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# Chapter 7

-

7.1 ForΙ=10μA:

1
τ

'"

l0
25

ιΑ

=

0.4

*: δΞ*π

=

,:Vn:Ι0V:tvΩ
ο | l0μΑ
A-_ρ-r'_η_
υ '"' o Vr

'"

mΑ/v

l0ν _
v

400

ν/v

ForΙ=lΦμΑ:

n-: lΦμΑ
25 mV

= 4mA/ν

__ιφ- :

rr, =

=

+,=

**

, o : β : lΦ :.rsιο
g. 40 mΑ/ν
:
R1"
r,, : 2.5 kΩ
λν6 : _g.ro : _40 mΑ/V(lΦ
Rr: rr: lΦkΩ
Rιn can be

25 kΩ

.,ιl = 250μΑ,g,: ##=l0mΑ/V
r'τ : __-!!L- : lo kΩ
}ιl

This makes

R;n =

rO :

μΑ

l00
250

rzr = Ι0 kΩ

__

40ο kΩ

: 'g r[': -10
Ro: ro: 40o kΩ

mΑ:

1'Α :40mΑ/V

25 mV

:

__-.!!q_

:

.o :

.]9j( =
1 mA

lο

r,,

Α, :

.1o

Vo =

ιο

=

κ) : 4ω

0.4 mΑ/v

μΑ
lmA

4.Ο

10o

mΑ/v

40 mΑ,iν

25ο

25

'ε.V otoll Rι)

lo kΩ \rlο mΑt
ι5 kΩ + lo κ',ι t, .,
(4ω kΩ || lω kΩ) : 533 v/v

π

ιΩ

I Md)

kο

|0ο kΩ

400

lο kf)

400

2.5 kΩ

kΩ)= 4'0Φ v/v

-(o#*.)*"'',"'.'

Υo

Ι

l0 μΑ

mΑ,lV(400

ν'1τ= V'', R^ -Vo
R.,, * R'" - ζ,*

2.5 kΩ

mA/V (10

kΩ)= _4,0Φ v/V

raisω by a [acιor of 4 by decreasing

Α,,o

n':

lrnιΩ

/. to

rι, : l00lOv = 1Φ kΩ
μΑ
Α, : 4mΑ/V(IΦ kΩ) : 4ω

ForΙ=l

: ω,oπ

,ι) :V^: lΦV:
ι'
tmA

= 25okrt

0.025

I

7.2

.

--l

_ /

7J s,, = lq,so
Υov
2

, - E.Voy
'-\"'_- v)
"-::Ξ!!. _ 2_ mΑ
""',/ v(o.25
lD
"
From chapt.5, k'' : ιι,Co*
since g,, : uσncJπl υΓη'

,0.25 mΑ

chΔpΙe.7_2

: rτQΦ μ^7?'υr/L)(r5o μA'

2 mA/Υ
yielding

ι|/L :

pm)

:

20 μm

11'

/

L)

(l mΑ/γ)'2
A / Υ' 1(2l

(387 μ

:ωμΑ
'5 )

Note that many ansιγers are possible.

7S
V2ρ

'lτμρ.)(Wυ

V^'

:

1.8

V

v'4

Γ'o

is decreased ιo 25

μΑ,

Αois increased bv |

:

g.:

2 tLrtc-l
2

7.4 Αssuming that the MosFET is operating
above η,

ιf /D

'D
_

40(ο.5

λo :

2

40

so that

γ:

c.

z

Juo
β1s'"ρ*yιrlη.f,ιo

so, g,, is decreased by

Jυι : ιlz

Ιf

/,

Th€ edge ofthe satuτatio:n region is defined as

is increased to 40ο

μΑ,

1o 1. 6o."*"6 6r,'JτI : !
2
: 2
g, increases by

.'.

u'-:

Ιn this problem, we haγe two releνant
equations, bυt thΙee unkno',ir'ns. so, one
parameter can be choosen.

Ιf we multiply the equations for ,4, and 8π, we

ι:

γ:

l/λ

(2μ"C'' )'l/

λo'8- :
\' (2ν"c.')

'

since a must be Ξ ο.l8 μm, aδitrafily
choοse l = o.3 μm
τ"hen-

L
Ι

To find /D

=

-

:

g: :2pmc"'(W/L)ΙD
so,

2|.s

-

|Voλ

0.3

= l.5 v

:

0.36 μrη

ff:

7.A.l, V^'

From Tabιe

Io

:

5

ΥΙpm

/ν2)

_

5 V/μm (2) (0.l8 μm)

t0μΑ

:

A _ 2 (5 v/μm) (0.36 μm)
Vo"
o.25 ν

2V. Ι'

o

25(l mΑ/v)
5 ν / prn(2)(387 μA

l.8

h:
22

v. L

aτιd

= 6.46 ιιm

6'46 lΙ''τr.
0.3 μm

:

(0.l8 μιn)

,"" ' L

Γη
Jz<ιι'c*xwη.Γη so that,

:

:

so,

ιr^-ztν^c^ltwιl

Ao' g^

L:2

7.1

7J

|ro.] lv'l

The highest insιanιaπeous ouιpuι voιιage is

Voo_ |voλ

^Γ4

can eiiminate /D aηd

=

when |r,.,]

b) ιvith

1"

:

l0 μΑ

_ 2(loμΑJ _
k":+
v;" ι0.25 v)' 320 μΥlA2
solνing for yov with 1D

vov : ?b.-

= 1Φ μΑ:

k"

vou

: ΨiΓι
320
'tΙ

n_

_

μΑ/ν'

=

o.79 votts

Ιo _ lω μΑ
Vοvl2 o.19 ν 12 =

253

ιAlΥ

l80 kΩ

Cbapter 7-3

V,

L

μA/v( l8 kΩ)

253
c) Now, vr'ith a ne\p

/, :

:

5V/μm (0.36μm)
l00 μΑ

18

= 4.56

V/V

w and Vov = 0.25ν,

ρ-

vt.

lΦ μA

2V, L

*r1

l0 μA,

d) /D iS now

(0.25

:

noιγ'ινith 12

so,

V
n-

16(0.4

μm)

0vι

'ι'

Vn'L

_

:

6.4 μm
80O

ιr]

l/0.25

20 v/μm(o.4

μΙn) _

l00 μΑ

ι : 0.8 μm,
Ι/ : 0.8 μπ( 16) :

μA/v

80 kc)

Ιf

uA

ro : Vι'L
Ιn

vr

l2.8

μπ

8Φ μΑ/V

20 V/μm(0.8

l00 μΑ

μm) =

160

7.9

l0 μΑ

'

4

{

_ Ιo _ l0 μΑ _
voνl2 o'o79ι2ν
{

5

v/ιΙm

)a

0.]6

10μA

e) The

loΨestΑo is 4.56

νlhen Von

:

0.79

0.36 μm

The highest Αo is 45.6

witb /D

:

|0

νA'

v/v

ν'

ΙD

:

uΑ/V

25_ι

ιm)

2u^ L
2(5v/μm)(O.]6
' _
^o_
0σq v
ω
: 45.6 V/V

Ιf

=

v)'

=Γ!_9=/Ξ1]!-EΦ-o.079v
k" 1.2 mA/v

Vn L
ro _
-Io

l :

V'

(ΨJ)

k'=+=2(100μ4):3mΑ/V2

v;

l0ο μΑ)

k'

8-:-:Ξ-.--=

fnd k,:

first,

2(

2ο0 μΑ/v'(o.25

l0O

νlν

l4'4

L

v

(2)(5v/μm)(0.36 μm)
ο25 v

OV

:

,,

2

2Ιo '

γ:

_

μm)

5 V/μm(0.36

:;k"(L) V

_
s- _ :9-= - lΦ μΑ
v\

ιιΑ/V

800

ΙD

so' ,r'

l00 μA,

ιo _ l00 μΑ _
Vονι2 o.25 ν 12

7'8

_

μm)

Since ,4^

"

100

μA'

:

ι

o.079

Υ

"

=

-:lVoν

g-

remains

constant, and ro is increased by L)

Each gain is increased hy a facιοr of l0.

Lo''l Ao= 45.6νN
High Αo = 456 V/V

L

:

anaιιhe cυrrent source is

ΑoVon

: ]Ψ!:-YΙ :
2Vo' 2(2o Υ lμm)

since 1o

γ:
(or since

_ 2v'Ι'
--L.
vou

ideal.

is increased

10 ιimes.

since ,4^

v/v

Von

W/a is held constant. and

2v'ι'

18ο

L

=

0.5 μm

lι'"c,,'l(!)v-''

2Ιo

-----------_----Τ

(μ"c,,.)v;I
2 (50

μA)

(2ο0 μA/v':)(0.2 v)'z

:

12.5

Chapter 7-4

7.11

7-10

Vrr:

Yon:2-5 Υ

+ 1.8

V

Η

Η

+

vi

V6=Vpp-V5p2

v

=vDD _lvιp|_lν.,1

=2.5-0.5-0.3=

since 1Dl =

(W\

2l

\ω"c"'l(f

,v.",

o'

2(100

μΑ)

(2ω μA / v'?)(o.3v)':

_

''.,

'-q"'(9':;#α
(

since

μΑ /
.l,l

l)(o.3)'

,/r, =

|VA

:
ρ1

20 νlμrn

_ 20 v/μm (υ.5 μm)
:r:L
^L
02 o
|00μA
ι
o - Ιn, _ lΦμA _ 667 uA/V
vou 0.,1/2v
ol

2
100

so.
v/ith eq. (7.18a),

Au =

:

Lε^,o:
-33.3 V/V

}{οοz

|voλ
0.2 : 1.1 V

'p\

-

0.5

_g^.c'l|
and

.l'"
ol"

/

02

ro2)

so ιve must nnd

_ A" _ _l _Φ

mA/v

9-ι

ιD

v^,n

roι :

1; arιd ro":
5 v/ιιm
50Κ
ol 100 μA '
μm
6 V/ιm '
60K
02 lΦ μA
μm

since

: ηoιtι

-

'

so.

V

r, :

_

|v

1o lΦ μA ι mΑ/v
vov/2 o.2ν /2 =

ι':
r

\τ ),= 0"β.,ν",'

-

-

r.8

V

1.7

DD'

ιιzn){lωιο)

1ρ :

or

L:

50
50

kΩ/μm(Φ kΩ/μm).L'1

kΩ/μm'L '60 kΩ/μm'L

|.41 μm

since ID

:

ξν"c"'(fiν'",'

ι'^ _ 2Ιo'
\τ), |'β
-f*
2(1Φ'μΑ)
'-

381 μ^/ ν2(o.2 ν)2

=

12.9

2Ιoι
ι4/\
)z μ"ρC oλ'
^|v
_ 2(l0o-μA) ;:58.ι
(

t-i
ιL

86 μA

z

ν'

(0.2

v)'

ιwl V: VoS k|(w : Vι + / L) Vo.2ro Vr.)(_)'^.45v and 2. : = v.:2: A. Ιo = 2Φ ιιA = \ι. = g. ιhe oυtput \νill vary between ο. Therefore. we noιe ιhaι lhe currenι source iS assumed ιo be ideal. 7 : KcL aι the oυtput node yields vvv J+ov (\'*..l*Δ.a75 .] v.45 V. μA.ιV nrQor1l ror\ + 2MΩ) (b) small-signal model: : orll tor) ι μΑ(3MΩ 0. sinewave ampliιude ιγill be ιimiιed by !he negaιiνe eΙcursion.t vi : 2Ι^ V 20ν ' :Yu: 200 ΙD μA 0. Since ιhis happens Ψhen Vo.l ιlξ" E2Ψ.| ' The small-signal model shows all = _ I ^rv r"r0 = (iF /F ") are equaΙ.") ' ro l1 siπce V". the maximυm peak amplifude is 2.) { /o _ 2..) .89 mΑ/v l00 kΩ so.. vo = - vos + Rl : ) ?s .4 - 0.Chapter 7-5 This figure belongs with 7.'ε-ι 'λ : +o ':o ι1F Vι Vν = i''-r'+-9_Ξ -13 /1 o or \ _ o_ (η c-J V ξ.. λc. Α.2' vEρ ro since Ι/r. and ]V o |ιι. : ri.35 V.45 : : 0.4 so ιhis assumpιion v 30ΦK .4 + 1.475 = 2'38 Υ=2. : s.95 : 4. = 8.zy ε.. : Von: 0.ne/v' 0.95 ο-ts V The cυrrenι ιhrough the feedback network is : " '- v: RΙ = 991J 2MΩ Τhis is << 200 jυstified.4 Υ Rε=3 MΩ 18.12 Ιfboth MosFETs have ιhe same curreΠι: all r νalνes source νaΙues./v 3ω0K To find ιhe peak ofthe maximum sine\νave output possib|e...95 will be V (Thaι is.'.5 + 0.12 o-+ + vi ν Ι 7. (a) Ιf we negIect the current throυgh RF.l.45 = r.l0oK __86.

1r.) οl1 ro \F Q2 uo 2Jq Δrιd |vovr|: Rr subsιituting inιo the frst φuation.ro'x c..05 mΑ η. : 0.200+/n' = /j: = r.*R.O5 mA .(*-.9 kΩ 7.7.ι . or5'' (Q2 Vx 0.ο5 l6 : 0.25 V as O.(Y)'v''"=( r). V/":|Vλρ|:loν i. R.s lωkΩ u'.' * g. ro-' .4a and assυme Qz Φd Q'l are matched: .... ι'| \rre geι \ v. -':r+: ' 'neaι lΑrl (c) To find Ri"... lη-ε'J R.R.= #.25ν x2 (9.XlωK +g-' :0. (Υ)'= " and Q3 are matched) 0. ι v / v 23 mvΙ'eaι apply a test voltage .r' ρ3 have = Y ξi..42 2x250xl0_3X0.4m4/V Kcι . \rye i" : 25o μA /Υ2 .: x 2 the same 0. then l .: _ν v vxοο R.14 Refer to Fig.chapιer 7_6 ftlc^ π*& Φ.I4O 'R' KCL at node A: ν v -v =(Υ).lRr lrl Rr RF l/ro+l/RF | + I ro Rr = v.l8: Av: -g^(roι || ro")+4o: _8. /1 ι\ .4 0.u # . : The coπesponding input vollιge is _ -]lΞ_Y86.: RF at node B: (Υ).'ι.ο. V"'V' 'r : so that l".q9-ηΔ]J * ] .-τ.o ..=ΨΙoI O. ι. 7.Ω i+h - 33. /"./r to the inpυt - Roυi since : 1"'.: = I -^. z.05 ο.05 . to'ro L- : R'n L- mΩ 3 mΩ !Ξ-!'ηJ 2 l .

