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ENCYCLOPEDIA

OF

CHINESE PANTHEON

Li GuoLin

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Amitabha (Emi Tuofo)
Many ages ago a monk named Dharmakara made a number of vows, the 18th of
which promised that, on his attaining Buddha hood, all who had faith in him and
who called upon his name would be reborn in his paradise and would reside
there in bliss until they had attained enlightenment. Having accomplished his
vows, Dharmakara reigned as the Amitabha Buddha in the Western Paradise,
called Sukhavati, the Pure Land.
Amitabha is known as Great Savior Buddha. His vow that any being in any
universe who called his name (Amitabha) even as few as ten times will be
guaranteed rebirth in his own heavenly realm called the "Pure Land."

Ananda and Kasyapa (Anan and Jiaye)
Amongst the Buddha's many disciples, Ananda had the most retentive memory
and most of the Suttas in the Sutta Pitaka are attributed to his recollection of the
Buddha's teaching during the First Buddhist Council. For that, he was known as
the Guardian of the Dharma.
Kasyapa was one of the principal disciples of Gautama Buddha and convened
and directed the First Buddhist council. He came from the kingdom of Magadha. .
Kasyapa often depicted in statuary together with Ananda, each standing to one
side of the Buddha.

Anqi Sheng
Anqi Sheng was immortal who had live 1000 year at his time of Qin Shihuang.
According to the Liexian Zhuan, When Qin Shihuang spoke with Anqi Sheng for

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three days and three nights. The Emperor bestowed on him vast quantities of
gold as well as jewels, but on his departure Anqi Sheng left his gifts in the
pavilion of Fuxiang together with a letter saying that the Emperor might find him
on the Island of Penglai. Later the emperor sent an expedition under Xu Fu to
find him and his highly sought elixir of life, but they never reached Penglai.

Ao Guang
The Dragon King of East Sea (Donghai Longwang)
He is the leader of Four Dragon Kings. Their duties are to bring rainfall to Mortal
World. During a long drought, it is customary for the local gentry and government
officials to lead the community in offering sacrifices and conducting other
religious rites to appease the Dragon King.
Ao Guang's brothers are Ao Run-the Dragon King of West Sea, Ao Qin-the
Dragon King of South Sea and Ao Shun-the Dragon King of North Sea.
The Dragon King od East Sea has many son, but several of them was slain by
the other deities: His third son-Ao Bing was killed by Nezha, when his other two
sons were decapitated by the Eight Immortals.

Ao Qin
The Dragon King of South Sea (Behai Longwang)

Ao Run
The Dragon King of Western Sea (Xihai Longwang); His 3rd son became Monk
Xuanzang's dragon horse on his Journey to the West.

Ao Shun
The Dragon King of North Sea (Nanhai Longwang)

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Arhat (Luohan)
In Theravada Buddhism, an Arhat is a perfected person who has attained
nirvana. In other Buddhist traditions the term has also been used for people far
advanced along the path of Enlightenment, but who may not have reached full
Buddha hood.

Avalokitesvara
See “Guanyin”.

Azure Dragon (Qinglong)
One of four mythical beasts in China, It represents East and Wood Element.
Azure Dragon and White Dragon are guardians of the Taoist Temple gates. In
Chinese folktales, Azure Dragon reincanrated as many famous warriors such, as
Shan Xiongxin and Yom Kaesomun, a mighty general from Korea.

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B
Ba (Nuba)
Goddess of Drought
Ba is daughter of Huangdi (The Yellow Emperor) whom she aided during his
Battle at Zhuolu against Chiyou. Chiyou had fielded a wind god (Fengbo) and a
rain god (Yushi) to create storm, Ba descended to battlefield and used her
drought power to defeat their wind and rain powers.
Although Ba aided Yellow Emperor against Ch You, but most people still hate
her, because she brought drought wherever she go. A ritual to cast her away is
exist in several place in China

Baihe Tongzi (White Crane Boy)
Baihe Tongzi's duty is to transmit important reports and petitions from Sanqing or
Nanji Xianweng to the other Realms.
Legend has it that one day Baihe Tongzi flew on the cliff of Kunlun Mountain.
Due to carelessness, he hurted his wings and down into deep cliff. He fainted for
several hours later. But for his amazement, he found himself unscratched. In a
sudden, the old deity Nanji Xianweng appeared before him. The Crane Boy
immediately knelt onto the ground as he realized that Nanji Xianweng is his
savior. Since that day, Baihe Tongzi became his disciple.
After that accident, Baihe Tongzi had never used his wings anymore. Upon
knowing his mental block, Nanji Xianweng want to make Baihe Tongzi picked up
his courage. So he pushed his pupil down from the cloud. Baihe Tongzi was
panicked, but his teacher shouted that he should throw away his fear and
concentrate. Finally the Crane Boy managed to direct all his energy to his wings
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and suddenly he could fly again.
Another account credited Baihe Tongzi as Yuanshi Tianzun's disciple. That's why
several temple put his statue at the Three Pure Ones altars.

Baihu (White Tiger)
One of four mythical animal in China. It represents West and Metal Ellement.
White Tiger and Azure Dragon are guardians of the Taoist Temple gates. In
Chinese folktales, Wite Tiger reincanrated as many warriors such as Xue Rengui
and Luo Cheng.

Baihua Xianzi (Hundred Flower Fairy)
Leader of Flower Fairies
Baihua Xianzi is in charge all flowers on earth, under her charge; each flower has
a definite scheduled season to bloom.
She is the main protagonist in Qing's novel Jinghuayuan, it is said that during
Queen Mother of the West's birthday, Chang'e challenged Baihua Xianzi to order
all flowers in Queen Mother's garden to bloom at the same time. Baihua Xianzi
refused her challenge. She said even if the earthly ruler requested her to make it,
she would never made that happen. Chang'e bore grudge against her for this
refusal. When hier colleague, the Heart Moon Fox would be reincarnated as Wu
Zetian (the female emperor in Chinese history), Chang'e asked her to give
trouble for the Flower Fairies.
Several years later, the drunken Empress Wu Zetian remembered Chang'e's
word and ordered all flowers in her garden to bloom during winter. Unfortunately
the Flower Fairies could not find Baihua Xianzi so they obeyed the empress to
bloom out of season (without Baihua Xianzi's permission). The Jade Emperor
thought that the Flower Fairies had failed to do their duties. As the consequence,
Baihua Xianzi and her Flower Fairies were banished to earth to suffer the
transmigration into human being. Once their penance is complete, they will be
allowed to go back to heaven again.
In some folklore, Baihua Xianzi is credited as Jade Emperor younger sister. Once
upon a time, people on earth was suffering from a deadly plague, Baihua Xianzi
and her Flower Fairies flew on the sky and scattered their herbal flower to relieve
their suffer.

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Baimei Shen
God of Prostitution
Baimei Shen has an appearances resembling Guangong, the god of war, but
with white eyebrow and red eye. It is believed that he is originally Dao Zhi, a
famous robber from spring and Autumn Period. He had 9,000 followers, who
marched at their will through the kingdom, assailing and oppressing the different
princes. They dug through walls and broke into houses; they drove away
people's cattle and horses; they carried off people's wives and daughters.

Bai Mudan
Goddess of Temptress
Bai Mudan is legendary courtesan from Luoyang City. According to Journey to
the East, one day Lu Dongbin saw Bai Mudan and struck by her beauty. Lu
transformed himself into handsome scholar and slept with her several times.
However he never ejaculated in order to preserve his Yang essence (in
accordance with Taoist Alchemy). Later, Lu's misdeed was discovered by his
immortal colleagues: Tieguai Li and He Xiangu. They disguised them self as
beggar and taught Bai Mudan how to make Lu Dongbin ejaculate (by tickling his
groin). Finally, Bai Mudan successfully made Lu Dongbin ejaculating and
absorbed his Yang essence. Later she cultivated herself and became immortal
too.
There is an anecdote from Song Dynasty describes Bai Mudan as a very pretty
but haughty courtesan. She once asked an evil merchant named Chen Hua to
kiss her bottom, lick her anus and even farted in his face. This is an allusion's for
Chen Hua's Duotun Pengpi (flatterer) manner.
Some folktales credited her as the reincarnation of Peony Fairy (Mudan Xianzi)

Bai Wuchang and Hei Wuchang
Bai Wuchang and Hei Wuchang duty are to lead deceased people's soul to
Netherworld. Bai Wuchang or Qiye has pale skin, long tongue stick from his
mouth and wearing white hat and robe. His job is to lead soul of good people. Hei
Wuchang or Baye in contrary has dark skin and wearing black hat and robe. His
job is to lead soul of evil people.
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The most common background story of the Heibai Wuchang says that Xie Bi'an
and Fan Wujiu used to work as constables in a Yamen. One day, a convict they
were escorting to another location escaped during the journey. They decided to
split up and search for the escaped convict and meet again later under a bridge
at a certain time. However, Xie Bi'an was delayed due to heavy rain so he did not
reach the bridge in time. Fan Wujiu, who was on time, waited under the bridge.
The heavy rain caused flooding in the area under the bridge. Fan Wujiu refused
to leave because he wanted to keep his promise to his colleague, and eventually
drowned. When Xie Bi'an arrived, he was saddened to see that Fan Wujiu had
drowned, so he committed suicide by hanging himself. The Jade Emperor was
deeply impressed by their actions so he appointed them as guardians of the
Underworld.
There are other stories which say that the Heibai Wuchang have different,
unrelated backgrounds. The Black Guard was a scoundrel who spent his time
gambling. His father tried to discipline him and force him to change his ways but
he refused to listen. One day, he lost all his money in gambling and had a violent
argument with his father when he came home. His father lost control of himself
and killed his son in anger. After his death, the Black Guard was sent to Hell,
where he received due punishment. He repented and atoned for his sins by
doing several good deeds. The gods were touched by his repentance and
appointed him as the Black Guard of Impermanence. The White Guard, on the
other hand, was born in a wealthy family and had a kind personality. His father
once sent him on an errand with a large sum of money, but he forgot about his
errand and used the money to help a poor family in need. When he realized his
mistake, he felt ashamed to return home to face his parents so he committed
suicide. After his death, the gods considered his good deeds and appointed him
as the White Guard of Impermanence.

Bao Gong (Bao Zheng)
See “Barefoot Immortal”, “Kuixing”, and “Yanluo Wang”.

Baosheng Dadi
God of Medicine
Wu Tao or Wu Ben was born in the village of Bailiao of Tongan County in
Quanzhou, during Song Dynasty. It is said that when he was born, his mother
saw a kid accompanied by a spirit coming to her gate. The spirit told her that this
kid is the Star of Ziwei. Even as a boy, Wu Tao grew as a boy with extraordinary

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intelligence. When he was seventeen years old, Wu Tao was invited by Queen
Mother of the West at Kunlun. The Queen gave him Jishi Shenfang (The Divine
Prescription for Benefiting Mankind) as well as the Arts of Exorcism.
Wu Tao traveled to all corners of the world to save people by curing their
sickness. His medical knowledge was far beyond his era but he never asks for
any monetary payment for his services. Wu Tao was credited with performing
medical miracles, including applying eye drops to a dragon’s eye and removing a
foreign object from a tiger’s throat. Because of his good virtue, he was
recommended to hold a position in government, and ultimately became Chief
Royal Prosecutor.
In 1036 AD, on the 2nd day of the 5th lunar month, Wu Tao ascended to heaven,
riding on a white crane. Later people respected him as Baosheng Dadi or Dadao
Gong.

Barefoot Immortal (Chijiao Daxian)
A deity with big foot and never wear any shoes or sandals. Based on Dongyouji
(Journey to the East) he was reincarnated as Lan Caihe, member of the Eight
Immortals.
Another legend cites that Emperor Renzong of Song Dynasty was his
incarnation. It is said that the Jade Emperor forced Barefoot Immortal to
reincarnate as Emperor Renzong. The Barefoot Immortal refused but the Jade
Empror insisted. As the Immortal finally reborn in Song Palace, he wept
uninterruptedly (as a protest because he didn’t want to be reincarnated). Not long
afterward a mysterious Taoist came to the palace. After gaining permission from
the emperor, he whispered to the baby that the Star Deity of Literature and the
Star Deity of Martial had been reincarnated to help him. Suddenly the infant
ceased crying.
Note: The Star Deity of Literature (Wen Kuixing) was Bao Zheng (Judge Bao),
the upright and incorruptible officer during Emperor Renzong’s reign. The Star
Deity of Martial (Wuxing) was Diqing, an unbeatable general who saved his
country for many times.

Bazha Shen
Eight Guardian Deities of Farmland
According to Book of Rites, their member is:

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1. Xianshe
Xianshe is Shennong who first taught man agriculture (See "Shennong").
2. Sise
Sise is Houji (See "Houji").
3. Nong
Nong is tutelary spirits of inspectors of the field.
4. Youbiaohuo
Youbiaochuo is god of boundaries between fields and the huts.
5. Maohu
Maohu is God of Cats and Tigers who protect farmland from rodents and wild
boars.
6. Fang
Fang is God of Dykes.
7. Shuiyong
Shuiyong is God of Irrigation Channels.
8. Kunchong is God of Insects.

Beidou Xingjun
Gods of Northern Dipper
According to Chinese popular belief, Southern and Northern Dipper are
responsible for people life span. They are in charge register of death, thus more
associated to death. The Northern Dipper are consist of Seven Star Deities:
1. Tianshu Yangmig Tanlang Xingjun
2. Tianxuan Yinjing Jumen Xingjun
3. Tianji Zhenren Lucun Xingjun
4. Tianquan Xuangming Wenqu Xingjun
5. Tianheng Dannyuan Lianzhen Xingjun
6. Kaiyang Beiji Wuqu Xingjun

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7. Yaoguang Tianching Pojun Xingjun
The Seven Gods of Northern Dipper (Beidou Qi Xingjun) usually represented by
a black faced deity called Beidou Xingjun.

Bi Gan
Civil God of Wealth (Wen Caishen)
He was uncle of King Zhou of Shang Dynasty. His nephew asked his heart to
cure his concubine sickness. After his death Bi Gan was appointed as God of
Wealth.

Bixia yuanjun
The Goddess of Mt. Tai (Taihsan Niangnaing); Goddess of Pregnancy and
Childbirth
Bixia Yuanjun is the daughter (or younger sister) of Taishan Wang (King of Mt.
Tai). Statues of Bixia Yuanjun often depict her holding a tablet with the Big
Dipper as a symbol of her authority.
Based on legend, Huang Feihu was competed with his sister, Huang Qi to
become the sovereign god of Mt. Tai. Jiang Ziya proposed that they had to race
to the summit of Mt. Tai and he would grant Mt. Tai to the winner.
Huang Feihu managed to reach the top first; he exclaimed that he had win the
competition. But Huang Qi insisted she was the winner. She then showed a pair
of embroidered slippers from under the highest rock and proved that she was the
one who reached the summit earlier. Therefore Jiang Ziya granted Mt. Tai to
Huang Qi, who became Bixia Yuanjun or Taishan Niangniang. (Actually Huang
Qi was cheating, since she used her magic to put her slippers under the rock).
As for Huang Feihu, because he did many good things at the foot of Mt. Tai, so
people also called him as Taishan Wang (King of Mt. Tai).
Another folktale has it that, Bixia Yuanjun was not satisfied with her area on Mt.
Tai, so she started annexing another area which belonged to other gods. The
other gods turned to Jiang Ziya who was in charge of the assignment of any god
and tried to press charge on her.
Jiang Ziya then challenged Bixia Yuanjun in a game: She should throw her

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embroidered slippers and wherever it hit, it would became the boundary of the
area belonging to her. So the goddess threw her slipper down the mountain as
far as she could
Eventually the slipper fell at the place where Dai Zongfang is now located and it
was only about 20 miles from the top of the mountain. Bixia Yuanjun did not
realize she herself was trapped by Jiang Ziya until this moment. But she had no
choice but to accept it. Later, people built a memorial gateway here named Dai
Zongfang. Since then it became the starting point to climb Mt. Tai.

Black tortoise (Xuanwu)
One of four mythical beasts from China. It represents South and Water Element.

