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Disclosure to Promote the Right To Information
Whereas the Parliament of India has set out to provide a practical regime of right to
information for citizens to secure access to information under the control of public authorities,
in order to promote transparency and accountability in the working of every public authority,
and whereas the attached publication of the Bureau of Indian Standards is of particular interest
to the public, particularly disadvantaged communities and those engaged in the pursuit of
education and knowledge, the attached public safety standard is made available to promote the
timely dissemination of this information in an accurate manner to the public.
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“The Right to Information, The Right to Live”

“Step Out From the Old to the New”

Mazdoor Kisan Shakti Sangathan

Jawaharlal Nehru

IS 2720-40 (1977): Methods of test for soils, Part 40:
Determination of free swell index of soils [CED 43: Soil
and Foundation Engineering]

“!ान $ एक न' भारत का +नम-ण”
Satyanarayan Gangaram Pitroda

“Invent a New India Using Knowledge”

“!ान एक ऐसा खजाना > जो कभी च0राया नहB जा सकता ह”


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434 ‘.IS : 2720 ( Part XL) .131. March 1978 .j Co/)yriglrl 1978 BUREAU MANAK OF BHAVAN.1977 ( Reaffirmed 2002 ) Indian Standard METHODS PART XL OF TEST FOR SOILS DETERnklNATlON OF FREE SWELL INDEX OF SOILS ( Third Reprint AUGUST 1997 ) UDC 624. INDIAN 9 BAHADUR STANDARDS SHAH ZAFAR MARG NEWDELHI llooo2 Gr 2 .

KANITKAR ( Alternate ) DR A. DEWAN Irrigation Research Institute. K. JANGLE ( Alternafc ) DR SHASHI K. MARYA Roads Wing (Ministry of Shipping & Transport ).IS : 2720 ( Part XL ) - 1977 Iizdian Standard METHODS OF TEST FOR SOILS PART XL DETERMINATION OF FREE SWELL INDEX OF SOILS Soil Engineering Sectional BDC 23 Representing Chairman PROP DINESH MOHAN Committee. Calcutta SHRI S. Calcutza 700017 ) SHRI R. Patna DR G. DHILLON Indian Geotechnical Society. Khagaul. BANERJEE Cementation Co Ltd. Members ADDITIONALCHIEF ENGINEER Public Works Department. r . G. S. HE~DE SHRI S. L. Army Headquarters MAJ V. N. G. V. DIVANJI Asia Foundations & Construction ( P) Ltd. New Delhi DR G. C. DASTIDAR In personal capacity ( 5 Hungerford Slreet. H. GUPTA ( Alternate ) CHIEF ENGINEER ( D & R) Irrigation Department. ‘ P ’ New Alipors. Government of Uttar Pradesh SHRI D. BALCHANDANI ( Afbmote ) SHRI 0. 12/I Hungerford Court. RAO (Altrrnate ) National Buildings Organization. MALHOTRA Public Works Department.Jodhpur LT-COL AVTAR SYNCH Engineer-in-Chief’s Branch. New Delhi SHRXN. Calcutta 700053 ) SHRI A. DADINA In personal capacity ( P-820. Government of Punjab SHRI J. Bombay SHRI A. Government of Punjab DIRECTOR ( IPRI ) ( Alternnle ) SHRI K. P. H. Central Building Roorkee Research Institute ( CSIR ). N. . S. GULHATI Indian Institute of Technology. New Delhi SHRI A. CHATURVEDI( A&malt ) ADDITIONAL DIRECTOR RESEARCH Railway Board ( Ministry of Railways ) (RDSO) DEPUTY DIRECTOR RESEARCH ( RDSO ) ( Alternate) Pno~ ALAM S~NGH University of Jodhpur. SEN ( Alfemale) ( Continued on jags 2 ) @ Co&right 1978 BUREAU OF INDIAN STANDARDS This publication is protected under the Z&an Co&rikhl Acl (XIV of 1957 ) and reproduction in whole or in part by auy means except with written permission of the publisher Qall be deemed to be au infringement of copyright under the said Act. New Delhi SHRI V.