33 Voι : Voo Vovι : 5 = l00 μA a) ΙD2 The corresponding amplitude of the resυltiηg output sinusoid is: output sinusoid amplitude =vootvou 22 7. note ιhat V"= V gg oτ Vη _ 0.96 V 62.03yo) . Υ'then 1: 8'57 voo υq Vιs Vo" yos : coordinales = so x Tο determine coordinates of B.O3yo) Θ yoB=vιR-o.6 + _ ι}ou.36 ν = vo= 4.l4r'(r = _ * = zωιv.88 + ο.:z'(r : + + &) 3'3*/") 0...1 V 25 2 l' )''ι'ι.33 Thereforc the extreme νaiues of Vρ for which Q. equation for ιhe linear section : (Rafer to Example 7.<0.53 ΙD| (Note that YsG2 = Vscr) ouιput sinusoid amplitυde: l.6.t.16 Αs discussed in Example 7.36 - Therefore the linear region is : A I Uor of poinι = vous ["' .127(ι. a.ed region (segment ιl[) is quite lineaι Therefore Dc bias component of ιhe inpuι signal (for maximum oυtput swing) should be chosen at the ιhe ylr midpoint bet\γeen and y|.33 v = vo = 2'98 ν v . 7. _ ο. the transfer characιerisιic of ιhe amplifier oνer ιhe regiοn labeled as segmenι ΙΙI.1 0. ιhaι is: : o.3.ι = lVov.4 V2 wecan ινrite : = l00 μΑ _(W/L)3 _ W3 ΙD1 2.32 v Vρ6=VΒ_V' : iD2=) = = o.905 v Ιo.51(ι1_ 0. 7.8)2 =0. 7_? 7."t:) 1r.1'[r __Ξ9-"(.3) yoy1) (Note that yov2 i 20 0'6\1 : At ρoinι B : .2 voνι='6:lr'rφ = 0.8 o.Ξ| pA o:(fl.oo33voι- 0. Νote that o.93 0. : 62. "(t 65 X ο.47 ν ο εl'(r x ο.86 v Y/. = 0.5]' 1. and 02 aιe in saturation 0.0lro.'ι"". #.6 = Vg' substituιe in and {v1 for νoa μι+ zs By referτing to fig.36ν \$ _ 08)2 0.3(ι.53'? 1rr.2 _ v'z lο ι +!ρ o'l|7 =l ι6 : 8.ll : o+vo.8|'z :0.({). = ".98ν .. _ |_υo/|5 | _ o.e ηat matched: 121 input dc bias =Vr"ΙV.1 l+0.17 Refer to fi9.' 0.86v<y.47 v Now to Find ιhe linear equation for segment ΙΙΙ' iD1 : iD2 : '''t(' - p'. 7.4a.chaρte.(ι (z.15 As discussed in Example 7.o67 ι^ 25 μl \$ : b) Dι 20 = l00 Now we find th€ ιransfe.l1(l - No\ν if we solνe for vbB+ o.066 _ = 6.(l).47 +0." 22 - ο. 4.32 =2.4d' you notice ιhat in seg_ menι ΙΙΙ.6)' = 4. both Qt and Q2 are in sanΙration and the ιransfer characteristic is qυiιe ιineaι The output νoltage in ιhis segment is limited beι\reen yoΑ rcox2iψI_ ι +!ρ |+ττ'.57 0..51 Ιf we subsιitute vre = 0.ι'"' ξ) [*'(l).ω .of(r = 65 x 0.0. iS qυiιe linear. b?:) * : Ιa99 : L)2 (W / =1. the ιransier characteristic of the amplifier over the desi.47 = 0.3.> Voι = 0.11(ι ι - #) / (' r :"-) 0'0l9v.96v or 0.) -rfff) *'.'-t#) 1'5 W2 voA = 3'3 _ o. o.l1(Ι (y."t(t. _ ff) : _ 0.l = I 0.

l.18 = 0.t : 333 kΩ A.Vr"\R : vi_2 g.* l\2 = Ιl _ V^\2 +V^ m g-r(ro.11.Rνi lo:Ψu:'!_2g^R vo l_ . ll 'nr\ : _210'6ν o t becomes: : . R". 0. @ 6.o3)Ψ -6g6.8)2: o. 0.33 +0.o l : : Ιoι = . For zo = 1.ll X u"ol δυ'l = (a) Ιf G and either gate.* .sv_vG_0.98)+ V11 V Large_signal νolιage gain = Διo : 2.ll(1'0.03 = 1.-2(g.8) = : . : Φ.|lι 'k'^(|yιL)'(ve : .Chapter 7-8 c) From (b) \γe can vι vΙB= voB + Ιf we solve 1 fndvIA= vIB: (Vu o. 2(η ο.8 = 1.13 .5 mA (b) For r.g we have or'(vc-(|'5v)_o.J E*'oono ''?9r'ωr.65 " Differenιiatinρ both sid"" nf ι .16 7.': V. "' πA]Υ _ V" _ 1._0.. and no currenι floψs to ΙD|: l00 _lMΩ 0..13 V for yon = 2. the small_signal model Ιoι : Υa: 50 : 500 kΩ Io.5 V2=V6 uιd Ιη= Io.632 D are open. = ID2: :kρ\wtL)2lvDD_ve _ |v.5η2= (l.1 m : 500ι || 1Mο ΞR..65 V from - β) D ^ + u: /ν + Vo: V.98 _ Δo' : Φ Δu.98 v then ' +1.l? dν.ll v')to + )' }{t : 0. = "22 41 u^ 0'33 1.)" so.l v 1 161ll 162 .8v Χ 2.2ν)2 ιV.^':y': '' Ιo' 1..8)2 e'1 Ro.1 16 vrv !!!: Ξ = v t.03 X l.8 v/ ν (v. ι23 v : _ 195.ιεq-. \avi'l (_o. dυι : 0.1ι(ι 0.65)Ξri : l.^' = o.

5 mAΞ' : 3V 0. we get (d) Ifιhe gate is driνen as shown: ιi G l0ο ΚΩ Γ* ro Rln Vi : Vμ + Vo 2 s KCL at D yields.V65. tl_2(lmA/ν)(lΝ4Ω) l '_liΞl]Χ l mΑ /vχ40 k(η Κ | :25 kΩ to the model.Chapter 7-9 substituting values.] t to = -------- n- so that. .n .rr: #: :lvl:so= / 0.Ω : -39.5 v supplies' _0.-"': υ.2 Υ /ν l_ 39.u.2 v/ν . L+2 R so ιhat | ro . Aν = ι"l 1 .+ ro. = 1.| must be > |Voι'l1 : : with Yc . we get: .5 V.+ lL aιd since Vo R.'u.0v To Rnd Ri" ..:Ι# _1999 ν/v 20v :40kΩ Substituting in numeΓical νalυes' lMΩ ^"' 0." 25 kΩ .= .5 _ ο.7 ι : -Ξ]- .'.2(l mA/v)(l MΩ) : ..Rl a) since : ιRF'F : Ιc1 : 3.1 mA Ιr' : Ιcz: Ι : Vo= V 1-0.#! 0. V562 1.2s-R 1+2! (e) |vr..rr..:υ!:R ! 'ι" .1 rO b) lVol - 5OV . note that 7.=Ψ-'+ λ.λuo 1.[ξl 5Ι r' 0.84 ν/ν ciνenthe Substituting numbers. _ l_2(lmΑ/v)(Ι0οοkΩ) κ' '' -' . -fr. : -?. = Ψ 2 8.5V<νr<05V I*nn o =v.oι and ro2 24. .lvoιλ 0. o :v.5 a 1. f'-'*'^ll ι .5 : 1.5 lωkΩ 100 kf) .|g .V".5 mΑ Adding .οω 40 ι.5 mA 3V .9 .-*.tr y.rl t' '*'^.( _ lοο kΩ + 25 kΩ *'r.1.+ '.l"= lω kΩ + R.

-.5 mΑ/v(54 Kl164. : 5 V/μm .54 μm) "' ro2 : Ιo 0. lf μA' lL\v. kΩ aΛd r62hadbeen eqυal.8 K) = 'l4.ν 2(50 l'| . " = = E 20 c: r.18 μm):0.-.6 Vror. : d) R'" = z.Chapter 7-10 Toιal resistance aι ιhe colιector of 01 is equal r. _ For Q : Ιoι : : rιvj : ιL/3 50 Ieast l0 v / vi uιd Aγ c^'σo'\l roz) : _ Ιf we want to make So' _ . rot ll r.9 μrn) _ .7ν/ν Ιf ιhe gain . Αy must be at rα For a gain of _20 ν _ . : Φ lι-ξ0'05 mΑ) 5 v/μm for Q2ιnd Q3' 162: lΦkΩ || lω kΩ = s0ιΩ g.78 (insιeadof 4) .8 l Ιo = Ι Y : . this ινould have ι at : 0. we choose 7.ιro Α" : 'o _ν2g.8 μm Lι = 0.(161 || roz) meaηt doubling |μoCo. (0.8 g.2 v)'1 64.5 τnΑ / v)(90 kΩ Αv: _26. L.18 μm.rn: |yov| V'o' : ο.54 (Note: choosing 0.54 um) __nτ. ''' Vor.l : Λι : 0'2ν' _ l'6 v )(μoC..JJ μm / μ'm η =η and a b€ an integer multiple of 0.67 ιιτn and ιv'.βo: _20x50 = l0ω v/v 0_5 ν 0.^' = -Δ!. Ro = roι ll Aν: Ιo.n "' : r-.9 μm.^. r.18 μm)(5) 1.sιο 2.llVo12 μΑ) (86 μΑ / v'?)(0.' 2(50 μA) (387 μA / v'])(o.L is to be douhled._ 5V/μm (0. rol ιo : : || rrr.025 2οmA/v β .2 _ιοv/v (ll2) forQl.5 kΩ .05 mΑ This resuιts in a gain of μm) = l33 kΩ : _φ.' Lι : Lι : aο k-Q(0'05 6ν since we φant aI = : o.36 than l0V/V.46 u' : ο..Αro\ = 6V = Αγ: - : 0.5 _ cl ρ_' = Ι!! vτ 0.ιvithι|=η=η.) μτn μm resυlιs in slightΙy less checking.o / ιm (0.8Υ/Υ Αv This represenιs (#*Ι : aΙΙ *. vι .8 V 3(0..2 vf _ greateι 2Ιo' 6. roι and ro2 equal.4 μm μΑ) _ . || l33 kΩ) increase in area of 2. Iv'|ι liJllol = μA(2) _ (0.o. kΩ 1σ) || thus: lω kfi : r-: " 50 kct 50 kΩ _ 0..?Λ a= Vρρ: Ι.9 0. and ιhe ζ raιios kepι the same. :50 'n_. "' 0-05 mA 6 v / μm (0. must double.". so.r. makiΠg the area 4 times /ν' The closest integer multiple that saιisfies our requiremenι is (0.2 since 1o2 = Ιoι and ιv'Ι \Ll. )8._.".5 ιnΑ / v) - mΑ/v 40kΩ .)(νv (ιv'\ : \L l..05 mA For an ouΦut of 1.

z ν) R^:ιl9= *"C^fo-" lο0 μA) 2|V.ι o-''_l VcιΗ Now. J .8.. Yov..'r'' 2lyL:2(0. = μm)(0. )ιμoC"'\ιW ι . |Voλ = 0. = Vovn = Vo.18 = 8ι0kΩ ''*' = 0.l]?o : 2|Vλ' |v oλ v6nr: v6uo: v6v La:\=L V. loο μΑ / v'?(0. oΔ : 5Υ/.18μm: L\v'6y s. t \τ'l/\ )' ' 2( and Qι sο that Qι / ι_ = (s-.t8 μm)'7= 8. Α ι.2 ν /R.Ro Av."m 1.| _ 2(5 ν/μm)2(o.2v |( l00 μΑ) r r2 7lv = 1:! ForL:0._'lo'l mA/v)(810κ)= I 40.0l mΑ v.)r".2 v)'? n^ '|ι lγ|_!J_'|ι ' |Voλ ι z|v _]_!-L "_- ρ^ & = Αoι = lγ ]ι' : l-!- v6o 0.ΚV"" 4o(o'2Λ = R^ - 2 lfVo=5Y1"-.c.22 γy'iιh both transistors being identical.5 : : 250 ]20 kΩ 7 -23 4v :0.5 mA.5 v/v . and Ro.: ι/ ov12 so thaι ''u.. if |t'r| (a) for / : ll Ιρ : i =4v w\ ιΖ /.=v^: γ'λ 5Υ/μm Voo fαIι' 1 V* c*---{ 7.. --_^^r*th Δ4η' mΑl |0.|' 2l4 η' " ' 1voλι= |0. Vλ 7. r". and Ro = "o Vω4 Ξ'' lvnl |Voλ rL 2 Ro:G^ι lvnl t '|Vλ =Ψ |voΛ ι no Vt n)roι (g^1r Ε-ιroι : Αol : .2 v|(0.Chapter 7-l I (b) Foι / = 0.' Finaf ly.l ν ιο.lroι = l.:(9.l mAlV : 0.: Vtn: so ιhat.λπ_ .065 n Αssuming thaι ιhe driving NMos transisιors have similar g. g.2|Κ=40:gη7roz: (o). 'o4- V1. π"*.= V '= γ ' vDD Vo.π'|v6/: oιΥ |r.18 μm)n I .6 MΩ = li 8'l y 0-οι mΑ 0. " /R^ 2lo ι Ι't |γ .l mΑ.