Bodhidarma (Damo)
Patron God of Martial Artist
Bodhidharma was Indian Chan (Zen) master, who traveled to China and came to
Liang Kingdom. He was granted an interview with the emperor-Liang Wudi, who
was noted for his good works. Liang Wudi asked how much merit he had accrued
by building Buddhist monasteries and temples. To the emperor’s dismay,
Bodhidharma stated that good works performed with the intention of
accumulating merit were without value, as they would result in favorable rebirths
but would not bring about enlightenment. Bodhidarma realized that the emperor
could not understand his teaching, so he then left Liang Kingdom. He used a
piece of reed twig to cross the Yangzi River and went to the territory of the
Northern Wei. He then went to Luoyang and cultivated at the Shaolin Temple on
Mt. Songshan. He meditated continuously for nine years.
Bodhidarma is believed as the inventor of Shaolin Kungfu. Accounts describe
him as being disturbed by the poor physical shape of the Shaolin monks.
Bodhidarma then instructed them in techniques to maintain their physical
condition as well as teaching meditation. Bodhidarma is said to have taught a
series of external exercises called the Eighteen Arhat Hands (Shiba Lohan
Shou), and an internal practice called the Sinew Metamorphosis Classic.In
addition, after his departure from the temple, two manuscripts by Bodhidharma
are said to be discovered inside the temple: the Yijinjing (Muscle/Tendon Change
Classic) and the Xisuijing. Copies and translations of the Yijinjing survive to the
modern day. The Xisuijing has been lost.

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Bodhisatva (Pusa)
Bodhisattva is an enlightened (Bodhi) being (Sattva). Traditionally, a bodhisattva
is anyone who, motivated by great compassion, has generated bodhicitta, which
is a spontaneous wish to attain Buddha hood for the benefit of all sentient beings.

Bole
Bole is a mythological figure who first tamed horses. As deity, his job is took care
all the horses in Heaven.

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C
Cai Lun
Patron God of Paper Maker
Cai Lun was a eunuch from the Han Dynasty. He was regarded as the inventor of
paper and the papermaking process from the bark of trees, hemp waste, old rags
and fish nets. Before that writings and inscriptions were generally made on
pieces of bamboo (which is heavy), or upon strips of silk (which is costly).

Cai Shen
Chinese God of Wealth
In China, God of Wealth was divided into Wen Caishen (Civil God of Wealth) and
Wu Caishen (Military God of Wealth). Wu Caisen are Zhao Gongming and Guan
Yu, when the Wen Caishen are Bi Gan and Fan Li. Wen Caishen also known as
Caibo Xingjun.

Caibo Xingjun
See "Cai Shen"

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Can Cong
Patron God of Silk-maker
Can Cong was the First Leader of Shu Tribe in Sichuan. He was expert in
sericulture and taught his people how to make silk. During Western Zhou
Dynasty his tribe was defeated by other tribe.

Cangjie
Chinese God of Writing, Literature, and Chinese Characters
Cangjie was official historian of the Yellow Emperor and the inventor of Chinese
characters. Legend claimed that he had four eyes and four pupils. Cangjie paid
close attention to the characteristics of all things, including the sun, moon, stars,
clouds, lakes, oceans, as well as all manner of bird and beast. He began to
create characters according to the special characteristics he found, and before
long, had compiled a long list of characters for writing. When he invented the
characters, the deities and ghosts cried and the sky rained millet. To the delight
of the Yellow Emperor, Cangjie presented him with the complete set of
characters. The emperor then called the premiers of each of the nine provinces
together in order for Cangjie to teach them this new writing system

Cannu
Goddess of Silkworms
When Cannu's father disappeared, her mother offered Cannu as a wife to any
man who could find her husband. Their horse ran off and came back carrying the
missing man. Unfortunately Cannu's father killed the horse upon realizing it want
to claim her daughter as the promised reward. The horse's hide, hung out to dry,
but someday it curled itself round Cannu's and they both disappeared. In some
accounts, the girl turned into a silkworm.

Cao Guojiu
Member of Eight Immortals; Patron Deity of Acting and Theatre
Cao Guojiu was uncle of Emperor Yinzong of Song Dynasty. His real name is
Cao Jingxiu (Guojiu means Emperor's Maternal Uncle). Cao's younger brother,
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Cao Jingzhi, abused his relationship with the imperial family by bullying others
and engaging in corrupt practices. Cao Jingxiu tried to persuade JIngzhi to
change his ways, but he did not listen. One day, Cao Jingzhi was accused by
other officials in the imperial court of corruption and abuse of power.
Cao felt so ashamed and disappointed by his brother's misconduct that he gave
up his official career and went to the countryside to lead a reclusive life. During
this time, he met the immortals Han Zhongli and Lu Dongbin, who taught him
Taoist magical arts. After many years of practice and cultivation, Cao himself
also became an immortal.
In another version, both Cao Jingxiu and Cao Jingzhi were evil. Cao Jingzhi was
executed for his guilt, but Cao Jingxiu was saved by imperial amnesty. After that
he became hermit to atone his sin and finally attained immortality.
Cao is often depicted dressed in official robes and holding a jade tablet or
castanets.

Celestial Dog (Tiangou)
Tiangou is a fierce creature resembling dog. Tiangou's hoby is to devour stars
and sun. When the Celestial Dog is devouring the sun, it causes the solar
eclipse. Zhang Xian is considered as Tiangou arch enemy. When the dog
appeared, he shot it with his bow. Thus he ends the solar eclipse and protects
the star deity who want to reborn as human

Ceshen (Toilet Goddess)
See "Qigu" and "Zhigu”

Chang'e
Moon Goddess
Chang'e was wife of Hou Yi, the mythical hero who slew nine suns with his arrow.
As reward of his merit, Queen Mother of the West bestowed him with pill of
immortality. However Chang'e found that pill and consume it. Suddenly she felt
her body so light and flew to the moon.
According to alternate version of this story, when Hou Yi went out hunting, his

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pupil, Fengmeng came to his house and forced Chang'e to give him the pill of
immortality. In the quarrel with Feng Meng, Chang'e she unintentionally drank the
pill and flew to the moon.
In the past Chang'e was originally called Heng's. Her name was changed to
Chang'e due to a taboo character from a name of Emperor Liu Heng of Han
Dynasty.
Another version from Soushenji has it that once arrived on moon, Chang,e
became Three Legged Frog (Chanchu) and banished her to the moon as
punishment from Queen Mother of the West.

Changsheng Dadi
See “Fu-Lu-Shou”.

Changxi
Changxi is Dijun’s second wife, mother of Twelve Moon.

Chen Jinggu
Goddess Protector of Mother and Child
Chen Jinggu or Linshui Furen is famous female shaman from Fuzhou, her story
mentioned in Linshui Pingyao is as follow:
When the people of Quanzhou, Fujian could not raise enough money to build a
bridge, Guanyin decided to help them. She changed herself into a beautiful
maiden who stood on a marvelous boat, rowed by none other than the local
Earth God. Anyone who could succeed in touching her by throwing a piece of
money from the edge of water could marry her. Due to many people missing, she
collected a large sum of money in her boat. A vegetable merchant managed to
touch her on the hair with a silver powder, but the maiden disappeared. Horrified
at this treason, the merchant threw himself in the water and drowned.
Guanyin predicted that his hair that the merchant had hit would become a White
Serpent Demon. So the Goddess of Mercy bit her finger and a drop of blood fell
into the water. From this blood would bore a heroine to dominate the demon.
Guanyin's blood was swallowed by a washer woman named Lad Ge, who gave

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birth to Chen Jinggu,
Chen Jinggu learned many Taoist skills in Mt. Lushan, Jiangxi. She battled her
arch-nemesis: the Demon Serpent three times.
The first time she cut the serpent in three pieces on the bed of the king, where it
had taken the human appearance of the queen and eaten the consorts.
The second time was to save Liu Qi (reincarnation of the merchant who touched
Guanyin's hair with silver powder). The serpent transformed itself into beautiful
woman to marry Liu Qi against his will.
Their last battle was during a ritual to make rain. This time Chen Jinggu had
married with Liu Qi and pregnant with his child. Since the ritual should not be
performed by a pregnant woman. Chen temporarily aborted her child, which was
killed by the white snake. Chen managed to kill the snake with a sword, but died
either of a miscarriage or hemorrhage.
Chen Jinggu was respected as Linshui Furen (Linshui Furen means lady who
picked from water) because as baby he was picked from the water.

Chen Tuan
Chen Tuan was a hermit from Mt. Hua (Huashan) known as “Sleeping Immortal”.
He is credited with using and creating sleeping qigong methods of internal
alchemical cultivation.
Chen Tuan was also renowned as master of divination. One day he fell from his
donkey after seeing two young men. He spontaneously shouted “I meet the
emperor!” Actually one of those young men was Zhao Kuangyin, the future first
emperor of Song Dynasty.
When Zhao Kuangyin finally founded the Song Dynasty and became it first
emperor, he wanted to establish a garrison on Mt. Hua due to its strategic
location. However, the mountain was sacred to the Taoist, so the emperor
decided to consult with Chen Tuan first (who also lived in Mt. Hua). As the
emperor arrived in his retreat, Chen Tuan challenged him in a chess game. If the
emperor won, he could do as he wished. But, if Chen Tuan won, then the
emperor and his descendant should not station his troops at Mt. Hua. Zhao
Kuangyin approved his idea and so they played the chess.
Since Chen Tuan was master of divination, he could easily foresee the emperor’s
every move and won the game. Zhao Kuangyin accepted his lose and honored

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Chen Tuan with the title: ”Xiyi” (Xi means rare and Yi means mysterious). From
that time on, Chen Tuan was known as Chen Xiyi.
Aside of his divination and sleeping meditation technique, Chen Tuan was also
credited as the inventor of several martial arts, including the infamous Liuhe
Bafa.

Chen Xiyi
See “Chen Tuan”.

Chijingzi
Fire God
Chijingzi was one of Supreme Elder (Wulao) representing the Five Elements. He
was ancient Fire God from the beginning of the world. Everything connected with
him are all of the color of fire, his skin, hair, beard, trousers, cloak of leaves, etc.
According to some traditions, he brought fire to humans by discovering how it
could be made from the wood of a mulberry tree (another source cites Sui Ren
as the inventor of fire). According to Fengshen Yanyi, Chijingzi is one of Yuanshi
Tianzun 12 disciples.

Chi Songzi (Master Red Pine)
God of Rain
During the reign of Shennong Chi Songzi ended a severe drought by sprinkling
water from an earthen bowl. Chisongzi was able to ride cloud and created rain.
The rain makers from later generations considered him as their ancestor. Some
accounts state that Chisongzi was originally an immortal named Huang Chuping
(see "Huang Daxian").
Another source referred Yushi as the God of Rain. Yushi generally appears in
association with Fengbo, the God of Wind. They aided Chiyou in his struggle
against the Yellow Emperor, but were defeated by the intervention of the Drought
Goddess Ba. Later they also defeated by Huo Yi the Divine Archer, and finally
repented from their wrong doing.
There also a theory from Sanjiao Yuanliu Soushen Daquan that Rain God is

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actually a one leg bird called Shangyang (see "Shangyang").
After the Tang and Song dynasties, the worship of the Dragon King gradually
began to replace the God of Rain.

Chi You
God of War
Chi You was the Leader of Jiuli Tribe during pre-dynastic time. He fought the
Yellow Emperor at Zhuolu but lost. It said that Chi You was the first man who
made weapon from iron, thus people worship him as God of War.

Chongming
The Chongming Bird is believed to exorcise evil spirits. It looked somewhat like a
chicken and Fenghuang (phoenix), with two pupil in each of it eyes. In the past,
people engraved Chongming’s image on metals or woods to drive away the evil
spirits. Since Chongming looks similar with cock, later on people gradually
changed it to the picture of a cock in their doors or windows every New Year.

Chuanggong
Chuangmu’s husband; God of Bechamber

Chuangmu
Chinese Goddess of the bedchamber.
Chuangmu and her husband, Chuanggong, look after the bedroom in all aspects,
including sleep, sex, childbirth, recovery from illness, and rest. The pair is also
worshiped as protectors for newborn babies and children under 12 years old.
According one version, the legend of this god is:
There was once a scholar named Guo who was on his was to capital to take an
exam. During his travels, he met a lady who sold fans for a living. They fell in
love with each other, but fearing hesitation from the lady, the scholar kept an

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illness he had secret. One night during their lovemaking, sadly, the scholar died.
Terrified of people finding out about their affair, she buried the scholar's body
under the bed. To grieve and comfort her lover's soul, she placed fresh flowers,
food and wine by the bed.
However, to her dismay, she became pregnant and gave birth to a boy. When
questioned by the suspicious people in town, she replied that the baby was God
sent because of her routine practice of the offerings she lay by her bedside. The
people were amazed and those who wanted children began to follow suit. This
belief gradually spread and became the story we know today as the Lady of the
Bedchamber or Chuangmu.

Cihang Dashi
In some Taoist records, Cihang Dashi (or Cihang Zhenren) is said to one of the
twelve disciples of Yuanshi Tianzun. In some Taoist Temples, under the statute
of Cihang Dashi, there usually is a golden lion with eight additional smaller
heads, which is known as the Nine Headed Golden Lion. It is said that the
Immortal Cihang Dashi can appear in the human realm in 32 different human
forms some of which are male, others female. Some folk-belief stated that
Cihang Dashi was subverted into Buddhism and became Guanyin.

City God (Chenghuang)
Responsible for protecting the people and the affairs of the particular city or
associated afterlife area for which each City God deity was held to be specifically
concerned.
Beginning over 2000 years ago, the cult of the City Gods (Chenghuang) originally
involved worship of a protective deity of a town's walls and moats. Later, the term
Chenghuang came to be applied to the presumed title of office held by spirits
who were thusly deities of the Chinese Underworld, or afterlife, who served in
authority over the souls of the deceased from a certain locality, as well as being
capable of intervening in the affairs of the living, in conjunction with other officials
of the hierarchy of divine and supernatural beings.

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D
Dali Guiwang (Demon King with Great Strength)
Dali Guiwang is based on Mahabali, the benevolent Demon King from Hindu’s
mythology. In Journey to the West he became one of Jade Emperor’s assistant.

Daode Tianzun
See "Taishang Laojun".

Day Patrol Deity and Night Patrol Deity
Day Patrol Deity (Riyou Shen) is Gan Ye and Night Patrol Deity (Ye you Shen) is
Liu Ye. They take turns to supervise the good and bad behaviors of people
during day and night time. They are often enshrined in the Dongyue Temple,
Cheng Huang Temple and some other temples.

Dashizhi (Mahasthamaparapta)
Dashizi is one of the most important Bodhisattva in Pure Land (Sukhavati) Sect;
she represents the power of wisdom. She is depicted as Trinity with Amitabha
(her teacher) and Guanyin. Just like Guanyin (Avalokitesvara), Dashizhi is
referred as male in India, but generally portrayed as female in China (like
Guanyin, Manjusri or Samantabhadra)

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Deng Hua (Deng Yuanshuai)
Chief of Five Thunder Commanders; Member of 36 Heavenly Marshals
Deng Hua's mother was conceived him after she visited Sanqing's Temple. She
noticed a Round & Bright Ray emitted out from the Lamp and entered into her
tummy when he knelt in front of the altar. At the time of the giving-birth, a Green
Ray emitted out from the House into the Sky, most of the neighbors were
shocked by this scene and so, soon, the house was crowded with people.
When he was eight years old, Deng Hua and his father met a priest in the forest.
The priest explained that Deng Hua was reincarnation of a Thunder God. Deng
then left his parents and followed the priest to do his cultivation. At the age of 36,
one day while Deng Hua was out in the field, a loud road of thunder was heard
and immediately, a golden light ray shined upon him and he was being
summoned back to the Celestial Palace. Deng Hua is also known as Deng
Zhong.

Diguan
Member of Sanguan Dadi
Diguan is the Earthly Official who absolves sins. His birthday is on the 15th of the
seventh month

Dijiang
Dijiang is a deity from Western Mountain whose resemble yellow sack with a red
aura like cinnabar. It has four wings, six legs and it knows to sing or dance.
Dijiang exists in a state of confusion with no face or eyes.

Dijun
Dijun is an ancient supreme deity from China. According to Shan Haijing, Dijun
had two consorts: Xihe (mother of Ten Sun) and Changxi (mother of Twelve
Moon). When his son, Ten Sun Deities decided to illuminate the world together
and caused tremendous heat (See "Teen Sun Deities"), Dijun sent Hou Yi to gve
them lesson. Unfortunately Hou Yi killed 9 of the 10 Sun Deities.
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Dijun is also associated with the agricultural arts, either directly or as the
progenitor of other innovators of farming practice.

