You are on page 1of 66

CH.13

RESPIRATORY

PHYSIOLOGY

UNIT OUTLINE:

I.

INTRODUCTION

 

i.

Basic Functions of Respiratory System

II.

LEVELS OF ORGANIZATION

i.

Thoracic Cavity Membranes

ii.

Respiratory Tract Organization

III.

STRUCTURE & FUNCTION

i.

Respiration

ii.

Lung Volumes & Capacities

iii.

Gas Properties

iv.

Breathing

v.

Transport

IV.

HOMEOSTASIS

i.

Hemoglobin Saturation

ii.

Ventilation-Perfusion Mismatch

iii.

Hyperventilation

V.

INTEGRATION

i.

Clinical

Biol340 - Mammalian Physiology

2

Remember that these Learning Outcomes make for a great basis for your studying. (Try turning the statements into questions.)

UNIT LEARNING OUTCOMES:

Student will be able to…

1.

Distinguish between the structural organization and the functional organization of the respiratory

2.

system. Trace the movement of air through the respiratory system.

3.

Describe the relationship between pressure, volume and air movement (and how muscles influence

4.

this) Explain the difference in respiratory volumes and how these are functionally relevant.

5.

Differentiate how the oxygen and carbon dioxide are carried in the blood.

6.

Explain the significance of the oxygen-hemoglobin saturation

curve for both alveolar and systemic

7.

gas exchange. Compare and contrast Hb-O binding during different conditions.

8.

Explain how hyperventilation and hypoventilation influence the chemical composition of blood.

9.

List three types of cells found in alveoli and their functions.

10.Name the two anatomic features of the respiratory membrane that contribute to the efficient alveolar

gas exchange.

Biol340 - Mammalian Physiology

3

I. INTRODUCTION

BASIC FUNCTIONS OF RESPIRATORY SYSTEM

Biol340 - Mammalian Physiology

4

I. Introduction

The main function of the respiratory system is to supply the body tissues with oxygen and dispose of carbon dioxide generated by cellular metabolism.

Respiration is collectively made up of 4 processes:

1.

Pulmonary ventilation (breathing)

2.

External respiration (movement of O 2 from lungs into blood; CO 2 from blood to lungs)

3.

Transport of respiratory gases in the blood

4.

Internal respiration (movement of O 2 from blood into tissue cells; CO 2 from cells into blood)

Biol340 - Mammalian Physiology

5

I. Introduction

Cells engage in aerobic cellular respiration Aerobic cellular respiration is necessary for life

Requires an uninterrupted supply of oxygen Requires removal of carbon dioxide waste

The respiratory system provides the means for gas exchange Respiration, collective process by which oxygen and carbon dioxide are continuously exchanged between the atmosphere and the body’s cells

Biol340 - Mammalian Physiology

6

I. Introduction

Air passageway

Air is moved from the atmosphere to the alveoli as we breathe in Air is moved from the lungs to the atmosphere as we breathe out

Site for oxygen and carbon dioxide exchange

Oxygen diffuses from alveoli into blood Carbon dioxide diffuses from blood into alveoli takes place between the alveoli and the pulmonary capillaries

Odor detection

Olfactory receptors in the superior nasal cavity Air moving across receptors Sensory input relay to the brain

Sound production

Air moves across the vocal cords of the larynx (voice box) Vocal cords of the larynx vibrate, producing sound Sounds resonate in the upper respiratory structures

Defense/Protection

Defends against inhaled microbes

Traps foreign particles (dust etc…)

Biol340 - Mammalian Physiology

7

I. Introduction

Rate and depth of breathing influences:

blood levels of oxygen blood levels of carbon dioxide blood levels of hydrogen ion venous return of blood venous return of lymph

Biol340 - Mammalian Physiology

8

II. LEVELS OF ORGANIZATION

i.

Thoracic Cavity Membranes

ii.

Respiratory Tract Organization

Biol340 - Mammalian Physiology

9

II. Levels of Organization

Structural organization Functional organization Nose Nasal cavity Upper respiratory Pharynx tract Larynx Conducting Trachea zone Bronchus
Structural organization
Functional organization
Nose
Nasal cavity
Upper
respiratory
Pharynx
tract
Larynx
Conducting
Trachea
zone
Bronchus
Lower
Bronchiole
respiratory
Terminal bronchiole
tract
Lungs
Respiratory bronchiole
Alveolar duct
Respiratory
zone
Alveoli
10
Biol340 - Mammalian Physiology

II. Levels of Organization

Larynx

Also called the voice box Several major functions

Air passageway

Prevents ingested materials from entering the respiratory tract

Produces sound for speech

Assists in increasing pressure in the abdominal cavity

The trachea

Flexible, slightly rigid, tubular organ Known as the windpipe Goes from the larynx to the main bronchi Immediately anterior to the esophagus

