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The Future of the Automobile

Autumn Quarter 2013

Section 2: Safety and Performance

The Future of the Automobile – Section 2, Part 1

Safety

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Definition of Safety

What is Safety?

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Definition of Automobile Safety

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Automobile safety is the study and practice of design, construction, equipment and
regulation to minimize the occurrence and consequences of automobile accidents. Road
traffic safety more broadly includes roadway design.
!  Active safety is […] prevention of a crash
!  Passive safety is […] to protect occupants during [and after] a crash.

Active Safety Systems, examples
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good visibility from driver's seat
low noise level in interior
legibility of instrumentation, warning symbols
early warning of severe braking ahead
head up displays
good chassis balance and handling
good grip
anti-lock braking system
electronic stability control
chassis assist
intelligent speed adaptation
brake assist
traction control
collision warning/avoidance
adaptive or autonomous cruise control

Passive Safety Systems, examples
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passenger safety cell
deformation zones
seat belts
airbags
loadspace barrier-nets
laminated glass
correctly positioned fuel tanks
fuel pump kill switches
(automatic) emergency call
emergency medical services

Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Automotive_safety [adapted]

Light Vehicle Brake Systems !  Standard No 201…224 – CRASHWORTHINESS Occupant Protection in Interior Impact. Warning Devices. New Pneumatic Tires for Vehicles Other Than Passenger Cars. Accelerator Control Systems. Side Impact Protection. Roof Crush Resistance. Hydraulic and Electric Brake Systems.Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards . !  These requirements are specified in such a manner "that the public is protected against unreasonable risk of crashes occurring as a result of the design. Impact Protection for the Driver from the Steering Control System. Rear Impact Guards. and Associated Equipment. Devices. Hood Latch System. New Non-Pneumatic Tires for Passenger Cars . Motor Vehicle Brake Fluids. Bus Emergency Exits and Window Retention and Release.gov/cars/rules/import/FMVSS/index. Transmission Shift Lever Sequence. School Bus Pedestrian Safety Devices. to issue Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards (FMVSS) and Regulations to which manufacturers of motor vehicle and equipment items must conform and certify compliance. Flammability of Interior Materials. Occupant Crash Protection. or performance of motor vehicles and is also protected against unreasonable risk of death or injury in the event crashes do occur. Power-Operated Window. Rearview Mirrors. Fuel System Integrity of Compressed Natural Gas Vehicles. Reflective Devices. Motorcycle Brake Systems. construction. Lamps. Rear Impact Protection !  Standard No 301…304. 500 – POST CRASH STANDARDS Fuel System Integrity. Seat Belt Assemblies. Windshield Zone Intrusion.nhtsa. Head Restraints. School Bus Passenger Seating and Crash Protection. Brake Hoses. and Roof Panel Systems. Retreaded Pneumatic Tires. Starter Interlock. Child Restraint Systems. New Pneumatic Tires for Passenger Cars.” !  Standard No 101…135 – CRASH AVOIDANCE Controls and Displays.html . Compressed Natural Gas Fuel Container Integrity. and Transmission Braking Effect. Air Brake Systems. Steering Control Rearward Displacement. Windshield Wiping and Washing Systems. Motor Vehicle Safety. Seating Systems. !  These Federal safety standards are regulations written in terms of minimum safety performance requirements for motor vehicles or items of motor vehicle equipment. Door Locks and Door Retention Components. Low Speed Vehicles Source: http://www. Motorcycle Controls and Displays. Windshield Mounting. Theft Protection. Partition. Windshield Defrosting and Defogging Systems.New Temporary Spare Non-Pneumatic Tires for Use on Passenger Cars.FMVSS 5" !  The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration has a legislative mandate under Title 49 of the United States Code. School Bus Body Joint Strength. Seat Belt Assembly Anchorages. Tire Selection and Rims for Passenger Cars. School Bus Rollover Protection. Chapter 301. Motorcycle Helmets. Tire Selection and Rims for Motor Vehicles Other Than Passenger Cars. Glazing Materials.