Dimu
See “Houtu”.

Dizhang Wang
See “Ksitigarbha”.

Dongdou Xingjun
Gods of Eastern Dipper
Dongdou Xinjun are venerated as the gods who save one's live. The Eastern
Dipper are consisting of Five Stars Gods:
1. Cangling Yanshen Xingjun
2. Lingyan Huming Xingjun
3. Kaitian Jifu Xingjun
4. Minghe Yang Xingjun
5. Yiji Zongjian Xingjun
In the popular folktales: Meng Lijun, Beidou Xingjun was represented as one
handsome deity. He was reincarnated as Huangfu Shaohua, the male
protagonist of the story.

Dongfang Shuo
Dongfang Shuo was a Han Dynasty scholar, official, magician, author, and court
jester to Emperor Han Wudi. During his lifetime, Dongfang Shuo was considered
a zhexian (banished immortal). He was supposedly an embodiment of Sui
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(Jupiter) or Taibai (Venus).
According Han Wudi Gushi, Queen Mother of the West once presented the
peaches of immortality to Han Wudi. She brought seven peaches, each only the
size of a pill, five of which she presented to the Emperor, and ate the other two
herself. The Queen Mother recognized Dongfang as a courtier of hers at Mt.
Kunlun and told the Emperor he was an incarnation of the planet Jupiter who has
been temporarily banished to earth for stealing her Peaches of Immortality.
Another record from Soushenji tells a story about Emperor Wu encountering a
monster blocking Hangu Pass. Thirty or forty feet in length, its body resembled in
shape that of a buffalo or an elephant. It had black eyes that blazed with light,
and its four legs were so firmly planted in the ground that every effort to dislodge
it was unavailing. All the courtiers were terrified except for Dongfang Shuo, who
sprinkled gallons of wine over the monster, which gradually melted away. He
explained to the emperor that this creature must be a product of an atmosphere
of sorrow and suffering, The site of either a Qin Dynasty dungeon or victims of
criminals. Since wine has the power to banish grief then it was able to dispel this
phantom.

Donghua Dijun
Dongwanggong or Donghua Dijun is a senior deity from the East and the
embodiment of wood element (that's why he also known as Mugong). He is
considered as the representative of extreme positive energy (yang) of the whole
universe. Based on some account, every male immortal would had to go through
Donghua Dijun's endorsement before they could get a position in the Heavenly
Realm. Some older myths even credited him as Queen Mother of the West's
husband
It is believed Han Dynasty Donghua Dijun reborn into mortal world as Wang
Xuanfu during the Han Dynasty. He practiced Taoism from Baiyun Shangzhen on
Mt. Kunlun. Later he accepted Han Zhongli as his disciple and imparted the
Perfect Formula for Longevity, the Fire Phases for Refining Golden Elixir and the
Black Dragon Swordplay to him.
According to Dongyouji and Baxian Dedao, Donghua Dijun was reincarnated
again as Lu Dongbin. It is said that when Han Zhongli had finished his training,
Donghua Dijun told him: "Nowday you are my apprentice, but later i will become
your student" (Lu Dongbin is Han Zhongli's disciple).
Donghua Dijun anniversary is celebrated every 6th day of 2 Lunar month
(actually that was Wang Xuanfu's birthday).

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Dongwanggong
See "Donghua Dijun".

Dongyue Dadi
God of Mt. Tai (Taishan Wang)
According folklore, Dongyue Dadi is Huang Feihu, a famous general near the
end of Shang Dynasty. Huang was born in a family of officials who have served
the Shang Dynasty. His younger sister, Consort Huang, The last ruler of Shang
Dynasty was a womanizer. At one point, King Zhou wants to rape Haung Feihu's
wife, Lady Jia who committed suicide to preserve her dignity. Consort Huang
scolds King Zhou but the king kills her by throwing her off Zhaixing Tower in
anger. Huang Feihu was furious when he learns the truth and he decided to rebel
against his king.
After his heroic death in battle, Huang Feihu was appointed as the God of Mt
Taishan (Taishan Wang). Sine Taishan is located in East (Dong) then him also
known as "Dongyue Dadi"
Some early Chinese myths believe that people will go to Mt Tai after they death.
That's why Taishan Wang is also credited as one of Ten Yama King.

Door Gods (Menshen)
The Door Gods is a Chinese decoration placed on each side of an entry to a
temple, home, business, etc., which is believed to keep evil spirits from entering.
The custom of pasting pictures of door gods on doors dates back to ancient
China. In the Han dynasty, people believed that peach wood has spiritual
properties and can ward off evil spirits so they started making auspicious
carvings on peach wood and hanging them around their homes. Following the
invention of paper, paper gradually replaced peach wood as people started
drawing and writing on paper instead. In earlier times, Shenshu and Yulu were
the most common choice for door gods. People drew portraits of them on paper
and pasted them on doors.
In later times, however, these Door Gods were supplanted in popular favour by
two ministers of the Emperor Taizong of the Tang Dynasty, by name Qin Shubao and Yuchi Jingde. Taizong had fallen sick, and imagined that he heard
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demons rampaging in his bedroom. The ministers of State, on inquiring as to the
nature of the malady, were informedby the physician that his Majesty's pulse was
feverish, that he seemed nervous and saw visions, and that his life was in
danger. he ministers were in great fear. The Empress summoned other
physicians to a consultation, and after the sick Emperor had informed them that,
though all was quiet during the daytime, he was sure he saw and hearddemons
during the night,
Qin Shubao and Yuchi Jingde stated thatthey would sit up all night and watch
outside his door. Accordingly they posted themselves, fully armed, outside the
palacegate all night, and the Emperor slept in peace. Next day the Emperor
thanked them heartily, and from that time his sickness diminished. The two
ministers, however, continued their vigils until the Emperor informed them that he
would no longer impose upon their readiness to sacrifice themselves. He ordered
them to paint their portraits in full martial array and paste these on the palace
doors to see if that would not have the same effect. For some nights all was
peace. The resultwas that in a few days the Emperor's health was entirely
restored.

Doubao (Prabhutaratna)
In the 11th chapter of the Lotus Sutra, Prabhutaratna is depicted as seated next
to Rulai Fo (Shakyamuni) within the stupa of Abundant Treasures Buddha, to
whom all the Buddha’s from the "ten directions," and those in the great assembly,
come to hear the Dharma, It is said that Prabhutaratna, who had long entered
nirvana, returns on a jeweled stupa to hear Sakyamuni's preaching of the
dharma. Then from within the stupa the Buddha Prabhutaratna offered half of his
seat to the Rulai. The Buddha Shakyamuni immediately entered the stupa and
sat cross-legged on half of the seat. Thereupon the great assembly saw the two
Enlightenment Men sitting cross-legged on the lion-seat in the seven-jeweled
stupa.
According Fengshen Yanyi, Doubao was initially a Tongtian Jiaozhu's disciple. In
the war between King Zhou of Shang against King Wu, many of Tongtian's
apprentices were killed by the deities from the King Wu's side. Tongtian then
entrusted his four flying swords to Doubao and instructed him building
Zhuxianshen (Immortal Slaughtering Trap) to kill Yuanshi Tianzhun's disciples.
However Doubao was subdued by Taishang Laojun.

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Doumu (marici)
Mother Goddess of Big Dipper
Doumu Yuanjun (Ziguang Furen) represents the Big Dipper (or Great Chariot, or
Plough), and is therefore considered the mother of Jiuhuangdadi or Nine Great
Emperor Gods. His husband is Zhouyudi (Doufu Yuanjun).
As told in the scriptures, Ziguang Furen went to the imperial garden for sight
seeing. She was captivated by the hot spring water next to the lotus pool and
took a bath there, miraculously nine lotus buds appeared and after a while the
lotus blossomed and came out nine infants. After these nine children grown up,
the eldest son Gou Chengxing became one of the heavenly gods, Ziwei Dadi, the
second became Gouchen Tianhuang Dadi and the rest of the brothers were
Tanglang, Jumen, Lucun, Wenqu, Lianzhen, Wuqu and Pojun are the group of
stars known as the Big Dipper Seven Stars.The Big Dipper is in Chinese culture,
as well as in other cultures of the world, a traditional symbol of the absolute
principle originating the universe.
According to Fengshen Yanyi, Doumu was formerly known as Mother Golden
Spirit (Jinling Shengmu), an apprentice of Tongtian Jiaozhu. She followed her
teacher to battle with Yuanshi Tianzun's disciple. After her death on Randeng
hand, she was appointed as Mother Goddess of Big Dipper

Doushen Niangniang
Goddess of Smallpox
She is one of several deities of the “Ministry of Medicine”; the Chinese organized
their deities in parallel with their own government structures. Doushen’s four sons
were also part of the ministry: Panshen had rule over fatal smallpox, Chenshen
over measles, Shashen over scarlet fever and chicken pox, and Mashen over
pockmarks. Doushen herself is said to particularly enjoy causing smallpox in
beautiful young children, and children wore paper masks to bed to trick her into
ignoring them.
There is also male God of Smallpox: Yu Hualong. He is one of King Zhou's
general in Fengshen Yanyi.

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Dragon Horse (Longma)
A Dragon Horse is the vital spirit of Heaven and Earth. As a being its shape
consists of a horse's body, yet it has dragon scales.. A true Dragon Horse has
wings at its sides and walks upon the water without sinking. Seeing a Longma
was an omen of a legendary sage-ruler, particularly one of the Three Sovereigns
and Five Emperors

Dragon King (Longwang)
The Dragon King is a deity in Chinese mythology commonly regarded as the
divine ruler that rule in the water. There are dragon king in ocean, river, well or
even in pond.
The dragon king has the ability to shape shift into human form and lives in an
underwater crystal palace. He has his own royal court and commands an army
comprising various marine creatures.
Apart from presiding over aquatic life, the Dragon King can also manipulate the
weather and bring rainfall, that why they are also worshiped as the God of Rain.

Du Kang
Patron God of Wine-maker
It is said that Du Kang was also called Shaokang and lived in the Xia Dynasty
about 3900 years ago. He lived on graze when he was young, and often forgot to
have meals which he brought and hung on the tree. Later, he found that the taste
of meal he left on the tree had changed, and the juices were especially luscious.
This interested him and made him think and study again and again. Finally, he
learned the principle of natural fermentation and tried to improve his method. At
last, a complete method of wine production was invented.

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E
Earth God
See "Fude Zhengshen"

Erlang Shen
Erlang Shen is a mighty god with 3rd eye in his forehead. His real name is Yang
Jian and he is nephew of the Jade Emperor.
According to Erlang Baojuan, the sister of Jade Emperor once came down upon
the earth and secretly married with a mortal named Yang Tianyou. The Jade
Emperor was furious at this desecration of the Heavenly Rule. He imprisoned her
under Mt Tao. Her son, Yang Jian was extraordinarily gifted by nature. By the
time he was full grown he had learned the 73 transformations from Yuding
Zhenren. He then went to Mt. Tao and cleaved it with his axe to rescue his
mother.
As Jade Emperor's sister freed from her incarceration, she felt so thirsty. So
Yang Jian climbed down into the valley in order to fetch her water. Unfortunately
for her, when he returned, Yang Jian found his mother had been burnt to death
by Ten Sun Deities. They were following Jade Emperor's order to punish his
sister. Yang Jian flew into rage. He took two mountains on his shoulders,
pursued the Sun Gods and crushed them to death between the mountains. And
whenever he had crushed another Sun God, he picked up a fresh mountain.
In this way he had already slain nine of the ten Sun Gods, and there was but one
left. Yang Jian was about to seize him, when the Third Dragon Princess of West
Sea came and advised him to spare the last sun, since all the created beings on
earth need sunshine. In the end Yang Jian was married with the Dragon
Princess and canonized as deity.

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Erlang Shen uses trident spear as his weapon. He always be accompanied by
his faithful hound, Xiaotianquan and his six sworn brothers from Mesihan: Kang,
Zhang, Yao, Li, Guo Shen and Zhi Jian. He resides at Guanjiangkou.
Another figures associated with Erlang Shen are Li Erlang. the second son of Li
Bing (See "Guankou Shen") and Zhao Yu, a hermit from Sui Dynasty. Emperor
Yang of Sui appointed him as Governor of Jiazhou. Zhao Yu is said to have set
forth with 700 boats and 1000 men to defeat a flood dragon that had been
flooding the area. Upon reaching the river Zhao Yu flung himself into the waters
with drawn double edged sword to fight the flood dragon. People saw the water
grow red, then there came as it were an explosion that cast stones into the air
and a rumble like thunder. Suddenly Zhao Yu emerged with the Flood Dragon's
head in his hand.
Following Zhao Yu's death, the region was once again plagued by flood. On day,
the people of Guanzhou saw Zhao Yu amid the fog on a grey horse and crossing
the waters attended by a Heavenly Hound. So a temple was erected for him at
Guanjiangkou. People venerated him as Erlang Shen.

Eighteen Arhats (Shiba Luohan)
They are depicted in Mahayana Buddhism as the original followers of the Buddha
who have followed the eightfold path and attained the Four Stages of
Enlightenment. They have reached the state of Nirvana and are free of worldly
cravings. They are charged to protect the Buddhist faith and to wait on earth for
the coming of Maitreya, a prophesied enlightened Buddha to arrive on earth
many millennia after Gautama Buddha's death and nirvana.
1. Qilu Luohan-Deer Sitting Luohan.
2. Xiqing Luohan-Happy Luohan.
3. Jubo Luohan-Raised Bowl Luohan.
4. Tuoda Luohan-Raised Pagoda Luohan.
5. Jingzuo Luohan-Meditating Luohan.
6. Guojiang Luohan-Overseas Luohan.
7. Qixiang Luoohan-Elephan Riding Luohan.
8. Xiaoshi Luohan-Laughing Lion Luohan.

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9. Kaixin Luohan-Open Heart Luohan.
10. Tanshou Luohan-Raised Hand Luohan.
11. Chensai Luohan-Thinking Luohan.
12. Wa'er Luohan- Scatch Ear Luohan.
13. Budai Luohan-Calioco Bag Luohan.
14. Bajiao Luohan-Plantain Luohan.
15. Changmei Luohan-Long Eyebrow Luohan.
16. Kanmen Luohan-Kanmen Luohan.
17. Xianglong Luohan-Taming Dragon Luohan.
18. Fuhu Luohan-Taming Tiger Luohan.
Originally there just 16 Arhats in Indian Buddhism, but Chinese added 2 more
into 18.

Eight Immortals
A group of 8 Taoist Immortals from Penglai Island, they are:
1. Han Zhongli
2. Lu Dongbin
3. Tieguai Li (Iron Crutch Li)
4. Lan Caihe,
5. He Xiangu (Immortal Woman He)
6. Han Xiangzi
7. Zhang Guolao
8. Cao Guojiu.

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Eight Immortlas of Huainan (Huainan Baxian)
The Eight Immortals of Huainan (Huainan Baxian), also known as the Eight
Gentlemen (Bagong), were the eight scholars under the patronage of Liu An, the
Prince of Huainan during the Western Han Dynasty. The Bagong Mountain (Eight
Gentlemen Mountain) in China is named after them.
When they visited Liu An's abode, their beards and eyebrows were all hoary
white. The door keeper told them that his Prince desired to seek the Tao that
makes one live long without growing old. And since they was too old, then the
gate keeper dare not announce them to the Prince. The Eight Worthies smiled
and replied that if the prince disliked their antiquity, then they would become
young. Scarcely had they spoken these words than they all turned into youths of
fourteen or fifteen. The door-keeper, much amazed, went and told the Prince.
Directly the Prince heard the news, he went, without putting on his shoes, barefooted to welcome them.
After some time, Liu An succeeded in refining divinity pills. With the permission of
his teachers, Liu An and all his friends and relations ate some of the pills and
immediately became immortals and ascended to Heaven.
His dogs and chicken ate the remaining pills left in the courtyard and also flew
into the sky, clucking and barking, making quite a scene. From this legend comes
the idiom: Yiren Dedao Jiquan Shengtian (After someone became a god, his/her
dog and chicken will go to Heaven).
Liu An is venerated as the Patron God of Tofu (bean-curd) Maker/Seller. It is
said that he unintentionally invented tofu in one of his alchemical experiment. Liu
An also known as Huainanzi, since he was once became the Prince of Huainan.

