICAL .cross reactivation :if the viruses enter human cell.B. Those antibody or primary antiserum is added to MO with antigen A. Sp . To environmental condition .have sex pilli. 1. mech. b.B. To mech of changing deletion – loss of some genes insersion – addition of extranucleotide inversion – change between different nucleotide transposition /translocation – change in position of nucleotide Acc . 3. 1.BIOLOGICAL.donor cells forms a brigde between f(+) And f(-) . Indirect heamoagglutination test or passive heamagglutination Carrier blood is mixed with antigen -ag/RBC and antibody Therefore it is easy to detect the number of antigen and antibody. -antibodies A. 42. RECOMBINATION AND SELECTION . d. cross changing between the two occurs and a new virus with a new genetic character –new genome of MO . They can be physical . a.DNA AND RNA 2. Recombination – changing of genes between cells . b.Induceable-may be induced by the influence of different factors like mutagen .when MO destroy . 43.GEENTIC CHANGING IN MO (RECOMBINATION ). Incubate 1 ½ hours . sequenceof DNA is intergrated only in complimentery spaces forming MO with new genome. B AND C are produced after days inside the rabbits it is the non absorbed primary serum.have no sex pilli HFR.7% of chromosome The change depends on usage of free DNA IS induced into her MO .KINDS OF CHANGING . ROLE OF MUTATION IN EVOLUTION OF MICROORGANISM. irreversible or direct mutation b. a.high frequency recombination –f(+) pilli hve extragenous transport gene. Transmission Nucleotibe between two MO directly wjth the help of DNA F(+). 2.Genetic material is transferred between MO of same generation 4. To number of nucleotide point mutation –change in 1 nucleotide .in viruses either DNA OR RNA are present . PHENOTYPE The characteristic expressed by the bacterial cell at a particular time can be attend acc.Non induceable –spontaneaus Mutation acc.highest dilution of serum 1/100.MUTATION .presence of special genetic elements –plasmid are found in MO.DNA fragmentation can enter cells tht finds compensatory place and hence MO have new sequence. The collection of genes encoding the characteristic of the bacterial cell which remain unchanged.KINDS OF RECOMBINATION AND THEIR TYPE CHARACTERISTIC .bacteriopahge enter blood cells and multiply Now SP transduction –bd intergrated different species of the doner cell and change sequence of DNA. c.C antigen first imjected in to rabbits.chemical and biological. to time . they can be : short time modification long time modification Mutation Heritable variation due to any change in nucleotide sequence of genes .agglutination Antibody titre.intergarate in sp place and specific sequence or DNA ‘s 3 type .BACTERIAL GENE APPARATUS AND THEIR PECULARITIES IN VIRUSES.abilitiy to recombition F(-). 2Transduction Is transmission og genetic sequence frm one MO to other with the help of bacteriophage DNA. reversible 44.irreversible chromosomal – change in chromosome . Kind of changing. c. a. MUTAGENS:KINDS PHISICAL . -MO A. 2. Only suppression or expression of some genes acc.THEIR TYPES. To environmental condition .C .41. PERCULARATIES OF VIRAL GENETIC 1.( only in humans ) gene mutations – change in genes .GENOTPYE AND PHENOTYPE OF MICROORGANISMS. .mutation Modification Is no change in genetic struc.modification 2.genetic material is haploid but DNA amount found is constant in microorganism. Acc.

it has normal level .intravenous . Is same as the transformation since the introduced viral DNA genome . highly present c. .chlormphenicol and macrolide antibiotics lincomycin inhibit protein synthesis . RESP.HUMAN MICROBIAL FLORA AND it’s…… -The normal microbial flora is divided into Resident Fransicut(facultative flora) -The normal microflora play important role in body normal function -They can be pathogenic when host defensive mech.45. ADAPTATION -sometimes phage or plasmid DNA may be taken by a permeable cell where recombination of invading DNA with replication of recipient if not necessary and some become re established in recipient cell and autonomous replication . In gram negative – heamophilus a membrane protein binds a sequence about 10 nucleotide and DNA enters as double strand unside the cell.TRACT .coagulase staphylococci may be found in nasopharynx and tonsils -euorococci is also present . transduction generally found in cell in infected by temperate phage intergrate in it’s chromosome in quiescent state .when mens get ‘s old body immunity decrease . health . - - - Trasformation occur only in few bacterial species under natural condition for successful transformation the bacteria must be completed to take up DNA from environment and incorporate into genome .pyogones ) the non pathogenic neisseria is transient in hear.intra muscular and oral .tract . the mech.they syn. Penicillin –gram positive bacteria -intra muscular and intra venous Ampicilin – gram positive bacteria –intramuscular and oral Oxacilin –gram positive bacteria – intra muscular and intra venous Amidinopenicilin –gram positive bacteria .tetracycline .and lower airway colinezed MO cytoplasm are aspirated . Theraphy Taking vitamins for infectious diseases before they enter to the body . RESP.throat . In the interstinal tract is greatly affected by bad foods .sprinomycin . THERAPHY AND PROPHYLAXIS OF INFECTIOUS DISIEASE .this process is called transfection.epidermik’s )sometimes has streptococci (s.incorrect drug usage (antibiotic) because specially the interstinal tract syn. Incase of entero bacteria transformation occurs only after a artificial modification envelope by conversion to sphero plast or permeabilising the envelope to DNA by heating the cell presence of cacl the modified cell surface permit taking up double straded DNA fragment s.also corynebacterium and moraxella lacunata . -When the normal microflora because changed due to the failed human defensive mech. personal hygiene .if they don’t have environment to contact they dies . -nose it is the usuall habitant of staphylococci (s.pneumonia . .vitamin k by it’s normal microflora also several vitamin b types . Giving antibiotics tht can interfering with the cell wall syn. In bacterial ribosomes woth out any major effect on mammalian ribosome Antimicrobial drug such –penicilin . Cefotaxime-gram positive and negative bacteria- intravenous and orally . BACTERIAL CHANGEABILITLY AND IT’S ROLE IN DIOGNOSTIC .puenomoniae .TRACT.s. And impairment of function of ribosome aminoglycoside . ORAL CAVITY .coliforms .cell capable of take DNA from any source .actinomycites . -They colonized and release substance as taxius for the body maintaing occurs due to the defective immunity in the host -The microbial cond.veilovella . -many organisms cames and contact with the skin surface . -gram positive bacteria is most common MO on the skin *coagulase-negative staphylococcus and s.pnevotella is in tonsils . sanitary cond.aureus .trachea . bronchioles . Exotoxius – liberate tissues –destroy – the own tissues of the organ different disease . .nesseria .diet .p. -lower resp.often tht development of normal microbial flora occur in young age has highest concentration of normal microbial flora .and tonsils MO can be find usually in this pathway . s. oralpharynx .larynx .spirochetes . is fallen down.aureus ORAL CAVITY has micrococci . hormonal state .lactoacccili struc:viridaus . Transformation normally in 3 stages In pneumococcus and some gram positive bacteria and in vading DNA fragment is ciut to 7-10 kb by endonuclease of the membrane and only one strand enter the cell. eve na newborn has a contaminated with mother s micro organisms in the body so theu adapt before they exposure to the normal environmental changes of the physical leve l can change the balance between the microflora pathway -The microbial flora is controlled by a)chemical b)mechanical factor c)immune factors SKIN FLORA . clindamycin and linomycin .because it is result of infection 46. -an acute disease of lower airway is by virulent bacteria in the mouth (s.even the normal body microbial flora can change and different kind of disease in the body this due to the changes .cephalosporin and aminoglycoside and other antibiotics . -The normal mircoflora change due to the age .orynebacterium.nasopharengeal .when at tht time MO is very susceptible for body changes and also for pathogenic MO . Drug affect in cytoplasmic membrane Drug inhibit protein syn.MUCOUS SURFACE . diphtherioidus and bacteriodes Changing Flora due to the Age of Human . Macrolides – macrolytic lactone ring attach to erythromycin . -In it’s first stage of human like in this during birth of a baby the body of baby in contact with environmental due of normal microbial flora so that before the body is stabilized .aueres Transduction transmission of piece if host DNA frim cell to another by bacteriophage .

susceptible host . present in less amount DISBACTEROSIS . This disbacterosis occurs prolong therapy of antibiotic .F3) -surface antigen (F4) -fimbren special adhesion factors: bifidobacteria-lipothiac acid lactobacilli -polysacharide a) Influences of physiological conditions: -conditions of epithelial cells + medium -presence of inhibitors(antibiotics) -high concentration of NaCl Adhesion & colonization in mucous membrane they must overcome: -mucous barriers (mechanical barrier) enzymes for destruction eg: protease -Chemical barriers forming of enzymes .hormones .originallly e.lidobacterium. This is given with antibiotic theraphy . Vitamin k admistration Changing the antibiotic General gnoto biological isolation Immune theraphy Admistration of living MO eg.MICROBIAL FLORA OF COLON . .pcptococcus and enterococcus can be seen also pseudomonas . Pathogenecity: ability of m. TREATMENT Administration of vitamin b Complex to positive normal microbialflora syn.pathogenic MO .- - 47.dorphyromous. Main factor necessary for the beginning of infection. 48. eubacterium .in disbacterosis th numbers of opportunistic pathogenic increase . cancer and immunodeficiency and stress. Large intestine . Occurs using antibiotics or changing of diet or stress or less vitamin or radiation It ‘s alteration of normal microbial flora that changing the balance between MO numbers . 1-Decrease of resident without changing a note and MO to resemble it .INFECTION AND INFECTIOUS DISEASE ….coli .genus bascilus .it is estimated than more 10 “ bacteria per gram of feces can be found with anaerobic bacteria in excers by 1000 folds yeasts .gut disfunction and local inflammation . to form neutral/ alkaline medium around m.zactobscillus . PERIOD OF INFECTIOUS DISEASE incubation period prodromal period –no clinical symptom .eubacterium Fugobacterium .no specific symptom are present manifestation – specific clinical are present decline – result could be recovery or death .radiation sickness . They play relo in formation of colonization resistance and give protection of mucous pathway .treatment infectious of GIT .number of MO . infectious disease condition in human characterized by present of symptom due to present pf MO .org to cause a disease Virulence:measurement of degree of pathogenecity&depends on invasiveness & toxicity of the organism. subdivided into 4 groups: .pilli (F1) -cellular factors of adhesion (F2. Basic forms of virulence: adhesion – non specific connection by ligands & R.multiplication of MO adaption ) contagious (contamination ) can be transmited infection infection between pathogenic MO and susceptible host under the special environmental and social condition . 49.PROPHYLAXIS. 3-Changing microbial flora .drerotella .most of these oraganisms are anearobics as peptostreptococcus . Non pathogenic parasites can also be seen.bifidobacterium .veilovella .org -normal microfloral barriers .coli .lactobacterium .immune suppress . STAGES .environmental and social influences Differentiation of incetious disease from other human disease caused by pathogenic MO production of immunity incubation period(absent of clinical symptom .more MO can present than any where in own body .MAIN …. No clinical symptoms 2-Increase count of transient from opportunistic flora .the most comman bacteria is b. The small intestine can be contaminated wit different types of bacteria and parasites . claudida .myoplasms e. PATHOGENICITY & VIRULENCE OF M’ORGANISM. bacteriodes lactobacillus .

toxin produced by m. cholera. renal hepatitis c) vector transmission -they are arthopods or intervertebral host that transmit intections of clinical symptom. endotoxin shock poisoning.b) Invasions -causes destruction of host cells/tissue cells when m. lodetoxin HL 1 a) 51.WAYS OF INVASIONS OF M. Can be used in cant be used in immunization immunization examples diphtheria. histaminase c) Autophagocytic factors -causes lysis of m. UNITS OF TOXIC. rapid in high temp toxoid conversion can be converted to cant be converted to toxoid. contact -maybe direct or indirect.o enters inside of host cells enzymes that helps invasions eg:DNAase. Eg. food. gas respiration eg. -direct by kissing & sex b) vehicle invasion spread of disease by by H2O. syringe. Eg. typhoid. protease.O IN HUMAN. botulism. Begin the vector transmission By infection to man.o can be exotoxin or endotoxins property exotoxins endotoxins location Gm+ & GmGm. food salmonella.structural compound of cell wall extracellular excreted into medium chemical nature polypeptides lipopolysacharides stability unstable(high temp) stable(sensitive >60 C) toxicity most powerful < toxicity.o to cause infectious diseases a)DLM (doses lethalis minimum) – min num of m. TYPES. It stays in dust e) transplacental transmission: some diseases as vortical transmission.enteric fever Blood – malaria. towel. plague Units of toxin strength : DLM (minimum lethal dose) Gene determinants: plasmids. staphylococcus.o which causes death of 50% of infected animals c)DCL -number of m.multiply and grow in incubation period. enzymes. Eg. non specific action neurotoxin & hemotoxin fever production cant cause fever produces fever. mosquito. -indirect contacts by contaminated objects.o :a) cell capsule b)protein (A protein of staphylococchi & M protein of streptococchi) c) Factors of toxicity: -exotoxin (antigen) & endotoxin Methods of measuring virulence Virulence:measure of ability of m.locally infection can spread by : -lymph channels(lymphagitis) -lymph nodes(lymphadenitis) -blood stream(bacterimia) m.o which causes death of 95% of infected animals b)LD50 (lethalis doses 50).can reduce in large dose effect on tissues on specific tiss eg. & usage in medicine toxoid..o can also enter the body through skin. house fly carries typhoid Biological.MICROBIAL TOXINS. syphilis. TB dust of bedding (furniture). tetanus. its period: a) incubation period.does not feel any abnormal condition c) predormal period. .o causingdeath of 100% of infected animals LD50 = A [1 + 50-a ] b-a 50. blood or often biological products. Food borne.o b) latent period.Eg. from infected mother to fetus. flies Mechanical.passive transmission of infection by vector Eg.cholera. mucosal flora or exogenous sources.common clinical symptoms d) clinical form e) decline stage. Infections maybe localized or generalized.num of m. rubella f)iatrogenic transmission: by intermittent and lab stage Dynamic of development of infections. anaopheles mosquito in malaria d) air borne infection droplets. waste borne. multiplication of m.

doctors & other medical staff infection can spread Hospital strains of opportunistic m.o depend on each other indifferentiation. -difficult to diagnose because development of different disease at same Time -difficult prophylaxis & treatment -high motility (high death rate) Types of interactions between m. destroy target cells & tissues & causes diseases -non cyctocidal productive growth .o easily enters the body at this site. blankets. high pH. enzymes.out any systemic spreading.unhygienic. If it lays in superficially ~ local infection Generalized infection~ this infection spreads through lymph channel (lymphagitis) blood stream (bacteremia) 54. Pathogenesis of viral infection depend on the types of interaction of viral & host factors a)entry of viruses into susceptible cells b)viral multiplication & spreading c)effect of virus on cell function d)host immuno response e)viral clearance or establishment of persistant infection f)viral shedding/spreading entering of virus: through skin . Local and generalized infections. bacteria-viral.o cause and give an infection b) exogenous and endogenous infections exogenous infections .o social conditions. eating habits mixed infection: infection by more than one m. immune system) of normal microflora environment. klebsiella. E.typical. They are.aureus.viral. Local infections – it occurs at the site of invasion when the patient has a open wound.o. the infection occur fm outside endogenous.has barriers to stop development of infectious disease like physiological conditions ( presence of m.O. enterococcus.52. HIV.may influence the development of resistance & at the same time increase in the number of m.aeroginosa.atypical. -viruses nucleic acid & host cell DNA interact causes transformation of immunity of viral infection . a)new m. ENVIRONMENT & SOCIAL CONDITIONS IN THE BEGINNING & DEV OF INFECTIOUS DISEASE m. m.diabetes mellitus.clothings.coli. M.o that are pathogenic develop infectious disease.o increase frequency of multiplication of the other complementation. shigella sonnei Condition for formation -contacting with other patient & staff -environmental sources -by surgical objects~ equipments.slow. bacteria. strep. resp tract. enterobacteria.I. Conditions for the beginning: a)age. independent multiplication-m. high concentration of borns & elderly ppl insufficient immunity b)infected patient – can be spread by close contact c)drug resistance – the infection can be resistant against some drugs d)susceptible patients. stap. They produce toxins .T & urogenital tract or conjunctiva or through mucous membrane of respiratory tract eg: polio virus some virus introduced directly to the blood eg.o m. Also by nurses .spleen) viral effect on cells -cytolytic or cyclocytic hepatitis B multiplication & spread: multiply locally & remain confined there w.epidermidis. viral.both m. pseu. HOSPITAL INFECTIONS Disease in patient or medical staff after presence in hospital independent of the time of the symptom appears on infectious disease in patients after admission. & disturb normal microflora human organism. Virus replicate in susceptible host cell releasing new virus which infect new cells. food -Hospital air~contacting with dust which is infected. virus enter blood & causes primary viraemia.o multiply independently exaltation.chronic.o suppress the multiplication of the other microbe 55. Primary viraemia~central foci~multiply~enter the blood ~secondary viraemia (liver. After multiplication in local lymph nodes. medical manipulation systems by surgical instruments. G. Persistence of pathogen in organism Reinfection -infecting by the same pathogenic m. sexual contact. some viruses are able to infect cells but do not replicate within the cells.pyogens. SPECIALITY OF VIRAL INFECTIONS Molecular type of interaction -necessary penetration of virus into susceptible cells -development of virus inside host cells will damage host cell -viral infections doent connectwith excretion of virus outside of the body. body fluid Characteristics a)transmission by contacting hand & clothing also by instruments b)air borne infections~ droplet of respiratory tract can be passed to open wounds also dust from floor & bedings c)oral route 1) 2) 3) 4) 53. Primary multiplication at the site of entry these virus pass through the lymphatics to local lymph nodes.protozoal etc Main types of interaction are.o after the illness is recovered Superinfection -infection of sick person by the same m. injections that enter the body. HUMAN ORG. susceptible patients Surfaces~ blood. FORMS OF INFECTIOUS PROCESS a)due to presence of symptoms –symptomatic -asymptomatic b) due to different forms. ROLE OF M.o before recovery Secondary degree infection -when body immunity decrease of the patient by a primary degree infection disease.abortive immunosuppressive patients e)surgical procedures.o maybe from different taxonomic group -bacteria-bacteria.bacterial cleavage. the infection occurs when normal body microflora is changing its normal(auto infection) place and this leads to infection development on the systems.o -they are stap.