2 = 1o mΑ/V n" Υ = ε. remains Αrca For =2 L- LΨ = (0.Ι mΑ/vl(7.l.240 Κ) = t62vlν 8.lE μm | ' sinc€ /D _ kP (w / LΙιro. o. : _lιlο ""' Κ) . (b) 1 lΙl' 3.| v _8!kΩ R^:Ιl" " Ι 0-! mΑ ' ιnΑ.4ν : R^_ " ο_οΙ mA _].12'9k!ι " ='72.η.l ιο " .' \η 7.o mA.l 2 l (o.54 μm)' l.9'l |mΑ . but Ro decreases \γith . roι/ν)(72g K) 2 Ι mΑ(2) v) (0.65 _lιr a"" : : Αrea No\λ/..59 nμmz For L : 0.r rnA'/ ν'(3.36 μτn)'n(2) 0. Comments: (a) Rρ and Αy aΙe increasω but εt the cost of largerdeνice a'ea' Αs ι Av by a factor of x2. _ _lι ιo mA / ν)(8. υse 1 : 0.36μm: p _ 32'4 ν _ ι'1 ιο o. v/v _364.54) : 0.36 μm: ν: 32'4 32-4 lmA kΩ A.. = 58 n μm2 The tabie below summa'izes the caιculations.54 μm)2 _ 72o -'-" (o2 _ 7z'q R^ " ι) 0-ο l ν Α- .24okΩ Φ2 v υnchanged _ .18 μm)2 nμm2 ForL:0.9ν lmΑ l.5 Υ Area : 2 Κ) /Υ wL : 2(1ω nxo.29ο nμm2 ν kΩ "' - .58n μm2 NoΨ.ιn)2 = 6'5 n μm2 L= For : R^ " 0.1 mΑ: a = 0.'.Chapaer ForΙ : 0'36 μm: 2(5 v/μm)'z(0.5 μm).8nμm2 for / : Ψ= : wL 2 ι : Fo.' Α 7-12 V/V : 2 wL : 2(lω k) _u1ο'5 = Aτea nX0._Ιo2 2"" mA/ν)ι32'4 Area : 2wL = 2(Ι00 n)(0'36 μm)'? v/v =26nμm2 L: For o.2 ν) _ 8.26 μm: 1i^ _ 2(5 v/μm)2(0.36 μm)) /R^ = . (lon) (o.18 μ.54 μm: _ . : ! ιι " 2 ' mA/v)(324 K) = 162Υ /Υ Arca : 2 wL : 2(lo n)(ο.54 n)(o.54 : 0.18 μm: tοon : ρ- : = 5.54 μm: '12'g ν _ 729 kΩ R^ = 0.9 2 R^ = _364.'2'ι _lιo.5v/v Α'' _ _1(| L ρ - wl νιillbJ'ιeπtimes larger Areι : 2wL : 2(lo n)(0. increas€s with |Ι|.ι mΑ l''.290 kΩl 2' : _364'5 νN Αr€a : 2(0. Τhe and Ro increas€ increases by a factor ofx' deνice area increases at this same rate. 32.5 (2')(lo n)(O. _ _lιIο mA/v)(72.iν)(8Ι K) _ 40.36 μm)' : 2.4 η 32.l mΑ)(2) = lmA/V (0.

r2o since 1 : vi : .23 L : L.' since .Γη 2 g^ 2μ'C^Ιa ltall so that _2 have lhe same _ (Refer ιo Figure 7. vιη + voν + vov +ο.1 haνe been ιrea.1 : lφ-!q = . .Chapter 7-13 Table is for 7.4 μm R- lyol /. 20 kΩ kΩ) : = lωμ-4(20 5 V/μm 58n 5 2 Γoι:fo2:fo!:foι ν:l' rο : _j_. and 8. y kΩ tmnsisιor can rcach vD| ?b. 5 O-58 n 162 - Ηoνreνer.'.290 .5 0.0 729 - t62 26n lο.8 n .65 n 0.ι=8.z=8.4 2WL kΩ μm2 o.0l mΑ WlΙ'= lff| ι u 32. n. : = vov: o..36 μm : 0. 12'9 0. γ ΙRo Ro 2WL kΩ μm2 8- : 0.0. we want the MosFETs ιo be biased so that each = 0.1 mA aοιο = s. ι l ) 20ο _ !ωk(! fi^/ν /ρand luo.ο 32..8 mA / v)(4o : 1. but aι ιhe expense of increased deνice 7. . 0.2+0..4 g. = 1R. || R"Ι.ll R"n : 640 kΩ Av : _ 8^ιRo : _8Φ μΑ/V (640 kΩ) : 5l2 Υ /Υ 7.1 L : 2L.13 3.= + Vnu \o'25ν)/2 = 8ωμΑ/ν Since all devices have the same yΑ and ID. Vnu .^ : " ImA/V μm2 _.5 6-5 n lo.0 8.5 l00 μΑ (g^zroι)roι .0l mΑ WΙ'= lo : 6.5 ο.6 n t. : ε^ lo : l.2 v) _ 2. : av = 0.0 324 !0.9 V minimum oυιput νolιage will be 2Vou = 0'4Υ _ P-' _ -.i" : *.o 12.t 810 -40.28 Mο Ro : R.164.Ψ]tΑ.' fo Au _ R^_ " _ ε-' 8η w: L : Jττq-(w/υ.1 -44.065 n μm2 Largest aΙea = 58 n μm2 Gain and 3L^r" ΙRo Ro n 1= L= 0.2 = 0. = : : o.ι=8. Ιo'o 5.26 Siπce A y= _g.2ν.65 n t..9 _3Φ' l0Φ μΑ / V)'? 2(40Ο μΑ / v')( lω μΑ) ifιve make 8^1 : 8-2 = 8.164. set yc2 "o.'.240 l_ο 8t 'ω. that 2wι' 7. 8^ Ι= 0. and iιo = R.r.54 μm Ro 8- ( increased. _= 8-ιVoν ιo -i: Ro : _l mA/ν(0.L = (o. and roι = ro? = ro' \νe can say 4ω kΩ = 1 mA/Υ.26 π -162 (c) Smallest area = 0.1 3.28 MΩ kο.ι:8. 5 For mΦ(imum negative excursion at the output.24 n-.0l mA ι WlL= 1= 0.

: G' : 8-ι = 8.o _ _ : 4v if Ψ iS L' is divided )" bν 4- multipliω by 4.22: Avo = circuit (a). lLrx R*. YDa would be voo _ |voλ lι"Y. 7. _ : _ \V.8 16) η.l0.3 _ 0.'l .l _ |vou| 7. Αρ is doubled. ιγ\ / sΙ (4ω μA 2 Similarly.)z (Same as circuit (a)) Note ιhat for the transistoι in (c).iε Voν is multipliω by 4.o| - |Voλ Fτom Fig. rol / (y). 4u μ" C"' v sD + (g^z + B^z)rozlrot Vρy is doυbΙed 8^ =lΦ ι . is v doubιω.2 v )2 vea' vea: vDD \vφ| _ ^i" : = |voλ ι .2 3.'(l)vλ' Ιon' - tl roι _ ιιen.27 RefeΓ to Fig.'YLL* Thus 8. ro2 haΙνed.2mΑ = 2ΦμA n-.22: |v oν1 o'2y 3. Ξ ν)' =25 / v'X2ω μA) (2 mΑ then (2mA/Υ)1 2 (1ω μΑ / v'?)(2oo μΑ) For (ω μA / ν'))(0. fol - _ = 3.Γη Since (f).8. *" Ao: 8-ro _ 3. and ro aΙe ιhe same as those is circuit (a).5 Ιf \νe use equation 6. in 'Ι. then Αρ is 0. Referring to The highest allowable oυtput will be Voo Forsame (b) Each transistoι is circuit (c) has ιhe same 81. g For same w_ L ro2 + \L 7. yov is doubled' gm is so. _ to._ roΙ ε^: ιΙΞμ'c-xwlυ. 7. .. for Ψ"Ψ Voν Iο 1_Yit.τι.1ο. and Vρy is halνed.3v'0. Ιn summary for circuit(b). .1 1.2 |v Ι. Yo3 must be V oo /ψ\ doubled for circuit(b). or φuivaΙently : μ'C. Thus. 2mAlv _ : Ro ro 18^ 7'l4 as the on. we get "y' ' ελvoλ '2-2 q--!: 2mA/ν(o'2ν) :0.4 (g^1 = :21 (b) Each transistor in circuit (c) has the same yoy V 2.29 a) I \τ)'.8 V.3 _ 0.27 and Auo: _AL: k-rδz G. the inιΙinsic gain for circuit (c).Α..τ = 50kΩ mA 1mΑ/V o. = _Α3 ιγhere Αo is the intrinsic gain for circuit (a). yolis doubled. l 27 to approximate I ' : i"x v Vx ro : Since k)' : (1 mΑ)(5o 7. 2(lωμΑ) = : 1 circuit (b) is halfofthe one for circuit(a). R6 Γoι : =.A?.: (fΙ Ιo..2 μ"c-h ' ro.L V".2Υ/2 = 0. Ιn summary' forcircuit (b).9 V 161 lv^l sv fr = δj.chaρteι l2 ω'la: k^*lll Ro = solving for ro. 7. k^r. _ o.27 aηd . vov 7.8Υ o2Υ:23Υ For maximum swing. is haIνedΑ. -- MΩ 2.ψ =\_!ι vλu" (η) as the one in circυit (a).. (same as circυit (a)) Νoιe that for the transisιor in (c).\ν"c. Referring to Eq.' and ro are the same as those in ciΓcuit (a). the 8.g.^=F=/ΣιmE)=rοιrl " Nε. 7. the g.rrorro.l oλ = 3.8'ι : 8.

. Aρ .. : bro : : we g€t l Rι 8.4 Vn + Vov2 = 0._ Vou._ η. and a) modifying eq." . 713. : Ιo:' : ly. 16 l0 kll ..:0-8 ο.3 : 0. 20' ft : u.l v o.3:2.* n.34)' Ψe haνe n-:b:-?9_:2.1 so ιhe ouιput range : 0. ιhe currenι floΨing ιhroυgh ιhe short is a) /'ω ..7 Υ : 1.e R.ie + (8." + ' 1 8- From Fig. Vov: V." . Ro = ro + R. ' α'l R*+R.s-.5 - Ιoo.a7γ. : R"iε : ' I ro lK.--Φ .8v ξi" i-- 8^ + ι vo ^iι "' V".3 V V63 2.8 v + 0.fr Por Q.5 R... TTiTn . V. 0.5+0. : 2.r (since wiιh yG2 and yca nxed.7 V 'ο. muΙtiplying and diνiding by voRι-R." l0 kΩ.1 V The lo\νesι yo is RιΙro o _ - ^^ 1.3+0.nzv ] R'" -10kΩ+ 2o 2mA/ν = 1kΩ Vo R' lOkΩ :5V/V = Rsig+Rii: lkΩ+lkf} ζi* V : V63* V653 = 1. and kn.3 : 1.. c)Ιfi.iε b) lf ro + l0 kΩ. Vs| = Vc2 : V51 - 1.4 Yo is The highest Vr.ro + l 8. '_ R*-R.3 is 0. ro)R. - :0.3 v since all ιransisιors are identical.2 /n _ ! ιιv"J'.ts 1+g_ro (b) V6 ηic.. Jι]_j.l 2 "" Vcs2 0.."''l s^ : i R1 and V'i" η. The output swing is limited ιo 2 yoy on the low side for circuiιs (b) and (c)' buι limited to only yov in circuit (a) 1.8 732 v Υ o--l o--l vo Veι= Ι'2Υ o--l ιfl is shoned ιo ground.=ko2:kρ:kρι wiιh IDΙ = Ιρ.chapιer 7_ι5 Ιn general' circuit (c) has a higher output resistance' and for the same yoy of ιransistors it has lower ouιput swing. (7.5 = 0.7 v ιo Vρρ: V6a: |.--. : + gnro R.

One thing we could do is double cascode the cuπent source to raise Rop: Vcι *voo Vcz vcs vG4 o--{ Rop rr lv l: vcz v'.ro : (g6r9)(g.. + (96.54 || Rι') (3l kΩ |ι 10 kΩ ) = 733 5.9) Rι : 197 kΩ To fiηd the gain of the nr.o kΩ This is gτeateΙ than Ro! Vcι This can't be done \μith the present design.rρ)ra5 : (Θ.u.3 The valυe R^ ll μA/Υ 125 kΩ : 62. voo Ro" : = (0.v"is?o v^ - = G-(Ro = δ.Chapter 7-16 ^l! "'' +1 g- = mΑ/v l kΩ 0.R.^ Ro + l0 kΩ + + (20Χ1 kΩ) = -11 1ρ Using the new model.oru ι| RL) : 0'52 : ν gfi: 8.769 mΑ/v)(9 kΩ)' R.7.36 μm) μΑ/y.rro)ll ro.9 kΩ Rι(96'9) : 5"u.769 mA/v)'?(9 kΩ)3:43l kΩ we caπ no. vo : G.Ψe .3 kο ll R"" kΩ l| ι25 kr' : 4l.o4 v/v Αssuming a cascode ampιifieΙ with cascoded current source.nn 65 kΩ.11. that wiII allow a gain of lω v/v: since 43l kΩ |l l25 kΩ : 96.a: #o' uνr=769 Ro^ :: (8^ι'o)roι mΑ/vx9 kcr)' : (96ro.*) Qι avo VL tol=fοz:to3:ro o-l 0'26 _ ν .(. - v62 2Φ μA (w/L) : 0.Γ-*"' + ro:9kΩ 1or vou L_l o-l ΙD (5 v / μmXο. 2Φ μA o. : .26 / 2 λ o' L Ro.. This rais€s Roρ to Roo 2 o-J vi u: )ι"(l)v'.6 kΩ of R.v find an R. . needed is Aν _ s-ι R.67 Vovι = Vovι lιο+ _LΙ 2 mA n. = ρet cs amplifieη Ψe calculate (R* ll Rr)(g.\rea = (1. ιhe circuiι will be similar to the one in Fig. ι| R. Ro.54 mΛ / ν _*.: _lΦ l... : : R"p 62..