Emi Tuofo
See “Amitabha”.

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F
Fangfeng
As a mythological figure, Fangfeng is mostly known for arriving late for an
assembly called by Yu the Great after the end of the Great Flood, and then being
executed at the orders of Yu. Because Fangfeng was a giant, the executioner
had to build a big dike in order to reach his head.
Modern myths and legends regarding Fangfeng in China tend to emphasize that
Fangfeng was wrongly executed: that the reason Fangfeng was late for the
assembly was that on his way there he encountered a local flood and his delay
was caused by his efforts to end the flood and save the people.
As a god, worship of Fangfeng was most prominent in the Six Dynasties Regions
of Wu and Yue. A common depiction of Fangfeng was as one-eyed and browed,
dragon-headed, and ox-eared.

Fan Kuai
Patron God of Butcher
Fan Kuai was an ex butcher who became general under Liu Bang, the founder of
Han Dynasty. Another Patron God of Butcher is Zhang Fei, the mighty hero from
the Three Kingdom Era.

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Fan Li
Civil God of Wealth (Wen Caishen)
He was a briliat minister from Yue Kingdom who resigned in his top of career. He
changed his renamed himself Tao Zhugong and became sucesfull merchant. Tao
Zhugong wrote a book known as Jingshang Baodian (Golden Rules of Business
Success). It includes Twelve Business Principles and Twelve Business Pitfalls
describing the art of successful business management. This book is considered
as the foundation for Chinese Way of Business.

Fazhu Gong
Fazhu Gong was born on during the Song Dynasty in the village of Yongtai
County, His real name is Zhang Ciguan. On his birthday, the sky shines
brilliantly in five colors, and air filled with flower scent.
Zhang Ciguan's parent died when he just 5 years old. Zhang then lived with his
auntie and worked in the village of Panjiaoyang. One day he met two Sages
playing chess. Zhang observed the game with interest and suddenly the sage
offered a peach to him. However he just ate half of the peach as it didn't taste
good.
When Zhang Ciguan returned to his village, he consulted his experience with
local Taoist Priest. The priest explained that the two Sages were non other than
Taishang Laojun and Yuanshi Tianzun. And peach was the Peach of Immortality
from Queen Mother of the West's garden. If only Zhang had completely eaten the
whole peach, he would become immortal. But since he only eat half of it, then
Zhang need to cultivate himself and do more good deeds.
Zhangg Ciguan then brought his two sworn brothers: Xiao Min and Zhang Ming
to Lushan to cultivate according to religious doctrine. They learned Taoism from
Master Zhou Zuo at Baiyun Temple.
Zhang Ciguan and his sworn brothers did many good deeds for people. They
subdued evil spirit, treated sick person and help the construction of bridge at
Xianyou. One day Zhang Ciguan fought Wutong Demon on Mt. Shiniu . The
demons set fires and burnt Zhang for seven days and seven nights till his face
turned black and his hair charred. Zhang Ciguan was imprisoned in a cave,
fortunatelly his two sworn brothers arrived to save him.
Zhang Ming tried to blow away the rocks blocking the cave entrance but one of
the flying pieces hit Zhaang Ciguan’s head which became swollen. He felt so bad
and embarrassed till his face turned red. Xiao Min became very angry till his face

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turned green. The trio fought ferociously together and overcame the Demons.
The Wutong Demon surrendered and became protection assistants for the three
brothers.
Later the three sworn brothers dwelt on top of the Mt. Shiniu. Their footprints are
still visible at the very top of the mountain. In the end, they ascended to Heaven
from Jiulongtan, a waterfall at the foot of Mt. Shiniu.

Fei Changfang
Fei Changfang was a famous Taoist Priest during Eastern Han Dynasty. He
learned his technique from a banished immortal named Hugong (See "Hugong")
or Tieguai Li
Fei Changfang had an apprentice named Huan Jing. One day he warned his
apprentice that a great calamity would strike his village on the ninth day of the
ninth moth. Huan Jing's family member must fill a bag with dogwood branches,
tie that bag on their arms and ascended to the top of mountain. Upon arriving at
the top, they should drink some chrysanthemum wine. Only by doing so Huan
Jing's family might avoid the disaster.
Huan Jing rushed home and instructed his family to do exactly as his teacher
said. When they returned at dusk, they discovered that all of their flocks had
been violently slaughtered
Since that time, the customs of ascending high, drinking chrysanthemum wine,
and carrying dogwood branches have all become part of the Double Ninth
festivities.

Fengbo (Taoism Deity)
God of Wind
His original name is Fei Lien. Thousands years ago, Fei Lian and Yushi (God of
Rain) supported Chi You rebellion, but was defeated by Nuba (daughter of
Huangdi). Having been transformed into a spiritual monster, he stirred up
tremendous winds in the southern regions. The Emperor Yao sent Hou Yi with
three hundred soldiers to quiet the storms to subdue him and Yushi. As they
were defeated once again, Fei Lian and Yushi repented and finally became god
deities.
Fengbo described as an old man brought a huge yellow and white sack (which

35

he stored his wind)
In some accounts, Fengbo is substituted with his female counterpart: Feng Popo

Fengbo (Monk)
During the Southern Song Dynasty of China there were two famous Buddhist
monks: Ji Gong and Fengbo. It is said that these two crazy monks became
Arhats. Both of them are worshipped and revered by many.
Fengbo lived during the early years of the Southern Song. He was renowned in
China for his courageous act of sweeping Prime Minister Qin Hui's face with a
broom. The legend has it that Qin Hui went to the famous Ling Yin Temple to
seek divination. There he met Fengbo who confronted Qin Hui and his
entourage. He scorned Qin Hui as traitor, picked up an old broom and brushed it
against the face of the Prime Minister. Then he swaggered off and disappeared
completely in a flash. This is the famous story of "the mad monk sweeping Qin
out of the temple."

Fengdu Dadi
Fengdu Dadi is God of Netherworld according to Taoism Tradition. Later his
popularity was surpassed by the Budhist Gods of Netherworld: Ten Yama Kings.
Fengdu Dadi dwells on Mt. Luofeng in Fengdu County Sichuan, This place is
considered as the residence of deceased spirits.

Fenghuang (Phoenix)
Fenghuang is mithological birds from China that reign over all birds. Western
people usually call it as Chinese Phoenix. The Fenghuang signified both male
and female elements, a yin-yang harmony; its name is a combination of the
words feng representing the male aspect and huang the female.
According Journey to the West, Feng (male) and Huang (female) combined their
essence and gave birth to the Peng (Roc) and Peafowl.

Fire Crows

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Fire Crows are pets as well as weapon for various Fire Gods such as Luo Xuan
and Huaguang. The Fire Gods put their Fire Crows in a gourd and release them
when needed.

Fire God
See “Huo Shen”, “Chijingzi”, “Sui Ren”, “Zhu Rong”, “Huobu”.

Five Commisoners of Plague (Wuwen Shizhe)
Wuwen Sizhe (Five Commissioners of Plague) or Wufang Guizhu (Demon
Masters of Five Direction) is five malevolent deities sent by the Heaven to punish
the wicked and eradicate evil from the world of mortals. The Chinese use several
rituals to send off the plagues gods. The most common is using a spiritual boat to
send off the Plague Gods.
There are many versions about Wuwen Shizhe members, Based on Shenxiao
Duanwen Dafa, the Five Commissioners of Plague Gods are:
1. Zhang Yuanbo-The Spring God of Plague from East, wearing blue robe.
2. Liu Yuanda-The Summer God of Plague from South, wearing red robe.
3. Zhao Gongming-The Autumn God of Plague from West, wearing white robe.
(Zhao Gongming is more popular as God of Wealth)
4. Zhong Shigui-The Winter God of Plague from North, wearing black robe.
5. Shi Wenye-The Central God of Plague, wearing yellow robe.
Each Plague God has their own weapon: a spoon and earthenware vase; a
leather bag and sword; a fan; a hammer; a jug of fire.
The Ming Novel Fengshen Yanyi had different version of Plague Gods.
According to this book the Five Commissioners of Plague Gods were Lu Yue and
four of his disciple. Lu Yue was an evil wizard from Jiulong Island. During the war
between King Zhou of Shang against King Wu, Lu Yue and his disciples
organized a system of entrenchments and of infection against King Wu's army.
However his scheme was foiled by Yang Ren and so Lu Yue met his doom.

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Five Marshalls of the Thunder Agency
There are 36 (or 24) Thunder Deities in Thunder Agency (Leibu). The Five
Marshals of the Thunder Agency are the five ones frequently seen in Daoist
scriptures and books,They are
1. Deng Yuanshai (Deng Hua/Deng Zhong)
2. Tian Hua/Bi Yuanshuai
3. Liu Yuanshuai (Liu Hou)
4. Xin Yuanshuai (Xin Xing)
5. Pang Yuanshuai (Pang Qiao)

Five Planets and Seven Luminaries (Wuxing Qiyao Xingjun)
In ancient times, the Five Planets (Jupiter, Mars, Mercury, Venus, and Saturn),
together with Sun and Moon, were deified as Seven Stellar Gods. According to
Taishang Dongzhen Wuqing Mishou jing, the functions of Five Planets are
mentioned as follow:
1. Jupiter (Taixing) in the East is in charge of the births of all thing
2. Mars (Huoxing) in the South is in charge of the growth of all things.
3. Venus (Jinxing) in the West is in charge of the control and restrain of all things.
4. Mercury (Shuixing) in the North is in charge of the benefiting of all things.
5. Saturn (Tuxing) in the Center is in charge of the breeding of all things.

Flower Fairies (Huxianzi)
The Chinese beleive that all flowers has it own deities. The leader of all Flowers
Fairies are Baihua Xianzi (Hundred Flower Fairy). The Flower Fairies are always
on bad term with Feng Popo (The Goddess of Wind), because strong wind will
scatters flowers.
There also belief that each month have a representative flower that blooms in

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that particular month and has an associated flower goddess:
1. Plum Fairy: Princess Shuoyang
Princess Shouyang was the daughter of Emperor Wu from Song Kingdom
(Sothern and Northen Era). One day when the princess slept beneath a plum
tree, a plum blossom fell on her forehead, leaving a floral imprint which made her
more beautiful. Later, other ladies followed her to paste plum blossom ornaments
on their foreheads.
2. Apricot Fairy: Yang Guifei
Yang Yuhuan or Yang Guifei was the concubine of Emperor Xuanzong of Tang
Dynasty. She is considered as one of four beauties in Ancient China. Yang Guifei
was forced to hang herself during An Lushan’s rebellion. Legend has it that the
emperor could not locate her corpse; instead he just found an apricot.
3. Peach Fairy: Xi Furen
Xi Furen was the consort of King Xi. The during the Spring and Autumn Period.
When the king of Chu overthrew Xi State, he seized Xi Furen and took her home
with him. She bore him two children but would never speak to him. Xi Furen
suicide when she heard about the death of her first husband. She died in March,
when all the peach trees are in blossom.
4. Lotus Fairy: Xi Shi
See “Xi Shi”.
5. Hollyhock Fairy: Li Furen
Li Furen was the favorite concubine of Emperor Han Wudi. She died several
years after she was chosen as a concubine, her life was short but flowery, just
like the hollyhock.
6. Laurel Fairy: Xu Hui
Xu Hui was a concubine of Emperor Taizong of Tang. She wrote many poems
about Laurel Blossom when she was alive.
7. Daffodil Fairy: E Huang and Nu Ying
See “Xiang River Goddesses”.

Four Celestial Masters (Si Tianshi)
Four Celestial Masters are four famous Taoist Masters, they are:
1. Zhang Daoling
2. Xu Xun (Xu Jingyang)

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3. Ge Hong (Ge Xianweng)
4. Sa Shoujian
In the Ming novel Journey to the West (Xiyouji), Sa Shoujian was replaced with
Qiu Hongji.

Four Heavenly Ministers (Siyu)
The Four Heavenly Ministers are assistant deities to the Sanqing (Three Pure
Ones):
1. Yuhuang Dadi (Jade Emperor)
2. Zhongtian Ziwei Beiji Dadi (The Great Middle Heaven Emperor of the North
Pole Star of Purple Subtlety) who is the Stellar Sovereign of the whole Purple
Subtlety Constellation.
3. Gouchen Shanggong Tianhuang ("The Great Heavenly Emperor of the
Highest Palace of Polaris)
4. Hou Tu (The Mother of Soil)

Four Inspectors of Year (Sishi Gongcao)
These Four Inspectors will travel around the whole Three Realms to do
inspections and records on things happened, Mortal Encounters and any other
Abnormal Issues. Their name is:
1. Li Bing-The Year Inspector.
2. Huang Chengyi-The Month Inspector.
3. Zhou Deng-The Day Inspector.
4. Liu Hong-The Hour Inspector.

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Four Kings of Heaven (Sida Tianwang)
Four giant deities guarding the four gate of Heaven. Their names are;
1. Mo Liqing, the eldest, he holds a magic sword. When brandished, it causes a
black wind, which produces tens of thousands of spears, which pierce the bodies
of men and turn them to dust. The wind is followed by a fire, which fills the air
with tens of thousands of golden fiery serpents. A thick smoke also rises out of
the ground, which blinds and burns men, none being able to escape.
2. Mo Lihong, carries in his hand an umbrella, called the Umbrella of Chaos,
formed of pearls possessed of spiritual properties. Opening this marvelous
implement causes the heavens and earth to be covered with thick darkness, and
turning it upside down produces violent storms of wind and thunder and universal
earthquakes.
3. Mo Lihai, holds a four-stringed pipa, the twanging of which supernaturally
affects the earth, water, fire, or wind. When it is played all the world listens, and
the camps of the enemy take fire.
4. Mo Lishou has two whips and a panther-skin bag, the home of a creature
known as Huahu Diao. When at large, this creature assumes the form of a white
winged elephant, which devours men.
According to Fengshen Yanyi, the four brothers were originally lived at Jiameng
Pass. During the war between King Zhou of Shang vs King Wu, Grand
Chancellor Wen Zhong of Shang asked them to come to their aid and They
agreed.
Many fierce battles ensued. At first these went in favor of the four brothers thanks
to their magical weapons. Unfortunately the deities from King Wu's army
managed to steal and destroyed their weapon. Finally a young general named
Huang Tianhua slew them with his magical weapon, a spike 7 1/2 inches long,
enclosed in a silk sheath, and called Heart-piercer.
When King Wu's army finally proved victorious, Jiang Ziya canonized 365 deities
from both sides and the four brothers were appointed as Sida Tianwang.

Fubao
Fubao was the mother of Yellow Emperor. She impregnated after watching an
unearthly light play across the sky.

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Fucanglong
The Dragons of Hidden Treasures are underworld dragons which guard buried
treasures, both natural and man-made. Volcanoes are said to be created when
they burst out of the ground to report to Heaven.

Fude Zhengshen
Earth God
Fude Zhengshen or more popular as Tudi Gong is portrayed as an elderly man
with a long white beard, a black or gold hat and a red or yellow robe, which
signifies his position as a bureaucrat. He carries a wooden staff in his right hand
and a golden ingot on the left. In the countryside, he is sometimes given a wife,
Tudi Po (Earth Grandmother), placed next to him on the altar.
The worship of Earth God dated back to ancient times and originated in the fear
and respect of nature. The Land God originally worshipped is not quite the same
as today’s Earth God. The God people worship nowadays is a low ranking
Underworld deity who is in charge of spirits of a certain piece of land. It is also
the patron saint of a village, equivalent to a village chief in the mortal world. The
Earth God is worshipped in temples all over the land and is one of the gods that
most closely related to people's lives.
There is belief that Earth God was originally a tax collector named Zhang Fude.
He cared about the people a lot when he worked. When someone had trouble,
he would try his best to help them. If someone couldn't pay taxes all of a sudden,
he would try to postpone the deadline or even pay for them. He was always busy
trying to solve other people's problems. In order to remember his kindness, later
generations set up temples for him at scenic spots in the countryside. Her other
title is Tudi Ye.

Fufei
See "Goddess of Luo River".