Biol340 - Mammalian Physiology

Esophagus Posterior Esophagus Trachealis muscle Larynx Thyroid Lumen of trachea cartilage Mucosa Cricoid Submucosa cartilage Tracheal
Esophagus
Posterior
Esophagus
Trachealis muscle
Larynx
Thyroid
Lumen of trachea
cartilage
Mucosa
Cricoid
Submucosa
cartilage
Tracheal cartilage
Trachea
(b)
Anterior
Tracheal
cartilage
Anular
ligament
Trachea
Carina (internal
projection)
Right main
Left main
bronchus
bronchus
Right main
Left main
bronchus
bronchus
(a)
(c)
Carina
11
LM 8x
II. Levels of Organization Main bronchi Lobar bronchi Segmental bronchi Smaller bronchi Larynx Trachea Right main
II. Levels of Organization
Main bronchi
Lobar bronchi
Segmental bronchi
Smaller bronchi
Larynx
Trachea
Right main
(b)
bronchus
Left main
bronchus
Tree continues to divide into
smaller passageways
Right lobar
Left lobar
• 
bronchus
bronchus
Right segmental
bronchus
Left
• 
segmental
bronchus
• 
Smaller
Leads to tubes of < 1mm, the
bronchioles
Leads to terminal bronchioles (last
part of conducting zone)
Leads to respiratory bronchioles
(first part of respiratory zone)
bronchi
Smaller
bronchi
Biol340 - Mammalian Physiology

12

II. Levels of Organization

Cartilage rings

II. Levels of Organization Cartilage rings Trachea Left main bronchus Cartilage plates Lobar bronchi Segmental bronchi

Trachea

Left main

bronchus

Cartilage plates

II. Levels of Organization Cartilage rings Trachea Left main bronchus Cartilage plates Lobar bronchi Segmental bronchi
  • Lobar
    bronchi

Segmental bronchi

II. Levels of Organization Cartilage rings Trachea Left main bronchus Cartilage plates Lobar bronchi Segmental bronchi
Smaller bronchi Bronchiole
Smaller bronchi
Bronchiole

Cross sections of bronchioles

Muscularis

II. Levels of Organization Cartilage rings Trachea Left main bronchus Cartilage plates Lobar bronchi Segmental bronchi

Submucosa

Mucosa

Biol340 - Mammalian Physiology

Bronchoconstricted

Bronchodilated

  • Terminal bronchiole

Respiratory bronchiole Alveoli
Respiratory
bronchiole
Alveoli

Cartilage

No

cartilage

13

II. Levels of Organization

Respiratory Zone

Composed of respiratory ducts, alveolar ducts, and alveoli

Respiratory bronchioles subdivide to alveolar ducts

Alveolar ducts lead to alveolar sacs, clusters of alveoli

Alveoli = saccular outpouchings

Epithelium

Respiratory bronchioles lined with simple cuboidal epithelium

Alveoli and alveolar ducts lined by simple squamous

Thinner than in the conducting portion

facilitates gas exchange

Biol340 - Mammalian Physiology

Branch of

pulmonary artery

Bronchiole

Terminal bronchiole

Pulmonary

arteriole

Branch of

pulmonary vein Pulmonary capillary beds Pulmonary venule
pulmonary vein
Pulmonary
capillary
beds
Pulmonary
venule
Elastic fibers Connective tissue
Elastic fibers
Connective tissue
II. Levels of Organization Respiratory Zone Composed of respiratory ducts, alveolar ducts, and alveoli •  

Respiratory bronchiole

 

Alveolar duct

 

Alveoli

Alveolar pores

Interalveolar

Interalveolar

septum

 

Alveolar

sac

14

II. Levels of Organization

Alveoli

Each lung containing 300-400 million

Openings in their walls, alveolar pores

Provide for collateral ventilation Surrounded by pulmonary capillaries Divided by interalveolar septum

contain elastic fibers: help the lungs contract and expand

Biol340 - Mammalian Physiology

Terminal Respiratory Alveolar Alveoli bronchiole bronchiole duct (c) © Dr. David Phillips/ Visuals Unlimited 15 SEM
Terminal
Respiratory
Alveolar
Alveoli
bronchiole
bronchiole
duct
(c)
© Dr. David Phillips/ Visuals Unlimited
15
SEM 180x

II. Levels of Organization

Erythrocyte

Pulmonary

capillaries

II. Levels of Organization Erythrocyte Pulmonary capillaries Alveolar type I cell Alveolar type II cell Alveolar

Alveolar type I cell

Alveolar type II cell

Alveolar

II. Levels of Organization Erythrocyte Pulmonary capillaries Alveolar type I cell Alveolar type II cell Alveolar
II. Levels of Organization Erythrocyte Pulmonary capillaries Alveolar type I cell Alveolar type II cell Alveolar
II. Levels of Organization Erythrocyte Pulmonary capillaries Alveolar type I cell Alveolar type II cell Alveolar

macrophages

Alveolar pores

Interalveolar

septum

(a)