4 Quadrants of Vehicle Safety and Protection 6" Self-Protection Active Safety Passive Safety Partner-Protection .

sae.pdf .org/events/gim/presentations/2010/deanmcconnell.Phases of an Accident – Active / Passive Safety 7" Source: http://www.

8% Rear – 2.3% Off Center – 12. 1992 .3% Frontal – 21. “Fahrzeugsicherheit “.Side – 7.0% Source: U. VDI Verlag. Seiffert.2% Accident Types – Direction of Impact by Numbers 9" Rollover 2.

Definition of Safety Passive Safety 11" .

examples !  !  !  !  !  !  !  !  !  !  !  !  !  !  !  good visibility from driver's seat low noise level in interior legibility of instrumentation. construction. examples !  !  !  !  !  !  !  !  !  !  passenger safety cell deformation zones seat belts airbags loadspace barrier-nets laminated glass correctly positioned fuel tanks fuel pump kill switches (automatic) emergency call emergency medical services Source: http://en. Road traffic safety more broadly includes roadway design.Definition of Automobile Safety 12" Automobile safety is the study and practice of design. warning symbols early warning of severe braking ahead head up displays good chassis balance and handling good grip anti-lock braking system electronic stability control chassis assist intelligent speed adaptation brake assist traction control collision warning/avoidance adaptive or autonomous cruise control Passive Safety Systems. !  Active safety is […] prevention of a crash !  Passive safety is […] to protect occupants during [and after] a crash.wikipedia.org/wiki/Automotive_safety [adapted] . Active Safety Systems. equipment and regulation to minimize the occurrence and consequences of automobile accidents.

com .Types of NCAP Crash Tests (European Version) Front Impact Side Impact Pole Impact Pedestrian Impact 13" Source: http://euroncap.

disturb. or scare anyone. ! Some material may be disturbing for viewers. ! No bodily injuries are shown. ! No specific recommendation for / against a certain vehicle is being made.Viewer Discretion is Advised ! The following videos show vehicle crash tests. only dummies. ! The purpose of the material is not to entertain. 14" . ! The purpose of the material is to demonstrate vehicle safety research. ! No humans (or animals) participate in the test.

com/watch?v=6VLcza8aDr0 .Standard Crash Test of an SUV 15" Source: http://www.youtube.

Phases of a Crash 16" Source: http://dc428.png .com/doc/L7K5S6GD/preview_html_m7bb82bd3.4shared.

Pedestrian Impact Test 17" Source http://www.com/watch?v=Di7SAzfTe30 .youtube.

com/watch?v=2j9RqljSJAQ .Weight Difference in a Crash 18" Source http://www.youtube.

com/watch?v=2j9RqljSJAQ .youtube.Small Vehicle Safety 19" Source http://www.

youtube.com/watch?v=joMK1WZjP7g . New – Progress in Automobile Safety 20" Source http://www.Old vs.

wikipedia.Accident Statistics – Fewer Fatalities (finally…!) 21" Source: http://en.org/wiki/File:USA_annual_VMT_vs_deaths_per_VMT.png .

05/01/2012 . Smith. B. W. Lecture in ME302.Traffic Statistics – More Miles 22" Source: “Self-Driving Vehicles – A good problem to have”.

png .Combined Statistics – Safer Vehicles.org/wiki/File:USA_annual_VMT_vs_deaths_per_VMT. Safer Roads… 23" Source: http://en.wikipedia.

NHTSA New Car Assessment Program .autoevolution.com/exp/intro/intro.jpg.com/news/nhtsa-and-iihs-crash-test-scores-explained-4239.NCAP Frontal Crash Test Side-Impact Crash Test 24" Rollover Test 10% or less chance of ser. inj 26% or greater chance of ser. http://www. inj 40% or greater risk of rolling ov.org/wikipedia/commons/c/ce/NCAPLabel.html . injury 5% or less chance of ser. http://upload.htm. Sources: http://www.safecarguide.wikimedia. injury 10% or less risk of rolling over 11-20% chance of serious injury 6-10% chance of serious injury 10-20% risk of rolling over 21-35% chance of serious injury 11-20% chance of serious injury 20-30% risk of rolling over 36-45% chance of serious injury 21-25% chance of serious injury 30-40% risk of rolling over 46% or greater chance of ser.