Fuhu Luohan (Taming Tiger Luohan)
Member of Eighteen Arhats
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Pindola was an ex general who became monk. Everyday he could hear a tiger
howl near his monastery. He thought that the tiger was probably hungry and
should be fed some vegetarian food, otherwise it might become a man-eater. So
Pindola left a bucket of vegetarian food outside the monastery and the tiger did
come for the food every night. After a period of time, the tiger was tamed. Thus
Pindola was referred to as the Taming Tiger Luohan.

Fu-Lu-Shou
God of Fortune, Prosperity and Longevity
Fu-Lu-Shou are consisted of three gods:
1. Fuxing (God of Good Fortune).
Fuxing is generally depicted in scholar's dress, holding a scroll, on which is
sometimes written the character "Fu". He may also be seen holding a child, or
surrounded by children. This god is associated with two historical figures: Yang
Cheng and Guo Ziyi:
Yang Cheng was governor of Daozhou who risked his life by writing a memorial
to the emperor to save the people from presenting dwarf slaves as the special
tribute for palace.
Guo Ziyi was great hero in the Tang Dynasty who stopped An Lushan's rebellion.
2. Luxing (God of Prosperity)
Luxing is a god who bestows prosperity, rank, and influence. He is depicted in
the dress of a mandarin. Luxing is generally associated with Wenchang Dijun or
Zhangxian.
3. Shouxing (God of Longevity)
The star of the South Pole in Chinese astronomy, and is believed to control the
life spans of mortals. There is folk belief that he was carried in his mother's womb
for ten years before being born, and was already an old man when delivered.
He is recognized by his high, domed forehead and the peach which he carries as
a symbol of immortality. Shouxing is also known as Nanji Xianweng, because he
represented the Star of the South Pole in Chinese Astronomy. He also called
Changsheng Dadi (the Great Emperor of Longevity). According to Fengshen
Yanyi, Nanji Xianweng is disciple of Yuanshi Tianzun.

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Fuxi
Father of Humankind
Fuxi was a legendary prehistoric leader in China. His mother was called Huaxu
who conceived him after stepping on the footprints of Leigong, the God of
Thunder. Fuxi created many important things such as Bagua (The Eight
Diagrams) Guqin (a kind of zither) with thirty-five strings and calendar. He also
renowned as "Father of Humankind", because he taught people how to trap
animal, make the fish-net, catch the bird and cook their food. Some legends are
referring Fuxi as brother or husband of Nuwa (the mother of humankind).
Sometime he also depicted as half human and half snake (like Nuwa).

Fuxing (God of Good Fortune)
See "Fu-Lu-Shou".

Fu Ying
Member of 36 Heavenly Marshall
Fu Ying is lived during Tang Dynasty. As a young man he shut himself up in his
room and studied intensely. One night a Nine Tails Fox taking the shape of a
man, opened the door and wished to start a conversation with him but Fu Ying
would not take any notice of the intruder.
Next day, the fox came again, and now knocked at the window but the student
did not make any sign of attention. Now the fox became a monstrous giant and
entered the room, sat upon a tea-table and began to fire its eyes and nose with a
fire brand which it had in its hands. The recluse, without looking up from his
books, told the monster that he knew quite well he was the same as yesterday's
intruder but that it did not frighten him in the least. With that he flung his brush for
red writing at the Demon-fox full in the face. The monster turn into woman and
left him.
Not long afterward, Fu Ying was appointed by the Jade Emperor as Heavenly
Marshall.

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G
Gao Yuan
Member of 36 Heavenly Marshals
Emperor Yang of Sui dynasty married his daughter to General Gao Yuan, in
hope they would have son to inherit his throne. (Since the emperor himself
wasn’t have a son). Unfortunately after several years they still didn’t have son.
The angry emperor threatened Gao Yuan: He would execute him, if they couldn't
has a son until one year later.
In a dream the princess met a deity who told her that his father couldn't have son
because he is bad emperor, when his husband couldn’t have son because he
once harassed the Jade Emperor in his previous live. Frustrating with this, Gao
Yuan decided to suicide.

Ge Hong
Patron God of Dyers
Ge Hong was great-grandson of Ge Xuan (famous Taoist Master from Three
Kingdom Era), thus he was called Ge Xianweng. He was credited for writing a
systematically theories of immortality.
Ge Hong lived during Jin Dynasty. He was rewarded with the title of "General of
Appeasing the Waves" for vanquishing Zhang Chang and Shi Bing rebellion.
However the political situation led him to the decision to give up worldly affair.
Ge Hong studied the art of immortality from Zheng Ying then Bao Jing (who also
became his father-in-law). Later he settled down on Mt. Luofu where he
continued his studies in alchemy until his death.

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Ge Hong was a highly experienced master in alchemy (Liandan) who
experimented a lot with different drugs and minerals. It is believed that he
invented a kind of dye during his alchemical experiment, thus he was worshiped
as the Patron God of Dyer.
His monumental work was Baopuzi-The Master Who Embraces Simplicity
(Baopuzi was also Ge Hong’s that divided into two parts. The first part, “The 20
Inner Chapters (Neipian), discusses Ge’s alchemical studies. Ge gives a recipe
for an elixir called gold cinnabar and recommends sexual hygiene, special diets,
and breathing and meditation exercises. He even prescribes a method for
walking on water and for raising the dead.
The second part of the book, The 50 Outer Chapters (Waipian), shows Ge Hong
as a Confucian who stresses the importance of ethical principles for the
regulation of proper human relations and who severely criticizes the hedonism
that characterized the Taoist individualists of his day.

Ge Xianweng
See "Ge Hong".

Goddess of Luo River
Emperor Fuxi had many daughters; Fufei was just one of them. However, he paid
little attention to her because he had so many daughters. One days Fufei was
walking along the banks of the Luo River when her beauty and melancholic
expressions intrigued and captivated the Luo River.
The Luo River began to woo her by creating countless enchanting scenes. The
scenes so captivated her that Fufei gave her to the river and was gone. Soon
Emperor Fuxi noticed that one of his daughters was missing. He went in search
of her till he came upon the banks of the Luo River.
As he looked into the waters he noticed a slight ripple and a woman of
unparalleled beauty floated up and hovered just above the surface. Fuxi
recognized her to be Fufei but it was only then that he realized how beautiful she
was. Fuxi was deeply regretful for having neglected her but he could not
separate the woman from the river. To make amends, Fuxi gave Fufei the title of
Luoshen or Mifei.
Some myth depicts Mifei as spouse of Hebo, the God of Yellow River, when

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other legend affiliates her with Cao Zhi, son of famous prime minister from Han
Dynasty.

God of Good Fortune
See "Fu-Lu-Shou".

God of Longevity
See "Fu-Lu-Shou".

God of poverty (Qionggui)
It is said that Emperor Zhuanxu's had a son named Gong Zhong. His body was
short and weak. Gong Zhong only want to wear rags and eat coarse grains.
Even when offered new clothes, he would not wear it until he burnt a hole in it.
After he died, people claimed that day as one to send away the Ghost of Poverty
(Qionggui).
During Chinese New Year, there is a tradition called "Sending Away the Ghost of
Poverty". Usually it falls on the 5th or the 6th day of the Lunar Year. Every region
in China have their own traditions. For instance, some people will people throw
away their ragged clothes, rubbish or place a little paper puppet outside the door
who is supposed to kick Poverty out the door.

God of Prosperity
See "Fu-Lu-Shou".

God of Rain
See “Dragon King”, “Chi Songzi”, ”Shangyang”, “Yushi”.

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God of Wealth
See "Caishen".

Gong Detian
Goddess of Luck
Gong Detian is based on Goddess Lakshmi Sri from Hindu Mythology. She holds
a wish fulfilling pearl in her left hand and makes a gesture of boldness with her
right hand.

Gong Gong
God of Water
Gong Gong is son of Zhu Rong (the God of Fire) and father of Houtu (The
Mother Goddess of Earth). He was credited in various mythological contexts as
being responsible for great floods, often in concert with his associate Xiangliu.
Gong Gong once fought with Zhuanxu for the throne of the empie but lost. Later
he also rebelled against Di Ku but subdued by his own father, Zhu Rong. Gong
Gong was ashamed that he lost the fight with Zhu Rong, the Chinese God of
Fire. In a fit of rage he smashed his head against Mt. Buzhou a pillar holding up
the sky, greatly damaging it and causing the sky to tilt towards the Northwest and
the earth to shift to the southeast, which caused great floods and suffering.
Aside from

Gouchen Shanggong Tianhuang Dadi
Member of Siyu (The Four Heavenly Ministers)
Guochen Dadi is in charge of the Sancai (Three Powers) of Heaven, Earth and
man, and of wars in the human world. His birthday is on the 2nd of the second
month.

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Goumang
God of Wood
Goumang is Fuxi's assistant. His job is to pull out the sprouts of all plants in
spring. He resides at the Eastern Heaven.

Guandi
See "Guan Yu".

Guangchengzi
From the idea of Taoism, Guangchengzi was the avatar of Taishang Laojun (also
named Daode Tianzun) during the period of Yellow Emperor in ancient Chinese
history
But in Fengshen Yanyi Guangchengzi is the student of Yuanshi Tianzun, who is
the co-founder of Branch Chan Taoism. Guangchengzi ranked the first of the
Twelve Golden Xian

Guangong
See "Guan Yu".

Guankou Shen
Guankou Shen is Li Bing, a governor who served King Zhao of Qin during
Warring States Period. He led the construction of Dujiangyan, an irrigation
system that prevented the Min River from flooding and irrigated the Chengdu
Plain. It also believed that Li Bing abolished the barbarism of human sacrifice to
the River.
According to folklore, the Min River frequently flooded Guankou Area (near
Chengdu). The river god insisted on marrying two little girls each year. The girls
were elaborately dressed in bridal garments, and seated upon a bridal couch in
richly decorated backs;, then they were taken out to the deep and drowned.

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Li Bing decided to marry his own daughter to the river god. On the wedding day,
Li Bing scolds the river god for his mischievous deeds. With that, he drew his
sword and disappeared. After quite a while, two green bulls were seen in deadly
combat. That afternoon Li Bing returned to his followers. He told them that Li Bi
that the ox in the Sou with his flanks girt in the white was him. His followers then
stabbed the ox to the North to death, thus the River God met his doom.
Another legend cites that it was not Li Bing who fought the River God, but his
son, Li Erlang. (See "Erlang Shen").

Guan Ping
Guan Yu's adopted child. He accompanied his father when Guan Yu was
captured and executed by Sun Quan in 219 AD. Guan Ping's statue usually
placed together with Guan Yu and Zhou Chang on Guan Yu's Altar.

Guanyin (Avalokitesvara)
Goddess of Mercy
In India, Guanyin is represented as a male; but in China we find her represented
as a female (he/she has 33 manifestations after all). She was called The
Goddess of Mercy, because at any cry of misery she 'hears the voice and
removes the sorrow.
The Chinese believe that Guanyin was actually Princess Miao Shan. Her story
according to Nanhai Guanyin Quanzhuan is mentioned as follow:
King Miao Zhuang from Xinling had three daughters: Miao Qing, Miao Yin and
Miao Shan. He asked his third daughter Miao Shan to marry a wealthy man, but
she refused, because she want to continue her spiritual practice and use it to
help all sentient beings.
The king was furious, and he tried to punish her by making her perform menial
tasks. Finally, he threw up his hands and sent Miao Shan to live in a monastery.
He ordered the nuns there to make his daughter perform only the toughest
chores in order to discourage her. The monks forced Miao Shan to work all day
and all night, while others slept, in order to finish her work. However, she was
such a good person that the animals living around the temple began to help her
with her chores. Her father, seeing this, became so frustrated that he attempted
to burn down the temple. Miao Shan put out the fire with her bare hands and
suffered no burns. Now struck with fear, her father ordered her to be put to death.

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King Miao Zhuang became more and more furious. He ordered his executioner to
kill Miao Shan, but a supernatural tiger took her then bounded away with a single
giant leap. It was in this way that Miao Shan reached the intermediate words and
met King Yama, the ruler of the Hell realms. When Miao Shan arived at Hell, the
place was filled with light, music, and flowers blossomed around. Ten Yama
Kings had to send Miao Shan away, or she might turn Hell into Paradise.
The resurrected Miao Shan was transported by Amitabha Buddha to the island,
of Putuoshan, where she spent nine years perfecting her self.
Meanwhile, Heaven cursed KIng Miao Zhuang with incurable limes. Falling One
day a monk appeared saying that his illness could be cured by making a
medicine out of the arm and eye of one without anger. The monk further
suggested that such a person could be found on Fragrant Mountain.
When asked, Miao Shan willingly offered up her eyes and arms. Miao Zhuang
was cured of his illness and went to the Fragrant Mountain to give thanks to the
person. When he discovered that his own daughter had made the sacrifice, he
begged for forgiveness. Full of remorse he left his kingdom to his chief minister
and become a convert to Buddhism (followed with Miao Shan's mother and both
of her sisters). Because of her merciful heart, Buddha bestowed Guanyin with
thousand eyes and thousand arm to watch over human suffer and help them.
Guanyin depicted as beautiful white robed woman. In her left hand she holds the
vase that contains holy water, and in her right hand she holds a willow branch.
She usually accompanied by her faithful acolytes: Shancai and Longnu.

Guanyin with the Fish Basket (Yulian Guanyin)
Once upon a time, Guanyin found a village that full of infidels. No one in that
village who praid to god nor recited Buddha's Sutra. So Guanyin manifested
herself as a beautiful fishmonger and challenged her admirers to memorize
Sutras. As the reward, she would marry the man who excelled in reciting Sutras.
Finally, a winner emerged, but just right after the wedding, she dies suddenly, her
body decaying almost immediately. A monk prays and announces that the
woman is Guanyin Bodhisattva herself. Since that day the villagers became
Budhist devout.

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Guan Yu
God of War; God of Wealth; God of Literature” Patron Deity for Bean-curd Maker;
Patron Deity for Police; Patron Deity for Triad
Guan Yu was native of Shanxi. In his youth he slew an evil magistrate and
escaped to the mountain. Having with difficulty avoided capture by the barrier
officials, he knelt down at the side of a brook to wash his face. Suddenly his
appearance was completely transformed. His complexion had become reddishgrey, and he was absolutely unrecognizable.
One day Guan Yu arrived at Zhuzhou. There Zhang Fei, a butcher, who had
been selling his meat all the morning, at noon lowered what remained into a well,
placed over the mouth of the well a stone weighing twenty-five pounds, and said
that If anyone could lift that stone, he/she might take my meat as reward. Guan
Yu going up to the edge of the well, lifted the stone with the same ease as he
would a tile, took the meat, and made off. Zhang Fei pursued him, and eventually
the two came to blows, but no one dared to separate them. Just then Liu Bei, a
hawker of straw shoes, arrived, interposed, and put a stop to the fight. The
community of ideas which they found they possessed soon gave rise to a firm
friendship between the three men.
They took the oath of brotherhood in a peach orchard, and sworn as brothers. Liu
Bei was saluted as elder brother, Guan Yu as the second, and Zhang Fei as the
youngest. Together the three sworn brothers set out and became involved in
military pursuits.
Later Liu Bei successfully became the first emperor of Shu Kingdom. As for Guan
Yu, he is recorded as one of Chinese mightiest general ever lived. He is known
for his nobility, integrity, bravery and loyalty.
Guan Yu is depicted as a man with 2 feet long beard with a reddish face. He
wears green robe and holds a Blue Dragon Saber in his hand. Chinese people
love him so much as credited Guan Yu as many deity, from: God of War, God of
Wealth, God of Literature, Patron of Bean-curds seller (since he once made his
living as a young man by selling bean-curds), Patron of Police and even Patron
of Triad (organized criminal in Hongkong). In his altar, Guan Yu's statue is
usually accompanied by two of his loyal retainer: Guan Ping and Zhou Chang.
There also a story about Guan Yu's weapon, the Blue Dragon Saber, According
to Beiyouji, after Guan's ascension to Heaven, his weapon became a powerful
demon in earth. The Sword Demon slew Xuantian Shangdi who tried to stop it.
After resurrected by his teacher, Xuantian Shangdi asked Guan Yu's help to
tame his blade. Later Guan Yu also join 36 Heavenly Marshall's
The people respected Guan Yu as Guangong or Guandi

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Guan zhong
Patron God of Prostitution and Brothel
Guan Zhong, was prime minister from Qi State during Spring Autumn Period who
initiate the first government sponsored hotel. Since Ming Dynasty his popularity
was surpassed by another Patron God of Prostitution: Baimei Shen.