tuberculosis. antibody protects child For at least first 6 months of life 57. coxsackie virus.o causes infectious diseases eg. adeno virus. patients with transplantation Influences on opportunistic m. b) HORMONAL INFLUENCE certain hormonal disorders such as diabetes mellitus.o & foreign bodies cells Study of immunity – immunology (studies the ways & method of immune status of the body & the way the body react to against different antigen. This condition occurs when the patient is having immune depression or immune depressing disease. Cilia sweeps the secretion containing the foreign particulate material towards the oropharynx. (injections) Usage of immunosupressors (hormones . influenza A. The skin can be freed of transient flora readily but the resident flora on it cannot be removed even by washing and application of disinfectant. occurs exudative inflammatory response. When different antigen comes and react at the surface of the liver . echo virus b) enteric virus has GIT entering. para influenza. increase in frequency of invasible manipulation. Eg. frm leucocytes. and measles. C. b) Nose. Role of normal human flora: a) Beneficial role -they prevent or suppress the colonization/ invasion of the body by pathogens by means of bacterial interference. B. patient with cancer . increase in duration of life span . mumps. Superficial Surfaces: Animal body is a close system separated frm the environment by skin and mucous membrane which are impermeable to the particulate material of the size of bacteria. it possesses bactericidal activity. . It lyses the mucopeptide of the cell wall of many gram negative bacteria. IMMUNITY Infectiveness of viruses Pathogenic m. coxsackie virus~ GIT rabies virus ~ skin & blood mumps & measles ~ respiratory tract Basic parts of modern immunology Immunology – state of resistance on insusceptibility by the host to toxic molecules . a) Skin: intact skin provides a mechanical barrier to the invading microorganisms and also provides bactericidal secretions. poilio virus. hepatitis A &B c) neurotropic virus eg. physical influence of life) Kinds of viral infections respiratory viruses (resp tract) eg. antibiotics. rota virus. plague. Nasopharynx. causes disease only in adult with high suppression of immune system. and adrenal dysfunction influence susceptibility to infection. it also inactivate some viruses. herpes viral infection. Fibrin entagles or traps the organism and acts as a barrier to spread of infection. Those tht pass beyond the larynx are trapped in the bronchial mucosa and only a few reach the bronchioles and alveoli. Found in polymorphonuclear leucocytes. By their metabolism they produce vitamins. and Respiratory Tract: inhaled bacteria arrested in the tortuous nasal passages on the moist surfaces of the mucous membrane lining. Non-specific Factors of Human Defence: a) AGE foetus and old person carry high susceptibility of infectious diseases.o number over the years . basic polypeptides (leukins. influence of radiation ( destruction of T & B lymphocytes). plakins.a) 56. accumulation of phagocytes. c) Mouth. hypothyroidism. Nasal and respiratory secretions contain muco-polysaccharides which can neutralise influenza and some other viruses. Interferons possess antiviral effect. especially vitamin K and B vitamins. Complement: it acts only on microorgm sensitized by specific antibody. if this is not destroyed. polio virus Opportunistic m. Sebaceous secretions containing unsaturated fatty acid n free saturated fatty acid have bactericidal and fungicidal actions. -antibodies produced in response to commensals cross-react with pathogens having related or shared antigens. Im mmunology the study about cells that regulate the immune status in body is known as Active natural:follows clinical or suclinical infections Artificia: induced by vaccination Passive natural:tranplacenta passage of Ig G. measles. by preventing them frm gaining a foothold in the body. radiation therapy) Ecology (chemical . where it is swallowed or cough out.o may cause infection in a person with suppressed immunity (Innate immunity after antibiotic therapy is suppressed) Saphrophytes. tears and other body fluids. m. Material tht manage to reach alveoli are ingested by phagocytic cells present there. Lysozyme: bactericidal enzyme of low molecular weight basic protein. they lead in formation of a disease. c) NUTRITION malnutrition predisposes to bacterial infection such as gram negative bacterial septicaemia. -the bacterial flora of intestine are responsible for normal structure and function of intestinal tract. Stomach and Intestinal Tract: saliva possesses a) b) c) d) Humoral Factors: Apart frm specific antibody there are variety of non-specific antibacterial substances in blood and tissues. patients with AIDS. This lead to immune deficiency and patients get involved in different immunopathological disease. outpouring of natural antibacterial substances and deposition of fibrin. Eg. Cellular factors: When agent infect tissue. Other Antibacterial substances: betalysin. rhino virus. Properdin: it is a euglobulin present in normal serum and causes lysis of gram negative bacteria with the help of Mg and complement. frm platelets) have antibacterial effects. polio.

b) 02. thyroglobulin and others may act as autoantigens. can act as good antigens. Isospecificity: alloantigens or isoantigens are found to be present in some but not all members of a species which are able to produce alloantibodies or (isoantibodies) in individuals who are free frm the antigens. Species specificity: tissues of all individuals in a particular species possess. b)Alternate or by-pass pathway of C: generally activated by nonimmunological means such as inulin. Organ specificity. Immune adherence and opsonization. enzymes. 7 fragment 4 B9 increase permeability capillary C5b. Autospecificity: the autologous or self antigens are ordinarily not immunogenic but under certain circumstances lens proteins.9 4)Sources of preparations C1 intestinal epithelium C2 to C4 macrophages C5 to C8 spleen C3 C6 C9 liver 5)Practical using Complement activity is tested with sheep RBC tht are coated with sheep RBC serum of rabbits. but some are polysaccharides. unable to induce an immune response by itself but can become immunogenic only when covalently linked to proteins (called carrier proteins) in vitro or in vivo. . Phagocytic action can be divided into four stages: Chemotaxis: being attracted by chemotactic substances. Formation of phogolysosome 60. Properties of antigen: Foreignness: the immune system possesses the capacity to distinguish between self and nonself. the activation unit: and C5 to C9. Carrier molecule of haptens: it may be serum protein such as 59. 4)Group antigens a) foreign antigen: antigens are cell walls. circulate in blood for 6 to 7 hrs. cobra venom. zymosan. either by producing specific antibody or specially sensitized T cells or both. Some of these proteins are enzymes. pili. a) 01. they are able to generate an immune response by themselves. properdin system and regulatory proteins. some are control molecules while others are structural proteins without any enzymatic activity. usually non-protein substance.7. show some degree of cross reaction with proteins frm related species. They are glycoproteins. antibody produced against human serum proteins.organ specific antigens are confined to a particular organ or tissue. These are high molecular weight (more thn 10. toxins dust. no precipitate is produced. pollens b) autoantigens: antigens are thyroglobulin. produced in bone marrow. 6. C5b. Size: larger molecules are highly antigenic and substances less thn 10 000 daltons molecular weight are either non-antigenic or weakly antigenic. yeast walls. Attachment (adherence): the infective agent gets attracted to the membrane of the phagocyte. phagocytes reach the site of infection. Ingestion: phagocyte engulfs the particulate material into a vacuole ( phagosome) the membrane of which fuses with a lysosome forming a phagolysosome. When they combine with specific antibody. C8. The C proteins constitute about 5% of the serum proteins and are structurally unrelated to immunoglobulins. bacterial endotoxins. Complement in general is heat-labile and inactivated at 56’C for 30 minutes.e. Complement: 1) Chemical structure Complement system consists of approximately 20 serum proteins which include components of complement ( C1 to C9). 6. Macrophages: these are mononuclear phagocytic cells distributed throughout the body both circulating in blood and tissues. Lysosome contains hydrolytic enzymes and other bactericidal substances. species specific antigen. Fixation of C36 on surface of cell for easy phagocytosis.ple: low molecular weight simple chemical substances. IgE and IgG. Chemical nature: proteins are more effective in stimulating antibody production than polysaccharide Susceptibility to tissue enzymes: substances which can be metabolized and can be converted to soluble forms by the action of tissue enzymes. Polymorphs arrive at scene of infection. Hapten or incomplete antigen Is a low molecular weight (less than 10. Phagocytic theory of immunity 1) Phagocytosis Phagocytic cells are classified into: Microphages: eg polymorphonuclear leucocytes Macrophages: these are mononuclear phagocytic cells Neurophil polymorphonuclear leucocytes: these are called polymorphs. Thus human blood proteins can be differentiated frm animal protein by specific antigen-antibody reactions.mplex: relatively large molecules and combine with specific antibodies forming visible precipitate. The two important properties of a complete antigen include immunogenicity (capacity to induce formation of corresponding antibody) and to react specifically with those antibodies. when introduced in a living animal evokes specific immune response. 2)Routes of activation. corneal tissue c) isoantigens: blood group antigens (ABO. 2)Complete and incomplete antigen Complete antigen or immunogen are used for substances which possess antigenic properties de-novo. a) Classical pathway: begins when an antigen and antibody combine to form an immune complex. i.000). 3)Specificity of antigens Antigenic specificity: depends on the specific active sites on the antigenic molecules(antigenic determinants). Indicators for the characteristic of phagocytosis.a) b) 2) 3) a) b) c) d) 58. DNA.000) proteins. C2 and C3. the membrane attack unit. Injury to tissue excites inflammatory response. Antigenic specificity: antigenic specificity depends on the specific active sites on the antigenic molecules (antigenic determinants). C5a. Chemotaxis. However. species specific antigen. Cross-reaching microbial antigens 5)Species antigens Tissues of all individuals in a particular species possess. Intracellular killing of bacterium: most bacteria are slaughtered in the phagolysosome by the hydrolytic enzymes within a few minutes of phagocytosis. the reciprocal activity of serum tht lysis 50% of RBC is called haemolytic activity of complement. However haptens can react specifically with its corresponding antibody. Rh) d) heteroantigens: heterophile antigens.Antigens 1) Main characteristic of antigen a) b) c) d) e) Antigen is a substance usually protein in nature and sometimes polysaccharide. The mechanism can also be triggered immunologically by IgA. The complement components are grouped under three functional units: C1 the recognition unit: C4. incubated with dilution of serum sample. 3)Role in the antiinfectious defence Lysis of foreign cell by classical pathway.

as antigen but they can penetrate to secondary immune organs. Thymocytes interact with epithelial cells. 4)preparation 5)practical using Mainly antigen is used in production of Ig (Ab) to certain constitution. thyroglobulin and lens protein of one species share specificity with tht of another species. heat lable.produce biological active substance c)large granulocytes produce Ab-dependent cytotoxicity (cellular) only if they can interact with Ab or target cells. *they can recognize Ag without little restriction. may be destroyed by formalin Capsule antigen (K) A. 7)Antigenic structure of viruses a) surface antigen b) nucleocapsid antigen c) hidden antigenic a) b) c) d) a) b) 62. B and L classes. Th3). Ab is produced in a characteristic pattern depending on the nature. Peyer’s patches) The time of differentiation of immune cells in central lymphoid organs is genetically predominant and doesn’t depend on foreign substance. . If they cannot they produce Ab. damage to the thyroid or testis. the Ag selects appropriate B cells involving cellular interactions. In norm foreign subs cannot enter to central organs. The 1st cell is stem cell. can’t be destroyed by C2H5OH Flagella antigen (H) Consist of protein. When they go to medulla they form CD4 and CD8 CD4 – produce Th CD8 – produce Ts CD4 and CD8 are MHC1 and MHC2 CD4 recognize MHC class 2 Ag CD8 recognize MHC class 1 Ag 4)Cell and humoral immunity a)Humoral immunity on exposure to an antigen for the 1st time. The antigenic specificity of self antigen may be modified either through a drug or bacterial product and thus may become immunogenic. but not with antisera. may be destroyed by acetone. Then lymphoid stem cell 2) their function a) are able to regulate immune response by Th. 7)Autoantigens The autologous or self antigens are ordinarily not immunogenic but under certain circumstances lens protein. Then they go to medulla.Immune system of a men 1)immunocompetent organs. It is called corticothymocytes the main marker is corticothymocyte CD4 and CD8. Antigens which are absent during embryonic life but appear later eg sperm also considered as nonself antigens. 6)group and species antigens of microbes. Can recognize cell and non cell Ag. These self antigens act as autoantigens producing autoimmune disease in the following ways: whenever these antigens are released into the tissues following injury of the lens. thyroglobulin or sperm act as autoantigens and antibodies are produced against them. they have information about all Ag.Antigenic structure of bacterial cell 1) indication Bacterial antigen can be identified as 3 types: somatic antigen (O) flagella antigen (H) capsule antigen (K) 2)position of antigen Somatic antigen – present in cell wall Flagella antigen – present in flagella Capsule antigen – present in capsule hapten in nature and specific for bacteria 3)characteristic Somatic antigen (O) Chemically lipopolysaccharide. Certain organs like brain. mucopolysaccharide. K-cells) d) Macrophages lymphocytes has 20-30% in all blood cells. a) b) c) 61. thyroglobulin and others may act as autoantigens. Cells: a) T-lymphocytes Ts. Th (Th1. This form of immunity can be transferred frm immunised donor to naïve recipient with intact lymphocytes. b)Cell mediated immunity the term cell-mediated immunity refers to a form of acquired specific immune response mediated by sensitized T-cells. the lens protein. Th2. Brain specific antigen are shared by man and sheep. Tk b) B-lymphocytes c) Large granules lymphocytes (NK. kidney. Then they express TcR for Ag. dose and route of administration of antigen (parental or oral). Lymphocytic synthesis in bone marrow. Biological subs of orgm can influence on differentiation of immune cells. heat stable. bone marrow) secondary – peripheral (lymph nodes. then cells begin to differentiate. 3)T-lymphocytes and their function migrate in thymus. These antigens normally remain sequestered in the body and do not come in contact with the general blood circulation or tissue fluids for which these are not recognised as self antigens. cells there are many immunocompetent organs lymph nodes (peripheral lymph nodes) thymus spleen bone marrow immune organs classified into: primary – central (thymus. CD4 T-cells and CD8 T-cells.independent cellular cytotoxicity. The specific cell mediated responces are exhibited by two types of lymphocytes. heat stable and heat lable antigen.immune regulation Tssuppress humoral immune response Tkthey kill target cells but cannot kill free living cells b)they can produce different biological active substances: Th – Th1 secretes IL2/ IFg / TNF Th2 secretes IL4 / IL5 / IL6 / IL7 Th3 secretes IL1 / IL2 Ts. 1st in cortex. When 1st introduced.1) 2) 6)Type antigens Organ specific antigens are confined to a particular organ or tissue. They have immune cells.