4 Quadrants of Vehicle Safety and Protection 25" Self-Protection Active Safety Passive Safety Partner-Protection .

Definition of Safety Active Safety 26" .

construction. Road traffic safety more broadly includes roadway design. warning symbols early warning of severe braking ahead head up displays good chassis balance and handling good grip anti-lock braking system electronic stability control chassis assist intelligent speed adaptation brake assist traction control collision warning/avoidance adaptive or autonomous cruise control Passive Safety Systems. examples !  !  !  !  !  !  !  !  !  !  passenger safety cell deformation zones seat belts airbags loadspace barrier-nets laminated glass correctly positioned fuel tanks fuel pump kill switches (automatic) emergency call emergency medical services Source: http://en. !  Active safety is […] prevention of a crash !  Passive safety is […] to protect occupants during [and after] a crash. examples !  !  !  !  !  !  !  !  !  !  !  !  !  !  !  good visibility from driver's seat low noise level in interior legibility of instrumentation.wikipedia. equipment and regulation to minimize the occurrence and consequences of automobile accidents.org/wiki/Automotive_safety [adapted] . Active Safety Systems.Definition of Automobile Safety 27" Automobile safety is the study and practice of design.

crash) 28" .External Forces Acting on Automobile Wheel Forces (road / tire) Body Forces (aerodynamics.

4 (depending on temperature…) Source: M. Springer Verlag 2004 .2 (depending on temperature. temperature…) Ice 0.1…0. Mitschke. Dynamik der Kraftfahrzeuge. road texture…) Wet asphalt 0.29" Tire Characteristics – Limit Of Adhesion Fx Fz Fy Fz Longitudinal dry asphalt Lateral dry asphalt wet asphalt wet asphalt snow snow S α Friction Coefficient (maximum adhesion): µ a = Fx.0…0.6 (depending on density.y max Fz General values for µa under different conditions (depending on tire type. wear…) Dry asphalt 1.0…1.7 (depending on water depth and velocity…) Snow 0.4…0.

m↓ l t " " " " large small large small t Fxl Fzl 30" .Geometric Parameters for Safe Handling – Part 1 m m h h Fxf Fxr Fzr l Fzf To maximze tire adhesion : l h t m = = = = wheelbase center of gravity height track width vehicle mass Fyr Fzr h h ↓. ↓.

b ⋅ cα r )> 0 l a cαf – b cαr m v = = = = wheelbase weighted cornering stiffness vehicle mass velocity " large " rear stronger than front " small " small 31" .m⋅ v ⋅(a ⋅ cα f .Geometric Parameters for Safe Handling – Part 2 cαr" cαf" l a b m" cαf" cαr" 2 2 ! To avoid instability : l ⋅ cα f ⋅ cα r .

Limited enrollment. Terms: Spr | Units: 3 | Grading: Letter (ABCD/NP) Instructors: Gerdes. and control theory to the analysis and design of ground vehicle behavior. J.Further Education in Vehicle Dynamics ME 227: Vehicle Dynamics and Control The application of dynamics. Simplified models of ride. (PI) 32" . In-car laboratory assignments for model validation and kinesthetic understanding of dynamics. Prerequisites: ENGR 105. Performance and safety enhancement through automatic control systems. kinematics. and braking. handling. and limitations in engineering design. their role in developing intuition. consent of instructor. Suspension design fundamentals.

Vehicle Dynamics Control Systems – Active Safety 33" Source http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wR1SSxpKitE .