Guiguzi
Patron of Fortune Teller
Guiguzi is legendary hermit and fortume teller during Warring Sates and
Qin.Dinasty period. It is said that his mother conceived him after dreaming of her
deceased husband. He was called Guiguzi (Master of Ghost Valley) since he
dwelled in Guigu Valley.
Guiguzi masetred art of war as well as the secret of Heaven and Earth. He had
so many disciple who became famous strategis or general in their time such as
Sun Bin, Pang Juan, Su Qin, Zhang Yi and general Di Qing from the Song
Dinasty. Gugiguzi is also known as Wangchan Laozu. He has a cousin named
Wangao Laozu who becomes immortal too.

Guo Pu
Guo Pu is usually called as the father of Fengshui. He authored Zangshu (The
Book of Burial), the first-ever and the most authoritative source of Fengshui
doctrine and the first book to address the concept of Fengshui in Chinese history.
In 323, Guo Pu entered the service of Wang Dun, one of the most powerful
general during Eastern Jin Dynasty. Wang Dun planned usurpation of the
Eastern Jin throne and asked Guo Pu to predict the outcome of his rebellion.
When Guo Pu answered that he would fail, Wang Dun suspected that he was
loyal to the emperor.
Wang Dun then inquired Guo Pu to predict how long he was going to live. The
diviner replied that if Wang Dun embarked on the rebellion, disaster will overtake
him. But if he remain quietly at Wuzhang, his length of years will be beyond
computation.
This omen made Wang Dun very angry; He asked how long Guo Pu's live would

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be last and the diviner replied that he will be killed this day. In his rage Wang Dun
executed him at South hill. Two months later his rebellion was vanquished and
Wang Dun meet his doom.

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H
Haichanzi
See "Liu Haichan".

Han Xin
God of Gambler
Han Xin was one of most prominent general in Chinese history. He served Liu
Bang, the founder of Han Dynasty. Legend is said that Han Xin invented
gambling games to entertain his troops.

Han Xiangzi
Member of Eight Immortals
Han Xiangzi is nephew of Han Yu, the famous statesman and poet from the Tang
Dynasty. His uncle had great expectations of Han Xiangzi, since he was the only
male offspring of the Han Family. Unfortunately the nephew had no intention of
entering government service. Instead, he simply desired to explore the
surrounding mountains, and practiced the inner alchemy of Taoism.
One day Han Xiangzi ran away from his uncle's home. He followed Lu Dongbin
and Han Zhongli. Coming to a peach-tree, Han Xiangzi climbed up to pluck the
fruit of immortality, but was thrown to the ground by the snapping of a branch and
was killed. At the very same moment he was transfigured and became an
immortal.

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In one occasion, Han Xiangzi attended to his uncle's banquet. He tried to
persuade Han Yu to give up his political career and pursue Tao. The later
however, suggested his nephew to give up his pursuit for Tao and engage
himself in a political career. Han Xiangzi then planted two flowers in a basin filled
with soil, on which was an antithetical couplet on it leaves. It said:
"The clouds hide Mt. Qing,
Where is your abode?
The snow is deep on Lan Pass,
Your horse refuses to advance."
Several years later, Han Yu was stripped from his previous rank, and reassigned
as the postmaster on Caozhou (because he had recently spoken against the
emperor's pro-Buddhist policies). When he reached the Blue Pass in his flight, a
deep snowfall had made the road impassable. His horse had floundered in a
snow drift, and he himself was well-nigh frozen. Then Han Xiangzi suddenly
appeared, helped him and his horse out of the drift, and brought them safely to
the nearest inn along the Blue Pass. Later Han Xiangzi successfully delivered his
uncle to attain immortality.
According to Han Xiangzi Quanzhuan, Han Yu married his nephew with a
beautiful girl named Lin Luiying, in hope that Han Xiangzi would start thinking
about the worldly affair. Later Han Xiangzi also aided his wife to achieve
immortality.
Han Xiangzi's attribute is a flute. He is Patron Deity for Musicians.

Han Shan
See “Hehe Ershen”.

Han Yuan & Fu Qu
Han Yuan and Fu Qu are Zhong Kui's sworn brothers. Together they vanquished
ghosts and evil beings in Mortal World.
Han Yuan was a poor scholar for most of his life. When he finally got a good
position, his patron was framed by Yang Guozhong and so he lost his job. In
anger and despair Han Yuan committed suicide.
Fu Qu was a minor military officer who met a tragic death during An Lushan's
rebellion.

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Han Zhongli
Member of Eight Immortals; Emblem of Military Man
Zhongli Quan was a famous general from the Han Dynasty. In one fierce battle,
all of his troops were massacred by Xiongnu. He couldn't return to his kingdom
and decided to live as ascetic.
Zhongli Quan met with Donghua Dijun in Mt. Zhongnan who instructed him in the
doctrine of immortality. During a great famine he transmuted copper and pewter
into silver by amalgamating them with some mysterious drug. This treasure he
distributed among the poor, and thousands of lives were thus saved.
Zhongli Quan has big belly and brought a fan in his hand. Since he was born
during the Han Dynasty, then people called him Han Zhongli (Zhongli of Han).

Heaven Deaf and Earth Dumb (Tianlong and Diya)
Tianlong and Diya are Wenchang Dijun's attendant. They are the servant and
groom who always accompany Wencang on his journeys (on which he rides a
white horse). Their names are respectively Xuan Dongzi and Di Mu, more
commonly they are called Tianlong (Deaf as Heaven) and Diya (Mute as Earth).
Thus they cannot divulge the secrets of their master's administration as he
distributes intellectual gifts, literary skill, etc.

Hebo
The God of the Yellow River
Legend said that Hebo or Fengyi was a person that drowned when fording the
Yellow River. The Jade Emperor had pity with him and made him a water god in
the shape of a white dragon or a fish, but with a human face.
The famous archer Hou Yi once shot out his left eye as a punishment for the
many devastating floods he had caused. However in Shizi, Hebo is depicted as
benevolent deity who bestowed the River Diagram to Yu the Great.
At least since the Shang period offerings to the Lord of the Yellow River and his
wife were regularly brought to appease the floods, or to the souls of people that
had drowned in the floods. The name of Hebo wife is Luofei or Mifei

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Hehe Ershen
Gods of Harmony
Wedding couples worship them to pray for matrimonial harmony and
businessmen worship them to pray for wealth. According to legend, the gods are
two brothers. They are two subordinates of the God of Wealth. One usually holds
a lotus and the other a treasure box, as a homophone (Hehe) of the Chinese
characters for “harmony and good union.”
Another story has it that the Qing Emperor Yongzheng canonized Han Shan and
Shi De, two eminent monks in the Zhenguan Period of Tang Dynasty, as the God
of Harmony and the God of Good Union. The two monks were good friends.
They loved to compose poems and behaved crazily. When the high officer of
Taizhou Shou went to visit them, they fled arm in arm and were never seen
again.

Helan Qizhen
He was popular Taoist Master during late Five Dynasties and early Song
Dynasty. His earlier record only stated Helan as eccentric Taoist. But in the Yuan
Dynasty folk belief he was indeed an immortal. He achieved his immortality by
devouring a three-legged toad.

Heng’e
See “Chang’e”.

Hengha Erjiang
Hengha Erjiang are two wrath-filled and muscular guardians of the Buddha,
standing at the entrance of many Buddhist temples. According Fengshen Yanyi,
their name is Zheng Lun and Chen Qi.

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Heshen
River God; each river has it own god.

He Xiangu
The only female member of Eight Immortals;.
She was the daughter of He Tai, a man from Zengcheng District, Guangzhou,
Guangdong. At birth, she had six long hairs on the crown of her head. When she
was about 14 or 15, a divine personage appeared to her in a dream and
instructed her to eat powdered Mother of Pearl Stone so that her body might
become etherealized and immune from death. She did as instructed and also
vowed to remain a virgin. She also gradually decreased her food intake. Wu
Zetian once sent a messenger to summon He Xiangu to the imperial court, but
she disappeared on the way there.
Other story told that her real name was He Xiugu. Her father forced Xiugu to
marry. Unfortunately she rebelled and jumped into the well. Xiugu did it hurriedly
that she left one of her slipper. Several years, a priest came to Xiugu's parent’s
house. The priest said that he met an immortal maiden who asked him to fetch
her slipper that she left near the well many years ago. Xiugu's father astonished
as he realized her daughter had become immortal. Later people built He Xiangu
temple in that site. It is said the water from that well might cure every disease.
He Xiangu symbol is lotus flower.

Hongjun Laozu
Hongjun Laozu is the patriarch of Three Pure Ones. According to Fengshen
Yanyi, he is the teacher of Taishang Laojun, Yuanshi Tianzun and Tongtian
Jiaozhu
Hongjun Laozu is also conflated with Xuanxuan Shangren (Mystery of Mysteries
Saint). Based on Tiantang Youji, Xuanxuan Shangren is the first personified
being from creation. He manifested into Three Pure Ones (Sanqing) and then
created Five Supreme Elders (Wulao). This happened before the first man and
woman are being incubated.
In the myth of Chinese New Year, Hongjun Laozu was depicted as an old deity
who defeated Nian, a giant monster who terrorized the village every New Year.
Every Chinese New Year was a time of suffering and fear because of Nian.

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One Chinese New Year's Eve, the deity Hongjun Laozu decides to help them.
When Hongjun came to face Nian, he took his clothes off to reveal his
undergarments, which were red. Actually Nian was afraid with red color, so it
cried and ran away.
Hongjun returned to the village and instructed every household to paste red on
each of their doors to prevent Nian creating havoc. After that, the people started
to paste red paper on their front doors before New Year's Day.

Horse head and ox head (Mamian and Niutou)
Guardian of the Netherworld.
They were real horse and ox in their previous life which dead because of over
exhausted during their work for human. Formerly King Yama give them human
body and face, but because they received bribe, then their face was reverted
back to it’s original form.

Houji
Lord of Millet. Patron God of Abundant Harvests
Houji was believed as the first person who taught people to grow millet and
wheat in China. He was also claimed as the ancestor of the Ji Clan that became
the ruling family of the Zhou Dynasty.
It is said that his mother, Jiang Yuan (Emperor Diku’s consort) conceived him
after stepped on a footprint left by god. Jiang Yuan repeatedly tried to abandon
this unwanted son, but each time he was saved by animals in the street,
woodcutters in the forest, and by a great bird on the ice. Jiang Yuan was finally
realized that her son was a divine being, so she decided to raise him, she named
his baby: Qi (abandoned one), because she once tried to abandon him. Later
King Tang of Shang gave him posthumous name: Houji (Lord of Millet).

Houtu
Mothers Goddess of Earth
She is the deity of the earth and soil. Initially he was a male god, but became
female during the reign of Empress Wu Zetian and remained so thereafter.

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Based on some stories featured in the mythology of the Great Flood of China, Yu
the Great did not do such a great job of channeling the Yellow River into the sea,
dredging the wrong way. Sacred Mother Houtu then made the Yellow River Map,
and sent one of her divine messenger birds to tell Yu what to do; specifically, that
he should open a channel to the east, to allow the right drainage.
Houtu’s birthday is on 18th day of the third lunar month. Her other name is Dimu
(Earth Mother).

Hou Yi
God of Archer, God of Sun (Taiyang Xingjun/Ri Shen)
Hou Yi or Shen Yi was a Divine Archer who killed nine evil sun and other
monstrous creatures that threaten human world. Queen Mother of Heaven
bestowed him with Pill of Immortality, unfortunately for him, his wife-:Chang'e
found the pill and out of her curiosity she drank it. In a sudden Chang'e ascended
to the Moon and leaved her husband. Eventually the god pitied Hou Yi and finally
appointed him as the God of Sun.
When Hou Yi from Sun Palace meets Chang'e from Moon Palace is what we
called as full moon. It is celebrated as Moon Festival in China.
There is version whether The Queen Mother of the West gave Hou Yi one or two
pills. In the one pill version, Hou Yi did not consume it, because he didn't want to
leave his beloved wife Chang'e.[

Huaguang Dadi
Member of 36 Heavenly Marshals. Fire God.
Based on Nanyouji (Journey to the South): Huaguang Dadi was originally a fire
spirit who transormed into a deity after hearing Tataghata Buddha's preach for
hundred of years. Unfortunately this deity offended Tataghata by killing Duhuo
Gui during Buddha preaching session. As his punishment, he was reincarnated
as Ma Lingguan, the son of Goddess of Mt. Ma'er. His mother also called him
Sanyen Lingguan, because he was born with three eyes. However Ma Lingyao
was killed by Ziwei Dadi because he tried to steal his golden lance.
Luckily a senior deity, Miaole Tianzun helped him to be born again, this time as a
son of the deity Douniugong Tianwang. As he grew up, Miaole Tianzun trained

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Huagguang with many abilities and gave him a Three-Cornered Golden Brick
which he could at will change into anything he liked
The Jade Emperor appointed him as Great Marshal of the Troops and Horses of
the Ministry of Fire. However, at an official banquet held in the Heavenly Palace,
he hit the Crown Prince of Heaven, broke the Heavenly Mirror (Which is a prison
for malevolent spirit) and burn the Southern Heavenly Gate. Huaguang wreaked
havoc in Heaven but subjugated by Xuantian Shangdi.
Once again Hua guang was reincarnated, this time into Madam Xiao's womb.
Unfortunately for him, his mother was possessed by a demon (who escaped from
the Heavenly Mirror that he broke earlier) and became a cannibal. When
Huaguang was trained with his teacher, the Dragon King arrested Madam Xiao
and thrown her to Hell.
Huaguang searched her mother restlessly and beat many deities in the process.
However in a battle against Nezha he lost his Precious Three-Cornered Golden
Brick.
Now Huaguang need a new weapon, he then a goddess named Yuhuan
Shengmu out of her treasured Golden Pagoda. This entails a skirmish with her
daughter, Princess Iron Fan. Huaguang managed to defeat the princess and
took her as his wife.
Soon afterwards, Huaguang went to hell and saved her mother. He then stole
Queen Mother's Peaches of Immortality to redeem his mother from cannibalism.
In the end, the Jade Emperor pardoned his sin and appointed him as Heavenly
marshal.
He is known as Ma Yuanshai (Marsall Ma) or Ma Lingguan, since his surname is
"Ma".

Huainanzi
See “Eight Immortals of Huainan”.

Huang An
Huang An was an eccentric old man. He was in the habit of eating cinnabar and
in winter he wore no clothes. Huang An used to sit on a tortoise three feet long.
He said that he got his tortoise from Emperor Fuxi, when Fuxi first invented the
fishing net. The tortoise feared the radiance of the sun and moon, so it only sticks

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its head out of its shell once in two thousand years. Huang An stated that he had
seen it head five times (which mean he was 1000 years old!). When Huang An
wandered about, he always carried his tortoise on his back no wonder people
called him "Tortoise Immortal" (Gui Xianren).

Huang Daopo
Patron Goddess of Textile Industry
Born in a poor family, Huang Daopo was sold into marriage by her family. Unable
to bear the constant ill-treatment she received, Huang ran to Yazhou. In Yazhou
she learnt spinning and weaving from the local people. Around 1295, Huang
returned to Songjiang and began to teach the local women about cotton spinning
and weaving technology whilst at the same time manufacturing suits, fine silk
fabrics and weaving.
From the weaving aspect, Huang produced mixed cotton fabrics, colored fabrics
and fabrics with mixed warp and weft fibers. Her weaving technology made her
hometown famous and began its textile manufacturing industry.

Huang Daxian
At the age of fifteen, Huang Chuping met a mysterious Taoist Priest and left his
job as shepred. He studied Taoism and cultivated himself at a stone cave in Mt.
Jinhua.
Chuping's elder brother Huang Chuqi searched him for forty years but never
found him. One day an old Taoist told him where he could meet his brother. As
the two brothers met, Huang Chuqi asked Chuping where the sheep were that he
had been shepherding. His brothers answered that the shepherd were on East
side of the mountain, but Chunqi saw only white rocks there. Suddenly Chuping
shouted: "Sheep wake up!” Then all the white rocks stood up and turned into
teen thousand of sheep’s. Seeing his brother vast magic powers, Huang Chuqi
decided to stay with Chuping, following him in studying and cultivating Taoist
techniques
Later Huang Chuping changed his style name to Chi Songzi (see "Chi songzi"),
and Chuqi changed his style to Lu Ban. Dozens of his follower wo took Huang
Chuping's elixirs later became Immortals too. Huang Chuping venerated title is
Huang Daxian (Great Immortal Huang).