' .chapteι ?_l7 : Rr. . l and p7. iιro "_iΞn_ 'o ''ι V.l{s = jl gnrot I .o+!+ro ' 8. 7.o vrn"^r: 8^ .''x 7.. ΑvI : =734 mA/v) 197 kΩ)(1.P-rn |s= ι1 :ι\: Ιι: + 2r1 vtg-oo|| Rι) t . v. ^. : -}(5 mv)(2o): -50 _ξ6 mV)(2o)'1= _l γ"^.l R' = From Fiρ 7.rg -!l 8.l1. -- !_ 8n c) : Vι V.'?.ro) Vtg.lRol (1. : Snro v.o*R.lo Ψiιh ηn""ι = 5 mv. ro+!+ro 8^ + 8rro) 1.'.^ _+tro also.R. By current diνision' ν -\v.' _!rv.ιe. V ι + ι8.n\ ..r6 _ l_ rol:-+ro 8.g. : _\(5 mv)(2o) : _50 u't'(L *'o) i.o | +l+Ι v. : l^t^ -tzrο 8- v.ro --!ρ_+ro I 8.s-1.'") ll (s. _ i(l d) 8-ro mVr"uι Vn*1 vdι).. kΩ|] [(431 (9 kΩ)] ]| (9 kΩ) Rρ.ll r.88-ro R.54 mA/v)(9 kο) V/V 13.g.g^. .v.g.:9kΩ so.' Vιq^ro ν74 = _!v'1g^r.= I +.8^ro '.)l + 2ro mVpeaι .2 v'() Ξ -+ι )v]s.n1(\8-+ .34.r""* ρ_r1 ! +s:'o n.9 a) Referring to both Figs. vιζ''{o = = !v'g. b) i1 _V.5 : 8.

'" "' '__ι'"* . o_Ξ + vi l" Ξf-o IΞ *^. From eq. : V.(t +g. Since Yr. - io : YS.Ro fo χ): '"._4olo2 kΩl90+kΩ I0ο kΩ ?J7since L: L kf.'|v oλ'z this can also be expressed as ( + L:so L u: (for all transistors) o-- Ι n loo μΑ / v'?)(o.c*l(flιu-f -l9.8 kΩ 8^to .o|RS+ g^ro: _λo Α"o = ι.2 lo v)' = l0.νe starι \rith the smaιι_signaΙ modeι: 736 t Jr.= . _ ιoR|).Chapter 7-18 735 Ro: RS+ro+gnroRs = (l * g^rρ)R' * ro V Α'": # = _G-Ro vi Α"o - :'' +: :8' |: ro 'l.(l+s-l"). R6: Rt*ro*g. each .8 ν/ν ' 2Ιo ι'ρc".{. v^ i^: ρ (V'_V ν "m' ι s'ι__!ro Vs : i6Rs substituting.R. (7. (7.+ io ^ : .+% From eq. 8^ ro 2 kΩ(l * 1Ξ41zo kΩ)) 102 = '^./DJ' should φual |Vρr|.vgr+. i9L io: 8^(Vi . refeιing to Fig' p7.("* _""'(#τ) .n..l l Lhro'Rs ι rol ι| 8n. = + 2ο 1D : |ι'.roRt : Rs(l * g^ro\ + ro o-v^ io: s.38).38) To permit the maximum sΨing.o: +.37 ' . kO o. n So.

_ b) &.n'- |v |v "1 = ( 1. R. 8.2 = 0.."_{ c) Ιf v...L=^l ρ1r] = (| mAzVl2(|0.. r" Calculating: r.5-0.9 ' l9 a.all r*7) = ----------- 1r-L 8. ο..8 0.'' = R.8-0.<..: r. ι" : R.r ]l n. -"*"::" r* Using current diνision. Ro: = l1 v" Ι ε^. 0.0../2f 8. I u*-(Lr) Assuming that all transistors have the &" = G.. o .Chapter 7- Veι : Vez : Voo_|v"1_|voλ = 1..8 kΩ)' = l. ^ .: - 8^ a 18λ 1r.19. 8^ 8. /= 2 2mA/ν 0.2l o)(g fil α) - 0. + _ 739 β = 5ο. 2ο lvnl mA/v 5V 0..0.5 kο) .ro ζtur.^.26 MΩ same 6nt = R.)(r. = (?sΞΔ)( l0 kΩ)( lο kΩ L.."1)ιι ι. = g-r!. *.r" R":4ωkΩ || 2.ε-''"l νcc .5 mΑ : vι 25 mΥ β= 50 : c. ro 8.1rι.2\ .^"_ _ |v '| . .0.2 d) V : ιf R.r oλ oλ |v l" i n 0. | ' 8^r: _ι 8.' R. -lL-.η = 5 V. 8-ι v'' :--_-_----Ξ !' +! 2" ε- = Q^2r.".5 Ro Ξ r o |(g. r.ro = aq^ro u". R^:(g-' r"ι) .and η.2) 0.8 Vcι : Voz."..5 mΑ Ιf ιhe base currenιs are ignored.s κο :10 kc) From Fig..l V rοι.l -. η'=.7 v a) Ro.2 .7. _ _ Ι.1s-rl) Δ : ':! 8- = 2 mA/V : l0 kΩ (2o)'?lo kΩ lι lο kΩ} l _l29Υ/Υ V. is shorted to grοund.5 mA 20 mΑ.)2'" \ _ | v.". \νe can use the same r. I 8^ .(. t l R. = = 738 8-ι --------8.2: l.r..5 = ( 1. 3r'' 2l g.. and g. = i" = li2 1r 18-ro rι' t s-r.(|'")= \ε-..* 8. for each ιransisιoι (|ε.+ v^7 ι . -= vi'-r" -+ro _(g.n../V z.

1Q^1t6)Q61|| r.Δo vcc Δ l .4l lf the base cuπents are neglible. all transis- ιors share apporoximateΙy the same |/c|. 50 Ιf 1= 0. |vA|/vτ .lιωv mΑ _ 1MΩ .: _:vο e.42 p\ l 0.(r.0 mA. lyrl η '''pu.ο25v * l βvτl .45).2) = ff)(H ffi) u with 1. l . |vol .|η l _-------------.: rMc.chaσer 1_20 7. ' I 'r'' =\vτ/ |vΛ |v^|l + ιl For |vo| :5v._-ι ιL.025 V + I 5V / |vι ι βVτ I w..l rnΑ.*" = lvλγlvλ' vτ L|ν + No\r.β=50 0. -llv^l 2 V..(#f):20okΩ 7. Dll D _|lri #βv' _ Λοnll Λon Mfr(*r-ηΔ) :4ΦkΩ n' ΓR-= {e^. τ 5ν/0'025v ι'. = ι nv βvτ1 . R.1 mA l-n._τ !-'π βvτ Ιf 1= . 1 v' = 5 _ _4oω ν/v 50 7.l . _. I so that A| 11η 1η + pv.' r. ^ν_ = l-:..ll n.or) co2'llr1τ1) Ιf 1= l. (7. = s.Ι ftι:fτz:rτ:L:FΙom eq. ._lvJ ιo|_ιoΣ_ιoτ : o o lΙ^l :o " : ("8 Av B τ\') BV" 8- lrcl R.:.5 mΑ.: ' _!2 0. :lv^l: 0. 5v n_" 0. Ir Ro Ιf the traΙsistors are identical. R." _ ly^l gv.) 1'._{ r. ' Vτ / |vA| + if β = 50 ! and |yΑ| 5V L πtr.. : _|Ιr| 11) lv.

o vt R"ρ) R.zιΩ R"'5 kΩ snluinn_ .R.v"ro + v" By voltag€ diνision.o2ΑJv(R"l| 5 kΩ) R".+& r".(R"ll r")l R.hr.. sυbstitυιiηg..0. Frorn s kΩ : 2. : R' 8-r. 50: l R" = 4.02 Α. +s. q 0. '.)] b) For Vo o Ε kο) || 25 7. : _g-rο' Aνo . : r." 1| 100 MΩ l MΩ)( 1 MΩ R.'' =β: B.+ &- Il +s." = k-2r")(rdll r. : : l0: 1ρ ' kΩ) .T. Take the basic small-signal model: solνing'&=495 Cl c) For I R.45 kο . nuo Vo .(R"ll r.+R" : . 7. a) For R" : 5 r.l9. = (4 mΑ/V : 2ω' o00 ν/v - ' =|Ιr1 = r..ο2 A. : -8. I VI 0. = _ Β-ro Avo since 8.5kΩ R"+5kΩ since no current flows ouι the collecιoι Vo : 8.R = _-:-:_ Λndv" Vr .'(R.z=8.: ντ mV 25 l00 β: g^ rnl : rτ2: rτ= with ιhe oυtput uηloaded' the small-signa! model can be drawn as follo\γs: 7.ll sk) R''5 kΩ sn.. we get . : lο0(1 Mο) : R.2o.rn ι'_ ' l+-l rr β.o2 Α/v kο v ' V.-*R...2 kΩ kΩ) : 208 ο R" _ 5 kΩ(0.02 A/v when R" : 0.lV (R. = I Re dividing by 1 + O.02 A / v) (R.r..." : lω MΩ so' Αv : -4mΑι. βr" --------^_ l+! rτ There aΙe severaι \γays to deriνe the €quaιion for G. || 5 ΞΞ .ro: 8-ro Λνo . Method 1: c . . Bnrota + R.ι : β.8 49 o. ..7) 5 + Fig. = + R" 5 k(} .1 mA 4 mΑ/v gC = 25 Av = _8.+5k{) : 0. = 50' η.iv _ ηsοΙι R.Ch^pLer 7-21 lιl 8.7.44 ο. R..2 4R kΩ R.t .'' r.. +δ.--i.43 Refering ιo Fig + . 4 : Rll '" _5kΩ=0ο2 A/ν o.ι:8.' 1 + (0.γ(ιωM|l lωM) .R.5mΑ 25 mV _ oo2A/ν |Φ :5kΩ .

r.roro . Ro : ro + (Re ll r.': '' E. _l"" = ) s.' -A'.(ne || ^ G-: rn + ιζ.67 E|ιAN (296 kΩ || lo : -25.r)(R"ll r") shoιting the outpuι removes Rι from the cKT. i & un6 β : 1ω.R' Avo : .) 2.' Assuming thaι io >> Y . kΩ 8 mA/v + or Ro: ιofl lω ο.8-ro-4 8^ τ.Chapter 7-22 Note ιhat y.2 mA' o. R. ιhe νalues ofΑ. foto R1= 10 kΩ l aboνe) g. i... ro = lΦ .25 kο |1 l2. l 0.) : lΦ kΩ + (0. 8 mΑ/v Iu-s ιο v sothat. wiιh 16 : i. eq.= -l!L omΑ ^io8.61 ΙΔλ^l vo ([rom pan ηη ro' 8-ro.-{-'T.5 kΩ G.in"" 'o _ _ (8 : -784νN 8^ _ λvo "'=ιιε. * R. .o. %_ g^roro - 2.η 0.) .n. io:_ioR'+'frνi+ιoR"g- : 8.9 ΥN kο) Note: Depending upon the appΙoximations taken.slo). i. g. may νery slightly. "'= l 8η(vι v..(Roll R. rorn and R" : β .ι4Φ): Ro vo ^.25 kΩ A" = Aν :3: -G. p7. 250 Ω. : io: ov -------- io= v _ -: vi _ v._i."A/v(lrsτσ r")] g. + + g-V. rooτ+R. : + mA/v)Ι ' lω kΩ).. (z.25 kΩ Ιω( .'o'Ξ:-R./ : rο io t6 * (Re || r")(1 + ro + rog._: |'d: vτ Then- i. Rρ I ".)+8^roR.(Re ll r*) Rρ 296 kΩ t. =l+%R.R" r. n "-_ Φt'J.2 mΑ 25 mV = _ k'Ω.i^R .ττ" R. "^_ I+A tπ Method 2: consider the model ofFig.5 kΩ) tω kΩ)rs '\ ηΔ) ν .l P.aιlu.(r *&+ι"ε. Diνiding by forτ'weΕet fofn l2.) f R"=ι rτ ^8^ +ε-n. = g. + g.- ι since&<<ιusι.

Γι"l o-I mA 4 mA/v R.ι3 MΩ)= _ l.l = l Fig.ιs - : G.G._g. : v/v vo Fig.5 Mο) ζo___--t g-.ι.2 _τ:ffi |ω _ zsιο r-'_r-'= β_ 4 mA/V B_ |yol .216z)roι : (1 mΑ/v)(50 : 2.rro)Qorll r"2'1 Ro .a = 25 kΩ Ro: (g. p7.Ro - Auo -g.] x iοr (1mΑ/V)(50kΩ1' -Γ \v .. Aνo: g.ιRo = '(1 mΑ/v)(2. p7.5 MΩ) : -45 1ο .33 : MΩ .' : R'n Ro Rρ = : : Avo 25 -l Ro Fig.Chaptet 7 l-23 Ay6 = _G^R6 . Vio--1 : r.--l ol Fig. p7. vo i.(4 mΑ/v)(50 kΩ)(50 kΩ || 25 kΩ) : 3..'_g.Ro: g.33 X 101 v/ν .45 (d) From aboνe. g-.β9 = _(4 mΑ/v)(2.45(b) |ιo| -2.| o'2 mΑ= lmΑ/V ν 12 2 : t-ι : 25kΩ R6 : (g.5ω v/v vo -l R6 "^= : rn }-ο o.33 MΩ) 3. 8.5 MΩ Αgain.33 Mο Auo : -G-R6 . Rin K)'? Vιιιs Ro 8.z:1mΑ/v ο-lmΑ kΩ Ro = (g-7ro)rol : G.ιRo: -l mΑ/v(3.45(c) From pan (b).zro)toι|| r"ι) Rρ (4 mAΛr')(50 kΩ)(5ο kΩ l| 25 kfr) Ayo: 3.ι=8.5v _ sοιrl X : 4 mΑ/v τοAΛΙ ' .n 2.1Ro = _(4 mA/v){ 3.5 νlν }-__ o Vnl. p7-45(a) / 1or οyυtes -. 4 mAN - 0.