Biol340 - Mammalian Physiology

Cell types of the alveolar wall

II. Levels of Organization Erythrocyte Pulmonary capillaries Alveolar type I cell Alveolar type II cell Alveolar

Simple squamous alveolar type I cells

95% of alveolar surface area

form part of the thin barrier separating air from blood

moist environment makes prone to collapse (high surface tension)

Alveolar type II cells (septal cells)

almost cuboidal shaped

secrete pulmonary surfactant, an oily substance

 

coats inner alveolar surface

helps oppose the collapse of alveoli

Alveolar macrophage (dust cells)

leukocytes that engulf microorganisms

either fixed in alveolar wall or free to migrate

16

II. Levels of Organization

Characteristics of respiratory membrane

Thin barrier between alveoli and pulmonary capillaries

Consists of:

alveolar epithelium and its basement membrane

capillary epithelium and its basement membrane

two basement membranes fused

Oxygen diffuses from alveolus into capillaries

erythrocytes become oxygenated

Carbon dioxide diffuses from blood to alveolus

expired to external environment

Biol340 - Mammalian Physiology

II. Levels of Organization Characteristics of respiratory membrane •   Thin barrier between alveoli and pulmonary
Interalveolar septum Nucleus of capillary Nucleus endothelial cell of alveolar type I cell Erythrocyte Capillary Diffusion
Interalveolar
septum
Nucleus of capillary
Nucleus endothelial cell
of alveolar
type I cell
Erythrocyte
Capillary
Diffusion of CO 2
Diffusion of O 2
Alveolus
Alveolar epithelium
Respiratory
membrane
Fused basement membranes
of the alveolar epithelium and
the capillary endothelium
Capillary endothelium
17
(b)

II. Levels of Organization

RELATION OF THE LUNGS TO THE THORACIC WALL

The pleurae form a thin double-layered serosa. The parietal pleura covers the thoracic wall and superior face of the diaphragm. The visceral pleura covers the external surface of the lung.

II. Levels of Organization RELATION OF THE LUNGS TO THE THORACIC WALL The pleurae form a
Pleural cavity (Intrapleural Pressure) Lung Intrapulmonary pressure
Pleural cavity
(Intrapleural Pressure)
Lung
Intrapulmonary
pressure

18

II. Levels of Organization RELATION OF THE LUNGS TO THE THORACIC WALL The pleurae form a

Parietal pleura Visceral pleura

The pleura produce fluid that remains in the pleural cavity. This lubricates the lung to prevent friction while breathing.

II. Levels of Organization RELATION OF THE LUNGS TO THE THORACIC WALL The pleurae form a

Biol340 - Mammalian Physiology

III. STRUCTURE/FUNCTION

i.

Respiration

ii.

Lung Volumes & Capacities

iii.

Gas Properties

iv.

Breathing

v.

Transport

Biol340 - Mammalian Physiology

19

III. Structure/Function

III. Structure/Function STEPS OF RESPIRATION Biol340 - Mammalian Physiology 20

STEPS OF RESPIRATION

III. Structure/Function STEPS OF RESPIRATION Biol340 - Mammalian Physiology 20

Biol340 - Mammalian Physiology

20

III. Structure/Function

LUNG VOLUMES AND CAPACITIES

III. Structure/Function LUNG VOLUMES AND CAPACITIES Biol340 - Mammalian Physiology 21
III. Structure/Function LUNG VOLUMES AND CAPACITIES Biol340 - Mammalian Physiology 21

Biol340 - Mammalian Physiology

21

III. Structure/Function

III. Structure/Function Biol340 - Mammalian Physiology

Biol340 - Mammalian Physiology

22

III. Structure/Function

Pulmonary ventilation has two definitions:

process of moving air into and out of the lungs amount of air moved between atmosphere and alveoli in one minute

Tidal volume = amount of air per breath

Respiration rate = number of breaths per minute

Tidal volume x respiration rate = pulmonary ventilation

500 mL x 12 breaths/min = 6 L/ minute (typical amount)

Biol340 - Mammalian Physiology

23

III. Structure/Function

Anatomic dead space

Space in respiratory tract in the conducting zone

No exchange of respiratory gases here

About 150 mL

Alveolar ventilation

Amount of air reaching the alveoli per minute (Tidal volume – anatomic dead space) x respiratory rate = alveolar ventilation (500 mL – 150 mL) x 12 = 4.2 L/min Deep breathing maximizes alveolar ventilation

III. Structure/Function Anatomic dead space •   Space in respiratory tract in the conducting zone •

Biol340 - Mammalian Physiology

24

III. Structure/Function

Physiologic dead space

Normal anatomic dead space + any loss of alveoli

Some respiratory disorders decrease number of alveoli participating in gas exchange

due to damage to alveoli or changes in respiratory membrane (e.g., pneumonia)

Normally physiologic dead space = normal anatomic dead space

Biol340 - Mammalian Physiology

25

III. Structure/Function

Boyle’s gas law:

Relationship of Volume and Pressure

At a constant temperature, the pressure (P) or a gas decreases if the volume (V) of the container increases, and vice versa

P 1 and V 1 represent the initial conditions and P 2 and V 2 the changed conditions

P 1 V 1 = P 2 V 2 Inverse relationship between gas pressure and volume

Biol340 - Mammalian Physiology

Decreased Increased pressure volume Increased Decreased pressure volume Pressure decreases as volume increases Pressure increases as
Decreased
Increased
pressure
volume
Increased
Decreased
pressure
volume
Pressure decreases as
volume increases
Pressure increases as
volume decreases
(a) Boyle’s Law
26

III. Structure/Function

Question

According to Boyle's law, the pressure exerted by a constant number of gas molecules in a container is inversely proportional to the volume of the container. Therefore, increasing the volume of the container will cause a decrease in its pressure.