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Huangdi
Huangdi was a legendary pre-dynastic ruler in China. In the prehistoric times,
there lived many tribes around the Yellow River and the Yangzi River. Huangdi
and his brother-Yandi was the most renowned tribal leader at that time. Huangdi
defeated Yandi at the battle of Banquan and merged his tribe with Yandi's tribes.
The Huaxia tribes, as the merged tribes were known, spread along the Yellow
River towards the East China Sea.
The Jiuli tribes, led by Chi You, had developed near the present-day borders of
Shandong, Hebei, and Henan, and expanded towards the west. The Huaxia and
Jiuli tribes were in conflict over the fertile land in the Yellow River valley, and thus
they fought in the plains of Zhuolu. Chi You's tribes were fierce in war and skilled
at making weapons; allying themselves with the Kua Fu Tribe and the Sanmiao
Tribe, but Huangdi managed to defeat them.
Huanggdi is said to have lived for over a hundred years. He ruled as prominent
leader whose reign was a golden age. It is believed that Huangdi ascended to
Heaven from Mt. Huangshan.
Modern-day Chinese people sometimes refer to themselves as the descendants
of Yandi and Huangdi. Huangdi’s other name is Xuanyuan and Dihong. It is
believed that his surname is Gongsun.

Huang Feihu
See "Dongyue Dadi".

Huangshi Gong (Master Yellow Stone)
Huang Shi Gong is believed to be the 'teacher' of Zhang Liang, the advisor and
right-hand man of Liu Bang the emperor, that defeated Xiang Yu, and establish
the Han Dynasty.
One day, Zhang Liang took a stroll at Yishui Bridge and met an old man there.
The man walked towards Zhang Liang and chucked his shoe down the bridge on
purpose, after which he asked Zhang to fetch his shoe. As Zhang Liang obeyed
him, the old man lifted his foot and ordered Zhang Liang to put on the shoe for
him. Zhang Liang was furious but he controlled his temper and meekly obliged.
The man did not show any sign of gratitude and walked away laughing. The old
man came back after walking a distance and praised Zhang Liang and asked him

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to meet him at the bridge again at dawn five days later.
Five days later, Zhang Liang rushed to the bridge at the stroke of dawn but the
old man was already waiting for him there. The old man chided him and ordered
Zhang to come back five days later. Zhang Liang tried his best to be punctual the
second time but the old man still arrived earlier than him, and he was scorned by
the old man once more and told to return again five days later. The third time,
Zhang Liang went to the bridge at midnight and waited until the old man
appeared. This time, the old man was impressed with Zhang and presented him
with a book.
The old man was Huang Shigong, the book was believed to be the Six Secret
Teachings by Jiang Ziya, while some called it Three Strategies of Huang
Shigong.
According to Xianzhuan Shiyi and Taiping Guangji , When Zhang Liang passed
away, he was buried on the Dragon's Head Plains. A Century later, during the
revolt of the Red Eyebrows, his tomb was broken open, but only a yellow stone
pillow was found inside. The pillow by a sudden transformation flew away like a
shooting star. Neither corpse nor clothing was to be seen and this it is believed
that Zhang Liang had become immortal like his teacher.

Hua Tuo
God for Surgery
Hua Tuo is a famous doctor from late Eastern Han Dynasty. He is the first person
in China to use anesthesia during surgery. Hua Tuo also created traditional
gymnastic for health: The five Animal Exercises (Wuqinxi), based on the
movement of monkey deer, tiger, crane and bear.

Hufa Sida Yuanshuai
Four Guardian Marshals of Taoism
They are consisting of Guan Yu, Zhao Gongming, Wen Qiong and Huaguang.
Sometimes Wang Shan is included as their member.

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Hugong (Gourd Master)
Hugong is an immortal who made certain mistake and banished to Mortal Realm
(this happened around Eastern Han Dynasty). Everyday Hugong sold drugs in
the market of Runan. He had a gourd hanging over his stall, and as soon as
business was over for the day, he used to leap into the gourd. Inside his gourd
was very spacious. There was a magnificent hall, where fine wines and
toothsome delicacies were spread out in lavish profusion.
In the market there was an instructor named Fei Changfang who recognized him
as a divine being. Hugong accepted Fei Changfang as his disciple and gave him
several tests. Fei Changfang failed in final test, so he couldn't accompanied his
master to Heaven. At least he still became a famous magician in his era.
According to Dongyouji and Baxian Dedao, Hugong is conflated with Tieguai Li.

Hui'an
His real name was Li Muzha, the second son of Li Jing the pagoda bearer. Unlike
his father who became Taoist Deity, Muzha choose to follow Guanyin (or
Samantabhadra in other version) as her disciple. His Buddhist name is Hui'an.

Huli Jing (Fox Spirit)
According to mythologist Guo Pu, at the age of fifty, a fox can change into a
woman. At the age of a hundred, it can change into a beautiful girl or a wizard or
a man who seduces women; it can know about happenings a thousand li distant;
it can bewitch people, leading them astray and causing them to lose their wits. At
the age of a thousand, it can communicate with Heaven and become a Celestial
Fox.
Not only master at shape shifting, Huli jing are also said to transport persons in
the air as well as giving those who worship him the ability to enter a house
passing through walls. The life of the fox, through its craftiness, was believed to
extend to 800 or 1,000 years, and he could even achieve immortality. The fox's
accumulation of Yin is due to his nocturnal habits and this enabled the fox to
easily assume the guise of woman. Further, as the fox naturally wishes to have a
well-balanced constitution, it looks to gather Yang, the male element, wherever it
can. A fox disguised as a woman is usually beautiful and seductive, as a man he
is usually handsome, scholarly, charming, and ready for a good time.
Sometimes, the transformation is not so good, in that a tail may occasionally
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protrude. When discovered and killed, the fox will sometimes be seen to have a
human skull propped on its head, and so through that was able to use its magic
to appear human.

Hundred Flower Fairy
See "Baihua Xianzi".

Hundun
In later Chinese thought, Hundun is considered as primordial chaos before the
birth of Yin and Yang. However some early myths signed it as Central Deity.
According to Zhuangzi:
Emperor Shu from South Sea and Emperor Hu from North Sea together paid a
visit to Hundun, the Lord of Central Land. Hundun treated them kindly and so
Shu and Hu decided to repay his generosity. They thought that all person had
seven hole in their face to see hear, eat and breathe, bit Hundun didn't. So they
decided to drill seven holes in Hundun's face. Unfortunately Hundun died after
seven days.
Another myth depicted Hundun as one of four evil sons (Sixiong) of Dihong
(Yellow Emperor). He is called Hundun (confusion) because his lack of moral
consciousness. Later Hundun and his brothers were banished by Emperor Shun.

Hungry Ghost (Egui)
Hungry Ghosts have tiny pin sized heads (or necks) and huge stomachs so they
always in perpetual hunger. Some sources also cite that their food will be burnt
into ash, so they can’t eat.
According to Avatamsaka Sutra, the deceased souls will reborn in one of six
realms: Gods, Asura, Human, Animal, Hungry Ghost and Hell Being. The sins
that lead to becoming a hungry ghost are compulsive, deceitful, jealous or
greedy.
In other version however, the Hungry Ghost may emerge from people whose
deaths have been violent or neglect of ancestors.
The Chinese celebrate Hungry Ghost Festival (Yulanpen) in 15th day of 7th

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month to appease the Hungry Ghost by providing foods and clothes for them.

Huobu (Fire Agency)
A Ministry consists of several Fire Gods. According to Fengshen Yanyi, Huobu’s
chief is Luo Xuan, a Taoist Priest from Huolong Island who sided with the tyrant
King Zhou of Shang. During King Wu's rebellion Luo Xuan tried to burn King
Wu's camp using his ten thousands fire crows. Unfortunately his fire was
extinguished by Princess Long Ji using the water from four oceans. Luo Quan
tried to escape, but he was slew by Li Jing the Pagoda Bearer.

Huo Shen
The God of Fire. It can be referred to Zhu Rong or Sui Ren.

Huxian
Fox God/Goddess
It is fox spirit which successfully cultivated him/her according religious doctrine
and finally attained the level of God/Goddess.

Huye (Lord Tiger)
Huye is a guardian spirit usually found under deities altars in many temples.
Many deities in Chinese are depicted riding a tiger for his mount, such as Zhao
Gongming and Baosheng Dadi.

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J
Jade Emperor (Yuhuang Dadi/Yudi)
In Chinese folk culture, he is the ruler of Heaven and all realms of existence
below. In actual Taoism, the Jade Emperor governs the Heaven and all of the
mortals' realm below, but ranks below the Three Pure Ones.
It is said that the Jade Emperor was the son of Emperor Jing De and Empress
Bao Yue Guang of Guangyan Miaole, kingdom of Pure Felicity and Majestic
Heavenly Lights and Ornaments. At birth he emitted a wondrous light that filled
the entire kingdom. When he was young, he was kind, intelligent and wise. He
devoted his entire childhood to helping the needy (the poor and suffering, the
deserted and single, the hungry and disabled). Furthermore, he showed respect
and benevolence to both men and creatures.
After his father died, he ascended the throne. He made sure that everyone in his
kingdom found peace and contentment. After that, he told his ministers that he
wished to cultivate Tao on the Bright and Fragrant Cliff. After 1,550 kalpas, each
kalpa lasting for 129,600 years, he attained Golden Immortality. After another
one hundred million years of cultivation, he finally became the Jade Emperor,
residing on the summit of the 33-Heaven in a palace called Lingxiao Baodian..
There is also funnier legend. It is said that when Jiang Ziya canonized 365 deity,
he left the Emperor of Heaven position for himself. So in the end of inaguartion
ceremony he proclaimed “Then the postion of Jade Emperor should be bestowed
to....deng lai...” Actually this “deng lai” mean “wait a sec”.
Unfortunatelly there was one god named Zhang Denglai. Upon hearing his name
mentioned, he stepped forward, prostrated himself, and thanked Jiang for
choosing him as the Jade Emperor. Jiang, stupefied, was unable to retract his
words; he was, however, quietly able to curse Zhang Denglai that her daughters
would become prostitutes.” (actually this curse is partially realized because
several of Jade Emperor daughters would be suffered because of love)

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Jade Emperor's wife is the Queen Mother of the West (Xi Wangmu) and they
have seven sisters known as Seven Fairies. Jade Emperor Birthday is on 9th day
of the first lunar month. He is also known as Yuhuang Dadi, Yudi or Yuhuang
Shangdi.

Jade Rabbit (Yutu)
An early mention that there is a rabbit on the Moon appears in the Chu Ci, a
Western Han anthology of Chinese poems from the Warring States period, which
notes that along with a toad, there is a rabbit on the Moon who constantly pounds
herbs for the immortals.
Another version states that when Chang'e arrived on the moon, he vomited the
covering of the Pill of Immortality, which was changed into rabbit as white as the
purest jade.

Jiandi
Jiandi was Shang Dynasty ancestral mother. She accidentally swallowed a multicolored swallow's egg and gave birth Qi, the ancestors of the Shang Dynasty.

Jiang Taigong
See “Jiang Ziya”.

Jiang Xiguan
Deity in-charging of Spiritual Document
Jiang Xiguan original name is Jiang Feijie. Before he was born, her mother was
stricken by a flash that dashed into the stomach. She lost her consciousness and
became pregnant. Since that day, Madam Jiang would feel a few people walking
around outside her room every-night. But whenever she walked out to check, she
couldn’t find any sight of them and just smell something nice.
When Jiang Feijie 5 years old, he invited a Taoist named Wu Tao to his home.
He asked him to stay in his house and teach him. Wu Tao agreed and teach the
boy for three years and then leaved him. Later Jiang Feijie passed the Imperial
Examination when he was 20 years old and appointed as officer in Fujian.
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Several years later Jiang made a travel to Longhai City. To his amazement,
found his Teacher sitting by the road side, providing medication services for the
people. Jiang stood by the road side waiting for his Teacher for more than 8
hours and finally, after the last patient, Feijie went forward to his Teacher and
kneeled down in front of Wu Tao. He decided to give up his official post and
followed Wu Tao to provide endless supports to the needy.
One day Wu Tao and Jiang Feijie were summoned to Heaven. Wu Tao was
canonized as Baosheng Dadi and Jiang Feijie was canonized as Jiang Xianguan.
Jiang Xianguan's job is to record all goods & bad of beings and also, to release
the Punishment for those who have ill-treated their Masters/Teachers. He also in
charge of the delivery of documents for the Three Realms

Jiang Ziya
Jiang Ziya or Jiang Shang is Yuanshi Tianzun favorite disciple. One day his
teacher instructed Jiang Ziya to help good ruler to overthrow the tyrannical King
Zhou of Shang Dynasty.
Jiang Ziya waited till he was 80 years old, continuing placidly with his fishing in a
tributary of the Weihe River using a barb less hook or even no hook at all, on the
theory that the fish would come to him of their own volition when they were
ready.
One day, Ji Chang, the King Wen of the Zhou State, found Jiang Ziya fishing.
When King Wen saw Jiang Ziya, at first sight he felt that he was an unusual old
man, and began to converse with him. He discovered that this white haired
fisherman was actually an astute political thinker He took Jiang Ziya in his coach
to the court and appointed him prime minister and gave him the title Jiang
Taigong or Taigong Wang.
Unfortunately, King Wen died before he fulfilled his dream. His son Ji Fa,
historically known as King Wu, succeeded to the throne. With the assistance of
Jiang Taigong, he sent troops to overthrow King Zhou of Shang, and finally
established the Zhou Dynasty.
As the war ended, Yuanshi Tianzun ordered Jiang Ziya to canonize 365 deities.
These deities were consisting of heroes who died during the Shang-Zhou War.
When Chinese people build a new house, they usually paste up a banner reading
“Jiang Taigong Zaici" (jiang Taigong is here). They believe it will prevent evil
spirits from occupying the building, because Jiang Taigong is the man who
canonized deities, then no demon dare to disturb him. Jiang Ziya also believed

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as the dity who is in charge of the assignment of any god.

Jiang Ziya's Wife
Goddess of Poverty
When Jiang Ziya was canonized 365 gods, his ex wife demanded to be
canonized too. Jiang Ziya remembered how this woman divorced him when he
was poor. So, Jiang Ziya appointed her as the Goddess of Poverty.”
When the residents got word of Jiang´s instruction, they wrote the character fu
(good luck) on paper and pasted it on the doors and windows of their houses to
keep the Goddess of Poverty away. Thus pasting fu during the Spring Festival
became a Chinese tradition.

Jiantan
Jiantan is the son of Zhangxian (the God who bestows Children to mankind).
Jiantan brings male children.

Jiaolong (Flood Dragon)
Jiaolong is a mythical creature capable of invoking storms and floods. The Taoist
Immortal Xu Jingyang is credited as Jiaolong's arch nemesis. He eradicated
countless Jiao and saved people from recurring flood. He also imprisoned the
Jiao's leader, Jiaomo Wang under a bottomless well in Jiangxi.

Jigong
Jigong was an eccentric monk who eats meat and drinks wine from Southern
Song Dynasty. He always wears tattered robe and hold a broken fan in his hand.
Although often referred as crazy monk, but actually Jigong was a reincarnation of
Xianglong Luohan. No wonder he can do miracle such as curing illness or
subduing evil spirit. Jigong real name was Li Xiuyuan. He was son of retired
minister named Li Maochun. After the death of his parents, he left his house and
became monk in Lingyin Monetary in Hangzhou. His monk name was Daoji.

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Jingang (Vajrapani)
The giant guardians of Tataghata Buddha’s dwelling at Leiyin Temple on Vulture
Peak.