Ves : Ι*.l'' 20 μA(5) : 1Φ μA = o'2Υ From eq.5 v ^.6 10 v 4&: ]-QΙ: ΔΙn l0 μA uλL- Io L_'olo v'λ = L:3.2ψm vο noΙτiπa1 = vGS = vι Ι.vo^u : 1.59).2 1.(Y)ιv^_ lor: .2)1 ξ.o| ξ{.o.05(2ω . orvo=vCS=o.^ = " 1.+ Voy = 0.23. z: w _ 2Ιo 2(80 μρc"'|voλ2 ΙΦ 7.5+0. η : o.46 Reffering to Fig 7.etιing yov = yDs ι": to' μΑ tεοιο 160kο(o.5 v.2.6 : 0. (2) The output resistance when 02 is a BJT is lim- |tedby r. l. 7. k" : 40Ο μΑ/v' = 2Φ μΑ ξo'(Υ)":"' 2Ιn 2(2Φ : ψ1' : + W = 25L : BJTs Α.5 k(} The lowesι yo ιviιl be Ψhen v DS2 = vov = o.: Vo = Vou μΑ) pAN2(o.was Ιowesι with t\ro MosFΕTs.25 Ve = Voo_ ν Vos= V6s= V. ι'=ffil".7V - - 0.20 : 1.8 ρ=Vo: Ιo.5Υ +0.49 Referring to Fig.75 o. vι+Vov = o.^ = " 1.5 μιn) = Δ1o Δη. 0. 7.7 Comments: (l)ΑMosFETfor0.20 ν.'(fl|v"l. 1o : 5.75kΩ μΑ )ν"c."uoffi.25 = 0.2 25(3.5 + 0. makes Rin -+ οο.' --'ΔVo ro 5οκ :10μΑ 7. v. Ro was higheΙ due to the νalue of fo and 8π2.1 mA : V l0.7ν lf ro. Ycs=0.5 kΩ μΑ) (40o μA/v'?Xο.η : \v.8 .7v for /D to equal51iεΙ. These results could be chaηged Ψith different 1oo.'. (3) Ιn these four cases. ΔΔ Ιo : : = 5 qo.1 V = V l3. Ιn cases (a) and (d). yi : l0 v/μm.2v set lyovl : o. Αyo was high€st since k'v2 with ι\ro biasing.8 _ 0.r. 1Φ μΑ kο o.4 lvoo * voo |-8ν' /ρ = ζ"1 Ιo: Ιo = ξo.5μm'lV:4μm.5 _ 0.(l'-Ψ) vcs: so. = ξ since u: since . (7.22' vDD = : 1σ) μΑ.2 μm) : v)' _ 25 8o μm 7. if W2 = 5 aηd wg |g1|. 'vo : |!Δ : 20v loι ιhen' ΔΙo = ^-!9 ro l00 μΑ _ ιv 2ω kΩ vGS=o 2ω kΩ. _ 40 .8 "o μΑ) : _ 0.2mA) (l0 v/μm) +vov nnn = 0.2V=0.(v)":' : voo .8-0.2v+0.25 R^= r^: : 50 ν v 'Ι' _-!_ ID t0 V/μm(0.chapteτ 7_24 Voo-ves:1. Ι:0.1 80 |voλ : 1..75 ρ = Voo.

ο'8 ι2 -' t0 x 0. ο. = 1ω μA(#) = μm Now ψe calculate R: R: ιο. .'\w/υ.51 Refer to Fig.3 : : v652 . and : 1oo rA(13) = 1ω μΑ(l3) : (3) 0. μA 20ο Φ μm ιl(fi) : /. so ιhat μΑ(*) : 133 μΑ (5) Ιf 02 and 81 are diode connected. if2 ιransistors are diode connecιed' the effective width is the sum ofthe two widths.51 vcs2 vos2& vGS2 vιp+vDS^σ: (1.o.' ι o'. we n= 200'7 ::stΩ v. : (6) ιf ol and o1are diode connecιed.) vc2 = vc2/ '*u'!##.6 = V65s : λ- '. ηtr : 20 + l0 /. l2i. so thaι lω μA(1:) = 40 μΑ so 3 differenι currents are obtained νr'ith doublediode connects.5) v' v. = so ιhaι Ι 752 Refening |!!4 /j? _ n' (w/L)| 0ιhasW: to the figure below.6)a 0. weιΙ: 20 +4o 60 μm.Chapter 7-25 7. \ir'ith only one ιransisιor diode connected. . ηF : 1.5) = V651 0.5 _ ο.:1*nn+ζ: lV' : ι': ι'=Ywr = ι\Ptι=>W' x(_ ο.' _ v-. 1. (4) lf Q I and Q2 are diωe connected.3 . = lω *Α(i3) = : can geι 25 Vo.8 . (w/L\4 Ιoι Ιon "n11r^1(!Β:Ιo. : 0.:10μm /r: l0oμΑ:5/"rn=% 1. so that : /..ε = 1. 5ο μA.n' 2ω For ρ5: yD55 : Vcss _ V. = ιω μA(#) : l.(-1.7 μA 50 μm.8 οο5 (2) with o2 diode connected.(-0.8 ΙRΕts μA R:35kΩ Ι.'1Ψμψlι1. /. 2Φ μA.8 ν . P7.50 Referring to Fig p7.8 ' = 5Wι =50μm l0 μm 50 1x μA = !2 x2ωz =Ξw5: ι0 0. 7. = _0.8 1.':Ι22 ' (w/L)Σ (WL\4 'Rn'|\w/υ.6)'] with oι diode connected' : 160 : kΩ oο ιο..! : 16a!Q = 4. Q2 has andQjhasW:Φμm.οl V lf or ιγith ω : = 50 roο μΑ μA ω = 20 μm. 2 ' !08 εo +W. : 1οo : 30 μm.. 400 20Ο μΑ is diode connected.7 v μA. : lω *A(:3) 10 +40 : : 16. us ιn 50 μΑ so. For ιo\rest yo ( 1. ^n6 w = 20 μrn ' Ι''.5ο' v-. suppose that l0 μm.8v: vofl - For P ι^.652 (1) 1: 2ο μA = ]. and 4Φ μΑ. or 4 different cuπents Νow.

6 : 0.* .Ι( ηf.. : vro + c.l| ε.(.o") subsιituting (4) inιo (1).chaρter 7-26 To find ιhe values of y..". ε.rf . + + vi Η€re. ..53 Refening to Fig.o"-Υ# V'z : so we coυld a|so express ιhe gain as νoltage yx: vrn subsιitυting (3) inιo (2)' ιγe get V"2 η.(V)u:" Vovι making g.[ }τ _ ε-. we apply a test ro2_ 8^!vs"2ro2 -Vs"t = νo ^ /}yι\ ιΙL\i) τ = 8il 8m3σω|| R)vι..il '-"''" ""[(. = For l. α ' ιιso. ιγe get _g..r : since V' μA/ν')(60) n1|7:+:Ψ 11. For ξ11 : *.11 Yi.* Rι') Assuming all rρ values arc >> 8-z since /D = 50 μm' @+0. which is and vcs2 : α : Ycs3.)l this would be the same for ysc2 and ysc3 with multip1e diode connected ιransistors.86 ' Vo v o.: !t''D1 -vηkPlw t : \ι.2Vr"2roz + -l * v.(.53. * re''' . l divide out ro: : ε-ι g-ι(roιll (+^* t"') l.8v *. For w..."' vr..1-* : -Vrι r^.. p7.. Vo ii-]iffinA)+0. No\γ' to nnd ιhe resistance looking inιo the diode-connected drain of02. . ffi f 7.6l - v.le diode-connectω transistoη we can use anyone._.1 oι _ g-2 Vr"2) roz iD1 η Vι"ι 8^t roz (ι *'ιz..ι Rι : Vovι o. For €xample' for ol Γ / L\| = li@ v. the small-signal mοdel can be dralpn as follows: V. . since l" : \i..6 lω η.(!)ιv.. 8'ι 8.. : (Ι) Vo : G "2 (2) V'ι : V (3\ iD1 : 1ι1 C.* ε-.o l00 μΑ / v' (_ο..tr = 30 μm' (lω μA / v'?)(3o) : 60 μm.7Bv - μA/v')(5ο) -.o* Vo v. Rt. Ι.6 γ( lω V.l'' for the case of a sing..'G..o5v = ο.

.l mΑ.8ο6v (b) Accounting for finite β. = "' : : : : ln[lo Ι6''| ') : \l0- r. Vn.chΔpter 7_2'7 ι.. I ιo = ιιtι'TΞΞΠ For /*.h(β) For /RDι_ V-_ ' Ια : Ιc' rΙ : m - 1+m β Solving for π' the cuπeηt transfer mtio' we geι mA. vx.) lf Ιs : ιO 16 A.ι /.. l-Εt and we ignore base cuπents' vD. o. : t+l+.: ο-οl:l ι0 mΑ.l.".ι' 2 The CS gain is : ? 7.62 ι+! 50 : 0.= 1+2/p Forl^u. /o 1. ysε| = v. For . = 10 'ββ been one and = o'o98 mΑ /o : _ι!Δ : Ιo yRΙ. = consider that 50 aπd \re ψanι to limit = ffi if β mA >> l rn Dropρin..(χll.εoο v Ι''''=lo*!ρtbo. ινouιd mean thaι l0 9οl O.633v<ysrΞο.. (7.qot(t+l+"'): ι 50 ./ so that m : 4. mιηββ Ιo : I /ιl. *Io ..62 mA ιο. : 10 : ]9-μΔ = 9.'. ix = --! since Vr*z = + B vx ['" i" :'::-+8^ι I R^. 1*_L*1 mmp β ΞΙ^n: /*.|. eo.nt-:bι2ι ' l.o25 : !! : b v-h ' Ιr. rn ψould haνe 1 Now.. l0 μΑ. Since /s2 : .. Ι'.(ffi) : so for ιhe range of lο μA = /RrF = 10 mA. v.o. l0%.98 which is eο.56 l . v-h ' ls.RFΓ 0'' Ψ l+--a v b:l'':.69) ιhe ιransfer error ιo 10%' I f r.ι. 0.. = !+ 755 g. 0. /Ul /*. o.n /sr.:Ψ:.-l1.2' so lfιhe transistors μA. Vιε sothat Ιc2 t'''' = Ι-+l.l! ιx E Q..: I mA. to m sυbstifuιing (2) into (1). t-l+m Ιo μΑ Ι l 'f -50 β β β had been identical. = e. - r(a -1ω For /*.lντ /q6s:11 e"' y.54 (a) ε. if β-l.025 For IRt.

3 V .I"o.ρ25 l0-3 : 0. Rl=5 kΩ Rs:3 kΩ R. (7. ιhe traπsfer ratio .56 = l^(l + 1μgι. ρ : * = 1-'^": β 59 u(t.689 = 4.o ιrith : l0 R= R.o"n " ΔΙo-ι"l Δlo '^ + Δ/o : ο. / Ι- ''ι R3:3.^':Vo'=Ψ=asιο "'Ιo2 Δ:9_ 19 |_ ηs=al^_ .. Therefore yom.31 v Qι Ιo: l : t /".''' - 9..^:\=E=soιο "Ιol For identical transisιors.194 mΑ 20 Ιo v'1n.7114-*γrJη1 yora* occurs \rhen 02 is on the edgΘ of saιuration ot V"o : 0. l+2/9 .]) kΩ V 9.' Vc = Vι:5_0.i) ι..^' = "' ΔΙ" ΔI" 1.(l ι + 5ο.3 V.91 757Ιo:Ixg1':2mΑ = 7J8 /s o'2 2 0. ' ΙR4 kΩ +5V lη.7 = 9. + Δ/'r.z νa o'l94 X lΦ 1 = |9.x is the same as eq.2mΑ lo IJ n. :0.4% change in . lω _ 7β9 = l09o chanρe : V isS-0.3:4-7V _ (_s' _ _ Δ!!ι .02 Ζ\ : 9..689 3) ιο .59 +5V +1ον lι.3 vE2: vΕE+vBΕ: _|o+0. Qz _Ιov l0v 7. =20 Rι=2 kΩ }ι.: ['" V. '.69): Δlo 50) mΑ ft= .7: V''_V"' ι :_ -_i. Ιq=Ι62:Ιx1 Vιι : Vcc' Vει : |o' 0.6 kΩ }ι.Chapter 7*28 This figure belongs with 7.-2 "\ β: Φ. : v".J _ 20 (:9.