A. True

B. False

Biol340 - Mammalian Physiology

27

III. Structure/Function

Area A Area A Area A Airflow Airflow Increased Volume B pressure B Decreased Volume B
Area A
Area A
Area A
Airflow
Airflow
Increased
Volume B
pressure B
Decreased
Volume B
Area B
pressure B
Area B
Area B
Pressure A = Pressure B
No net movement of air
Area B increases in volume and
decreases in pressure. Air
moves from area A into area B
Area B decreases in volume and
increases in pressure. Air
moves from area B into area A
(b) Pressure gradients
Flow (F) = ΔPressure/Resistance

Biol340 - Mammalian Physiology

28

III. Structure/Function

HOW LUNGS REMAIN INFLATED

Anatomic arrangement

Outward pull of chest and inward pull of lungs with consequent suction

Pressure in the pleural cavity = intrapleural pressure Pressure inside the lungs = intrapulmonary pressure Intrapulmonary pressure > intrapleural pressure Difference in pressure keeps the lungs inflated

if pressures become equal, lungs deflate

Biol340 - Mammalian Physiology

29

III. Structure/Function

IF P ip = P alv THE LUNGS WILL IMMEDIATELY COLLAPSE!

III. Structure/Function IF P = P THE LUNGS WILL IMMEDIATELY COLLAPSE! Atmosphere Intrapleural pressure (P )

Atmosphere

Intrapleural pressure (P ip ) Fluctuates with breathing Is always lower than the intrapulmonary pressure to keep lungs inflated Prior to inspiration, is about 4 mm lower than intrapulmonary pressure (756 mm Hg)

Atmospheric pressure (760 mm Hg)

Pleural cavity (intrapleural pressure)

Alveolar volume of lungs

(intrapulmonary pressure)

756 mm Hg

760 mm Hg

Intrapulmonary pressure (P alv ) Fluctuates with breathing May be higher, lower, or equal to atmospheric pressure Is equal to atmospheric pressure at end of inspiration and expiration

(c) Volumes and pressures with breathing (at the end of an expiration)

Biol340 - Mammalian Physiology

30

III. Structure/Function

Question

That the lung surface and the thoracic wall will move in and out together, rather than separately, during ventilation is assured by the

  • A. Diaphragm

  • B. Inhalatory/inspiratory intercostal muscles

  • C. Exhalatory/expiratory intercostal muscles

  • D. Intrapleural fluid

  • E. Alveoli

Biol340 - Mammalian Physiology

31

III. Structure/Function

Airflow

Amount of air that moves into and out of the lungs with each breath

Function of two factors:

1) the pressure gradient established between atmospheric pressure and intrapulmonary pressure

2) the resistance that occurs due to conditions within the airways, lungs, and chest wall

Biol340 - Mammalian Physiology

Pressure gradient

Can be changed by altering the volume of the thoracic cavity

small volume changes during quiet respiration allow 500 mL air to enter the lungs

if accessory muscles of forced inspiration are used, volume increases more

airflow increases due to greater pressure gradient

Resistance

Includes all factors that make it more difficult to move air from the atmosphere to the alveoli

May be altered in three ways:

1)decrease in elasticity of the chest wall

2)change in the bronchiole diameter or the size of the passageway through which air moves

3)collapse of alveoli

32

III. Structure/Function

VENTILATION AND LUNG MECHANICS

III. Structure/Function VENTILATION AND LUNG MECHANICS Biol340 - Mammalian Physiology 33

Biol340 - Mammalian Physiology

33

Quiet inspiration

III. Structure/Function

1

Intrapulmonary pressure = atmospheric pressure

Quiet expiration

3

Intrapulmonary pressure = atmospheric pressure

atm =

760

mm Hg

756

mm Hg

(Intrapleural

pressure)

760

mm Hg

(Intrapulmonary

pressure)

Diaphragm

2

Intrapulmonary pressure becomes less than atmospheric pressure; air flows in

atm =

760

mm Hg

754

mm Hg

(Intrapleural

pressure)

760

mm Hg

4

Intrapulmonary pressure becomes greater than atmospheric pressure; air flows out

Quiet inspiration III. Structure/Function 1 Intrapulmonary pressure = atmospheric pressure Quiet expiration 3 Intrapulmonary pressure =
Quiet inspiration III. Structure/Function 1 Intrapulmonary pressure = atmospheric pressure Quiet expiration 3 Intrapulmonary pressure =

atm =

760

mm Hg

754

mm Hg

759

mm Hg

Air flows in (~500 mL per quiet

breath)