They also form B memory cell -in the thymus independent activation of B cells and triggers B cell blast formation to a lesser degree of thymus dependent -T cytotoxic cells meet with ag complex with MHC1 cell -they release cytotoxic subs and causes the death of the ag -at the same time a small quantity of T memory cells are also formed 2)Their role in cell & humoral immunity -macrophage have a very important role to play with both CMI and AMI 1)they are ag presenting cells both for CMI and AMI 2)they secrete a) interleukins. distributed extravascularly. 2)structure An Ab molecule is made up of 2 identical heavy and 2 identical light polypeptide chains held together by disulphate (S-S) bonds. nasal fluids. they undergo clonal proliferation and differentiation and produce immunoglobulins and burgery cells -Ig are produced by the plasma cell tht are produced frm B cells. 5. Cannot pass thru placenta. They confined due to response to an Ag. 2)practical usings They are used in some important tests such as: a) precipitation b) agglutination c) immune lysis reaction d) ELISA e) Complement fixation f) Immunofluorescent test . intestinal and genital tracts. Antibody 1)immunoglobulins. Does not pass placental barrier or fix complement. Made of 2 H2L2 units and 1 molecule each of peptide (J chain) and secretory component (protein). it is reversible. Ag combines with specific ab in the observable manner and the reaction btw ag and ab is specific. Inactivated by heat. Consist of 2H chains linked by disulphide bond. If presence of IgM ab in serum of foetus or newborn indicates intrauterine infection. tears. cryglobulinaemia. The 2 symmetrical H chains are held together by 1 to 5 S-S (disulphide) bonds. presence of hydrophobic grps and Van der Waal’s bonds (complementary electron cloud formation on the combining sites of antigen-antibody). The longer chains are called “heavy” (H) and the shorter ones “light” (L) chains. These ab are also referred to as regains. their main characteristic Ab is a specialized serum protein. 65. chemical & biological properties. Each L chain is attached to H chain by a disulphide bond. No visible effect and the reaction is rapid. 1)interaction between T & B-lymphocytes & macrophages. macrophages infected the ag can be recognized by T ag and destroy 4)plays a role in delayed hypersensitivity 5)extracellular effect on mast cells. sweat. The molecules are held together in lock and key arrangement by spatial complementarity and not by covalent bonding. complement fixation and neutralisation of toxin and viruses. Complement fixation. if its too big they attach along with monocytes. The corresponding ag interacts with the ag receptors on B cells and lead to specific stimulation. electrostatic force (attraction btw oppositely charged ionic grps). neutrophils or eosinophils. their physical. -Ag is taken up by ADC and are presented to T cells -T cells starts to proliferate -AMI – Th cells recognise the ag on the macrophage n produces cytokines in the presence of IL1 -they produce 4. Has 2 identical ag binding sites called divalent. a) immunoglobulin G main serum Ig making up to 80% of total amount (12 mg/ml blood). It has Ab-globulin. Attaches itself to mast cells by Fc fragment.IL1 and IL6 causes proliferation of T cells b) TNF – Tumour cidal activity 3)cooperation btw macrophages T cytotoxic. (specific Ag has its specific Ab). toxin-antibody reaction. The forces of interaction for better fitting of the molecules include. Antigen-antibody interactions: The union of antigen and antibody occurs in 2 stages: 1. This specificity is the basis of many serological reactions in vitro and in vivo. Then it reacts with Ag (Ab+Ag=Ab+Ag complex) There are a) humoral Ab b) body secreting Ab c) body fixed Ab Ig. present on the membranes of a proportion of unstimulated B lymphocytes of bl and serve as recognition receptors for antigens.Mchanism of immune answer. Participates in most of immunological reactions such as precipitation.Production of antibodies 1)cells and their interactions Antibodies are produced rapidly in the system against the antigenic determinants of infecting orgm. plasma proteins of myeloma. Protects exposed mucous membrane. colostrums and in secretions of respiratory. saliva. b)immunoglobulin A principal Ig tht appears in the sero-mucous secretions such as milk. Predominant ab in 2ndary immune response. IgD1 and IgD2 are known. e)immunoglobulin E found in serum of patients with certain types of allergies.63. Called macroglobulin. Examples of tests are Coomb’s test and fluorescent ab tests 2. 6 and 10 which activate B cells. agglutination or alternatively in the activation of nonantibody component such as serum complement or histamine frm mast cells. Is a 8S molecule with short life of 2-3 days. 3)basic classes of immunoglobulin. which joints the Fc fragments of the basic subunits. Primary interaction. c)immunoglobulin M is a pentamer consisting of 5 H2L2 units and 1 molecule of J chain. macroglobulinaemia and naturally occurring subunits of Ig. Half life is 23 days. 4)specificity of antibodies The antigenic determinant (epitope) makes contact with an area on the hypervariable region of the antibody (called paratope). neutralisation and immobilisation test. they are protein in nature. hydrogen bonding (formation of reversible hydrogen bridges). particularly mast cells and basophils of the same species. d)immunoglobulin D is a 7S monomer. Two subclasses of IgD. Got unusual affinity for the surface of tissue cells. either activation and cloning to form ab or suppression. Secondary stage Precipitation. depending on the type of Ig. 64. Passes thru placenta and provides natural passive immunity to newborn. Not formed in the fetus. Appears 2 weeks after infection n persist for longer period of time.

urinary n genital tracts.HLA-C:major class responsible for tissue rejection.monozygous twins.consist of 3 loci grouped into 3 classes. Eg. This mucosal or secretory immune system can neutralise viruses and can inhibit attachment of bacteria to epithelial cells. They are alloantigens present on the surface of leukogenic and are called Human Leukocyte Antigen.Humoral antibodies do not prevent multiplication of viruses at the site of entry [eg.resp. -HLA antigens are widely distributed with tissues except RBC which the twin onlyABH antigens. .phases of their formation n functions. HLAcomplex of genes is located in the short arm of chromosome 6. 3)theory of Ab formation. Phases of their formation.tractwith cysteine rich polypeptidecalled Jchain. IgM Incomplete Ab – has 1 active ………….Xenograft[xenogenic graft]-graft btw. The dimeric IgA combines with another protein . -covers the microbs and inhibit their adherence to mucosal cells.. Human HLAcomplex.two genetically different members of same species. IgA is demerised within the epithelial cells of the glands. Red cells washed in saline three times. 2)autoantibody. B:Specialty of the structure of secretory Ig.Allograft[homograft or allogenic graft]-grft transfr btw. 67.They are present in all mammalian nucleated cells and is the reason for rejection of exogenous is formerly called heterograft.Isograft=syngraft[syngenic graft]-graft placed on another individual of the same genetic constitution. eg. Rh. Ab/Ig G 1)Detection Direct Coomb’s test it detects the presence of incomplete Ab absorbed on RBC surface Indication for test autoimmune haemolytic anemia.gut mucosa. 2.The cluster of genes encoding for them is called HLAcomplex. Natural infection or administration of live oral polio vaccine and intranasal influenza vaccine provide local immunity of gut mucosa n nasal mucosa.FactorB:Complement system. Class11-HLA-DP.saliva. 68.secretory component synthesized by local epithelial cells to then the complex is transported acroos the cytoplasm and secreted into body fluids.A. 1. Eg. erythroblastosis foetalis Red cells washed in saline 3 times by centrifugation to remove proteins except globulin. -It has application in patternity determination. Transpalntational immunity is the immune response provided by the transplantation[HLA] antigens. Kind of grafts. Functions.secretory component synthesized by local epithelial cells and then the complex is transported across the plasm n secreted into body fluids.C4. 4. Class111-C2. Washed cells mixed with Coomb’s serum.the secretory component protect IgA frm denaturation by bacterial proteases. clumping of RBCs occur Indiret Coomb’s test it detects incomplete ab present in serum detection of antiRh ab in serum of Rh negative pregnant women of Rh positive husband patient’s serum mixed with saline washed Rh positive group O ( or tht of same grp of patient) red cells and incubated at 37’C for 30 minutes. IgA in external secretions is synthesized by plasma cells residind in the mucosal tissue or secretory organ.intestine and resp. Then the 2nd baby can be in danger.HLA-DR:regulates immune response.intestinal. Agglutination occurs in positive cases.a) b) c) a) b) c) 66.HLA-OQ.Complete & incomplete antibodies Complete Ab – have two active ………… eg.IgA plays important role in local immunity.members of different species.Autograft[autogenic graft]-tissue of one site engrafted to another site with the same individual.the dimeric IgA combines with another protein. a)clonal selection theory -clonate of B cells are present to produce Ab against every Ag b)instruction (templastic theory) -ag act as template IgA contains glycine rich polypeptide called the secretory component which is produced by mucosal or glomerular cells. during blood transfusion or transplacentally. due to blocking or inactivation of other ………. IgA is largely synthesized locally by plasma cels n only a little amount may b derived frm serum. -Promote phagocytosis n promoting intracellular killing of microbs. Localized immunity: Local immunity-is the immune response at the site of primary entry of the microorganisms. systemic immunization with killed viruses elicit humoral antibody response which neutralise the viruses when they enter the blood stream . 3. if Rh –ve pregnant women gives birth to Rh +ve baby (father is Rh +ve). In poliomyelitis and influenza. Class 1-HLA-A. Secretory IgA is made of 2 H2L2units n one molecule each of peptide[j chain] n secretory component[protein]. their role in pathology. -aggregated IgA can bind to polymorphs and activate alternate compliment pathway.tract]as the antibody titre in local secretion is not high enough to kill the viruses. -HLAsystems is very useful in tissue typing and maturing prior to transplantation.Its production is stimulated more effectively by local than by systemic infection or ag administration. It can cause pathology.and milk. Main mechanism.human HLA complex.Transplantational immunity:kind of grafts.HLA-B. Rh incompetability late phase.tears. an example of auto ab is Rh factors. When washed RBCs mixed with AHG in presence of bovine albumin. IgA provides the principal component in external secretions such as mucous of respiratory.IgA is dimerised with the epithelial cells to acystein rich polypeptide called J-chain and Fc fragment.

C .lymphocytes.Toxic substances are released into the target cell.tilorone . -Tissue compatibility agents.double stranded RNA . -MHC controls production of time complement component. CMI. a. -It bind to receptors on injected cells and upregulates some cellular genes and downregulates others to inhibit replication of viruses. 1.-Diseases showing strong association with HLA include Reiters syndrome. b.Primary interaction. d. 3.viral and other antigen.practical using. HLA is also called MHC.In this case must have a limited time for organ transplantation.Priciples of donor and recipient selection.[major histocompatibility complex].It depends frm graft.respiratory viruses. -Caused by B cells. 2.Both for vaccine and industrial use.Juvenile Rheumatoid Arthritis. -MHC provides strength and suppression of immune system. These cells recognise Ic portion of virus bound Igs that all in turn bound to infected cells.Take organ frm donors only after death.NK cells.Type of antibody. 1. -the forces of interaction includes.CFT. B .A .genital. -Using of immunosuppresors. -Participating cells:CD4. Overcoming of transplantational barrier[immunosupresors].they may also inhibit thymus dependent A antigens. 2. These cell are macrophages. -inhibits protein synthesis by [2. AMI. -MHC provides reaction of graft with host. The potent inducers are-Togavirus. Practical using. 69. 5.Coeliac disease and Grave’s disease.agglutination test.anloues of purine cystosin and uracil interfere the synthesis of DNA n RNA or both and inhibit cell division and differentiation.T cells [antigen activated] D.Cyclospmine-inhibits selectively T-cell activity.IF gamma] for future use. c.Agglutination. Type-alpha. Eg.Toxin –antitoxin reaction. 2. -MHC stimulates antibodies and blasts transformation of cells.5-A Synthetase] -protein kinase inhibits ribosomes assembly.produced by B cells.It reacts on circulating lymphocytes and mainly used for the prevention of graft.hydrogen bonding and Van der Waal’s bonds.NKcells.Coomb’s test and Fluorescent antibody test.Viral infections-keratitin.bacterial endotoxins .CD8.Antiviral immunity:non-specific factors of defense. Non-specific factors includes macrophage action that leads to phagocytosis of the infected cells and release of interferon by the injected cell itself. -It can block sites of virus attachment. 1.Precipitation. -Complement also can inactivate some viruses.macrophages{nonspecific} 1. Eg.Antilymphocytic serum-primarily effective against T-cells and specifically on cell mediated immunity. 2.osteosarcoma.monoclonal-antibody produce by single antibody forming cells or clone directed against a single antigen or antigenic determinant.Role of phagocytosis and antibodies.Interferons.Practical using. -IgM and IgG neutralise virions on the mucosal surface. B .fibroblast [virus activated] Gamma. -The antigen antibody reaction is reversible. . -Activation of complement can cause opsonization of viruses. -visible demonstrable effect such as precipitation.By cross matching can check the match donor and recipient components. 1.pure antibody. B. C.polyclonal-heterogenous antibody that are produced in response to a single antigen by several different antibodies.some synthetics-Bpoly I:C. -MHC eradicates grafts.Monoclonal antibody:scheme of preparation.killing it. -Abs can cause aggregation of virus particles and the complex is readily phagocytosed.vesicular stomatitis virus.secondary interaction.Diagnostic use –identification of bacteria . Viruses .monocytes. It includes the humoral[AMI]and the cellular mechanism[CMI]. -Classical and Alternative pathways can be activated by some viruses. C. -There is no visible effect and the reaction is rapid.Therapeutic uses.CD8 or target cells can recognise specific Ag on the target cell and release cytotoxic substances killing the infected cells.macrophages [virus activated] Beta. 1. 4.Sensitised Th and Tc cells produce lymphokines that eliminate viruses [eg.Neutralisation and Immobilisation tests. F.Inductors of interferon. 2.bacterial endotoxin It starts being produced in an hour and is max in 6-12hrs. -B cells can recognise the epitope of a free virus and this leads to the neutralization of the virus.electrostatic force.Antimetabolites-Folic acid antagonists. 3.Mechanism of connection btw antibody and antigen and reactions of immunity.Test for vaccines-identification and participation of microbial products.Corticosteroids-with high dosage cause depletion of lymphocyte. -stabilise viral capsid with endosomal membrane. E.Mechanism of antiviral action. Conditions of production:They are produced upon a potent insull like injection with virus. 3.adjunctive therapy-in breast carcinoma.ADCC-Antibody Dependent Cell Mediated cytotoxicity. 2.

Immune electrophoresis-for determination of the presence or absence of serum proteins and detection of unusual patterns such as human myeloma protein. a. . Agglutination is a reaction between antigen – antibody in which an antibody combines with a particular antigen in the presence of electrolytes at optimal pH and temperature resulting in visible clumping of the particle.toxigenecity test of c.2ml of diphtheria toxin[1/150MLD] is injected intradermally. Multivalent antigens combine with bivalent antibodies in optimal proportion in zone of equivalence.Agar gel precipitation test. 3.01 unit or more per ml of blood] Eg.Mechanism and ingredients.Ag diffuse radially And forms a ring shaped band. b. It is employed to defect production of c. Reaction of precipitation : is a specific interaction of the antigen [precipinogen] and antibody [precipitin] with the presence of an electrolyte with the formation of a deposit or precipitate. -immune to diphtheria.Neutralisation test in vitro.Usage for diagnostic aim.Toxigenecity test in vivo. c. -used to detect toxicity of c. 73. Clumps are formed in a few minutes. Immunodiffusion-antibody and antigen solution placed in wells opposite each other And allowed to diffuse Ag and Ab for few days. Has 7 test type.No biological effect of toxin is seen in the controlled animal but unprotected animal dies.5ml cell suspension] is added to all tubes and then incubated . d. Detection of unknown antibody. 72. 2.fixed .Slide flocculation-a drop each of Ag solution and serum placed on a slide .which enables the complexes to link up to form a large lattice in the zone of equivalence. Since the patient’s body produces Abs continuosly throughout the disease process a serum sample would contain the Abs. C. C. 1. cl. -toxin –antotoxin neutralisation can be done in vitro and in vivo.Agglutinins and reaction of agglutination : mechanism of reaction and ingredients.typhus[Weil-Felix reaction].diphteriae consists of intradermal inoculation of bacterial toxin in guinea pig previously protected by that very little linking occurs between Ag-Ab complexes. Ring test-antigen solution layered over a column of whole serum [Ab] in a narrow Test tube.welchi toxin is neutralise by antitoxin when the organism is grown in serum or egg yolk medium containing antitoxin. 6. Shick test.Neutralisation in vivo.71. This is an widely used method to detect known antigen. Standardisation of toxins and antitoxins.bentonite . staphylococcal cells and RBC by coating with soluble antigen .Reaction of neutralizing of toxin:mech and ingredients. C.The polysac antigen get absorbed to the cells by simple mixing while protein antigen require tanned red cells . 7. -there is no reaction at the site of injection of the person contains circulating antitoxin[0. 1. 6.egg embryos and animals. Identification of bacteria 2. Identification of human blood or seminal fluid.Instead of antibody . Precipitin : are antibodies which bring about the formation of a minute deposit [precipitate]upon interaction with a specific antigen. Blood grouping and cross matching.virus neutralisation. -when 0. Identification of unknown culture.when the antigen is adsorbed onto the carrier particles for estimation of antigens .The free antigen binding sites in antibody and antigen determinant groups remain available after initial combination of antigen and antibody molecules.less precipitate forms because of the inability of the Ag-Ab complexes to link up to other complexes which results in failure to form a large aggregate or lattice. a precipitation reaction can be converted into agglutination reaction by certain carrier particles . 4.The lattice consists of alternating antigen and antibody molecules. -when an antitoxin combines with a toxin the biological effects of the toxin are neutralized.01 unit or more per ml of blood]. B.Tube agglutination test.Nagler reaction. Mechanism. Preparation of antibody and antigens. Addition of the specific Ag to this Ab leads to a reaction between them and seen clumping by the naked eyes.streptolysin o neutralisation. There is no reaction at the site of injection of the person contains circulating antitoxin[0. Testing for food is called reversed passive agglutination. Practical usage.Bunnel test] 4. 11.they settle out of solution spontaneously. Preparation of polyvalent and monovalent serums .highest dilution of serum at which agglutination occurs is recorded as antibody titre. Double diffusion-Ag and Antisera are placed in different wells cut out in agar gel And allowed to diffuse to each other [Ouchterlony technique]. 5. Serological diagnosis of enteric fever [Widal test].diphteriae. B. 1. 1. Mostly done with typing viral isolates.When the size of lattices exceed critical volumes . 3. Tube flocculation-serial dilutions of antigen made in test tube to which fixed amount serum added.Brucellosis and infectious mononucleosis [Paul.2ml of diphtheria toxin [1/150MLD]is injected intradermally. For determination of antibody titre. a.such as latex particles .mixed By shaking. Slide agglutination test.Shick test.all the functional determinants of the antigen molecules are taken up with antibody. D. Lines of precipitate formed may be identical when two adjacent Antigens are identical.A suspension of antigen is made in saline on a slide and a small drop of antiserum is added and the slide is rocked for a minute. 2.This is added to the serum with the Ab and agglutination is seen . 4.immune to diphtheria. Streptococcus MG agglutination test or diagnosis of primary atypical pneumonia.In the zone of antibody excess . Mainly IgG is used. Single diffusion-antibody incorporated in agar gel on a slide or petridish and Antigen are placed in well cut on the agar gel. b.Serum is diluted in saline solution in a series of test tubes. Practical use. 5. 3. B. 2 . Can be done in cell cultures.In the zone of antigen excess .diphteria[alex test n shick test] -Neglers test for cl. C. Equal volume of standard antigen suspension [0. When 0. 1. Agglutinins are an antibody capable of clumping the corresponding microbs by producing visible conglomerates.Usage for the measuring of the level of antitoxic immunity[name of reaction.perfringens.Precipitins and reaction of precipitation. Reaction of passive agglutination. Identification of bacterial component with infected tissue. Homologous antibodies prevent the biological effect toxin.description of the method].