5 mW 7.05 mΑ) : -5V Ψiιh this schem€.2 = 0.93 mA I"o : 2 (0.05 mΑ 2{lc1) = 2 (0.62 + v.93 mA) : Ι.7 +(0.1.86 mΑ (2 kΩ) : Icι = Ιcyl: 169 : o.7_(_5): s6kΩ 0. : 0.. Multiple' parallel transistars are ok.79 v Vι: o_Vιrι: Since β= _o. ' Vr. = O-0. R = 5_0.7:0.0 mΑ y] : ys5+ Vεss : o+0.7V : _3.05 mΑ)(1Φ V.93 mA (3 kΩ) = 2. Ιc.Vuu : 31.7: -0.7 : 0.5 mA)(5 kΩ) = (b) For R : 1ω kΩ. ο.5 mW + 18 mW : 25.7:3V V1 : 7.6 kΩ) : l.5mΑ) = 1.93 mA (5 Vgρ5 : 0.93 mΑ Ιcι: Ιcz: Ιrr: Ι6a: Ιgs: = 0.93 mA Vrι : V6 : o. = Vrt + lru(R/2) _5.l mΑ : O) Vps = 0+0.62 First.5 mΑ)(l0 kΩ) : -0.ι |}r ι 0.5+ l +2)mA P7 : 7.7 kΩ) Υ : +ιο.86 mΑ Vcl: Vce:0 1ρa R1 _3. +5V x8 ι ο.60 (a) Refeπing ιo Fig.7 ( 5'7\ ιcl R !ωτΩ ο.65 v Ιc9 : Ιcx : Ιρ1 : Ιa7 : 0. P7.o 7.' ψe can find the toιal power dissipaιion as approximately. Note: This laτge value of R is not desirable in integraιed form.R: kΩ) : _0..31. V' _ Vεε R V.72 ν = o . bυι the mosι_straighιforward is the one kΩ.7 v v5 = vΕΕ+ Ιρoβ/2) = 5.7 + (ο.7V Vz: Vcc vΕB:3'7 _0.7v va: vBE+ΙrrR: _5.62.7_0.7 = 4.2 ν implied in Fig.l +0.chapteτ 7_29 This figure beloηgs with 7.l mΑ v and each ιΓansistor has EBJ aΙeas proportional ιo ιhe cυrrent reqυired.1 +0._Vεε _ -0.7) =05mΑ 10 kΩ Vz = Vcc. and apρly a tesι νolιage ζ: (see figure (1)) ..60.93 mA (3. Eνen ινithoυι knovring exact circuitry ofthis /. V..8 mn }z.2 + ο.4 ι mA m.61 There are νaΙious ψays this design could be achieνω.. P7 = Pqg * P66 .93 mΑ Vcg : Vcιιι : Vεto : 5_0.1 Ιcι V 4. vι: = 0.3v V.ι Χ2o Χ5 ω.65 vEΕ+ Pr : 5 V (ο.8) mA +5V(0. we draw the small-signal model ofthe circuit in Fig' F7.4+ο.2 mA lo.0-7 : 3 v since /c] : Ι6a = Ι62 : Ιr1 Ι:2(Ι61):2(0. 7.7 v Ι: _5'7 +(0. oιher designs may be moνe suitable.οs mall'|Φ kΩ) : 5 V _ 0. _0"| ( 5.'l Υ R : 10 \2) 3.

lmΑ Rρ : 1Φ K+ (.ll . ii (4.] kΩ 4.) rn. η. kο R6 : kΩ) ΜΩ || 2.5ο) or sιfuce 8^ ro + g^ rr(R... n- : v"| Ι.sιο '' 8^ .62 ir: b*s-ιv-ι+_!!foι r"ιll r"ι y.+-_+-) rnι|| rτ)l o -Vt...3 ^^ ξ: '*('-ι frl . Γ& +5V Vx' Δ -!!r"ιll r"z ) It I \ i.56ιΑ Ιfthe coιIector volt ge changes by ι0v : =6'42lνldι Rο ^Ι=ψ . : vτ : -1_!Δ 25 mV -_ ο. }ι .:vΙl\loI +c-.Ι : Voι' = since ι.ll . : !! + foι 7. = Ψ lf t6 >> R'" = * (.:5-Vιε ' 4...3 kΩ lmA since β >>1'l : Ιc: ΙΕ-| 1|'^ To find the output resistance.5 6.) lf ro..42 ιoY l.^" V"z Ro - (7. ro >> |' ll r") Ιn this case.^:\=lΦV:lfflkΩ " Ι.ι = r.ll .) Siιcevo2 tP : ."..04 . can υse ll o"1ll r"z) so...11 . we apply il and determine i": (see fiμre (2)) io: 8'ι t" Ξ | I and ro.". ιve Next.04 Α/v)(1ωkΩ) R.63 s^ιVx+ iι.Chapter 7-30 This figure belongs with 7.οη ezv ..7 _ Ι.-:β:]Φ:z.ιin_-_ ι" " fοl -+8_r + l -------:r"ι ll r"ι so thaι R. >> nr: t^"(*L. i6 : g'2 _ 5_o.

+Ι'=25xΦ:50oιΑ '2 /r:0..". we see thaι the t) 1 Ι V.7-32 vo6": vLh + 2 νoν : 0.(" N4mA/ν' = 2Φ μΑ 1o /trι_9 The lowest Y" will be when : lffl kΩ .l V Vor.96 = 16r Using 8. (7.6 : l.9l 0.ansistors: since I 17v 40 μm.85 V since Or and Oa are diode-connected.9. /D : 0.93 the νalues o'95 Vo : : 2 V6s 2(o. RefertoFig. I' = .^:Vo: ο_l|0v mΑ /. : 2(0..354: 2ι^ 2 X 0-5 Vn. Since /.224 5 v. 0.^:Vo:t0V:50kΩ " lo 0.3l V .Chapter 7-3 7.6 : Vcι : 0'954 V Vo.4 μA (Y\ ν'^'. : Ψhen : of 2 V6s ν + 0.893 mΑ / 0'224 ν : .5 V.32..954 V Vη1 : Vργ1 or : Vor' Vesι * Voul since Ycsr : Ycs2 and /2 : 1r then Vo v|+ vov 0.1 m ^ι^:ΔVo soat Yo : 5 V. 7. has Vcz Wa .85) = y-. : ζ ιhen Vor. pammeters 8n and r.:ι54 2.954+0.l mΑ )(2) '^_ u*n- Vou Fol Q' Δnd Q'' v"" _ Γ_Jρ _ Ε:ρ]_ηη _ γ . V6 η. 7.45 Ιι : 25 = !v Vov) ν 2 2γ) 5_l. _ ""Ι 2 μrι o. : V63r l V654.77).t2 t' the. 7.4 : 1Φ.32' Ιoι : Ιoι: /η11. : Ιo: ".893 (2ω μΑ)(2) 2 : σn4 ν Using eq.65 Refeπing to Fig. = Voro=+ V6o : 2V6s1 :1.k"l Vov|Ξ25 ν yDJ will be equal on all transistors- So.25 V : : Vοι : : 0. since (| ιιλ = Ιι Wι : W':Wr:Φum 1 W. R6 ^ _ ID 6r ζ_ (o.64 Referring to Fig. which is l0 : 'rn Ξyonin: l.5 v + 2(o. \νiΙΙ be identical ior aΙl t. aηd /t)a Vοl : 1Dl' : Vcι : 2Vesι Qx and Q1 haνe lV : times wt and η. = t" Vrr.82 rολ/Υ 1. : 20 μΑ Vovι '6 mΑ / v)(50 kΩ)'? "'?l v'^' ""|= . (7.22A ν) : = /.25 : The lοwest possibΙe voltage for the ouιpuι is when 0.2 mΑ V (ο. and lV.5mΑ:11 1o : 0.6 ξ6 rρι rρ2 : = 4Mο rot mΑ/v)( ιω MΩ ο25v . and Va51 : V6γ. 16 : lΦ + 0.J54 v \W/L)2 (Y\ \L).77). /: l ι|"\L) "' 2 : Vovι : = 0.191 V : Vc: 7. : /.' mA/ V R6 1 kΩ)'? The minimυm allowable % is When 1o 1.6 + 0.5 mΑ Vοsι : Vovι + V' : n354 + 0.66 /RΓ|. Vo-π:2vov+vι:2(0'25) + 0.e is a small amount of channel modulaιion. = 25 μA. : v) = 2(Vh+ l. ο.45:04ιΑ " Ro 8.

: i'' ΙRΓF I | 2/\9'1t 9) ___!ΦJΔ-_ _ 99. 8nV6.o The emitter of OJ supplies the base cunents for aΙ! ιransistor so ...69 Referring to Fig.. ιhen: Ιoι : Ιoz: ξ" .'" |Vsrι uιr]ιΝ lC' Ξ l..67 V.058 V -9|ιr: ΔVr.ι * : +oιο 8.. is small.ι : 'f .e "" 'τ .3 K ν"".o: . + yι"..chΔρter 7-32 roι=roι:-. the small-signal φuivalent can be draινn as folioψs: /Fl o Ιf i. ---> Ξ0. 6._vl_v'β_ . : 0. _ . (n + I )ln ρ /πυε: Ιε:..6MΩ : 7.0o57o /πετ.82 xΦ kΩ :4.Φ5 1o0 2ω : 5X lo J v'9 u"* Ιncrcmental cuΓrent ix : 8'Vυ.l": Ιo : /*. 316 : 1Φ μA The acιual value οf /^ " = /.. ..058 v + Δyχ _. l ι % from unity: (r+|) =n=g '' ιω(l0l) 7.''G_2ιc r-=r^:v':v' 'l '2 Ιr' /onn Ιf igγ _ I'zo v.995 μΑ 2uJ1 + Iρτ.Fι β.2\ 2Ιor' yυ".. 7.2ΔV'' : g]16y No\μ we calculate 1o for Vo : Vr: /x61. .ixl.4 Υ ΙF IRrΙ. ν' lsP Vιεz _ Vsεl : ΔVιε : V.^ ".33. ιD : Eq..189: Ro : Ro = ro1+ ΙΙ + 40 kΩ + [l ?9 0.r: /".Β\rΦlro2 kΩ X. Δ1o ιo : 0."'1"': !fl.| Qι .5 (8 + + 2. _2Ι. 1 (n+l) t! β(β + ι) for deviation of Ψ!: |οο ffi+ro . - -4..Ξ v. = = .^ e vBει' /C. Ιn l0 : 0. in increased to l mΑ or ηuivalently mul_ tiplied by l0.r".' . Υlι so that *'ιL β ντix /*. iJ! -v.ω kΩ X 40 kο] Vιει : |. Vιε. v*z 7-64 { reι vb.

-λ. 2 Bt2-2/g 2 l1ι +f l \$r a. and β : 50.. : 1σ) 2Vτ This makes 1ε] and 1r4 each π : .Chapter 7-33 V' ^ Λln τ For 1xg1' Vr'V' _ . ιι...l:9'*29+z. multiple transistors of different areas can be combined ιo geι other current νalues.El r"'^[ = -1mΑ : v^ l0o kΩ _ so. l : ΙRF|.= 1C--:-:.80).rREΙ. base currents aae 2 β(β + 2) =.' : Ιcz : I.=(! \ u ---!t+2/8...4 mΑ with 3 transistors haνing relaιiνe areas of l.70 Referring to Fig. 2/ttt'. so for /Rι.. 7..l mA. 0.34 and the analysis ιhat follo\νs.|.7 mA. /οl ψ Ι02 Qn β+2 :1ιεε.s' the reqυired base cuπent (being subtracted trom IRιF ) remains ιhe same.il 2 μΑ' R"' = 2(25 mν) tΦ μΑ + I Αccοunting for base cuffents 1rl aπd 1sa.-J/".p\ro\. 29 /+1s] +/r1 I +wΙ' From eq.Ι Ιn. β : Ι^': !B+2.e kno\λ. 'V"ε Vtt l so thaι . Jι .2 mA and 0. ιhe ξο0 Ω output cuπents are 7.2' and 4. . Note ιhat eνen though /( 1 + 2 / β) is spliι up between 3 transisto.. vΕΕ 'vEE : Ι+ β+2 . \γe can obιain cuπent outputs of 0. (7. Ιo /"r. ΔΙo 10.. 2 β β+| =!β+2'Ι 2β + Ι^' ιhaι Ro Ξ. 19+l' /ιυε= β2+2β+2.o ι 11.-'. (β+l)β (β+l)β Ro ΔΙo so./"l (b) Siηce the factor ___-]- 1+2/p' is independΘnt of how many outputs ιhere aΙe.u1 βz 16: : Ι6: Ιpp'ρ . 731 : lβ+2. : ηr: γL' p2+2β+2 : 0. . . (β + l)β :! β(β + 2) 2p2+28+2 so.'-I+Ξ =04mΑ ..". E Assυming eachΙ/p 1.

73 a) see the aηalysis on the circuit. Ι. +2/g' I The resulting circuit can be draιγn as figure aι lefι.2 mΑ v) _ lr ιο t B+2 τβΙ[ [Ι Αlternatively.5 0.7 mΑ '--_:I .ε ?. 7 l 2tl5Φ.0. 2. 2 observ€ that the deviation I + 2/92 facιor 1 . .: The current /REF can be spΙit into any number 7.1998 mΑ . _ 2. ' = 0.3997 mΑ . 1*. Simitarly. 4 mA by usiηg 3 transisιors in parailel haνiηg relaιiνe aΙea ratios of l. ideaΙly.REF couΙd be obιainω from another reference source. ideally.Chapter 7-34 : /x6g'l ' ' t I +2/8. maximum yo is when Vo^^' = V.0. i..ηl' .7 v_( _2.e.4 mΑ Ιdeally. 1 /n. b) The 1mΑ reference current can b€ used to geneΙate thre€ output currents of 1.5 V : 0.. 0. = ο'0999 7. I is indepeΙdent of the numbel of outputs or the value of each output. Vεsl _ Vεc"^ι ':2'5_o'7_o'2 = 1'6Υ 0. is safurated: o+Lil= ιι Ι ρ!2 ΙΙ ββ .7 mΑ) ρffi' β(β+2) 292+2p+2 I t+2/(p2/2p\ I /"r. l \{|]ι Ιo' : !x 2 I = of ouιputs through an appropriate combinations of parallel-connecιω tΙansistors.5ν B2+29+2 β(β + l) :1 /"on 6. ^ vcc ..72 one pοssibility is shown belo\γ: +2.:! t+zt15o1t : 0.: (so)'? Ιοι : o.2 mΑ.5 v_ 0.1πιrvr"\ .1 mA. (o3 and oa in this a1 < \Ι +2'5 ν case) The reason the error factoa remains unchanged at l I+ 2/p'' is ιhaι ιhe base cuσenι thaι ne€d to be sυpplied by 1REF (subιract from ΙRFF ) remains unchanged. To obιain 1REF. = _1t Ι*. Ιπ this case. 71+2lg' : 0.7 ν _ 0. So'Ιρ1 : 1REF: /+ ι' = l.vff 1 β+2 2 β+| Ιo' Ι v.4 as shovr'n: Ξ/n.998 mΑ (1 mA ideaIly) -Ξr^' vD | β+2 Ι 2 β+l -2. = (0.2 mΑ.=Ιo'7.v r". 2.1.