Government of Tamil SUPERINTENDING ENGINEER _* . KANITKAR ( Alternate ) Irrigation Research Institute.. New Delhi DEPUTY SECRETARY( Alternate ) *DR SHAMSHER PRAKA~H University of Roorkee. UNWALLA SHRI T. New SHRI R. CUEA SHRI N. ( cbnfintud on page 5 ) 2 I . BRATTACHARAYA( Ahmur~ ) Indian Institute of Technology. K. NATARAJAN Reprsssnting Central Water Commission. Bombay & Dealers SHRI V. Patna SHRI R. Roorkee Engineer-in-Chief’s Branch. MELKOTE DEPUTY DIRECTOR ( CSMRS SHRI T. Bombay India Instruments Manufacturers Association. RESEARCHOFFICER Building Research Roads Chandigarh SERI K. K. New De hi ) ( Al:emnh ) Central Road Institute ( CSIR 1.IS : 2720 ( Part XL ) . K. AJITHA SIMHA. L. GULHATI United Technical Conaultantr ( P ) Ltd. Jodhpur Members SHRI AMAR SINGH Central Building Research Institute ( CSIR ). IS1 Soil Testing Procedures and Equipment Subcommittee. K. VASUDEVAN( Allemu& ) Director General. S. DEWAN D a P u T Y DIRECTOR RESEARCH Railway Board ( Ministry of Railways ) ( SOIL MECHANICS-I) ( RDSO ) DIRECTOR ASSISTANT (SOIL RESEARCH MECHANICS-I ) ( RDSO ) ( Alrem& ) Beas Dama Projects. Director ( Civ Engg ) Sccrcta~ SHRX G. PREM ( Altsrnate ) Geologist Syndicate Pvt Ltd. Calcutta SHRI H. N. Naclu EXECUTIVE ENGINEER ( Alternate) SHR1 B. Khagaul. JA~N Delhi DR P. S. IS1 ( Ex-o$cio Member) SHRI D. Roorkee Dn GOPAL RANJAN ( Al&ma& ) SHRI H. New Delhi SHRI SHASHI K. R. D. T. SHARMA Irrigation Research Institute. VBRYA Concrete All Association of India. Hyderabad SECRETARY Central Board of Irrigation & Power. &WAN Deputy Director ( Civ Engg ). DII ( AltemaL ) -Also rcprescnrsInstitution of Engineera ( India ). Convener PROF ALAY SINGH BDC 23 : 3 University of Jodhpur. SAXENA Engineering Research Laboratories. Talwora Township DIRECTOR ( I 8~ C ) SHRI K. Bombay Laboratory. M. Army Headquarters LT-COL AVTAR SINGH MAJ V. K. Reseaich New Delhi REPRESENTATIVE Hindustan Crtruction Co Ltd. Roorkee Public Works Department. C.1977 ( Confinudfrom page 1 ) Members SHRI R. Delhi tkttre. MENON (Alternate) SHRI H. K.