Pleural cavity volume increases

Intrapleural pressure decreases

Alveolar volume increases Intrapulmonary pressure decreases

Biol340 - Mammalian Physiology

Quiet inspiration III. Structure/Function 1 Intrapulmonary pressure = atmospheric pressure Quiet expiration 3 Intrapulmonary pressure =
Quiet inspiration III. Structure/Function 1 Intrapulmonary pressure = atmospheric pressure Quiet expiration 3 Intrapulmonary pressure =

atm =

760

mm Hg

756

mm Hg

Air flows out

(~500 mL per

quiet breath)

Pleural cavity volume decreases

intrapleural pressure increases

761

mm Hg

Alveolar volume decreases intrapulmonary pressure increases

34

III. Structure/Function

Biol340 - Mammalian Physiology

Inspiration Expiration Thoracic Thoracic cavity cavity Vertical changes Diaphragm contracts; vertical dimensions of thoracic cavity increase
Inspiration
Expiration
Thoracic
Thoracic
cavity
cavity
Vertical
changes
Diaphragm contracts;
vertical dimensions of
thoracic cavity increase
Diaphragm relaxes;
vertical dimensions of
thoracic cavity narrow
Lateral
changes
Ribs are elevated and
thoracic cavity widens
Ribs are depressed and
thoracic cavity narrows
Anterior-
posterior
changes
Inferior portion of
sternum moves anteriorly and
Inferior portion of
sternum moves posteriorly and
thoracic cavity expands
thoracic cavity compresses

35

III. Structure/Function

CHANGES ASSOCIATED WITH QUIET BREATHING

III. Structure/Function CHANGES ASSOCIATED WITH QUIET BREATHING Biol340 - Mammalian Physiology

Biol340 - Mammalian Physiology

36

III. Structure/Function

Inspiration

III. Structure/Function Inspiration Biol340 - Mammalian Physiology Expiration

Biol340 - Mammalian Physiology

Expiration

III. Structure/Function Inspiration Biol340 - Mammalian Physiology Expiration

37

III. Structure/Function

Sternocleidomastoid Scalenes Serratus posterior superior Pectoralis minor Erector spinae Transversus thoracis External intercostal Serratus posterior External
Sternocleidomastoid
Scalenes
Serratus posterior
superior
Pectoralis minor
Erector spinae
Transversus thoracis
External
intercostal
Serratus posterior
External intercostal
inferior
Internal intercostal
Diaphragm
Diaphragm
External oblique
Transversus abdominis
Anterior view
Posterior view

Skeletal Muscles of Breathing

Classified into three categories:

muscles of quiet

breathing muscles of forced inspiration muscles of forced expiration

Muscles of Breathing Muscles of quiet breathing The diaphragm forms the rounded “floor” of the thoracic
Muscles of Breathing
Muscles of
quiet breathing
The diaphragm forms the rounded “floor” of the thoracic cavity and is dome-shaped when relaxed. It alternates between the relaxed
domed position and the contracted flattened position and changes the vertical dimensions of the thoracic cavity.
The external intercostals extend from a superior rib inferiomedially to the adjacent inferior rib. These elevate the ribs and increase the
transverse dimensions of the thoracic cavity.
Muscles of
forced inspiration
The sternocleidomastoid attaches to sternum and clavicle; lifts rib cage.
The scalenes attach to ribs 1 and 2; elevates ribs 1 and 2.
The pectoralis minor attaches to ribs 3−5; elevates ribs 3−5.
The serratus posterior superior attaches to ribs 2−5 on its anterior surface; lifts ribs 2−5.
The erector spinae is a group of deep muscles along the length of the vertebral column; extends the vertebral column.
Muscles of
forced expiration
The internal intercostals lie deep and at right angles to the external intercostals; depress the ribs and decrease the transverse
dimensions of the thoracic cavity.
The abdominal muscles (primarily the external obliques and transversus abdominis) compress the abdominal contents, forcing the
diaphragm into a higher domed position and the rectus abdominus pulls the sternum and rib cage inferiorly.
The transversus thoracis extends across the inner surface of the thoracic cage and attaches to ribs 2−6; depresses ribs 2−6 .
The serratus posterior inferior extends between the ligamentum nuchae and the lower border of ribs 9−12; depresses ribs 9−12.

Biol340 - Mammalian Physiology

38

III. Structure/Function

Question

In an average-size subject with a resting breathing rate of 10 breaths per minute at sea level, what is the approximate alveolar O2 ventilation in liters?

  • A. 5.0

  • B. 3.5

  • C. 1.5

  • D. 0.7

  • E. 0.2

Biol340 - Mammalian Physiology

39

III. Structure/Function

LUNG COMPLIANCE

III. Structure/Function LUNG COMPLIANCE Compliance can be considered the inverse of stiffness. The greater the lung

Compliance can be considered the inverse of stiffness.