+v.r... * Vcs.(1 mΑ/v)(2Φ kΩ)'? : 40 lιηΩ 7.75 Firsι. liy'e apply a ιesι νolιage η and determine ζ. ιhe circuit is changed to lοz Ιιιι _2 l ι l+2/B' -... Ru. . _ l'4 o'1 _ 0. we need an estimate for y." :V^: Ι οlmA _ ιι = ΔV".. since ιhe cuπents are all approximately ιhe same.r : 1. from Vcsι : Vοsι = 0 = so g. Dz uΑ /.coχ : 40O μΑ / V2. l.. we will therefore approximaιe η./Rl'ι_ : 8nιVμ1 96..]5 2Φ kΩ η.Α. :os + 2(O.996) mΑ (2 mΑ ideally) /.)r.'/2 0'2ν/2 R./(4ω μΑ / v)(l2. : ( 1. which is = (2 ' Vε'ι v"") 20V :2ΦkΩ ... .5 (c) 1. we draw the small_Signal mοdel of Fig.2 Ιo _ o'l mA = lmA/V n _ v.aV"..992 mΑ (4 mA ideaιly) 7.2 V) : 0. 8^ι ves: v. and ιo - uv}. and η.1.2 : vc\ and there is no effect.35(a) using the simp1ifiω T-model.74 (a) First.5 v+0.c^'xw t Γ 2ι' '' "o": ]uρ-1w l ιl y^'' = / 2( l00 μΑ) _ "" ..5) 6. this fabrication process is similar to the 0. |ιμ.(8..5 v.2 .ι ι l+2/β' since yD"a = Vesι = (οo currenι into gaιe 3) I 3. : vh+2v.-1RεF-Δ1 so that. * lω _ 3.ιr"ι thaι vD.7v (b) Vos:. γ since no vaIue is given for y. Table 7.as apprοximately 0.35 Φ) to accounι for o.: o.5 μΑ η'i. 7.2v : o.9 V (d) . : Vcs. 7. 4 Ιιl.4 V.n.l.Chapter 7-35 (e) Ιfa small-signal model is addω to Fig.18 μm technology. Ψe haνe ιo esιimaιe ιhis Ψith μ.

r. '*(+) we know ιhat _ Ι.4 mΑ/v :5ff)kΩ = ιvhich is >> R.^.l0μA _ o.(Πl mΑ .-=r: '' 8- mA mA _ = I1ο. Ι' = 00l. _ R.4J mA 25 mΥ .4MΩ change in cυrrent vr'ith a 5 v change in volt- R"".20. Rouι* [Ι : substituιing. (7.u5 v ι l R.4mA/ν vτ 25 mV 200 .α4 mA/vX1Ι5 kΩ)} (50 MΩ) : 280 MΩ as compaΙω to 50 MΩ with R.56 mV 5.52 kΩ) : 6l5 kΩ ο.685 lο μΑ & .36.!!Q) = o.ll5ν:l15kΩ ' 0.= v"": v'h(l) 0 50V :svΩ r': " 0.ν)|"(#) 57'56 mV 0.r. l ιιA = mvr rn(. = 9 : V. from eq..76 Referring to Fig.36.. 2. t' : = v lJ Ιfβ = o.ο9 οο.45Y ' ^:v" R. i.98). 7.6 mΑ / = 0.υι:[1 + (0.(Rull r.9. .3kΩ 1Φ l7'2mA/Υ From Fig.Rtiμ v" 'Ε : t2s ιrith l?ε /^ : kΩ)1(5 MΩ) 0.010 mΑ mA : 04 mΑ/V .7 : o. 7.A Vnε Vιε. - 0.iε]ro 1 + (3.(ffi) vaεr_ vιε.ι0. : - 0.-.)]162 + 0.o. Π'2 fi^l ν :5. :50MΩ r'' = 50v |μΑ n_ : 0'Φl mΑ : o_()ι mA/V 25 mV R. = gr2yssι V*2 : 9.Chapter 7-36 : Since ica 0.?6 kΩ MΩ MΩ compared to 5 Fo.685 v 0. "R.63 mV 57.οI mΑ : 2. vμι.5ρ +8.1.' : 0'0Ι 25 mA R" : Il + (0.95). MΩ ^t-= -. .0.Ι) since V'.:Vo: "' Ι" 50v : l0 μΑ s ι. V.'=Vn:50V " ι 04] .:0.742 _ 0.l"(#*) : VΜ': [ εo..6J mv 90 μΑ o. (7.8 Vr./ = From φ.8*v.7 .3 : g. _ . : mΑ _ οo.] Ω Vρ6: (25ιnηh(Ψ) : :0.8kΩ . ysl2 Ι" vτ= 25 mv 3.41 1-'18 Ι- n. v)(0.77 Refe.rL-.742Υ 0.ζ: loμA |ιεε l0 kΩ 9o.: V"z+Vrg :2Vrx so.4 mA / v(5.._ = mA kο ιbls-' 29.(-5) : 0. _ compared to 556 Κ Ψith RE if all3π" aτe equal.8 V @1 r. + Ξ [l The age is = 16.l.a 7.0293 kΩ)](556 : : Vρ2 : ιι25. : [ g. R'^:Ψ:2 So.76 = 16.-=Υι= ' l" 0.ing to Fig.4 mΑ/v)(5.tΩ so. o ____Γ^.Φ mA :556ιΩ V'2 = Vg"ι: *.' = Ι.:L: '" s^ 0.._ 1= ρ.V'.7 kΩ)] : 16. =5. Vgg.-. 7.. . 7. "- V.6 mΑ/ν 50V . Fora /*.

.r.025 ν.5 (. + (1 +β)(r. ro. ι0. 250 l0ο 16x11[J!9G5 lιrulLliοψml '|.5 MΩ Vreo : aa) lα)(25 m) .tn(|ο uA) _ ' \l mΑ. Ιρ.4 mΑ/ν 25 τnν l00 :250kΩ .025 V) : a r.rhere mΑ 24.] . P7. ιγe find Is 11 i#.. G' : v. .[ ' vA\J . 7J0 Referring to Fig.4..82V.2 mΑ / v)(10 kΩ V 7.3kΩ) |l 7._ 11'Ξ.Chapter 7-37 Ro = r. 390) . ρ:Vuu:0'685v _ 68. 1" : 19 From eq. : V"'a ιγhere V"6:0...'): p* |1 250kΩ)] + l0l t25 k |] ι M] MΩ : _ g.". mΑ:/se lmΑ ι _ e(0. *ι.o.i../ o. "'' = ΓlRi" l R.r1{r --1280 6. (7..ll .r..5 Vo + (ο.a : 50 v' 50v :5MΩ . make yrr.8 Ι V"r- kΩ) l= 7..5 kΩ /.83 V.98).8 V .ll : .tl +s.ργ 1R[|. 25.6E5 v R.s)(...ο25 ro.79 \aJ ι o ιf β is high. . and Y. 1. using resistance reffecιion rule: /cι : Lιcιgvτ+ /c2 : .4 mΑ / v)(68.lg)(1 M) v/v (b) By incιeasing bΙas cuπenιs by factor of l0: y'l *β)Γly'll r. using resistance reflection rule: : ιzt'"..:β: '' t^ 0..l * o.εzv'. 0.οι mΑ n = v.rΙ) β}] Ιfi1o.7 V/0.80.ll R""l-t1 (5 : R _ "" R.42 kΩ ι. *ρl(Hil r")1r.:19o μ η. Ri" Ξ 2.5 kΩ and R can he deιerminert as (o.010 mA (b) ιf β : l00 and y.9 x l0'|r mΑ v_l. : Vιε." ]Γ ι. : +.4 mΑ/V For 1o = .: Ψ*(l Icι ι rc2 ιclJ βyτ+ y'η l : β-L +..) * _-_l1L 'o.:Vo= " Ι" 0'ol mA Ι" :0.[1 +s.'.46 MΩ V"r^ %i" Ip.) 6..r.'. ιf oΙ and o2 are matched and Ιoι : Ιoι : Ι' Vesι = Vor' So. ι Ξτ mA 9 Xlο l 0... l|ι.rΥ. : vo = .+(l+ oνeraΙΙ Voltage gain MΩ) = l l2.n .at a) using a hybrid-π model: + (17.ll : ffi1 ε2v..(R. : Ι6": For /o : "'' |1 5.2.8u*ηΙ"(*) = 0." (i) To calculaιe R.(Re]l r")l Ro: (l16.. R"..vo: Ι : Vιεtv- 0.R.5οοk]ιπlΨ] I 0.r"f+) v)ln (..1 '1 25'25ο + 10l (24.l mΑ & is 1[ l '.99) lc.

l'r 1' tΓι(βy..7 1D(6.5 V/V .1' Ι-=J------Ξ:|m^ | ^*|ιF*.(6. Ve = Vc:1..8Kll sK) - 19." = '.8 Kll r.ffi] = \ι.o4 = 5ko c.vi .1vo..8 K ll t. : g.'. frtor of l0 (c) Negιecting 1. Ιc VoΓ ζ ι γ | Rl" ι/ l βVτVι 1pv.*(1-β)[ffi]] 1 r"r)) |{ r".7=2 ] v 2m V6: Ln. ηn decreases by a factoΙ of 10.". of Φ9o P : Ι*V a l : ιυl ε^.α4(750)(."1(6. + 'ι ι οr.'.(3 Kll vo v.(6."': L = 2Φl0..82 R6 and draιving the hybrid-π ciicuiι: +5V 3kΩ Ιe=o : e..8 K) : o'7 = 10J uΑ = 68K This RguΙe is for 7.64 frρ-Yrη : ^lτ.r(6.r) _0.chapιer 7_38 n. c v_ φ 1D=l03μ: |[οv.+v^).'(l ι ξ(g.zv Κ|| 1 Κ "ι3 V-. ^ _tωl frn" ' ll i'*' .8 Kll r-u)) s.u) V"ι _ Vι ' Voz V.Ιo3 μ mAN n-' : Ιr': -J-JL : οο+arv vτ 25m .64m(6..64 m)(6.V.Power will irrreas€ by ' l'32 }κ 1 |'32o ν /ν Α decrease in 6." ('ι'fiLfu_. : 9.32+O.2) g.(6.l)) + 1+ Ι^ - + v.8 K 1 + vi vo- a) DC bias circuit: + 0.+n*] ^'1 *.2m. : .11 = ζ(g-l(6-8 κl| r.8 Κ -s. ιι+ωι] ! Πτ]Πδ .(6.82 (c) : 0 vi || 9.'(6'8 K|| r-.) K)(g-.)(viVo V.8ll r.8 K 5 K) |l r +..

lω K"]/ | Ro _ (l0l)(qr.' ' _ l0Ο(25 m) + |ω(25 m){ lοl ) . = ' v^ ζ οc v.Es : 5 mΑ..sf ) \488k+ lωk. _ 1X1'0ω :0.l = 6' 05ο + 20 K 2(25) 7.s + (2s3 + = Av eeo)(#) : r4.050 .2 M 98μ 9.ια lιlol/ '\ : R^ 2./ There wiιl no longer be a signal feedback. l9.9 m : + Rin 25. t25..5 Κ + l0..n ζ n'-* Ri":(ρt+lX2γ") .r(βl + 1) + 1 Κ(βr+ 1)(β + l) ρ'''' : θ./v R"'.U 9: t20 neglect ro Rι: Ri" ηow l0 M |0M )= c.' Ι. r.\'2'.9 mΑ ΙRL vou ^Vovi ""_τ Since R'.5 K 25.- 6' 05ο Ω (129). 0ω 7. lο κ 6.= v.-]L Ri.2 M : |o. β+ι lom ι01 :99μA 99 μA Ιu' Ιr.252lνl fπ2 _ιβ.ig : l0 ko 20 kΩ Vo νv ^ R.Chapter 7-39 al t.5 Ι = 488 krl vo vo. _ αΙει : ..5r ιlοM+ lο0κ.E3 v/ν R. * r.' .ι _β.)'L lol .!!9ι qq ιοl = !Φ1 lοl' 1ρ μ):98μA m) = 9.8 + ι. = 20 kΩ 8.985V/V l4. Neglect ro Find Gv vo ' v' Ι"z Iu. Neglecιing Early effect using Γesisιance reflecιion rule: = _.3 7.r.. : R. e) v.. 8-:5πΑ/V:k"(γ)v* - oouru .:L:25m:25Ω ' ιΕ lm : : (|2l\(2." Rin ] |00 Κ - : R1n vi v*.5*βfi{lοll+ !kl!0!)'l Ι.5 K .Ro ll l | jιβr+ l/ β. l 1ω(25 m) . lo.- (Ro) .8 ct Φ0 V/V 1.l9.lo M νo Ι+l9.' αzRι η* η.25\ &^ lω kΩ ηn c. lωΚ1l' | \ Γ r. 488 k te.