3 In the formulation of this standard due weightage has been given to international co-ordination among the standards and practices prevailing in different countries in addition to relating it to the practices in the field in this country. Inferential testing is resorted ‘to reflect the potential of the system to swell under different Actual magnitude of swelling pressures developed simulated conditions. Forty-one parts of this standard have been published. *Rules for rounding off numerical values ( IID~SC$).4 In reporting the result of a test or analysis made in accordance with this standard. Free swell is the increase in volume of a soil.1 This Indian Standard (Parr XL ) was adopted by the Indian Standards Institution on 30 December 1977. This part [IS: 2720 ( Part XL)-19771 deals with the method of test for the determination of free swell index of soils. depends upon the dry density. initial water content. at the outset. on submergence in water.2 With a view to establish uniform procedures for the determination of different characteristics of soils and also for facilitating comparative studies of the results. it shall be done in accordance with IS : 2-1960*. the Indian Standards Institution has brought out this Indian Standard Methods of test. 0. if the final value. surcharge loading and several other environmental factors. is to be rounded off. without any external constraints.IS : 2720 ( Part XL) . by an investigation of those soils likely to possess undesirable expansion characteristics. 0. 0. The possibility of damage to structures due to swelling of expensive clays need be identified.1977 Indian Standard METHODS OF TEST FOR SOILS PART XL DETERMINATION OF FREE SWELL INDEX OF SOILS 0. 3 . observed or calculated. FOREWORD 0.for soils ( IS : 2720 ) which is being published in parts. after the draft finalized by the Soil Engineering Sectional Committee had been approved by the Civil Engineering Division Council.

The level of the soil in the distilled water cylinder shall be read as the free swell level. After removal of entrapped air ( by gentle shaking or stirring with a:tglass rod ). The final volume of soils in each of the cylinders shall be read out. Suffident time (not less than 24 h ) shall be allowed for the soil sample to attain equilibrium state of volume without any further change in the volume of the soils. ( Cnntil &RI ( R SHRI F 0. thccase of highly swelling soils. Cylinders - Two. 4. and v. kerosene oil and the other with distilled writer up to the 100 ml ( see Note under 3. fSpeci&ation SHRI for graduatedmeasuring cylinders. 2.1 This standard ( Part XL ) covers a test for the determination of free swell index of soil which helps to identify the potential of a soil to swell swelling which might need further detailed investigation regarding and swelling pressures under different field conditions. 425-micron Graduated IS Sieve.1977 1. PROCEDURE I SHRX r SI 3. The free swell index of the soil shall be calculated as follows: Free swell index.2 Each soil specimen shall be poured in each of the two glass graduated One cylinder shall then be filled with cylinders of 100 ml capacity.IS t 2720 ( Part XL ) . such as sodium bentonites. = the volume of soil specimen cylinder containing kerosene. kerosene being a non-polar liquid doea not cause swelling of the soil.o() k where Vd= the volume of soil specimen read from the graduated cylinder containing distilled water. SCOPE 1. ). CALCULATION 4. APPARATUS 2. NOTE -In 3.2 Glass 1956.1 The level of the soil in the kerosene graduated cylinder shall be read as the original volume of the soil samples.1) mark. the sample size may he 5 g or alternatively a cylinder of 250 ml capacity may be used. lOO-ml capacity (see IS : 878- 3. - Vk x . the soils in both the cylinders shall be allowed to settle.1 Sieve 2.1 Take two 10 g (see Note ) soil specimens of oven dry soil passing through 425-micron IS Sieve. percent = 7v. 4 read from the graduated SFIRI1 01 t&RI ? SHRX H .

S.zrhks Department.1977 ( Continrredfrom page 2 ) Members Representing Building & Roads Research Laboratory. L. S. SEN Ministry of Shipping & Transport ( Roads Wing ). Green Park. Chandigarh SHRI 0. THOMAS ( A~temnte ) PublFra. DHAWAN ( AI&nate ) SHRI V. MALHOTRA RESEARCH OFFICER ( BLDC. RAO SHRI H. New Delhi SHRI P. New Delhi ) Associated Instruments Manufacturers CI ) Pvt Ltd. P. Government of Uttar SFIRI M. Rese trch Road SHRI P. VERMA In personal capacity ( F-24. New Delhi . D. SETH DR B. K. MELKO~E DEPUTY DIRECTOR ( CSMRS ) ( Alternate ) Institute ( CSIR ). V. M. C.IS : 2720 ( Part XL ) . New Delhi SHRI R. & ROADS ) ( A&au/e ) Central Water Commission. JAGANNATHA RAO Central New Delhi SHRI N.

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