The greater the lung compliance, the easier it is to expand the lungs at any given change in transpulmonary pressure.

There are two major determinants of lung compliance:

1.The stretchability of the lung tissues

2.The surface tension at the air-water interfaces within the alveoli

Surfactant lowers surface tension

Biol340 - Mammalian Physiology

40

III. Structure/Function

Partial pressure

The pressure exerted by each gas within a mixture of gases Measured in mm Hg Written with P followed by gas symbol (i.e., PO 2 ) Each gas moving independently down its partial pressure gradient during gas exchange

Atmospheric pressure

Total pressure all gases collectively exerting in the environment Includes nitrogen, oxygen, carbon dioxide, water vapor, and minor gases 760 mm Hg at sea level

Biol340 - Mammalian Physiology

Difference between Atmospheric & Alveolar:

air from the environment mixes with the air remaining in the anatomic dead space oxygen diffuses out of the alveoli into the blood; carbon dioxide diffuses from the blood into the alveoli more water vapor is present in the alveoli

III. Structure/Function Partial pressure The pressure exerted by each gas within a mixture of gases Measured

41

III. Structure/Function

Gas Solubility and Henry’s Law Henry’s law

At a given temperature the solubility of a gas in liquid is dependent upon:

the partial pressure of the gas in the air

the solubility coefficient of the gas in the liquid

Partial pressure

The driving force to move a gas into a liquid

Determined by total pressure and percentage of gas in the mixture

E.g., carbon dioxide in soft drinks

CO 2 forced into soda under high pressure

Solubility coefficient

The volume of gas that dissolves in a specified volume of liquid at a

given temperature and pressure

A constant that depends upon the interactions between molecules of both gas and liquid

Gases vary in their solubility in water

Carbon dioxide about 24 times as soluble as oxygen

Carbon dioxide with greater solubility coefficient

Nitrogen about half as soluble as oxygen

Biol340 - Mammalian Physiology

42

III. Structure/Function

Efficiency of Gas Exchange at the Respiratory Membrane Efficiency of diffusion dependent upon certain features:

anatomic features of the respiratory membrane

large surface area (70 square meters)

minimal thickness (0.5 micrometers)

physiologic adjustments

some alveoli well ventilated at a given time, some not

some regions of lung with ample blood, some not

smooth muscles of bronchioles and arterioles able to contract to maximize

gas exchange

Ventilation-perfusion coupling

Ability of bronchioles to regulate airflow and arterioles to regulate blood flow

Ventilation

Altered by changes in bronchodilation and bronchoconstriction

Dilation in response to increase in PO 2 or decrease in PCO 2

Perfusion

Altered by changes in pulmonary arteriole dilation and constriction

Dilation in response to increased in PO 2 or decrease in PCO 2

Biol340 - Mammalian Physiology

43

III. Structure/Function

Oxygen

Travels from the alveoli through pulmonary veins to left side of heart

Travels to systemic circulation

Diffuses from systemic capillaries into systemic cells

The ability to transport oxygen is dependent upon two factors:

solubility coefficient of oxygen in blood

presence of hemoglobin

Oxygen’s solubility coefficient is very low

Only small amounts are dissolved in plasma

98% of oxygen in the blood is transported within erythrocytes

Oxygen is attached to iron within hemoglobin molecules

Oxygen bound to hemoglobin is oxyhemoglobin (HbO 2 )

Hemoglobin without bound oxygen is deoxyhemoglobin (HHb)

Biol340 - Mammalian Physiology

III. Structure/Function Oxygen •   Travels from the alveoli through pulmonary veins to left side of

44

III. Structure/Function

Carbon dioxide

Travels from systemic cells within deoxygenated blood Travels through systemic circulation to right side of heart Diffuses from the pulmonary capillaries into the alveoli

Carbon dioxide has three means of transport:

as carbon dioxide dissolved in plasma (7%) as carbon dioxide attached to the globin portion of hemoglobin (23%) as bicarbonate dissolved in plasma (70%)

Transport as bicarbonate

Carbon dioxide diffuses into erythrocytes and combines with water to form bicarbonate and hydrogen ion Bicarbonate diffuses into plasma Carbon dioxide is regenerated when blood moves through pulmonary capillaries and the process is reversed

Biol340 - Mammalian Physiology

III. Structure/Function Carbon dioxide •   Travels from systemic cells within deoxygenated blood •   Travels

45

III. Structure/Function

TRANSPORT OF HYDROGEN IONS BETWEEN TISSUES AND LUNGS

III. Structure/Function TRANSPORT OF HYDROGEN IONS BETWEEN TISSUES AND LUNGS Biol340 - Mammalian Physiology 46

Biol340 - Mammalian Physiology

46

III. Structure/Function

Question

Most of the CO2 that is transported in blood is

  • A. Dissolved in the plasma

  • B. Bound to hemoglobin

  • C. In carbonic acid

  • D. In bicarbonate ion

  • E. In carbonic anhydrase

Biol340 - Mammalian Physiology

47

III. Structure/Function

Hemoglobin transports:

oxygen attached to iron (4/Hb) carbon dioxide bound to the globin hydrogen ions bound to the globin

Binding of one substance causes a change in shape of the hemoglobin molecule

Influences the ability of hemoglobin to bind or release the other two substances

Biol340 - Mammalian Physiology

III. Structure/Function Hemoglobin transports: •   oxygen attached to iron (4/ Hb ) •   carbon

48

III. Structure/Function

What is the effect of pO 2 on hemoglobin saturation?