6 μA 43. .4vΞ (fffi)os. R.s0)(io b) _ _66 v/ν r-r = 5k Gv: β' ι .A.050 + l0 Κ standard high-νoltage process: (refer to Table 7.ι*.lιrf 2.5 μΑ < Ι6 < 3Φ.. : 1Φ(25 m) ( \ !!g)..ο μA+ vBΕ : 0.2) /s:5xlor5A :5 X l0-9μΑ νιε.6 Ω .1v*1' : 6'''v.572 ν = μA vBF=0.(r")(10 K) r.Ξτ: z model: 5 Χ l0 /c = 3Φ.lrn(]!Q)rο \l0l. l'J!9]ο-s Gv: ιror(i#)ιroιl Vou: o'Ι5ν= lo: \i"Yrv'u -s.(10 K) v. u.+ι)r"2 r.I r ξ t ') I Chapter 7-40 1 'i Ι fl ι v.'.4 Υ .Α. o'572 Υ = 0..ο2s tn 9 ./' -s.+ 10K 5.: process and 0.s .5 mΑ v/v 746 β = lω i CC .v lok_5k π.n.5 pA= V"u 43'5 : .050 Ω l0l . : r.050+10K .R.! Vo d) : }ιs.R.' _ 2.0.+ ξ'."+r"+(β.+ l0K vo ξ.87 Αssυme 0. _ 0 CC .t"(r") r.s0) 7.Y.CE Αmplifier: (β + l )β.' : c.\10l/ l0 k + 101(2.l : μ"C.5 μΑ S ID Ξ 309.. _ lω(l0 k) : ' l0k+2(5k) μA Now if ιγe considef the saιne range of cuτrent for 16 ofa BJT and we assume an npn transistor in a o': _η*.** "' 2'" r.62| Therefore: 5o V/V 43.62|ν ν ...:5k c. O5O c) Also assume 387 μΑlV2 Ψ : 10 :lx38uxοls'xtο Ι" : 2 43..r:5kΩ _(ιοI)(lω)(l0k) : _l94v/v t0k+5k+(l0l)5k e) Folded cascode: and neglect a) using ιhe hybrid ro vo + vi BmVL 10 k yτ .ιIoκl ΥN CC _ CB Amplifieι 9Rc ^ .CB cascode: (βt + l )α2Rc K) ln : _ω. Rsig+(βl+l)2r" 50 v/v _ Assumiηg operatioπ in saturation mode: -(iff)(zi*).5 pA Ιa: 3Φ." Gv cMos Thercfore: Ri.ινπ = _β1Ξ-g-L = 5.. _ _ _βozRc . = 5.050 5.1: V6n = o..5 m (2o = : k) = 5ο ^ "'_ r.6 Ξ 0..l5v<yov=0. 25m _66.:|-m:1γ )m : ιo \t.18 μm refer ιo Table 7.4 = _ 5.". ιΙρ: Ι'e ΞvDΕ: vτ]ι|I:| lc : 43.

88 g- 7J8 0.88 (mΑ/V 0..2 . is ιepι conslanι.(fl'vo'"' ιιι \νoc".7l .42 -o.e vιει V ν- =Vr ln10 7. [f ysE is kept constant' then /.εε mA/v. then /s is changed by changed by a factor ιhe saνe factor.88 ο.. : 0.u' = PMOS t:l μm _ 2X lο0 :1|.= ιvl ail.Chapter 7--4 Fiμre I is for 7.32 -0.48 NMOS o. = 10/.34 PMOS 0.=Ι.:ξ-l':Ψ:r# μA _lmΑ 1 ! t^: γz *Y = 2Ιo oν ' 2ι'Ψ L k'v' nL nov 2xlrΧrc3 _ 387 Χ o.93 PMOS -o.73 0.058 v or 58 mv 7.- o. : Y = t0.25 μm l.27 o.5 μm NMos ΡMos NMOS PMOS NMOS o.90 1voλ t.o2 1.9| iD. zο 4 -(l)' lΦ 2Ιo k.α A + Ιc2 : lo NMos PMοs x 267 vεε.48 = : l0Ξ ysfl V"r.42 Figure is for 7.oz Ιc| ysε Bε2 ' e 0.54 o.25x For PMOS: - /r+/.l3 μm 0. /^ = 100 uA.(v) (v) η'.2 0. 16'α : lο ΑI Ιr /..6 -ο. lα) 7.18 μm 0.23 0.5 μm η.25 V.92 ]ζ ''= ι^ " : 0.37 ιf the area ofthe emitter-basejuπction is of 10.(y) 2 X 1ω :14'4 -14 93 Χ 0. : ιo"-)ν"c..lhen .(!vn'u.l8 μm ο. Vov: o.P ε. '"'ρ ' we also haνe g^' : 8.0.'Ι t.2ν ε.252 7.vt g..46 - 0.98 -l2 also changed by the same factor: Ι.22 ng.o Ι /] ^ \t/.43 0.41 0.: 10 (2) 1Φ: ψP lω !:o = z. ΝMos ΡMoS NMOS o.62 0.42 /. is 15e /5αΑ. ν- t':134=. 1o : : ! ι'Y γ'ov=!: 2 "L L Foι NMOS: ι'': 0.Sg chaΙtges: Vnι. L" vo"" = Voro ξ+ rΨ\ -ιtl.08 NMOS PMOS o.25 μm 0.

2 : vA . vou+ Υ 8.c.3 μm.: ξ-l": 1o : 0.Y.?i-μr^Ψ For an NMOS with the same : o _2Ιo _2XlωΧlol_lmΑ/ν foΙ an npn transisιoΙ: we 7.88 μm 7.25" I . oν 8.94 Vaγ "/2 : x-loX lω o'25 9.z': '" 15 k(} 3.5 :}r:ετxflxo.5 mΑ Υ ψ= 8.vλx L _ 5 Χ 0.250 k(! 0. c-"Ψ:0.025 = 0. for : μ"C : W : ε.z for an npn tΓansistor: ε^_ 7...58 k(} lo1 " For case (b) ιηe have Ι:r\|-'' . 1Or r : --Ξ-Ξ:::ΞΞΞΞ: Jz zωx 1ο Χ 0. i.D A6 : 8^r.: ξYrc*+ cou:!wιc^ 40 .μ. : 8^r. : 4 mA/ν : o.5 τ'ν l00ο 25 ': 0.98 BJT: 7.Β _ I- !=l.4x1 127xtO-3xo.l I 440 r.025 will have o. w: 6 μm \μ.η L Vou : y =10 1o:1ΦμA L rΕc". : lL.1 Ιo Ιn = 44.1 x : ιo' ν^ = :2Φ 7. '.4 X 250: ιο0 v/v ^ w.96 2x |ωx lo ο.3 _ 0.(ν/ν) .l r:250Ω Vou= β : lΦ Vr : 1Φ V MOSFET: μ.C".: I x 15 : : 1"nc.25 mA 7. _ (β + 1)/c_L_0.99 MOSFET BJT (mA) =o.n 1o = 0.7γ νT 0.1 lo . 0.2 l00 μΑ. 8Pu.5 = μ'C*Voν '-: c.c.55 mΑ/V I 4 100 l0 2.2 oν Deνice case (a) Ψe haνe 2Ιo ^V 126 For BJT μm..o .xL : o:Ιr=_9L=4. 0.95 Assuming large ro For both tmnsistors. - W=6.25kr) ψA/Υ2' ιoν Bias cυrrent 1.5 .- _- Yr: ι' ]zν'c".155 mΑ : 1. (kΩ) L= ΙD 0.Ch^pLet142 : Ψ L ψ:8.e.4 mΑ/V ι': ν 1ο0 0 =β8.Y.xL ιzs.025 /. = 0.'Yrv}u rssι.' l (β +B ι)s. /2 vou o.3μm l0X0. Voν = o'2 1. = ! 8' . (mΑ / V) 1.vo :vnL .' = Ιc 3.26 4oοο 4Φ Rj (kΩ) o'3 o.. mΑ 15V/V t x 0-3 387x1o-3Χo.t A.

.4.22 'ΓG 8.t55 4 o'3 10 9.3μm -. . : l x rεzx 9ο.+ = 4fF r c) o.]? = 12.155 mΑ _5Yo.Π.ξ /r or equivalently double has to be doubled multiplied by 4: g- fτ" s.rV.155 = 0.4X 10_] C1":2x5lF=10fF C":Cι"+cj":14fF Cμ3Cμρ : 5 ΙF Jτ 172. 7.4:4mΑ.5Χ45oΧl0'4X0.| 8.ο25 : τe8-: C.3 20{n fF 16 ι^ = !ι'Yv.35 GΗz 1 Ιn order to double 3(n Χ 21τβ4{n + 3ω) = 0..37 X 6 : 2.4mΑ/V ρ = 10/ ο.> 0.2 ν x Cj" : 2l4O fF : 0.q^ 15x!:7.2 2"Loν 2 15 v.4 X 1ο 1 gμ) 0.ρn. 656.:40+ 10: 50fF' Cr: 5ΙF o"to' fr.2"5"o'3 _ o. : l0Χ 1ο-I2 X ο. High-voιtage process: 8. .2τtx9'7 kΩ x 10ο Χ l0- = ι64.5V/V ? x6Xο_] Χ 8. _ lOx l0 .lo-':4mΑ/V 0.62 mΑ /. J" - 0.3'x1o-t2 /Γ x MΗz vτ ιvnen =2rYr..: Cμ : GΗz The approximaιion formula over estimates because il ignores 4 :l40X l0 ''F: lωfF C'.(c|.6cHz 27Ι(5ο + 5) \ l0 '' . has ιo be : /o = 4 X 0.l.z' " 1 : l00 μΑ.55 mΑ/ V = 2.2 : f. ol Co| in cr* "'τ Ci"+ Cι"o _ 0. Χ l0'15 _ or /. c * C. c^ 23.55 X Ιo Χ 21r{12'54 + 2'22) lo |5 : : |'5 μ"V6u Cr.ο25 C7. : ΜΗz ιr\ry_voltage process lo':0. Ca" = l0 x 140 : l{D fF c": 3400 ff s ΙV= 6μm 1Φ fF 2VoL A^ " l0-9 X o.9 wLov Co.' + c : Ιn that case: | _ ι^" " vou'!_+. .6" and Cr7 calcuΙation. |6:t cHz' Ιf \γe use the approximaιion formula: JΙ = : 1n !.Chapter 7-43 wLoνc. .4X 1ο 2?r(5+14)x10-15 = 3.'0l Ιc = l0 μΑ.|ω L:0. Ηigh-νolιage process: t n _l.3 pF = 3Φ . - 2zτI" >> Cra.6+6Xο.7 kΩ 2ncrr./ν r:vAL ' Io I.2 NιHz n : r- "' 2Ιo : 82τC = l. = 2Cρ = 2xl = 2pF : 1..= 2x"-xo.35 x lo-r 2'ιτ(214o + Cι: vnu .4 voν: o.8 Ι64.025 Ca" : l0x4 = 401F C.g.lo-7" fF l0o μΑ' Low_voltage process n:]Φ." "[η fF lo ι5) = 26'1 lνlHz Χ l0-] |2 μΑ.54 fT Cr[ : C6yW = 0.: 10Χ0.5 GHz g. f. Jτ _ "fp ΣaeJcλ 3 l.".2 7.

C".6 pF c" : 12ω. For ono :k: vτ ω 1.l4xLxx].2 2Χ3. 2L ID- Υ o.3 2ΙDΙvoν /t\ 2τ|1wLc.'.4 μm 2v^ 2v^'L _ 2xsxL vov vou a^: ?9: rovrv = o.104 Ao: 8-ro |ι"C ο rVoν fot L _ : Crι: 2.3 : 0.3 o. cs.c.. 43. + Cou + Cou) >> cs.o2 ={cH.1 : : Ao g.6 + Ι)pF 8^ ΞJτ + cul Σ}d-c" f7 : 5. Lo:"Υt""l vov 2τxlwLC J 3 V"u :4rr".04) b) ^od _ "8^ Jτ 0..1 MΗz For non Ca.2X1X1ω : MΗz W : Φ mΑ]ry " = 2τ( l6 + 0. C*:1pF 1. vov = 0-2ν' L: 2 0.4 10 15 20 53.M ΙF WLovC* : 25..3 ΜΗz 7.2 ψm./V pF 16 + r.: Ι4+2: l2't x 0.8 mA/ν ΞwLC"'+wLoνc.V 3ιrn.2]4 : μm.3) pF 7. consequently.2 = x ' : s.2 = 50 LVΛr' 7."+ : τr8^ = 0..1 MΗz 'fτ L: 7.. n_=ψ=o.35 GΗz μΑ 10 t'72. (cΗz) o.v : 30 X 10 x 40 mΑ/v = 12Φ "r8^: C1 : 2Ci.4 .2 0..5v.2 μm x zs'z.6 GΗz 25. g^ ''' vov ιherefore in order to double.14 + 5. 6..z Αs ιve can se€Jfr caι be determined after knowing yoy and a. l"= ! ι"Ψ 4u= w .2 Χ 0. : 39l MHz Vov. l x 40 mΑ.102 a) Standard 1 Ιc: 10Ο μA 3.NMoS V"": 0.68 fτ 14 ιf ιve assume ιhaι coy is very smal| or ηuiva- 2τ(.Chapter 7-44 ln Summary: Standard Ηigh-voιtage low_volιage npn πpn Ιc: l0 μΑ 26.r03 Ir:lmA+9. vov has ιo be doubIed: yov: ο.2 - pF τ.25 "-_2Ιo_2ΧlωXlo-1 "" .0.4mΑ/v." : 2 x 0. 0.Φtr x 10-'5 = 2. ro. Jτ=. it is noι dependent on either /D or w.3 μm.252 .75 23.6 pF Co.6 μm' 12= t00 μΑ. : 9 _ pF ι( μm) Ao (ν /ν) f.35 ns C. k'w/L aπ '.3 + 25. = Therefore/4o is only determined by seιting νalues 25. =l'Sιr'V'ou 2τL' ^ι.'=u^'':25Xl:zsιΩ " In ο.ττλ lenιly c*.fo 20 ΥN Cs' : = ΖI χ 2 pF C. : 1 Ξ'WLC.105 csd unchaΙΙged.loF 1._-_=-_--voνιL o.25Υ : C* = 2x I : l00 μA I 4ο ιnΑ/v 27(Ι2ω.9 13. 0. and C.5 Χ 45o X lo-1 Χ o.8xlo3 W __ : t^"+: tt^: t+# (replace ID \ρiιh o.8 μm .2 fF :. = -0.

2'τ\L = 21τx1ρFxlα)MΗz = 62a μAΝ ε.5μ'π'V6γ =o. -o ft2f.!.chapιeΙ 7-45 7.5 _ lo lo 94.3Ycι:lpη : lΦ MΗz "fr f.'ιι : {.o k"vλu _2Χo'5x94'2 ltz : : 5'51 μm 5.^_V^_ " 3 Ao:8.=ξ+l"= g-xvovl2=ο'zεrξ Ι9 : 94.: βξ=ε-:2πC.u x rω'z : lο6-2 kΩ 66'7 V/V = l.106 L: o.5l μm VoL_ 20 .0.5 MHz .ro = Ι.2x 1o .2 μA : ι': !k''Ψ4" z L -'y 2'LΙ.