5 0 . 2)Reaction of complement system:The presence of complement system is necessary for complete reaction of certain lysis Ab.complex formed if specific after some time. 5 1:0 0 .The coupling of Ag-Ab complex does not have any visible effect. - double antibody techniques for detection of antigen [sandwich ELISA ]. sheep RBC and rabbits antibodies complement. Then fluorescent tagged antibodies are brought into contact with antigens fixed on the slide allowing them to react.An indication system containing sensitized sheep’s RBC is added to next mixture and intubated at 37c for 30mins.this complement willremain free. .The enzyme [horse radish peroxidase . D. . Sheep RBC : Rabbit hemoly sis 0. 5 0 . Elisa test . 5 0. B . The result of this is:-Absence of hemolysis (+ve result)it indicates that complement was used or fixed up during intial reaction.The test can be performed as direct or indirect assay depending on whether the enzyme is conjugated to the primary or secondary antibody. C. T Test A m N System u serum g l a b C e l n o . Radio immunoassay . blood film or smear from clinical material is fixed in ethanol for 5 minute and dried.Ag-Ab complex fixes with complement.Complement acting on Ag-Ab complexes of hemolytic system produce membrane injury of RBC.Ag must be quantitated.radioactivity measured by gamma spectrometer to find out amount of antigen.present hemolysis(-ve result). 75:Reaction of immune lysis: 1)Reaction of hemolysis:Based on this reaction test. The excess of antibody is washed of and the preparation is examined under ultraviolet light microscope. 5 0 .This test s for measuring Ag-Ab reaction. In positive case. After incubation . leaving behind only antibody globulin which coats surface of the antigen. . . Indirect method for detection of antibody.The result is hemolysis and releasing Hb.5 2 + - - + - + 1:0 3 h e m o l y s i s 1:0 . Practical use.Complement is observed from a guinea pig’s serum.5 1 0 .5 : indicates that complement remain and was not fixed during lysis of RBC.So an indicator system is used.alkaline phophatase ] give rise to a colour change in addition of specific substrate only when the Ag and Ab react specifically.coated with anti-sheep RBC-Abis used. the Ag-Ab complex will fluorescent. The slide is washed to remove excess fluorescent conjugate and examined under u . 5 - - 0 . The unlabeled unknown antibody is applied to the known antigen on a slide. This is a sensitive method to diagnose rabies by detecting rabies virus antigen in brain smears.Rabbits antibody are determined by injecting sheeps RBC into rabbits and take rabbits serum after few days.Reaction of immunofluorescent [direct and indirect methods ] Direct.Lysisof erytrocytestake part due to the action of complement.The test is done on solid phase . 5 0 .Test serum must be inactivcated by breaking at 56c for 1\2 hrs. useful in detection of antibodies in serum or other body fluids. Site of union of conjugated antibody with its antigen appears as pale green fluorescent areas on the slide.sheep’s erytrocytes are used.74.Freshly drawn guinea pigs serum is used. Ag-Ab are mixed and are measured the amount of complement and are intubated at37c for 1hrs.noncomplementary effect by some non specific inhibitors.5 0.If Ag-Ab match.v light. . . the slide is washed with buffer to remove unfixed excess serum . . Indirect. The smear is treated with a fluorescent tagged antibody to human globulin.add labelled antibody with isotope to antigen.Complement lysis Ab coated cells.

hemolytic activity of coplements -func.the specific cell mediated responses are exhibited by two types of lymphocytes .present in test serum combine with all or any fragment of HIV. Primary drugs-IM suppress antibiotics.HIV is broken down (separated) into protein fragments in a polyacrylamide gel. The strips are washed and treated with enzymes :conjugated antihuman gamma globulin and allowed to react.complement dependent.normal immunoglobulins level is decreasesd. 2)depression of cell mediated immunity:CMI depresses in AIDS hogkins dis…… Principles of their treatment :-transplantation of organs -admin of ig preparation -antibacterial treatment 79.this is the specific treatment.The separated protein are blotted electrophoretically frm the gel into a strip of nitrocellulose sheet . Defect of nutrition-def in Ab production and T-cells.HIV antibody serum is washed away. cholera. 3)Humoral and cell mediated immunity:Humoral-on exposure to an Ag for first time Ab is produced in a characteristics pattern depending on the nature.cd4 Tcells and cd8 Tcells. Ag is coated on surface of microtitre walls to which test serum is added. 1)Classification: a))Hypersensitivity or allergy-hyper response of immune system.Blym.whn 1st introduced. 1)depression of humoral immune response :Results whn B cells are depleted .bone marrow or under development -absence of gamma globulin.status:Immune statud s is a complex of parameter reflecting state of im.tonsils.disease or death.this form of immunity can be tranfered frm immunized donor to naïve recipient with intact lymphocytes but not with antisera.76Application of reactions of immune answer for diagnostic of viral infections 1)ELISA(using HIV virus as an eg) ELISA is the most widely used direct solid phase test in which commercial test kits are available.certain acquired diseases or as consequences of certain theraputics measures which depress immune sys. Cell-refers to a form of acquired specific immune response mediated by sensitized Tcells.the antigen selects appropriate B cells involving cellular interactions already described.Till the positive control develops a occurs as a result of defect in almost any stage of determination.Ig. 2)WESTERN BLOT In this test.Classification:-Type 1-4. Main valutions are-for diagnostic purpose -for admin of treatments 2)Tests for the valuation of factors non specific defence:A)Lab investigation: -determination of is read visually or ELISA readers.dose and route of admin. It stimulates acquired passive immunity.excess of production of abnormal immunoglobulins.heart rate.Ab to HIV protein. mumps.There are two main types immediate and delayed.type4 are cell mediated(delayed type) and T cell mdiated.myeloid cell. 2) drugs for prophylaxis .combined B and T cells . 1) Role.rashes.The positive of colour bands on strip indicates the fragments of Ag to which serum Ab has combined.absence of thymus. B)secondary IM-def-develop during life by external infl. eg.The valuation of im .antigenic preparations vaccines ~ induce production of specific antibody.A suitable solution is added to split the substrate and left at room temperature. 4)Hypersensitivity:Or allergy refers to a condition in which immune response results in excess rx leadind to tissue damage.compliment sys or phagocytosis.Then anti human goat Ag linked to a suitable enzymes (alkaline phosphatase)is added and intubated for 1hrs at 37c. 78.Then a suitable substrate is added that produces colour bands.immunisatioin against infectious disease. Eg.Pathology of immune answer.disease or death.immunosuppresants are responsible. measles. type1-3 are antibody mediated (immediate type) and ab mediated. Tumour-causes degeration of im cells.Ag is prepared from HIV cultivated is continuous T-lysis cell line or by re combination technique. Immunization aim is to produce artificially a degree of resistance sufficient to prevent a clinical attachment of the natural infection to the recipient. a) live attuenuated org. Human sera ~ pooled Ig ~specific Ig Sera are biological medicines which contain ready prepaired antibodies. Of immune cells.B-dependent. rabies c) toxoids. b))IM-deficiecy.o suppress im. 77. diphtheria & tetanus injection of exogenous antibodiespresent in human or animal serum to give immediate protection to an anticipated infection. Immunization involves active or passive immunization. 2)Primary immuno deficiency(PID) Its conjenital and genetically determined.Tcells. 3)Secondary immunodeficiency Secondary immune results as a secondary consequences of malnutrition. Diagnostics: antiserum~ prepared with animal antigens Main directions of applied immunity -immunogenetics -immunomorphology -immunopathology -immunohematology -immune of ontology -anti cancer immunology -vaccinology -immunology of grafts .In pathology PID the may be in stems cels . This type of immunity is very short lasting.Ag is prepared from as abovge.The separated protein . BCG b) killed (inactivated) vaccine. Eg. typhoid.condition of human body changes leading to tissue damage. pertesis. 2)IM deficiency conditions : Classification of deficient cells:-T-dependent.resp or destroy im sys cells.sys of whioch person at which movement of time.This sheet are incubated with test sera . Of activity of jy-specific Ab against infection -funtional activity of phagocytic cells -conc of cytokines-ELISA -determine components of compliments B)Objective method: -state of lymph nodes. in the whole IM sys.pathology of absence or slow funt.the recognition of antigen on target cell by a t-cell is triggering effect. rubella.ROLE OF MEDICAL MICROBIOLOGY IN PROPHYLAXIS INFECTIOUS DISEASES. Infection-m. Acc to origin:A)primary IM-def-organic origin.

Bovin tubercle bacillus employed and produce BCG vaccine.toxoids absorbed in to a mineral carrier remains longer in a depot after injection & serves better antigen . Tit stimulates immune response against gonococcus.and the third dose after six months of second dose.…. -associated vaccines Contain antigen indifferent nature absorbed (DPT) vaccines .chemical vaccine different antigen components that is reduced vaccines interact to live and killer cells that contain microbial bodies. They sometimes enchance antibodies production . endotoxin such as pertusis component of DPT(diphtheria. drying.o. Eg.o or plasmid due to presence of gene producing antigen the immune response develops c)some vaccines are produced by cloning the surface antigen gene in yeast cells d)cetain vaccines has to be conjugated to protein to make it immunogenic e)subunit vaccines vaccines of 3rd generation adjulant are combined vaccines.alcohol. 3)Dead vaccine:M.continued cultivation by presence of antagonist substance(BCG) and by repeated in subculture in artificial media.production without symptoms. 2)Connservation of alive vaccine:Tuberculosis. diptheris toxoids . staph native.formalin. tuberculosis (BCG). cholera vaccine contain cholerogenic toxoid & o antigen of cholera vibrio -Recombined vaccines Against hepatitis B intergration of subunit of hepatitis B virus into saprophyte cells which is multiple on artificial media giving antigen against hepatitis B. brucellosis. Incubate at 37C until toxicity has disappeared. staph absort .yellow fever.cholera.80. uv & photodynamic inactivation . by continuous cultivation in pressure of antagonistic substance (BCG) and by repeated subcultivation in artificial media.plague. . They are prepared form strains from patient.Alive vaccine 1)Method of preparation:Attenuation of live vaccine is done by ageing of culture. and parotids.small pox. They contain antigen against some infectious disease eg.plasmid) &inject the human by virus .AIDS patients.mimic natural infection with Ab. tetanus toxoids. rubella vaccines(DPT) vaccine therapy -vaccines can be udsed for therapy . m. pertusis .influenza. phenol. cultivate at high tempreture (anthrax) passage through diff animals. mumps . Gene vaccines Its used for treatment of chronic gonorrea. parotidis -killed vaccines m. n etc. alcohol. eg. They loses toxigenicity & have immunogenicity. pertusis component of DPT vaccines acts as an adjulant for toxoids of diphtheria and tetanus. 4)Main direction of important improvent of vaccines a)artificial bio organic vaccines complexes providing strong immune response on antigen against genetic disposition of P.o killed by heat . PROPHYLAXIS BY VACCINES The vaccines are prepared with certain concentration of antigen & are applied to creation in an organism of artificial active immunity. Toxin mix with 0. Alternatively toxoid is mixed with a suspension of other bacteria containing polysaccharide.used for patient who are tyhoid. eg. lepro spirosis .hepatitisB.generally the second dose six weeks after first dose.rabies. 81.rubella. tetanus). formalin. diphtheria.drying.toxoid Bacterial exotoxin inactivated by heat & formalin. 2)kinds of vaccines -alive -killed(inactivated) -chemical -toxoid -associated vaccines 3) their properties -alive vaccines Attenuation (reduce of its strongness) of vaccines is done by aging of culture.m. For patient with chronic infection . cholera. & tetanus toxoid absorbed on Al(Oh)3 also drive combined eropean thypus vaccine E (ACDVE) contain dry alive culture of ricketsia prozekii of virulence strain E mixed with soluble ag of virulence ricketsia.leukemia. anthrax.cultivate high temperature.Alive vaccine should not be administered in pregnant womens.3% formalin & filtrate it.O are killed by heat. Conservation:The inactivated vaccines process are common to the original pathogen which do not replicate.antigenicity of toxoid is increased by absorption on to a mineral carrier [Al(OH)3 /AlPo4]. autovaccines are used. measles .sometimes related organism with shared Ag are used in preparation of live vaccine.R genes b)gene engineered vaccines genes providing antigen arte intergrated into replicative cells (virus. eg. yellow fever. inactivated pertusis vaccines . plague. rabies. wood cutter encephalitis. Specificity in using:In alive vaccine suspension of living organism with reduce virulence.antrax.The inactivated vaccines need large dosage.some vaccines are oral. it is called immunotherapy.usually 3 doses.BCG.A single dose of live vaccine induce long lasting immunity and it reinforced by subsequent booster dosage.

convex.arranged in pairs.peritonitis Mainly by air borne mechanism.-specific capsular polysaccharide.translucent.nonsporing this case antitoxin Ab in mineral solution.g:-dipteria. .is applied to antitoxic sera is raised in horses by active formic acid only bile soluble destroyed by 52’ in 15 minutes and antiseptic sensitive antigenic structure.nonmotile.cerebrospinal fluid from patient and slecet media for inoculatin(bood agar and gentamycin) bean shape.sputum Using microscopical method it is stained by Gram’s technique.g:ALPO4 No 90.wth occurs in medium enriched in blood agar.Antiserum is applied to antitoxic Ab prepared in animal.Anatoxin.snake bite. Catalase and oxidase and indole Glucose and maltose are formed.meningococci contains endotoxins in membrane is produced and released into blood . Gro.capsulated.serologicalk staining using polyvalent or monovalent serum Antibiotic sensitivity test may also be done If mo is in small number immunoflouresecnce test may be done Radioactive Ag biding test Treatment and prophylaxis. Seen mostly in nasopharynx or asymptomatic carriers.ovovid.on solid media colonies are small. Treatment.Group A<B<C<D are usually responsible for meningitis.nonsporing noncapsulated Physiology.used for serological classes.lack catalase and oxidase ferment in few sugars.tract by patients or carriers.the source of infection is resp.cocci occurs in pairs. Meningococci surrounded by large capsule. Gives pneumonia in man due to pneumococcal infection The capsule of mo prevents phagocytosis by neutrophils and macrophages Pneumococci synthesizes neuramidase. Bacterioscopical method include inoculation of clinical specimen on blood agar or chocolate agar platesidentification of pure culture is made by morphology staining techniques.blood and biopsy samples.In pratically. Factors of virulence.botulism. grow only in enriched media(blood agar) -small circular.g-tetanus.non motile.isolate and identify pure culture use disc diffusion method to detect antibiotic sensitivity b)agglutination test.82.bulish gray Strict aerobes does not grow in anerobic medium.hemolysins It is a human pathogen. Prophlaxis.e.biochemical reactions.meningococci that antitoxic Ab filtrate and prepared as vaccines Adsorbed.The antitoxic sera are mixed in horses by active immunization. a)bacterioscopical and bacteriological methods-take sputum.raised and smooth colonies facultative anerobes.erythromycin.radioimmuneassay c)test of capsule swelling-specimen are treated by specific serum which gives swelling of the capsule and rise to presence of pathogen in the group. Treatment.cephalosporins.penicillin.there are 90 types of classes Role in human pathology.Streptococcus pneumoniae Morphology.that encloses them with great ability to defense mechanismin circulation and may grow in high numbersin blood.animal sera has foreign proteins which recipient forms Ab resulting in:-rapid elimination -hypersensiytivity e.pus. Forms pili Is an extracellular parasite.menigitidis Gram –ve cocci.polyvalent vaccines that has capsule polysaccarides of group A and C immnune stimulatants to excite immunity of older childrens.serum.transimitted by each other by inhalation or contaminated droplets The mo colonize in nasopharnyx to ororpharnys to the lung sinuses to the meninges Can also give pericarditis.vaccines Labdiagnosis.produces acid but without gas Antigenic structure 13 serogroups are identified on the basis of capsule polysaccarides.Gram +ve.gas gangrene. 2)Native and adsorbed anatoxins:Native. Diseases.dipheteria.but for food poisoning is due to food Laboratory diagnosis.specimens include CSF.penicilinG -Chloramphenicol or broad spectrum caphalosporins used prophylaxis. N.their preparation:In this case antiserum. 89.