The amount of oxygen bound to a hemoglobin Expressed as the percent oxygen saturation of hemoglobin Determined by several variables PO 2 the most important variable Saturation increases as PO 2 increases

III. Structure/Function What is the effect of pO on hemoglobin saturation? The amount of oxygen bound

Biol340 - Mammalian Physiology

Cooperative binding effect of oxygen loading Binding of each oxygen molecule causes a conformational changemakes it progressively easier for more oxygen to bind

Relationship between PO 2 and hemoglobin saturation Graphed in the oxygen-hemoglobin saturation curve

S-shaped, non linear relationship Relatively large changes initially At 60 mm Hg, oxygen 90% saturated Higher than 60 mm Hg, relatively small changes

49

III. Structure/Function

Oxygen-Hemoglobin Saturation Curve

Oxygen released from hemoglobin while traveling through systemic capillaries

75% saturation in systemic cells during rest (at sea level)

98% saturation as it leaves the lungs (at sea level)

Only 20-25% of oxygen transported by hemoglobin released

Oxygen reserve

Oxygen that remains bound to hemoglobin after passing through the systemic circulation

Provides a means for additional oxygen to be delivered under increased metabolic demands

Oxygen that remains bound to hemoglobin after passing through the systemic circulation Provides a means for additional oxygen to be delivered under increased metabolic demands

Vigorous exercise produces a significant drop in PO 2

Produces large decrease in hemoglobin saturation More hemoglobin unloaded to tissues

Biol340 - Mammalian Physiology

50

IV. HOMEOSTASIS

i.

Hemoglobin Saturation

ii.

Ventilation-Perfusion Mismatch

iii.

Hyperventilation

Biol340 - Mammalian Physiology

51

IV. Homeostasis

Question

During hyperventilation, what happens to the partial pressures of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the alveoli (compared to normal ventilation)?

A.Both increase

B.Both decrease

C.Oxygen partial pressure decreases and carbon dioxide partial pressure increases

D.Oxygen partial pressure increases and carbon dioxide partial pressure decreases

Biol340 - Mammalian Physiology

52

IV. Homeostasis

Temperature

Elevated temperature interferes with hemoglobin’s ability to bind and hold oxygen

Hydrogen ion binding to hemoglobin

Hydrogen ion binds to hemoglobin and causes a conformational change This causes decreased affinity for O 2 and oxygen release called the Bohr effect

Presence of 2,3-BPG

Molecule binds to hemoglobin, causing the release of additional oxygen Glycolytic pathway produces 2,3-BPG Certain hormones stimulate production

CO 2 binding to hemoglobin

Binding causes release of more oxygen from hemoglobin

Biol340 - Mammalian Physiology

EFFECTS ON HEMOGLOBIN SATURATION

IV. Homeostasis Temperature Elevated temperature interferes with hemoglobin’s ability to bind and hold oxygen Hydrogen ion

53

IV. Homeostasis

MATCHING OF VENTILATION AND BLOOD FLOW IN ALVEOLI

IV. Homeostasis MATCHING OF VENTILATION AND BLOOD FLOW IN ALVEOLI Biol340 - Mammalian Physiology 54

Biol340 - Mammalian Physiology

54

IV. Homeostasis

Control of ventilation by pO 2 , pCO 2 , and H + concentration

Hyperventilation

55
55

Breathing rate or depth above the body’s demand Caused by anxiety, ascending to high altitude, or voluntarily

pO 2

levels up in the alveoli

CO 2 levels down in the alveoli

Changes affect the blood

Additional oxygen does not enter the

blood because hemoglobin is

98%

saturated Additional carbon dioxide leaves the blood to enter the alveoli

Blood CO 2 decreases below normal levels

Termed hypocapnia

Hyperventilation may cause:

feeling faint or dizzy, numbness, tingling, cramps, and tetany if prolonged, disorientation, loss of consciousness, coma, death

Biol340 - Mammalian Physiology

IV. Homeostasis

During exercise:

breathing depth increases while breathing rate remains the same

known as hyperpnea

blood PO 2 and Blood PCO 2 remain relatively the same increased cardiac output occurs the respiratory center is stimulated from one or more causes

sensory signals relayed in response to movement

motor output in the cerebral cortex relaying signals to the respiratory center

conscious anticipation of participating in exercise

Biol340 - Mammalian Physiology

56

V. INTEGRATION

Biol340 - Mammalian Physiology

57

IV. Homeostasis

Question

Assume a normal female with a resting tidal volume of 400 ml, respiratory rate of 13 breaths/min, and dead space of 125 ml. When she exercises, which of the following scenarios would be most efficient for increasing her oxygen delivery to the lungs?