Crash Avoidance – Pedestrian Protection 34" Source: Volvo Cars .

beyond technology. and more enjoyable. lane departure warning. Those systems can be as diverse as navigation. advanced driver assistance systems play an important role in making traffic safer. society. influences and is being influenced by a variety of culture. which is lectured by an industry expert in the field. benefits. business. and future perspectives of this exciting field. park assist. will introduce students to technologies. Terms: Win| Units: 1 | Grading: Satisfactory/No Credit Instructors: Becker 35" . more efficient. and business aspects. adaptive cruise control. With this breadth of applications. and many more. Students should have a basic background in engineering. legal. challenges. or law. night vision. This course. This background should provide the students with the ability to discuss automotive topics and put them in an interdisciplinary context. social sciences. and society with a specific automotive focus and assess technology in a larger context than someone’s primary educational background. It is essential to understand that an automobile. The goal of the course is to develop an understanding for the interactions of technology. business.Further Education in Driver Assistance ME302 (winter): The Future of the Automobile +++ Advanced Driver Assistance Systems +++ Advanced Driver Assistance Systems help drivers to maneuver their vehicles through traffic.

Part 2 Performance 36" .The Future of the Automobile – Section 2.

Definition of Performance What is Performance? 37" .

etc. independence 38" . etc.  the execution or accomplishment of work. acts. 2. http://dictionary. stopping distance.reference. seating / cargo capacity. acts. off-road capability. dramatic.Definition of Performance per·for·mance [per-fawr-muhns] Noun 1. feats. etc.  an action or proceeding of an unusual or spectacular kind: His temper tantrum was quite a performance. or other entertainment presented before an audience. ⇒  execution of work.  a particular action. range of operation. acts. piece of music. or proceeding. top speed. 4.  the act of performing a ceremony. feats is a lot about motion Examples: 0-60mph.com/browse/performance Specific Meaning in our Context performance – the execution or accomplishment of work. 5. deed. 3.  a musical. cornering capability. play. feats.

Dynamics as a Science to Describe Motion 39" Dynamics The branch of classical mechanics that describes the causes of motion and changes in motion. Dynamics includes the study of the effect of torques on motion.org/wiki/Classical_mechanics . Source: http://en. In other words the study of forces and why objects are in motion.wikipedia. Note: Since the mid-20th century. the term "dynamics" (or "analytical dynamics”) has largely superseded "kinetics" in physics text books.

crash) 40" .External Forces Acting on Automobile Wheel Forces (road / tire) Body Forces (aerodynamics.

Subsystems and Internal Forces Wheel Forces Body Forces Internal Forces 41" .

road grade. fR: 0.35 m Powertrain inertia factor λP: 1. proj.5 m2 Wheel radius.25…0.25…0. AA: 1.015 Max.5…2.006…0.45 Aerodyn.50 Rolling resistance. m: 1000…3000 Kg Aerodyn. coeff.25 kg/m3 Driving Force: n MW i ρA 2 D = m ⋅ λ ⋅  x + m ⋅ g ⋅ p + m ⋅ g ⋅ fR + ⋅ cAx ⋅ AA ⋅ v = ∑ 2 i=1 rW stat i Inertia Rolling Resistance Resistance Inclination Resistance Power required Aerodynamic Resistance P = D ⋅ v = (λ ⋅  x + g ⋅ p + g ⋅ fR ) ⋅ m ⋅ v + Wheel Torque as Force ρA ⋅ cAx ⋅ AA ⋅ v 3 2 .05…1.7°) Air density. area. cAx: 0. rW stat: 0. ρA: 1.Longitudinal Dynamics of a Automobile (simplified) 42" Common Data for Passenger Vehicles Mass. p: 30% (γ=16.

3 fR = 0.5 sq ft cx = -0.01 p=25% p=20% p=15% 65 mph 250" 250" 100 mph 300 hp 200" 200" p=10% p=5% 200 hp 150" 150" 100" 100" p=0% 100 hp 50" 50" 0"0" 0" 10" 10" 20" 20" 30" 30" 40" 40" 50" 50" 60" v [m/s] 70" 70" 60" .0 m2 ≈ 21.43" Power Requirements for a Compact Vehicle ρA 3 P = (λ ⋅  x + g ⋅ p + g ⋅ fR ) ⋅ m ⋅ v + ⋅ cAx ⋅ AA ⋅ v 2 450" 450" P [kW] 400" 400" 350" 350" 300" 300" p=30% Vehicle Parameters m = 1400 kg ≈ 3086 lbs A = 2.