therapy. 2)waiting period-interval of 2-3 weeks between sensitising and shocking dose is required.The dead macrophage release Ag and can no longer be recognized due to lack of MHC1 and cause chronic granuloma.Neomycin.ampicillin.IgE formed in response to antigenic stimulation.Cells recognizes the MHc Ag in macrophages and release TNF B(kills macrophages) and IL2. cephalosporins.Linomycin.supress slowly last long induced by Ag or hapten intradermally cell mediated reaction cannot be transformed to serum sensitisation difficult mecahnism.'when tuberculin is injected intradermally to a sensitised person. other antibioitics.which develops quickly after introducyion of large shocking dose of antigen following one or more small sensitising doses.contains amino sugars.faeces.directions… prophylaxis.are bactericidial drugs act same way as penicilins Gram +ve and Gram -ve bacteria.Bacitracin.. type ii:cytotoxic ertyhema and swelling appears afetr 12 hours and becomes maximum in 24-28 hours.provoked my intracellular microbial injections or haptens and involves macrophages and lymphocytes mainly has 2 stages1)sensitization-the rpimary exposure to the antigen 2)stage of allergic manifestation-the sensitization of t cells affects on leucocytes. hypersensitivity reactions are of two main types immediate and delayed based on time required by host to respond to the shocking dose of the antigen.cephalosporium acremononium and chemically similar to penicilin. Allergy is the altered reactivity of an animal to repeated contacts with a foreign antigen.this site ins infiltrated by mononuclear cells (lymphocytes and macrophages) subsidises CDA cells release P lymphokines and accumulation of macrophages may be a complement mediated lysis.and carriers must control thier infections boiling of water. also widely accepted are 4 types of 1 to iv. mediated byantibody directed toward antigen persent on the surface cell or other componenets present on the tissue cell resuklting in damage.Parazinamid Metradiazole effective against anerobic bacterias and protozoas.the ag-ab complex stimulates mast cells for prompt release of mediators that causes clinical manifestations of anaphylaxis.amoxycillin. primary mediators histamine and serotonin secondary mediators.. it appears in minutes and resides in hours induced by antigens or haptens in any route is and antibody mediated reaction passive transfusion is possible with serum desensitization is easy but short half life 86. .can cause serum sickness 85.carbenicilin.methods of prophylaxis and therapy for of toxemic infections..oral or sexual contact.drugs.Paramycin are closely related drugs.antibody is directed against epitope that can be a microbial products passively adsorbed onto a combines with fab fractions of Ig E Chemical mediators.avoidance of contact with infected animals or humans abd excrete or control on antitoxins in combination with chemotherapeutics.IgE are bound to mast cells of tissues and basophils of blood.Allergy and its types..Both Ig G and M are prodused in type ii reaction.signals for release are got once bound to portion of antigen and mediators are relased.examples are of Kanamycin.Quinolones.disease or even death. mechanism.the complex get adsorbe into the tissues especially the vascular endothelium and causes the relase of Hagemans factor which induces kinin-kalikren system coagulation.main specialities and mechanism….minute doses of antigen can sensitise susceptible animals.chemotaxis is mediated is mediated by mast cells.2 additonal types are recenly introducedtyoe v is antibody mediated and type viis both antibody and cell mediated HYPERSENSITIVITY ] ---------------------------------]------------------------------IMMEDIATE TYPE DELAYED TYPE (antibody mediated) (t cell mediated) ] ] ]--------------]-------------------------] type 1 type2 type 3 (anaphylaxis) (cytotoxic) (immune complex) main pecularities. main specialities.rare event in man and is observed in hypersensitive individuals by insect stings.1)sensitisation-may occur in routes as injection.macrophages and tissue cells.Main pecularities … Hypersinsitivity or allergy refers to a condition in immune response results in excessive or exxagerated reactions leading to tissue medaitora takes place in the blood.there are 2 types of delayed hypersensitivity-infectious type and contact dermatitis type role of antimicrobial therapy.penicilins like Benzylpenicilin.prostaglandins and platlet activating factor.mast cells are present in large numbers in submucosal layers of respiratory and gastrointestinal tract . Anaphylactic reaction. 3)shocking or eliciting dose-shocking dose is effective when adminisreed ivly . which effects on both Gram +ve and Gram -ve organisms.Immediate form is mediated by humoral antibody and manifesta itself in few minutes to hours which reaches a peak after 48-72 hours and mediated by t cells. infectional allergy.demonstartion of this types are demonstared in direct antiglobulin and agglutination test iimmune disease. aminoglycosides.oral penicilin.poor sanitary conditions that is used for treatment of patients.on subsequent exposure to large dose of same antigen.Chloram phenicol Antitubeculous drugs such as Isonoazid.animals.sanitary conditions and personal hygiene. tetrcyclins are isolated from Streptomyces aurafacieus was introduced in 1948.this substances kill other tissue cells too.using antibiotics. active immunisation of toxoid induces antiboby production infections can transmit from food.failing to kill intracellular pathogens.Vacomycin.Some macrophages are transformed into epitheloids express MHC class 1 and 11 molecules.injection of foreign serum or penicilin factors influencing anaphylaxis.basophils.84.type if Ig E mediated hypersensitivity reaction.SRS.first 3 are antibody mediated(immediate)and type iv is cell mediated(delayed type).inhalation or contact.Macrolides-macrocyclic lactonewing to which sugars are attached to erytromycin and spiromycin lindamycin.hypersensitivity of delayed type.

a)antibiotics like penicilins.cns.streptococci..non-flagellated.. Classification.due to this around microorganism can see zone of fermentation of thi substance b)the nuclease distract the nuclear Dna and RNA c)the mo synthesizes strong toxins hemolysins and leucocydins also synthesizes enterotoxin of many types.arranged in chains.facultattive anerobes and obligate anerobes.wound infection.disease gives 2 groups of infection-non suppurative and suppurative infection Strep.neurobiotic.intestine and cardiovascular diseases.pneumonia in lungs cvs-endocarditis CNS-meningitis intestinal-enterocolitis mo travels orally.diseases a)food poisoining b)scalded skin snydrome c)toxic shock syndrome d)also affects the skin.classification(species … morphology.pyogens) c)gamma hemolyisn-no hemolyisis.serological test of hemolytic streptococci done for classification antigen detection test-ELISA and agglutination test treatment.phage typing and antibiotics sensitivity test using antibiotics treatment and prophlaxis.round or spherical shape -non motile.also growth in nutritional media and nutritional broth and agar. a)alpha hemolysins-incpmplete hemolysis.they give clotting plasma.aureus c)streptokinase and fibrinolysins d)M proteins for adhesion of mo e)neuromidase strep. small transluscent colonies in sugar broth. skin infection-abcess.bound coagulase connected with cell membrane with microorganism Staph gives production of enzyme lectihinase or phopholipase 11. classified according to C antigen in the cell wall.they can synthesize enzyme coagulase.structure. classification on hemolysis.noncapsulated(only Strep. specimens can be pus.blood or other bodily fluids -incubate specimen using 2 medias as blood media and selective media of growth -if blood is used.non sporing.incubat in sugar broth.vaccination is possible.has majortiy of pathogens.form yellow pigment. morphology.pyogens gives respiratort tract diseases like tonsilitis.noncapsulated(but some has slight layers) coagulase can be seen by incubation.morphology.Gram +ve grapes arranged classes.5%.Staph aurues give 95% of infection.inoculate on sugar media 18-24 hours incubation -examin production of coagulase by incubation of 6 hours and then inoculate microorganism -biological and biocemical properties can be determined bymannitol fermentation.respiratory tract.physiology.Gram +ve.cephalosporins.heat stable also synthesize epidomylitic toxinsand gives diseases of 'scalded skin syndrome'in children also gives toxic shock syndrome 88.surrounded colony has clean transparent ring(Strepto.sepsis in wounds bone-osteomyelitis respiratory infections and spreads all over the body lab diagnosis.epidermidis staph. a)hemolysins-O hemolysins -S hemolysin b)ertytogenic toxins-by Strep.scarlet fever skin this there are no pathogenic microorganism antigenic structure.single cells or part cells.toxoids hospital infections.-depending on antibiotics sensitivity test which needs time(gentamycin.non rise to green pigmented ring b)beta hemolysins-gives complete hemolysis.staphylococci:morphology.form turbidity and surface of agar they give colonies.staph.they can grow in antibiotic.pneumonia capsulated) physiology. a)plasma coagulase factor-gives clotting of plasma.grown in simple media.the most selective media for isolation has 5-10% Nacl .diagnosis examination of blood in suitable media(sugar broth) smears-Gran +ve spherical or oval shaed culture-blood agar medium 37 degrees overnight with co2.majority of microorganism grow in concentrated of Nacl 0. most important are strep. .pyogensgives pus inflammation reaction grows in solid media can be cultivated in liquid media by sugar broth.streptomycins.they are divided into m antigen which has 16 serological types staphy.aureus satphy.staph has high resistance to antibiotics so can develop hospital infections quicklydue to fast mutliplication.saprophyticus Factors of virulence.facultative anerobe can ferment sugars as mannite produce acid but not gas.genital infection also non suppurative disease-rheumatic fever and kidney disease of acute glomerulitis autoimmnu disease lab. factors of virulence.87.gentomycins prophylaxis vaccines and non spcific ones like penicilins.Lindomycin) -fast treatment of Fluloxacilin drugs prophlaxis-non has serological types as a)A-H b)K-V group of A strep.nonsporing.….it gives fermentation of egg yolk .nonmotile.

in cases of this 2 resistant.primary infection begins in the columnar epithelium of urethra -acute urethritis is characterized by vaginal discharge.divided according to resistance. Break down most sugars(glucose. and B on the basis of i)effect on heat on agglitinability ii)antigenicity iii)antibody bindingpower of bacterial strains carrying them -Flagellar antigen(H antigen) thermoliabile and they are 50 antigens so far described.Escherichia:morphology and may also involve rectum or oropharynx other complications that may arise may also be opthalimia neonatorum-conjunctivitis of the new born.. Treatment. Gram – high level resistant both of this are penicillin resistant.coli-produce illness in patients of all ages -Vero cytotoxin producing E. ciproflaxin can be used. 4)lipopolysaccharides-for endotoxic effects 5)other proteins-Ig A1 proteases classification of microorganism and diseases g:neisseria s:N. Diseases: Urinary tract infection: E.gonococcal vulvovaginitis-occurs in perpubertal girls lab diagnosis. the discharge in acute stage contains large number of mo and diagnosis is readily made it is difficukt to detect mo from chorinic cases or from patients with arthrirtis speceimens colleceted are urethral and cervical discharge.tetracycline Antigenic structure Based on the O H and K antigens detected by agglutinations reactions -Somatic antigen(O antigen) are hea stable.Gram –ve cocci(gonococci) Arranged in pairs(diplococci) The sides are flagellated together .Most strains are motile some immotile Are aerobis and facultative anerobic and grow on ordinary culture media at 37’c in 8 to 24 hours.cefuroxime.coli is predominant coliform bacteria responsible for 60-80% infection of urinary tract. Morphology.septicemia and meningitis Labaroty diagnosis: -specimens-depending on tupe of lesions.coli in faeces in pathological is sexually transmitted and has an incubation period of 1-2 days. Physiological role: Acts as microbial flora in intestine’Hemolytic E.non sporing.cefotaxime.morphology and physiology….they are rose pink due to lactose fermentation.bacteria normally present in colon of both infected and non infected person.coli-produce heat labile enterotoxin or heat stable enterotoxin or both.gonorrhea N0 92.capsulated in most species Condition of cultivation Requires enriched medium like lysed blood or chocolate agar for growth. Factors of virulence.gonorrhea is oxidase positive and ferments sugars woth production of acid only.these antigens may cause confusion is serum agglutination test. Prophylaxis.capsule inhibits phagocytosis 2)pili-produce altered appearance of colonies in culture with sharply defined borders. 1)capsule-loosely asscociated with the cell wall and easily stripped off. -Fimbrial antigen(F antigen) thermoliabile protein and heating this organisms at 100’c detaches its fimbriae.malsotse) Has slightl hogher resistance to heat.helps in attachement of organisms to host cells 3)proteinsconatins of porin. Diarrhoea and dysentery: Produce diarrhea with different pathogenic mechanism -Enteropathogenic E.synthesis is dependent upon environmental and nutritional factors.on Mc-conkey agar.coli-cause hemorrhagic colitis pyogenic infection -may cause infection.cultured and examined -microscpoy-Gram staining -fresh specmen should be inoculated directly on Mc-Conkey agar plate and blood agar plate an incubated overnight at 37’c -Biochecmical rwactionMost strains produce acid and gas from large number of carbohydrates -Agglutination testTreatment:REHYDARATION THERAPY Prophylaxis-tak jumpa sorry.peritonitis. -Enteroinvasive E.coli diseases of gonorrhea is a clinical condition in which semen flowed in male organ without erection.erythromycin.tetracycline. .biliary tract infection.the meatus is first cleaned by a gauze soaked in saline and sample is collected and is subjected to cultural study and smear examination in chorninc cases the main syndrome is dysuria microscopical methods can also be performed and biochemical test where N.gonococci.Antigenic… Morphology and physiology.non motile. Sensitive to antibiotics like amphenicol.A.inoculated medium incubated in moist anerobic condition at temperature 35-36’c. a)low level resistance.protein ii and protein 111 which is associated with the protein 1in cell surface in formation of pores.measuring 1-3 micrometer.killed at 55’c for one sexual contacts.No bean was previously desribed into 3 classes L.mannitolsucrose.coli-cause enteritis in infants -Enterotoxigenic E.enriched agar medium with lysed blood and antibiotics.are destroyed by heating at 121’c for one hour.non sporing.non has no significance in antigenic classification of E.acidic components are hexuronic acid -Surface antigen(K antigen) looked as capsular structures.