A.Increase respiratory rate to 20 breaths/min but no change in tidal volume

B.Increase tidal volume to 550 mL but no change in respiratory rate

C.Increase tidal volume to 500 mL and respiratory rate to 15 breaths/ min

Biol340 - Mammalian Physiology

58

V. Integration

HYPOXIA

Hypoxia is an inadequate oxygen delivery to tissues.

The pathophysiology of emphysema is a major cause of hypoxia.

 

1.

Anemic hypoxia: poor O 2 delivery because of too few RBCs or abnormal hemoglobin

2.

Ischemic hypoxia: blood circulation is impaired

3.

Histotoxic hypoxia: the bodys cells are unable to use O 2 (cyanide causes this)

4.

Hypoxemic hypoxia: reduced arterial O 2 (can be caused by lack of oxygenated air, pulmonary problems, lack of ventilation-perfusion coupling)

Biol340 - Mammalian Physiology

59

V. Integration

CARBON MONOXIDE POISONING

This is a type of hypoxemic hypoxia. It is the leading cause of death from fire.

CO is an odorless, colorless gas that competes with O 2 for the binding sites on the hemoglobin. It has a 200-times greater affinity for hemoglobin than O 2 does.

The symptoms are confusion, respiratory distress, the skin becomes cherry red. NO CYANOSIS is detectable.

To treat it, hyperbaric treatment or 100% oxygen is used.

Biol340 - Mammalian Physiology

60

V. Integration

Clinical Views: Pneumothorax and Atelectasis

Pneumothorax = free air in the pleural cavity

Air introduced externally—penetrating wound to the chest Air introduced internally—rib lacerates lung or alveolus ruptures May cause intrapleural and intrapulmonary pressures to equalize Small pneumothorax resolves spontaneously

Large pneumothorax is a medical emergency need to insert a tube into the pleural space to remove air

Atelectasis = deflated lung portion

Occurs if intrapleural and intrapulmonary pressures equalize Remains collapsed until air removed from pleural space

Biol340 - Mammalian Physiology

61

V. Integration

ASTHMA

Asthma is a disease characterized by intermittent episodes in which airway smooth muscle contracts strongly, markedly increasing airway resistance.

The basic defect in asthma is chronic inflammation of the airways, the causes of which vary from person to person and include, among others; allergy, viral infections, and sensitivity to environmental factors.

The underlying inflammation makes the airway smooth muscle hyperresponsive and causes it to contract strongly in response to such things as exercise (especially in cold, dry air), cigarette smoke, environmental pollutants, viruses, allergens, normally released bronchoconstrictor chemicals, and a variety of other potential triggers.

Biol340 - Mammalian Physiology

62

V. Integration

ASTHMA

The first aim of therapy for asthma is to reduce the chronic inflammation and airway hyperresponsiveness with anti-inflammatory drugs, particularly leukotriene inhibitors and inhaled glucocorticoids.

The second aim is to overcome acute excessive airway smooth muscle contraction with bronchodilator drugs, which relax the airways.

For example, one class of bronchodilator drugs mimics the normal action of epinephrine on beta-adrenergic (beta-2) receptors. Another class of inhaled drugs block muscarinic cholinergic receptors, which have been implicated in bronchoconstriction.

Biol340 - Mammalian Physiology

63

V. Integration

CHRONIC OBSTRUCTIVE PULMONARY DISEASE

The term chronic obstructive pulmonary disease refers to emphysema, chronic bronchitis, or a combination of the two.

These diseases cause severe difficulties not only in ventilation, but in oxygenation of the blood.

Emphysema is caused by destruction and collapse of the smaller airways.

Chronic bronchitis is characterized by excessive mucus production in the bronchi and chronic inflammatory changes in the small airways. The cause of obstruction is an accumulation of mucus in the airways and thickening of the inflamed airways.

Biol340 - Mammalian Physiology

64

V. Integration

Clinical View: Emphysema

Emphysema causes:

irreversible loss of pulmonary gas exchange surface area inflammation of air passageways distal to terminal bronchioles widespread destruction of pulmonary elastic connective tissue dilation and decreased total number of alveoli patients inability to expire effectively

Biol340 - Mammalian Physiology

65

V. Integration

Clinical View: Bronchitis

Inflammation of the bronchi, caused by bacterial or viral infection or inhaled irritants

Acute bronchitis

Occurs during or after an infection Coughing, sneezing, pain with inhalation, fever Most cases resolving in 10-14 days

Chronic bronchitis

Occurs after long-term irritant exposure Large amounts of mucus, and cough > 3 months Permanent changes to bronchi occur Increases likelihood of future bacterial infections

Biol340 - Mammalian Physiology

66