E types.non motile.subterminal.neutralize toxins by giving polyvalent serum to type or blood.after 48h of incubation Gram-ve bacilli:Bacteroidaceae family.serological.biochemically active.Baster dose given at school at 6years old&adult given vassice by IM Treat:DC.Femal e genitals abscess.for isolation Loeffleris serum media Toxin production: Genetically determine the toxigene can be transfer fr TBC to another by lysogenic phages.have lable toxins.t=100c till 20mins Types of toxins: they synthesize exotoxins.Toxins can be destroy by pressure cooking&boiling for 20min.bulging spores.Passive:succeptiple person given 500-1000units of antitoxins after skin test.motile by flagella.E.capsulated.Clinical diagnosis.fusobacterium neurophorum.Temperature in canning not enough to kill microorganism.pleomorpic.TC.immediately transfer and inoculate in anaerobis media.vellonella Gram +ve:pepticoccus niger.for growth serum containing medium.concentrated upper resp tract bleeding.vegetables&fish can be injected.vit k Basic pecularities of clinical Use lactobacillus.kidneys.check concentration of toxins&its vision 103:Non spore forming anaerobes bacteria: Classification.exotoxins act on CNS.nucleatus cocci.Multiplication only in surrounding area.Resp:lung abscess.Spores vegetation forms.DADT-durity precipitated toxoid.have several types:A.Prop:DPT Methods of its discovering Specimen fr sick person.fragilis.Microaerophilic CO2.inclusions present at the end of abscess.use passiave agglutination test&precipitation in gel.grow on blood media.they give botulism or food intoxication .but spores are not destroy(synthesize exotoxins).EM.non-capsulated.B.difficult in breathing.not motile.Take different antitoxins against A.Neurotoxins is present in blood.In vagina convert glycogen to lactic acid(maintain high ph in vagina)injection of internal organ.F.Metravidozole.obligate anaerobes.Skin:cellulites.clean.This is botulism not by wound injection.Clinical specimen is inculate into laboratory animals(mice)with antitoxins in order to determine the toxins neutralization test in vivo bacterioscopical&bacteriological methods are useful if Clos.vit b7.peritonitis.Direct smear exam.peripheral nerve Onset of disease: Toxins produced intracellularly&appear in medium only in death of cells.There are in canned food.Lethal factor:provide toxicity.Children>10years immunized by food intoxication occurs due to presence of toxins.local effect:BC multiply at site of entery .bacilli.non sporing.m/o fr place of localize.coumousals in intestine sym vit b12.102:Clostridium botulinum: Characteristics: Morphology:gram+ve.optimum t=35c.since in 20min m/o will immunization is not used 104:Pathogens of diphtheria: Pecularities of morphology&culture vomiting.toxins cause necrosis.robetson cooked born botulism.release exotoxins.pleomorpic.necrosis of parracervical cells of liver.Canned food have anaerobic condition.B.mucus Bacteria-carriage: Carrier-fr nasal cavity .G serology type&do the test.E Prophylaxis:vaccine containing toxoid fr A.Exotoxins:they are specific for epithelial of upper resp. Morphology:gram+ve rods.produce toxins.give oral.not motile.Cns:brain abscess.death of man only need 0.peptostreptococcus akna Gram +ve arrange in pair Gram +ve bacilli:lactobacillus.rapid paralysis.D.nutrient agar.pain but cause hallucination.alum precipitated toxoid.biological method are aim at revealing of toxins in clinical specimen(blood.stool.constipation.001mg of toxins.C.non sporing.culture media with blood Classification:gram –ve:bacteriodes.should eb done fast.not wound.Combined immunity:active immunization in endemic area stated at 3months old by DPT vaccine.culture BA+vit K+neomycin anaerobic condition Treatment:Fucidin.Binding factor:provide transfer into cells Diphtheria in man: Source:sick person by air borne.Direct abscess.cultivate in sugar blood agar.Botulinum is present in the clinical experiment Treatment&prophylaxis: Treatment:removal of unabsorbed toxins fr stomach&intestinal tract.General effect:diffused in blood.serology include passive agglutination test&precipitation test in gel.spores highly resistance.gangrene Lab diagnsis: Take pus.prerofella melanin genicus.physiology: Anaerobes.very strong biological 2ppl eat the same food but 1 affected&another not bcoz they only develope in certain part of food.Mouth:gingivitis.toxaemia.C.metacentric granules Anaerobes.Simply open cavity.morphology.E.TAF-toxoid precipitated floccules.rod shaped. tract 2 sub-units.Exotoxins enter man thru food coz has anaerobic media in canned food.destroy several hours at t=100c.Clinical manifestation:synthesis neurotoxins.Spores contaminating meats.small oval pleomorpic rods.depression Disease:oppotumestic pathogens.not capsulated.evacuate pus.adrenals&polyneuritis Immunity: Alum precepitated toxoid:active:ADT.serologic type with antiseptics Lab diagnosis: Take vomitlus.diarrhea.vit k.F.B.

Pathogens of leprosy:Mycobacterium leprae Characteristic:gram+ve.the mucous get layers&separate.American type:bacteriosidal drugs(pitasinamine)bacterial drugs that kill tuberculosis(isoniasine.(B)Sckolchicov rush methods:based on mycobacteria to syn coat factor.use acid fast staining.indeterminent Treatment:isolate in special camp.diumorphous.passive hemagglutination.Imperfect:no sexual spores.mucor&aspargillias-place of accumulation of exopores.endogenous infection under certain condition Lab diagnosis:skin scraping.identify presence of tubuculosis bacilli(D)Florencent microscopy:stain slid by Ab.Antilepramatous preparation&immuno stimulators.thicker or chain like organized rods.m arium:they r main group that gives tuberculosis Pathogenic m/o:m necrotic. 107:Pathogenic fungi: Class acc to kinds of multiplication.rats.human involve skin.biological test.After8days take colony.Take mucous.straigut(slightly curved are polar odies&intracellular element way present.not solution(NaOH).Conclusion is given by microscopical examination.less then 20mm is normal.nails.Later stage pigmented.rods.Sputum+acid.sneezing with saliva.inoculate into blood fellulite medium isolate pure culture.But this is difficult because m/o is inside mucosa.Solosulfan.Prep are drop with alcohol&glycerol w’out staining.Not sporing.So all other m/o r dead&only tuberculosis is live.lepra-non pathogenc.incubate3-4days 37c.pus.m ultura Lab diagnosis:(A)take sputum fr patient&biopsy.(E)allergy test:due to hypersensitivity delayed type.Leprosy:chronic granulomatous disease.after drying.they r thin.colorless colonies.motaramycosis.hairs.liver.In solid medium grow like rough colonies.Perfect fungi:have sexual and asexual-miscellanieoces fungi.CSF.streptomycine)bacteriostatic drugs(proteonamide)treat in1-6months Prophylaxis:disease of poor people.rods shape.Properties:long term chemoprophylaxis BCG.all except M.can see florencent by microscope in the slide.Specific:vaccination by BCG 106:Mycobacterium tuberculosis morphology:stain by violet colour.Resistance remain viable in numed environment.examine biochemical properties.grow on ordinary media.exudation fr ulcer.artificial culture rate of grow depend on optimal temperature.drug os 2nd time.In3-4 weeks diagnosis is given.mesophiles 37c.exposured to direct sun light by microscope.has bacteriostatic action.slowly growing.Leprae.check red dots.Inject specimen and after 24hour.slid+acid(to kill other m/o).where lymph used enrichment test b4 this.identify biological varieties.gloves.Sacromycetes.Growth on lowerstein-jeuson medium.tubeculoid.rods.Seperate the medium fr m/o by 2methods.Additional slid.The growth is form by presence of CO2 in medium.Common media:seuberoud contact with infected saliva 105:Mycobacteria morphology:gram+ve.Deosafan.Bacilli multiply on food pads&granuloma develop at site especially they cultivate in animals.not capsulated.soil.IF.Reaction of hypersensitivity delayed type(skin allergy test).mice.urine.acid fast physiology:anaerobes.Disease:classify into A types:Lepromatosis.blaslomycosis.epidermamycosis.use mask.leprosy:face changing.Identify production of precipitation test.hard to stain by gram 1st must use differentiation test.Test Ab titre.test on mice.Loveustein gensen medium(contain egg yolk.In lipid medium grow like pilicals. Treatment&prophylaxis:no special properties.m/o leaves mucous due to this must find acid fast bacilli in sputum.see redness.peripheral nerves. Physiology:aerobes.Make pure culture.caudida fungi Morphology&physiology:mycelium with septa may substare cell surface or inside tissue or media or air mycelium(above media)ph>7 aerobic majority.1st variable growth 8-10days.sputum.CSF.myco multiply in blood noritible colonies.Biochemical properties:check production of cystinase&abscess of urease.take the layer.Time of tuberculosis is 8-10days.m/o secreted by coughing.Greater is pathology.treatment Ab act on eukaryotic cells by big side effect medicasion under superfivision .people with poor hygiene&nutrition.Cultivate on liquid/solid media.2 medium use ofr tubuculosis.Check diameter of redness.m/o comes to medium.potatoes as nutrients).Mycosis acc to synthesis:1systemic.nasal racoccidisis.which may produce x-ray&check clinical feature.cryptococcosis.carrier.moist.Vassine:induce leprosy positivity Treatment:Europian type:drugs of 1st time treatment.check under microscope.On semisolid medium grow on the surf of medium(bovis grow under the medium can diffused them) Classification:mycobacterium tuberculosis.After incubation a fixed into paper 100k like lines of precipitation Epidemiology: Natural source-sick person. (C)biological test:inject to rabbits.Specific prophylaxis&therapy: Slide nelson staining or MB method or albert’s stain (show typical chines letter pattern).Lampran.Tinn2 medium&cotton medium.blood.2-SC:sporotricuosis.cultivate not more than 8days(acid is put because they r acid fast&resist to acid. Slide stain by Zeild-nelson.examine bochem properties.1-add medium benzol oxylate&shake.bacteria.m bovis.diagnosis:specimen:mucous.optimal temperature is 37c.gram+ve.stool.3superficial:dermatomycosis.Ethron amide.put slide to liquid blood.Take in guson’s medium.deep:coccidiasis.m paracinamids.spleen.root of transmission:air-borne.

passive hemagglutination.Ulceration of relapses 5-6.serological methods.Both systems are placed seperatly in a thermostat to 2hours.Ag-group specific Ag&species specific Ag-polysaccharides.mucous membrane.ulcers heals in3-6weeks forming a thin scar. Cultivation:cant grow in artificial media.crystals-negative.Incubation2-4weeks or even 5years.aorta. 109:Pathogenic spirochete: Class:family:spirochetales is divided into 2family.non capsulated.Caueasia transmitted via ticks.Q fever&other rickettsioses.Papillae&condyloma are formed specially around anus.immunodeficiency.smear. It isflat. Carbon added to make reaction visible. if it is positive within a day the erythrocytes settle to bottom&the supernatant liquid is tansparent& vector.positive.This ulcer like other ulcer is painless.VDRL(venual disease research lab):on a special slide with depression of 14mm 0. Role of Mechanicoff:he was founder of study of immunity of organism to infectiour disease.Discover that disease was transmitted by blood.37c/1hour.liver.testis.can be cultivated in Robertson cooked.05ml decomplimented serum is taken a drop of cardiolipin is added.General paralysis occur due to eurosyphilis 110:Spirochete of relapsing fever: Borrelia:3-8 inconstant curves.This condition gives changes in body states from its normal condition so it gives decrease immunity&easily fungal infection development than in normal.The nichot’s strain has been maintain by serial passages in rabbit testicales.1spirochetaceae:Treponema.Recurrent.Syphilitic mesoaortitis is a serious complication leading to severe anemia&hemorrhage.Cistispira. Immunity:no specific only of relapses 3-10.Borrelia.Recurrentis epidemic relapsing fever are transmitted by body louse.Compliment fixation:Inactivated serum+serum fr guinie pig.3-after 10-15years tertiary lesion appear.Axial filament located outside cell wall 8-12 constant arrives inconstant “L” or “V”.Negativehemolysin.pallid can be shown on dark field microscope slides made by silver impregnation.moth.non sporing.Again m/o with new Ag structure enter circ&multiply causing fever.Various inflammating&painless lymphadenopathy developes.activity motile.RPR(rapid plasma regain test)same as VDRL but unheated serum can be used.pediculus humans&humansoccurs in unhygiene&poor social economics condition.Since1912.dull.microscope low magnification.fingers.typhus fever.louse vector.use condom and antibiotics Treatment:penicillin group:no resistant for hourly 1 month.Manifestation not as serious no epidemic type Diagnosis:blood.He named such cells in human body as phagocytosis.tongue.Immunofloracence.B.causative agent is B.duttoni.m/o are seen in the cell of blood Romnavosky method of staining:biological inoculate 1-2ml of patient blood in mouse in 2-4 days slide of mouse blood show m/o Epidemic:source fr man. Factor of virulence:protein of external membrane&lipopolysaccharides.stress also chang the diet.syphilis.manifestation milder.prolonged forms of penicillin once daily.viral disease .T.premature babies.Transmission occur in 10th week Lab diagnosis:specimen:exudates fr chancle.Symptoms disappear in 8-12 weeks in untreated cases. Role of fungi in human pathology:? Congenital syphilis:treponema can pass thru placenta barrier.Incubation 310days.blood.sucking insects.malignant. Condition that assist the beginning of candidiasis:main disease that posses development of candidiasis as DM.Endemic typhus is cause by B.Reaction of immobilization:diluted serum mix with compliment actively motile Nichol’s strain Ab cause immobilization in positive reaction.Lesion can also occurs in hemolysin. 2elongated filamentous cells.Treatment of eases.positive.persica.Antigenic structure specific&non specific Ag.caucasia.endoflagillated.rash appears on skin&mucous.This follows of latent phase.He establish intracellular digestion brought about by mesodermas cell.m/o invade into blood during fever subsides bcame Ab reaction with the most in blood&are killed.B.long term broad specimen antibiotics.B.SPirochaeta.2Leptospiraceae-Leptospira Treponema pallidum:gram-ve.108:Candida fungi: morphology:2forms:1-spherical or oroid budding cells.Non-sterile immunity also called charra immunity.floresence can be in rabbit testis.This test is use with diagnosis of glanders.manifestation intense Endemic:source is animal.1-Papille appears on genital area.The fluid exudates is highly infectious. It is rotated at 180 levolution 4 minutes.anaerobes.Reagin containing serum fixes compliment. Role of Minch:he establish infectivity of relapse fever&typus fever.Natural reservoir is man&vertors louse.non-specific:lipoid hapten Ag Pathogenesis of syphilis:can be acquired or congenital Acquired syphilis:has 3stages.join end to end physiology:they ar a part of normal flora of human body Difference fr yeast:ability to form pseudomycelium by a chain of elongated budding cells joined end to end.nippe.Buccle&Lizhenburg test.Doxycidine ointment with salts of heavy metals as they are very effective against m/o Pecularities of syphilis:no immunity after infection.In neative reaction the compliment will not combine with the complex of 1st sys while the liquid becomes pink&any precipitation of erytrocte.Add sheep RBCs.heart.spiral shape rods.2-after 2-6month generalized syphilis occurs.ELISA.causative agent is B.they are mixed&placed for 60-80min.Giemsa or leishman stain.see clumps.He did tests on himself.bone.Gamma appear on skin.exudates a serous fluid.

non flagellated Classification -Family is devided to two type Mycoplasma (glucose or atrginine ) and ureaplasma (hyrolyses urea) -mycoplasma can be pathogenic .heart block -2nd stage of late stage is arthritis for months to years Lab diagnosis : 1.M. encephalitis . amoxicillin .are gram ..hominis. . mucus then in cubate for 1-2 weeks and go in to blood n then organs Exp :liver cause hyperbilirubinaemia n jaundice Vascular involvement leading to coagulation Renal failure due to tubular necrosis Clinical disease Subclinical – l. if + will be sliver starain. non capsulated .5 mm Pathogenesis contains toxic lipopolysaccharide inflammatory prop.PCR Treatment : early stages . vomiting Icteric leptospirosis .immunoflorescence test or ELISA 4.malaise. erythromyocin Late stage – parentral admin triaxone Q112 Genus :Leptospiraceae Species : L.icterohaemorrhagiae L. ELISA test IgM n IgG. MYCOPLAMA Character -Two types – free living n self replicating .hominis.smalls mammals are reservoirs of the bacteria .wright or gimsa staining on blood .the tick feed on Infected mammals n then lava cause dev of tick parasite in mammals.culture and isolation –on blood 3.Burgdorferi Morphology GRAM negative .genital in fection .intergos in packing house workes n veterinarians Anicteric leptospirosis – after 1-2 week or incubation period like influenza 1 month headache . pathogens of lyme disease : morphology… Bacteria -b.Dark ground microscopy : blood n CSF shows DG illumination 2.pneumoniae-transmitted by infected person M.biflexa – in pools ditches fresah water Morphology . serum of antibody detection n CSF Detection : 1.narrow diameter closely set coils so its stained poorly in fluorescent n sliver impregnation techniques -motile rotating n flexing in axis Pathogenesis Transmission: men 2 men by contaminated water with urea or faeses Entery site : skin . Incubation 3-30 days in skin.urealyticas Perculaties Morphology – grow on fluid media .myalgias.Q 111.acute chronic men gonococcal uterharitis M.genitalium. n increase of IgM n immune complex the dev atritis n immune complexes deposition in synovial tissue Epidemiology : .it penetrates cell membrane but some are normal microflora of the body .PCR detection of leptospires in urine Serological: using titers and the result is 1 week the titer is high and towards the the 5th Week it will decline TEST : microscopic test .pelvic infection 80 types Species that cause human diesese: M. size 4-5 x0.M. due to tick bite then move to lymph nodes. gram .T.postpartum sepsis .spiral shape 5-20x.M.its transmitted by tick (exodus ricinus/dammini) to men Clinical stages : Early stages – migrain .interrogans. natural host are dogs pigs mouse Q113.. vaginaosis . muscle pain Late stages . nausea . diffuse rashes headache Lab diagnosis Specimens: blood 1st week..2-0.cefotaxime Propylaxis : avoid contact with contaminated water .fever chills . spherical shape .serology.size 1-5 nm x 50nm -Have ridgid cell walls and are pleomorphic .staining.2 years later neurological n cardiac sympthoms Meningitis ..F indirect Hem agglutination Confirmation test : using antigen :make suspension with live of filled formalin killed A series of dilution of the patients serum is tested against the antigen MAT (microscope agglutination test ) Treatment Penicillin is drug of choice : doxycyline . Cluture-in infusion of peptone broth with 2% agar Pathogenic species M. motile . reach blood then week then months and then cause cardio n neurological plb .piperacillin.pneumoniae. non sporing .most severe hepatic in volment jaundice Fever .resistant to penicilline .01 mm . arthritis .doxycycline .genitalium.pathogen in man n animals L. skin red .chlortetracycline. urine 2nd n 3rd week . 2.

later some get killed by macrophages 2. non sporing Physiology Related to virus are small and obligated intracellular parasite Contain enzymes of bacteria DNA n RNA Sensitive to antibiotics Source Wild animals like from slaughters house like cattle . IgG in blood Epidemiology-secretion from infected person 1. Q fever By Coxiella burnettii Morphology Gram .non sporing -cell wall contain muramic acid .rickettsi. based on poplation n military recruits Diagnosis 1. late then myocardial n CNS involvement Lab diagnosis microvessles and then incubate 7days .R.transmission .Serological test –complement fixation test with specific antigen .tustsugamushi Louse brone typhus By R. in this time there will be increase of hyper sensitivity and have lymphadenitis near bitten area. sensitive to antibiotics Factors of virulence is call walls Classification Famili:rickettsiae Genus: R.R.epidermic typus. non sporing nonflagelated . ploemorphic coccabacilli .R. lungs They stay in environment in dry state for long periods 1 month Can stand 60 degrees Laboratory Serological – CTF indirect immunofloracent assay Treatment prophylaxis Oxyciline n tetracycline. Immunity – IgA in limited role in the external area .PCR 5. When louse feed on the human so it inro duced to skin and then incubate there fot 2 weeks Cause headache .Myco.immunofluorescent test –with polyvalent anti serum 4. bite or crushed on the surface of skin –go thru endothelial of skin .typhi 2. insecticides Pasturization of milk Vaccine .otitis media. crowded areas favours transmoission in children n teens 3.prowazekii Dev-by like q fever .distribution .7-10days later go thru blood n replicate on endothelial cells and cause vasculitis Q115. R.3-5 days n contact with .joints Clinical syndromes 15-25days sympthoms of pneumonia. sheep Poultry by ixodid ticks Pathogenesis Alveolar macrophages becomes infected n lead to rickettsia species contain plasmids Cause fever n influenza like syndrome there no rash in the sympthom Transmission Present in large quantities of milk products So drinking milk inhaling aerosol Enters thru skin .Rickettsia -gram -.incidence.yolk sack or chicken embrio 3...prowazekii. rifampicin Treatment – general hygine .erythomyocin fluorescent Treatment n prophylaxis General measure –celaning up jungle exe Vaccination .pharyngitis tracheobronchitis . muscular rash.rickettsii n rochtunaea n coxiella 2 morphological form Regetative-nucleoid. nonmotile.due to climate 4. mucose.microscope 2.compliment fixation test .may also infect the myocardium .cultural isolation –from guineapig. non flagellated -non capsulated.pneumoniae Adhere to the respirtory epithelium n interact with cilia on epithelium cell surface May develop atypical pneumonia .DNA probes n PCR for development of P1 adhesin Therapy Antiboiotics –tetracyclines. coctrimoxazole .sibrica. cytoplasmic . fever .indirect fluorescence test IgM n IgG . vector is tick mite suck on blood of infected men Pathogenesis 1.non motile .non spesific Clinical syndromes Happen in spring n summer multiply in tick gut n comes in feaces. IFA. binary fussion.) 3.assay for specific test IgM (immunoflorescent test .scrub typus.R. rod shape .1week to 2 weeks can see on set of sympthom 2 susceptibility .akari 3.chemoprophylaxis Drug : doxycycline n chloramphenicol Q114.O. cns .cell membrane n wall Cystic from – thick coat protect against environment factors Kinds of typus .depending on the titer 2.kind of fever.

Bullet shaped when seen by electron microscope size 76175nm .Rabies virus Virus two kinds : Characteristic .pasittaci -cause psittacosis n ornithosis C. Eye.infected person have Hydrophobia –fear of water so they are thirsty .delirium . disorientation .have both DNA n RNA Does binary fussion .trachomatis.C .L2. gram – non sporing Exist in two forms elementary body and reticular body Physiology Aerobic or faculatively aerobic Intracellular parasites Look like virus have both DNA n RNA Multiply by binary fussion Have metabolic active enzyme Elementary forms –-spherical electron dense nucloide Recticular forms – matahbolicly active n particales Have surface membrane . PROPHYLAXIS 1.universal (serotype D-K) Morphology Small .two intra derminal vaccine and HDCV ( human diplod cell strain vaccine ) given in 4 weeks of interval .sexually transmitted infection or urogenital outer lipoprotein envelope contain protruding haemaglutinating peplomer spikes 10nm long Epidemiology Wild animals like dogs . non motile.malssiae low grade fever and anxiety in 1-10days .cleanest first with water and soap n with ammonium detergent Then given rabies antiserum The wound is left unsaturated .Contain a single strand RNA chromosome nucleoprotein Large non structural protein .. fingers touch Laboratory diagnosis Diagnosis in men –sample of sliva . Bitting animals should be kept strict for 10day Hyperimmune.and then cause muscular spasm Patient then develop coma .--Llymphogranuloma venum D-K – nongonoccal . obligative intracellular parasites . mice will die in 10days Smears made from elementary bodies 1:32 titer No specific available Treatment Tetracycline and erthromycin Q118. Ba .acute respriratory syndrome Lab diagnosis Specimen – blood .C endemic tracoma L1. Virus transmits by sliva so plp get it when they are bitten Pathogenesis Replication n spreading -1st invades in the muscle and then lead to nerve fibers And grow in the grey matter if the brain Incubation period 1-3 months Then there will be degeneration in the cortex . sexual. a single Cell culture – Serology Cf testing n microimmunofluroscence test Mouse impregnated into yolk sac for 6-8days old egg or tissue .postexposure . proctitis.human rebis antiserum is the safest antiserum .tharchomatis serotype A.Chlamydia Morphology Small. midbrain .they wwere previously called viruses . nonmotile .Handle animal which has potential of infection .basal ganglia pons medulla Clinical features Headache . Death from neurological and pulmonary sympthoms Q117. B. jackels horse cattle .reiters syndrome. exist 2 forms Physiology Aerobic or faculty aerobic .cells make vacuole around he particles The particles enlarge and reproduce by binary division and the cell breaks and liberate from host n cycle from 24-48 h intermediate forms condensation of reticular body which look like bulls eye Pathogenic species C.A. Salpingitis Ways of transmission By close contact .Tarchoma and unveneral uretitis Pathogens :Chalamydia . uretritis mucopulurent cervicitis C.have metabolic enzyme Clinical picture Endemic tharcoma –most printable from of blind ness . sputum . half of the antiserum locally .rabies can be prevented if treatment is iniciated in a day of biting . gram .B . lung tissue . are small and obligate intarcellular parasite .lymphogranuloma venulum .pneumonia.mother to infant .lit is follod by yearly booster 2.epidermitis .prexposure .L3. test by immunoflourescent test Antibodies to virus develop slowly presence of anti bodies in serum in an unvaccinated rabies infection .Q116.

myalagia . dry cough . membrane .to see viral antigens 2. 26.rough.fever last for another 3 days .opaque (C) growth in liquid media In peptone water.granular -Size: in millimeter -Elevation: flat.SEROLOGICAL –with acute antibody titer since normal individuals already have influenza virus antibodies . ecitire. 1.. and lined by the matrix . 1. Treatment n prophylaxis Amantadine is rimantadine are effect in prophylaxis and treatment of influenza a illness during the 1st 24-48hours.wary. 1.(Rosentha medium) This method also used for producing anarobiosis. Lab diagnosis Isolation of virus –use baboon kidney cells see haemagglutination results following addition of erythrocytes to influenza virus containing media 1.Antigenic shift – refers to major antigenic changes in HA(H2 to H3) Transmission is by person to person via respirtory secretion It remain contageneous 24h b4 the clinical symptoms till 48h after on set of symptom Subtype 9NA(N1-N9).irregular and radiate -Surface: smooth.Hiss’s serum bacterial growth appears -turbid -deposit formation -surface pellicle formation aerobes grow on surface of media.elevated.Methods for the cultivation of obligate anaerobes: principles apparatuses a)displacement of oxygen gases: such as hydrogen. -Gas pak It is a disposable pocket-when water is added hydrogen and carbon dioxide and liberated hydrogen combine with oxygen in presence of catalyst.headache .lobate.Microscopical morphology -smears prepared from bacterial colony or liquid culture is examined by staining method.Antigenic Shift and Drift are responsible for the remarkable epidermics of influenza virus antigenic refers to the minor antigens changes ineither the haemaglutinin or neuromidase or both .PB2 Envelope Contain two glycoprotein .an uncomplicated case usually resolves within 7 days .a) b) Q119.1% thioglycollate -Robertsons cooked meat media.nutrient broth. c)Malntosn-Fildes jar palladnised asbestos lept inside the jar as catalyst-combination of hydrogen + oxygen-water reduced methyline blue is use as indicator [anaerobic-colourless Oxygen present-blue colour] Biological method By incubating aerobic and anaerobic organism together two different plates are placed on over other and sealed.helium or carbonate. This vaccine includes 3 type of strand Type A (H2N3)n(H1N1) n Type B. Method-after inoculated media is placed inside air tight jar/gas pak with water is added.the tube placed inside air tight jar loaded with inoculated media. haemagglutinin Formation –HA and NA spikes coded by viral genome n are synthesized in early period of replication cycle Immunogenecity – both HA n NA molecules Classification Diff in the nucleoprotein (NP) and the matrix protein(M) Types A. hemagglutinin(HA) . . and neuramidase (NA) spikes that project to the outside .ciliate -Opacity-translucent. -chromium(Cr) and sulphuric(H2SO4)acid.undulate. 25. It persist the grow of even strict anaerobics Clinical disease Incubation period varies from 1-4 days Fever chills .type An B viruses are grown in allantoic cavity of chick embryos and inactive by formalin.nitrogen.loss is slow and ineffective d)by incorporating reducing agent in media two most widely used anaerobic liquid -thioglycollate broth Contain nutrient broth and 0.immunofloroscent test .transparent. Gram stain:Gram + Gram – Acid fast method: acid fast Non acid fast Motility preparation. Orthomyxoviruses Structure Size n shape : 80-110nm Genome nucleic acid of eight have negative sense single strand RNA polymerase With the transcription with PB1.influenza A virus has sub type H1-H15 Epidemiology Type A and B tend to cause epidemics that recur every 1-3 years .convex. 2. Type C virus usually does not cause epidemicis Influenza shows remarkable ability to undergo antigenic variation due to frequent changes in the antigenicity of HA n NA .insert gas to sealed or leaded with inoculated media but this method rarely produces complete anarebiosis b)absorption of oxygen by chemicals -pyrogallic acid: In large tube NaOH and pyrogallic acid added.umbonate.B.compozitions of vaccines .Significance of identification of morphological and….crerated.ELISA n RIa technique can also be used normal saline:motile Non motile (B)colonial morphology -Colour :pigment and haemolysis cause change in colour -Shape: circular.C.

27.paratyphi A cannot destroy protein by H2S.streptococcus pyogenous and clostridium produce this enzyme.2-0.polypeptides amino acids and inorganic salts. Enumerate main kinds… 2 main kinds of media:culture media and synthetic media.mainly bacteria produces products during these life time as: 1)bacteria toxins 2)enzymes 3)pigments 1)classification by biological role.CHO. Methods of sugarlitic kills tissue cells on RBC. yeast/protein degrading products. They may be liquid and solid on the basis of presence of molecular oxygen and reducing substance in the media. Meat extracts/yeast extracts Blood Enriched media-5%-10% defibrinated horse or sheep blood dissolves RBC f)leukocidines. -use for biochemical test -large inoculation can be tested -useful enrichment like selenite “f” Disadvantage:-culture tubes and bottles inaculated by touching by a change loop .classification by the biological role….increase solidition or due to mole a)aerobic b)anaerobic Due to nature a)natural-eggs.small amount of protein like material sometimes traces of long chain fatty acids and a variety of impurified including inorganic salts. Special media There are shown in petridishes oxygen tubes as methods of inoculation.staphyloccocus aureus produce c)thyalusonidase.protease.paratyphi A. The bacteria has ability to produce enzyme during its growth. 28. peptone or complete digested proyein of animal or vegetables.they may classified into various ways.coli from S. Types: agar 1-2% . Simple media.commercial preparation of peptone. Bacteria produce enzymes which is not toxic but keeps but keeps them in stand to the host enviroment.5.this gives the ability to live and to be alive in the host organism.added separately for preparation of product of unknown composition. Nutrient broth.contains peptone 1% meat extract 1% NaCL 0.sometimes serum is also required.staphylococcus aureus.4% enables motile bacteria to form spreading or swarming growth.simplest medium and routinely used i8n laboratory for diagnostic purpose.electrolyte mid peptone:complex mixture of digest proteins by enzyme action.clostridium perfringens produce this enzyme -this remains bonds between collagen and it spreads bacilli in tissue.(microbial enzymes) a)tissue degrading enzymes:collagenase. Synthetic media Prepare from pure chemicals.reduced concentration of agar 0.peptone b)special-add more nutrition.when use H2S E.Blood / neutralize media uses sheep.Culture media Consist of water or source of hydrogen and oxygen.thi also gives ability to produce disease in human.5% and distilled water and PH of 7. Culture media streptococcus pyogenus dissolves coagulated plasma and spread streptoccoci in tissue e)haemolysis.coli can destroy protein by H2S and s. II. b)cagulase.the hyaluridinic acid id hydrolysed and spread its action.substrate specificity They are classified into 5 groups.Methods of detection of prolytic and sugarlytic enzymes Can differentiated E. Advantage:-when bacteria prevent in less numbers inaculation.Agar derived from seaweed.2%-3% agar is added to nutrient broth it called nutrient agar. 29. Gas Derived from sea weed contain mainly carbohydrate.4-4. Microbial enzymes. a)streak culture b)conpet culture c)stroke culture d)stab culture e)powr cor plate method Advantages:-special colony forms -quantitative bacteria: count and relative preposition of diffrent bacteria can make -by taking colonial morphology can identify bacteria Liquid media Distribute in tube with cotton wool and screw capped bottles of flask.electrolytic/Nacl nad others .blood b)artificial-derivatives of nature c)synthetic-prepared by chemical Due to nutritional factors a)simple-meat.streptococci pyogenus produce this enzyme. d)streptokinase.glucose and indicator and heat by peptone agar.they grow only in liquid.based on physical state.meat.aerobic. inorganic salts and growth factor.anaerobic ciulture media.Differentiation media.(bactopeptone)contain peptone.streptococci pyogenus produce this enzyme.

2-7.. 8)symbiosis for antagonism Symbiosis-groth of 1 organism fascilitates the growth of other organism.  oily fluids which are impermeable to water such as oils and fats  chemicals such as powders which would clump or form into cake in presence of moisture PRECAUTIONS : 1. pathological materials like sputum and stool and carcasses are reduced to ashes by burning.0 Cholera vibrios and alkaligenous faecalis (alkalophilis) grow at alkalius ph 10. These are not allowed to get redheat. Facultative anerobes-ordinary aerobes but can also grow without oxygen Eg. cotton wool plugs are passed over flame.0. 32 STERILIZATION.vibrio cholera.30 minutes kills most of vegetative forms 2  steam at atmospheric pressure at 100C for 90 minutes : 90 minutes sterilization time include loading and heating time from 0. 2  PASTEURISATION OF MILK : maintain a temperature of 63C for 30 minutes or 72C for 20 seconds.HOT AIR OVEN  for glassware. Most pathogenic bacteria are facultative anaerobes.  surgical instruments like forceps. 2)oxygen-divided into sub groups according to their requirement for molecular oxygen. Bacteriodes. Made of stainless steal with a supporting frame. It is done at temperature of 121C and chamber pressure of 15lb per square inch for 15-20 minutes. BY HEAT MOIST HEAT  kills by coagulating and denaturing their enzymes and structural proteins a process that requires participation of water.INCINERATION  is employed for destruction of infective materials. ANTISEPTIC : Substances which either kill m/o or inhibit their growth. in the intervals between the heatings the remaining spores germinate in the favorable nutrient media which are killed at subsequent heating AT TEMPERATURE ABOVE 100C Autoclave:. surface or medium is made free from all living m/o including spores. 5)hydrogen ion concentration The optimal PH necessary for growth of most pathogenic bacteria is similar to physiological ph 7.4 Some bacteria such as lactobacilli. 4.substances to be sterilized should be absolutely dry. Procedure of sterilization by moist heat AT TEMPERATURE BELOW 100C 1  VACCINE BATH: serum or body fluids are sterilized at 56C for an hour and bacterial vaccines are sterilized by a special water bath at 60C for 1 hour. .RED HEAT  metallic objects such as inoculating wires.Influence of environmental factors on microorganism 1)water Moisture ia required for bacterial needles. 170C for 40 minutes or 180C for 20 is a modified pressure cooker or boiler which may be horizontal or vertical. ASEPTIC…. 4)temperature The optimal temperature range for growth varies with different bacterial species.rubber goods. Steam circulates within the jacket and is supplied under high pressure to the closed inner chamber where goods are kept for sterilization. scissors. 3  FRACTIONAL STERILISATION : serum or egg medium is tubed and placed in special racks and slow solidification of serum or eggs is carried at 80C to 85C for one hour and for sterilization of the medium the process is repeated for three consecutive days. DISINFECTANT : is a process of destruction of vegetative forms of pathogenic organisms which are capable of producing infection but not necessarily resistant spores. ASEPTIC : technique that is employed in preventing infections from gaining access to an uninfected tissues.5% NaCl is added in most culture media to create a suitable environment for bacterial growth. PROCEDURE OF STERILISATION BY DRY HEAT 1. bedding. Microaerophiles-can grow with oxygen and carbon dioxide. test tubes. petri dishes.31. pipettes. 11.instrument should not be overloaded and must have space for circulation 1V. DRY HEAT : kills the m/o by destruction of oxidation of intracellular components. STERILIZATION : is process by means of which an article. Boiling for 10. Eg:groth of staphylococcus helping growth of influenza Antagonism-growth of 1 organism I inhibits the growth of other organism. Bacillus.5 6)light-bacteria prefer to grow in darkness.About 80% of bacterial cell consist of water. Vegetative cells are destroyed at first exposure. 3. 3)carbon dioxide Small amount of of carbon dioxide is required by all bacteria usually its available endogenously as a product of cellular metabolism or by atmospheric carbon dioxide. 7)osmotic pressure-bacteria can withstand a wide range of external osmotic pressure due to the mechanical strength or cell wall. DISINFECTANT. flasks.oven should be let to cool for 2 hours before opening. AT TEMPERATURE OF 100C 1  boiling: spores withstand boiling.they are grouped as follow: a)psychrophile-below 20 degrees Temperature either 160C for 60 minutes. Uses:  glassware’s like syringes. Also can be done at 126C for 10 minutes or at 133C for 3 minutes..photochromogenic mycobacteria produce pigment when incubated in presence of light. Sterilization by saturated steam under pressure ( 121 C ) takes 15 minutes. Soiled dressing. a) aerobes-require oxygen for growth Obligate aerobes-grow only in the pressure of oxygen .eg:pseudomonas aeuruginosa hampering the growth of gonococci of anthrax bacilli. Achieved by exposure of the organism to a dry heat at 160C for two hours.100C 3  TYNDALLISATION : culture medium is steamed for 30 minutes each on 3 successive days.thiobacillus thioxidans (acidophilic) grow at acid ph 3. fabrics or any inflammable or volatile substance should not be put inside oven 111. scalpels.soil+water saprophyles b)mesophile-between 25 to 40 degrees eg:majority of pathogenic bacteria c)thermophile-between 55 to 80 degrees eg:bacillus stearothermophilus. tips of forceps and needles are held in flame of a Bunsen burner for instant sterilization 2.FLAMING  glass slides. scalpels.

table water ii.due to bacterial proteins.Clostridium perfringens Botulism .toxic to skin.rivers) the water can be contaminated by pathogenic microbes such as shigella. b)Halogens. Types of filters:. Few of them are able to destroy spores.pus.strong acids. Majority of these chemical substances have no effect on spores.FORMALDEHYDE GAS . Useful for making bacteria free preparations of substances which get damaged by heat process.. e)Antiseptic of phenol. The disinfectants are not used directly on the skin.either liquid or strong vapour kills vegetative forms. artery and bone grafts.used for decontamination of surgical safety cabinets 3. surgical catgut.vibrions etc Analysis a)collection of sample b)methods of analysis 1)presumptive coliform a)multiple tube method b)membrane filter method 2)differential method Coliform can be used as sanitary important Coli index/litre – amount of bacteria coliform in 1 litre of water Coli titre – smallest amount of water containing 1 coliform Microbial flora of air Characterised by number of microbial cells in 1 m 3 of air Measuring 1) On an open Petri dish.used to sterilize glass ware in labs. Uses: rubber or plastic disposable goods.I2 is commonly used as skin disinfectant.Salts of heavy metals such as mercury chloride. oxygenation is present & absence of sunlight(UV) Soil borne diseases are :Gas gangrene. silver nitrate have toxic effect on bacteria. .sea. dry conditions Chemicals: a)wide spectrum of action b)rapid action c)effective even in pressure.Clostridium botulinum Mo that may cause disease may be alive for 2 months.hydrated fluid.rays and accelerated electrons.remove bacteria from skin i) Aerosols & other gaseous – Cl2.environmental water (lakes. alkalis kill bacteria but weak organic acids inhibit growth. adhesive dressings NON-IONISING RADIATION . Uses: destruction method is applied above. 37° C.This is due to toxicity of anion. asbestos disc filters.a) infra red radiation b) ultraviolet radiation GAS VAPOUR STERILISATION 1.Propylene Glycol is used. 33: INFLUENCE OF DISINFECTANTS ON THE MICROOGANISMS Influence of disinfectants on the microorganisms 1) Chemical groups of disinfectantsThe process of destruction of vegetative forms of pathogenic organisms which are capable of producing infection but not necessarily resistant spores. d)Salts. f)Formaldehyde .include gamma ray.alcohols – have bactericidal action. count the no.because nutrition(organic waste) is waste. Enumerate main subjects of each group a)Acids. disposable syringes. Gases: Formaldehyde: This is used to disinfect a)woolen blankets b)footwear of persons(fungal infections) c)operative theatre & hospital ideal condition for this gas is low temperature. of colonies on agar medium.earthen ware candles.dyes. Organic subst. 2. c)Chloroform . endoscopes.ETHYLENE OXIDE . sterilization is not effected as bed pans and cooking items do not to be sterilized.blood d)no hypersensitivity contact→dermatitis Chemical Disinfectants 1)acids & alkalis 2)halogens 3)Chloroform 4)salts 5)antiseptics of phenol 6)formaldehyde 7)glutaraldehyde 8)various dyes & alcohols 9)aerosols & other gaseous 34: MICROBIAL FLORA OF H2O Microbial flora of H2O:Water can be divided into i.Used in solution/gas g)Glutaraldehyde .new disinfectant.Cl2. RADIATION IONISATION RADIATION .FILTRATION The fluid to be filtered is sucked through the filter into a receiving flask by negative pressure with the help of an exhaust pump. alkalis . After 24hours at temp. They destroy bacteria & also have effect on spore producing bacteria.plastics.bacilli(tuberculosis) h)soaps. · chlorohexidine: · Hexachlorophane:has bacteriostatic action.effective against all types of bacteria.SO2 . X.used as soap product. bone and tissue grafts. kills spores.cholera. vaccines and culture media. pharmaceutical preparations ( antibiotic solutions ) and blood products.a) bacteriological filters . sintered glass filters b) membrane filters & c) sand filter Uses:.used mainly to prevent bacterial spread in hospitals · cresols:used as solutions of cresols in soap. Microbial flora of soil The best place for microorganisms is 20cm below the surface. They only need to be disinfected by solutions.HYDROGEN PEROXIDE VAPOURS .wait 1 hour for fermentation on the medium(not very effective) 2)By passing some amount of air thru Muller pump. polythene tube.instruments.

Microbial no.) the surrounded the surrounding air-borne fungi. III. 1. macroslides (erythromycines.they used “Cristasiu”(penicillium crustosum) Group of chemo.lakes).β-lactam(the β-lactam ring as basic structure) e.They came back to Russia &did experiment & said that both penicillium is effective.tuberculosis .many months??? Tularemia pathogenfor days – 3months . c)mutualism – 2 species living together. Time of life must be same as that of pathogenic mo.In Russia.coli can ferment lactose).Cholera .Cholera El Tor . II.preparations a) historically according to their origin.4 weeks (max 6 months) M. natural artificial – i. Symbiosis – relationship btw 2 or more mo in which participants are of material aid & bent to one another a)Commensalism – 2species live together. LIVING TIME OF PATHOGEN IN ENVIRONMENT In H2O Salmonella Typhi . 4.5 – 3 weeks(max 2 months) E. 1. .1.Cholera El Tor . Tubes in incubation for 24 hours & check growth of coliform bacteria.treatment if infectious diseases by chemothereapeutic drugs.carboxipicillin he understood that one mo can ( . tetracyclines 3.water from reservoir(sea.5 – 5 weeks(max 9 months) V.Coli/ Clostridium Perfringens 36. These are:Streptococci } in Staphylococci } larynx Absence of mo in air of operating theater is impossible. These microbes cannot multiply through air. 2nd generation – gentamycine iii.5 -9 days V. before operation cannot be more than 500 & after operation(1500)3 times. aminoglycosides – i.g. Presence of E. Chemotherapy 1stly observed & used by Alexander Fleming to observe staphylococci growth & it ( .) the growth of the other. from tap water. while the others(host) is harmed.pH will change the colour of indicator.g.But by Florin & chain – produce 1st antibiotic as penicillin by penicillium notatum Then all scientists around the world was checking this penicillin. synthetic e. penicillin ii.If we put filter in MacConkey’s agar for 24 hours & colonies are observed.0.actinomycines) 5.1-2 weeks(max 4 months) V. Rifampicin (tuberculosis treatment) . 3rd generation – 4. Microbial filters are used – spores cannot pass through such filter papers All microorganisms in water will be on surface if microfilters present. penicillin – benzylpenicillin. Then again oxidation test is employed. Antagonism – one mo suppress life of 35. Synergism – when one population cause positive influence for others IV.river. Then oxidation test is employed.2 -3 weeks(max 12 months) Shigella . 1st generation – streptomycin ii. Metabiosis .BACTERIOLOGICAL EXAMINATION OF H2O 1.Collection of samples :. 1 can get benefits from this & the other either gets benefit or harmed b)Parasitism – 1 organism(parasite) gets benefits from the relationship.when one mo produce requirements that are necessary for the other.2day – 3months Shigella .aminopenicillin. Isolate the culture & innoculate 24hours in MacConkey’s agar with indicator & lactose(only E.coli is checked NO.7 -150 days In Soil Salmonella Typhi . Both benefit from the relationship.13 weeks (max 7 months) Brucella . 2. 3. They must be normal flora.37 CHEMOTHERAPY Chemotherapy . Their isolation and examination be sterilized bottles. Semisynthetic(the modification of natural antibiotic structure) b) due to chemical synthesis.Sanitation microorganisms – normal microflora present in respiratory tract of humans.INTERACTION BTW MO IN ASSOCIATION SYMBIOSIS I.

) of cell membrane function leads to escape of macromolecules & ions from the cells. Especially in stomach.antifungal iv.cephalosporins mo – cholicine.coli to penicillin 2)Acquired resistance:Acquired resistance results from either from mutation or gene transfer.g. antihistamine to stop anaphylactic shock c) If disbalance – gives correct a/biotics.g.INH act as antimetabolic drugs during bacterial metabolism:folic acid is derived by pABA.This leads to different diseases as which spread by pathogenic mo. Nature of outer membrane e. 3)Transpostion: Transfer of a short segment occurs between plasmid to plasmid or between plasmid to chromosome(transposons)which may encode a/biotic resistance.) oriculation of DNA mole: e.actinomyctes d)drugs with antimetabolic action: e.normal GIT flora must be introducedto the body. allergy→anaphylactic shock in severe cases 4)Toxicity – also in high dosage of antibiotics could have toxic action Prophylaxis : detect sensitivity before antibiotics Treatments : a) toxicity – give a/biotics substitute(as detoxification.effected due to antibiotic action of GIT.This is commonest way of spread of multi drug rsistance among different genera of Gram-negative diffusion if not different complications may arise e. plants – (onion.e.This is done to prevent dysbiosis which causes changing of the normal microflora from normal to abnormal.g. e. 2)Prolonged admin. 4)Altered metabolic pathway:By altering metabolic pathway of drug.ANTIBIOTICS class. of it due to chem.microorganism -actinomycetes .g. Sulphonamides. Rifampin ( .anticancer d) class due to origin . primary & acquired 1)Primary resistance :some bacteria posses an inate property of resistance ro certain drug.Spontaneous mutation is less frequent but transfer of gene either through chromosome or plasmid plays an important role in the spread of drug resistance from bacterium to bacterium.multiplication stopped and excreted via faeces This mechanism can be changed.g. nature .contaminated H2O.drinks. Mechanism of transmission 1)Permeability:MO change their cell wall permeability to drug by possible alteration in chem.intestine. erythromycines lincomycine vancomycine 39.give probiotics d)Tolerance – same treatment as allergic reaction 38. disc diffusion Ii .stop usage a/biotics) b) allergy – must admin. 3)Allergy reaction – before admin. antibiotics must do antibiotic test→\ i.both within and outside of species.) of protein synthesis & impairment of function: of ribosomes. 2)Conjugation: R-factors carrying genes for drug resistance are transferred by conjugation from donor to recipient.resulting cell damage & death(act on permeability) e.g.there arre specialized microbial flora(normal) that prevent multiplication of pathogenic mo because GIT pathway is a very easy pathway for entrance of pathogenic mo.g.Sulfones.aeruginosa.g.same as question 37 mechanism of action a)block cell membrane: Polymyxin B & polymyxin E bind selectively with surface membrane of Gram (-) bacteria.g.protect against pathogenetic mo entering.This is due to wrong administration of antibiotics.bacteria bypasses reaction inhibited by drug Role of plasmids Inactivation of antibiotics occurs by plasmid coded enzymes e. quinolones.e.polimycine animal tissue – ( IF ) – leukocyte lysozymes – chicken eggs erithsia – erythrocytes actino – all mycines e.COMPLICATIONS AFTER USE OF ANTIBIOTICS Many complications can occur after administration of antibiotics to the patient.are rich in phosphatidyl lethanolamine act as cationic defrigens.The sulphonamide having a structural similarity to pABA e)IF suppress protein synthesis of virus f)anticancer & antitumor drugs suppress the oxy metabolic effects 40.g.pAS.plants .( .animal tissues e. thru bad food.If not humans could get different kinds of pathogenic mo from entering→effect→death in short time So the normal microbial flora of body protect us from these pathogenic mo.bacteria develop an altered receptor.Entering of pathogenic microflora prevented.g.c) due to spectrum of action i. 3)Production of enzymes:Staphylococcci resistant to penicillin produce a beta-lactamase that destroys the drugs. 1)Because all humans has a normal microbial flora in our body.antiviral iii. Aminoglycosides Tetracyclines Chloramphnicol c)drugs inhibiting synthesis of nucleic acids e.fungi . resistance of E.So all the time with antibiotics.g.In chromosomal rsistance. beta lactamase destroying beta lactam ring responsible for the antibacterial action of penicillins. 2)Altered structural target:Aminoglycosides attach with 30S subunit erythromycin with 50S subunit of ribosome. Method of transfer of plasmid & genetic material 1)Transduction: Plasmid DNA enclosed in bacteriophage is transferred from one bacterium to another of same species.antibacterial ii.garlic.They act in different places of the body to give different functions to prevent. of antibiotics leads to stomach or intestinal ulcers. tetracycline resistance by Ps. .mint) fungi – penicillin.polymyxin B/ EI b)drug ( .DRUG RESISTANCE OF MICROORGANISMS Drug resistance is of 2 types.

Minimum bactericidal concentration(MBC) is then determined by subculture from the tubes on MIC test into solid media. Method: Serial tube dilutions of the drug in broth are inoculated with the bacterium under test and incubated.tetracyclines-30mcg & etc. 2)Tube dilution method Laborious procedure but useful in assessment of therapeutic dose. Methods of examination of antibiotic sensitivity 1)Disc diffusion method Stoke’s method: outer side of plate is inoculated with standard organism and the test organism in the middle of the plate and he zone of inhibition around the disc is compared.4)Transformation: Transfer of naked DNA carrying genes for drug resistance occur in bacterium by process of transformation. Concentration of medicated discs: Routinely used concentration per disc is as follows:penicillin-10 units.ampicillin10 mcg. . Ways of overcoming resistance -carry out specific drug sensitivity tests to attain specific therapeutic dose & not overdose of antibiotics which in the long term may lead to drug resistance in MO’s.Bacterial growth on solid media indicates presence of surviving bacteria. Primary sensitivity testing: Urine or fluid specimen containing bacteria is directly inoculated on a solid medium & medicated discs are placed on the surface of the plate & incubated. Result: zone of inhibition above 12-15mm in diameter considered significant.amoxycillin-10mcg. Observation: Lowest concentration of drug inhibiting bacterial growth represents minimum inhibitory concentration(MIC) (bacteriostatic effect).The lowest concentration of drug that kills all bacteria is found out from appropriate tube which will not show any growth on subculture.