Jingwei
Jingwei had been Yandi's daughter, named Nuwa (different from the goddess
Nuwa who created mankind and repaired the Heaven). When playing in the
Eastern Sea, Nuwa had drowned and never returned. Afterwards, she
metamorphosed into a bird called Jingwei. was determined to fill up the sea, so
she continuously carried a pebble or twig in its mouth and dropped it into the
Eastern Sea

Jinjia Shen
Deity in-charging of Spiritual Document (Together with Jiang Xianguan and Zhu
Wengong)
Jinjia Shen was a Manifestation of the gold element while the Heaven & earth
was being opened up in by Pangu. According to the folklore, Queen Mother of
the West once evicted Jianjia from Heaven (he was reincarnated as beetle).
That's why it's not recommended to place Jinjia Shen statue besides Queen
Mother of the West altar.
Jinjia Shen holds a flag in his hand. If he waves it in front of a house, it is assured
that someone from that house will win literary honors and be promoted to high
offices under the State. Jinjia Shen also one of the few important deities that
needed to be invited before a ritual/ceremony started. He is being invited in-order
to collect & submit all spiritual petitions & reports to the Heaven.

Jinling Shengmu
See "Doumu"

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Jinnalaluo
The jinnalaluo are divine creatures with human bodies and animal's heads that
were featured in Buddhist mythology.

Jingshen
God of Well; It is believed that every well has it own Jingshen

Jintong (Golden Boy)
Young deities (male) who become servants for senior deities in Heaven.

Jinzha
Jinzha is the first son of Li Jing the Pagoda Bearer and disciple of Manjusri.
Jinzha is the elder of Muzha and Nezha.

Jiu Huangye
Jiu Huangye (Nine Star Lords), are nine sons of Doumu who preside over the
movement of planets and coordinate mortal Life and Death issues.
1. Tanlang Tai Xingjun
2. Jumen Yuan Xingjun
3. Lucun Zhen Xingjun
4. Wenqu Niu Xingjun
5. Lianzhen Gang Xingjun
6. Wuqu Ji Xingjun

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7. Pojun Guan Xingjun
(No 1-7 is the 7 Stars of Nothern Dipper/Beidou Qi Xingjun)
8. Zuofu Dadao Xingjun (Invinsible Star)
9. Youbi Dadao Xingjun (Invinsible Star)
According to other sources, the number 8 & 9 are Ziwei Dadi and Guochen Dadi
(both members of Siyu)

Jiutian Xuannu (Mysterious Lady from Ninth Heaven)
Goddess of War
Jiutian Xuannu is the goddess who taught military strategy to Huangdi, as well as
many warriors such as Xue Rengui and Song Jiang (Leader of 108 Liangshan
Heroes).
It is said that Chi You created a thick fog that darkened sky and blinded
Huangdi's troops. When The Yellow Emperor was about to lose, suddenly Jiutian
Xuannu appeared and bestowed him with a compass, sword, seal and a military
register. She also made a drum that was made out of cow skin with eighty sides,
which the Yellow Emperor used to defeat Chi You.
During The Spring and Autumn Period, Jiutian Xuannu transformed herself into a
mysterious sword maiden that helped the Yue State sending a punitive
expedition against the Wu State. She taught the army to be equipped with six
thousand highly qualified soldiers. Afterwards, she departed without bidding
farewell,
Jiutian Xuannu is usually depicted her as rosy faced woman with a sword in her
right hand and a gourd in his left hand. Her garment was made of nine colors of
bird feather. His birthday is on 15th day of second month.

Juling Shen
Bodyguard of Jade Emperor
Juling Shen's real name is Qin Honghai, he is a giant deity with a big axe (or
giant mace) as his weapon. When the Mortal World was suffered from a big
flood, Juling Shen assisted Yu the Great to cease the flood. With his giant body,

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Juling Shen shifted the soil from the surrounding mountains & high land in order
to block the source of the flood. At the Top of Mt Hua, we may see a palm shape
carving on the rock; this is believed to be the mark that Juling Shen left while he
performed the shifting of soils from other mountains.
Based on this myth, one of Juling Shen's primary tasks is to assist Heaven to
create mountains and planning of sea & river routes for the mortals.

Ju Liusun (Krakucchanda Buddha)
Krakucchanda Buddha (sometimes called Kakusandha Buddha) was born in
Khema Park in India. His father was Aggidata, a Brahmin Priest, and his mother
was Visakha. He led a family life for four thousand years and had a wife
Virochamana and son Uttara. Finally he renounced family life and practiced to
reach enlightenment and after eight months attained it under Sirisa tree. He
passed at the age of forty thousand years.
According to Fengshen Yanyi, Krakucchanda or Ju Liusun (his Chinese name)
was one of Yuanshi Tianzun's disciple of Chan Taoism, but later he was
subverted into Buddhism. He has a pupil named Tu Xingsun, a black face dwarf
who could tunnel his way through the earth.

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H
Hell King
See “Fengdu Dadi”, “Ten Yama Kings”, “Qingguan Wang”, and “Yanluo Wang”

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K
Kaishanhou
During the Spring and Autumn period, Prince Chong'er of the state of Jin
endured many hardships while he was exiled from his home state. While heading
towards the Beidi, only 15 men accompanied him, one being his friend and
subject Jie Zitui.
Once, when Chong'er and Jie Zitui passed through the State of Wei, all their
provisions were stolen. In order to help the prince who was tormented by hunger,
Jie Zitui cut off the flesh from his thigh and offered it to the prince for sustenance.
Later, when Chong'er became Duke Wen of Jin, he ordered a search for Jie Zitui
who had gone into hiding in the remote mountains with his mother.
Jie Zhitui had no political ambitions and felt ashamed to work with his hypocritical
fellows, hence refused invitation of the Duke. Duke Wen ordered the mountains
to be burned down in order to force Jie out of hiding. However, the fire ended up
killing Jie and his mother. Filled with remorse, Duke Wen ordered that each year
during these three days the setting of fire is forbidden.
People venerated Jie Zitui as Kaishanhou, the God who opens the Mountain.

Kang Xi
Member of 36 Heavenly Marshals
Kang Xi was born from a religious family devoted their self to Taoism. One day,
while he was on his journey to other Cities to provide the necessary assistances
to the needy, a Bird (which is the manifestation of Dongyue Dadi's Assistant)
approached Kang Xi and threw a stick of Golden Leaves at him. The bird told him
that, this was a stick of Immortal Leaves, any cultivators would to consume this,
the person would be entitled to get Immortal hood immediately, if a normal mortal
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would to consume it, any form of illnesses would be cure within moments.
Looking at the Leaves and listening to the conversation that the Bird had, Kang
Xi was delighted and said to the Bird that he would make used of this Immortal
Leaves to release the sufferings of the Mortals. The Bird nodded it's head and
flew off.
One day Kang Xi arrived at a semi ghost town. Almost all lives in this town had
been taken by plague. After investigating a while, Kang Xi found that the plague's
source was from a well. Without hesitate, he took out the Immortal Leaves and
threw them into the well. A moment later he smelled a great fragrance releasing
from the well. Due to curiosity, Kang Xi stepped forward to peek down into the
well, but suddenly a gust of extreme high heat rushed out from the Well attacked
him (this made his face became red and with golden mark on his forehead).
Kang Xi was died, but his soul ascended to the paradise.

King Zhou
God of Sodomy
The worst tyrant in China history, he burn loyal officer and even kill his own uncle
Bi Gan. He spent his days carousing with his favorite Daji and wasting his
empire's fortune. King Wu of Zhou State rebelled against him and managed to
end his tyranny.
Upon his death, King Zhou demanded the god to canonize him as deities. Finally
he was deified as most unworthy god: the God of Sodomy.

Kitchen God (Zaojun)
Zaojun is the most highly worshiped god of those who protect the household and
family. Offerings of food and incense are made to Zaojun on his birthday (the 3rd
day of the 8th lunar month) and also on the 23rd day (or 24th day) of the 12th
Lunar month. According the Chinese Custom, the 23rd/24th of the 12th Lunar
month, Zaojun will report the activities of every household over the past year to
the Jade Emperor. The Jade Emperor either rewards or punishes a family based
on Zaojun's yearly report. In that day, people will offer the Zaotang (a kind of
candy) to Kitchen God to sweeten his words to the Jade Emperor or to stick his
teeth together to prevent him saying bad words.
It is largely believed that Kitchen God original name is Su Jili. He immediately
walked into the stove after his birth.

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Another popular version stated that Zaojun real name is Zhang Lang. The story is
mentioned as follows:
Once upon a time there was a wealthy man named Zhang Lang. Zhang's first
wife was a virtuous wife. However he ended up marrying another woman and
divorced his first wife (to please his concubine).
Several years later Zhang Lang lost all of his fortune and his concubine
abandoned him. Zhang now lived as beggar to support himself. Once, while
begging for alms, he happened across the house of his former wife. Zhang Lang
became very ashamed that he threw himself into the kitchen hearth. His former
wife attempted to save him, but all she managed to salvage was one of his legs.
The devoted woman then created a shrine to her former husband above the
fireplace. To this day, a fire poker is sometimes referred to as "Zhang Lang's
Leg". It is said that the Jade Emperor respected Zhang Lang's remorse before
his death, thus he was appointed as Kitchen God.

Kitchen Goddess (Zaoshen)
The book of Rites (Liji) describes ritual vessels and explains that women cooked
the offering meals and presented them on dishes and in bottles to Kitchen
Goddess .
In Han period this deity was called Xianchui, or Laofu (In later records this
goddess is also known as Tuanjia or Bojia). In Sima Biao's commentary to the
Daoist book Zhuangzi, he stated that Zaoshen used to wear red robes, and had
the appearance of a pretty girl.

Kong Xuan
Peacock spirit who sided with King Zhou of Shang against King Wu's rebellion.
He was subdued by a Buddhist patriarch named Zhunti (Cundi) and became his
mount.

Kongxue Mingwang (Mahamayuri)
The Mother of Buddha
One of Buddha's protector. She rides the peacock, an enemy of snakes, to
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symbolize her power against snakebite. She also granted protection against
drought and many other evils. His honorary title is 'The Mother of Buddha" (in the
respect of his metaphysical body, not his physical body. Because the real mother
of Shakyamuni is Maya, Queen of Khapilavastu).
This is a story about Kongxue Mingwang: There was a golden King Peacock in
the Himalayan Mountain who used to recite Kongxue Mingwang Mantra with
great devotion. It so happened one day that this king went along with his family to
travel in the mountain forgetting to recite the mantra that day. He was caught by
hunters. Thinking of his forgetfulness of the mantra he immediately began to
recite and was able to free himself. The Buddha told Ananda that the peacock
king called Suvarnavabhasa (Golden Colored One) was none other than
Shakyamuni himself in his previous life. Thus this mantra is believed to be
efficacious in all cases of dangers as well as for relieving poisonous harms.
There is an alternate version of Kongxue Mingwang according to Xiyouji (Journey
to the West). It stated that Kongxue Mingwang was originally a man-eater
Peafowl. When Shakyamuni was cultivating his sixteen foot golden body,
Kongxue Mingwang swallowed him as well. Shakyamuni went down into her
belly, but managed to escape by cut his way through her backbone. Shakyamuni
neraly killed that creature, but finally forgave her. Since Tataghata once lived in
her belly (like a fetus in his/her mother womb), then he called her as "The Mother
of Buddha".

Ksitigarbha (Dizhang Wang)
Ksitigarbha is merciful Bodhisattva who helps souls in Hell. His legendary vow is:
"If I do not go to the Hell to help the suffering beings there, who else will go? If
the Hells are not empty I will not become a Buddha. Only when all living beings
have been saved, will I attain Bodhi"
Some peoples believe that Ksitigabha is actually Mulian, a filial son who went to
Hell to save his mother. Many people also considered him as one of Ten Yama
King.
Ksitigharba has a pet named Diting who can detect true and false. He always
holds a six ring staff that may open teh Hell's gate.

Kuafu
Once upon a time there was a giant named Kuafu. One year the weather was
extraordinarily hot, the plants were scorched, the rivers were dried and people
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were suffering from the intense heat of the sun.
Kua Fu swore to catch the sun and tame it to serve for all. He chased it from the
East to the West, draining all rivers and lakes crossing his path to quench his
burning thirst. However, he could not finish his quest and died because of the
extreme heat and exhaustion. The wooden club he was carrying turn into forest
and Kuafu himself turns into a mountain range.
Kuafu is descendant of Houtu and member of Kuafu Tribe (His real name was
unclear). Kuafu chased the sun became positive metaphor of human courage,
toughness, and persistence. Another record cites that Kuafu was murdered by
Yinglong in punishment for drinking rivers and creating droughts while chasing
the sun.

Kuixing
Star Deity of Litterature. Assistant of Wechang Dijun.
Kuixing or Kuidou Xingjun is a fierce green/dark skinned deity who become
assistant of Wenchang Dijun (God of Litterature). Since the word kui, or the
champion in the imperial examination, is formed with gui (ghost) and dou (the Bid
Dipper), ancient painters depicted the God of Literature and Writing as a ghost
kicking at the Big Dipper (Kuixing).
Some Yuan Drama as well as the novel Qixia Wuyi cites Bao Zheng, the upright
judge from Song Dynasty as Kuixing's incarnation.

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L
Lan Caihe
Member of eight immortals; Patron Deity for Florist
Lan Caihe is a strolling singer who lived during Tang Dynasty. He wandered
abroad clad in a tattered blue garment held by a black wooden belt three inches
wide, with one foot shoeless and the other shod, wearing in summer an
undergarment of wadded material, and in winter sleeping on the snow, his breath
rising in a brilliant cloud like the steam from a boiling cauldron. In this guise.
He earned his livelihood by singing in the streets, keeping time with a wand three
feet long. Though taken for a lunatic, the doggerel verse he sang disproved the
popular slanders. It denounced this fleeting life and its delusive pleasures. When
given money, he either strung it on a cord and waved it to the time of his song or
scattered it on the ground for the poor to pick up. One day he was found to have
become intoxicated in an inn at Fengyang in Anhui, and while in that state
disappeared on a cloud, having thrown down to earth his shoe, robe, belt, and
castanets.

Laolang Shen
God of Opera
Laolang Shen is Emperor Xuanzong (Li Longji) of Tang Dynasty. This emperor
was addicted to opera. Even he was fond of acting as a clown to share a stage
with other actors. As the Patron God of Opera, Laolang Shen is also known as
Xiqin Wangye. Another Patron God of Opera Player is Tiandu Yuanshaui (See
"Tiandu Yuanshuai")

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Laozi
See "Taishang Laojun".

Leibu (Thunder Agency)
Since the ancient times, the Chinese had already worshiped Lei Gong (Lei
Shen), the God of Thunder. But since Northern Song Dynasty, the concept of
Thunder God was evolved into Leibu (Thunder Agency). Based on this concept,
the Thunder God was not single deity, but an agency consists of several Thunder
Gods led by Leisheng Puhua Tianzun (The Thunder Patriach).
The Thunder Gods live in Thunder City (Leicheng). There are totally 36 (or 24)
Thunder Deities in Thunder Agency, each in charge a Thunder Drum. When it is
time for thunders, the Thunder Patriarch beats the drum once, and then Leigong
(Duke of Thunder) and Leishi (Master of Thunder) throw out thunderbolts.

Leigong
Duke of Thunder
The worship of thunder and lightening originated in ancient times and Leigong is
among the first Thunder Deity (Leishen) mentioned in Chinese mythology.
Leigong is depicted as a fearsome creature with claws, wings, and a green face
with a bird's beak who wears only a loincloth. He carries a drum, a mallet and
chisel to produce thunder. His duty is to punish evil-doer, unfilial people as well
evil spirit with his thunder.

Leishen
Thuder God
See "Leigong", "Leibu", and "Leisheng Puhua Tianzun".

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Leisheng Puhua Tianzun
The chief of Thunder Gods in Chinese Pantheon
He lives in the Jade Mansion of Divine Heaven (Shenxiao Yufu ), in the midst of
the Pure Vital Breath of the Azure Heaven ( Bixiao Fanqi ), 2300 miles from the
Thunder City (Leicheng).
Based on Fengshen Yanyi, Leisheng Puhua Tianzun was actually Wen Zhong, a
loyal old minister of Shang Dynasty. Wen Zhong led Shang's army to suppress
King Wu's rebellion. In the battlefield, he fought Jiang Ziya (leader of King Wu's
troops) many times and finally killed by Yunzhongzi.

Leishenzi
The Son of Thunder
Leishenzi was born as egg after a clap of thunder. He was found by the soldiers
of King Wen in some brushwood near an old tomb. The infant's chief
characteristic was its brilliant eyes. King Wen, who already had ninety-nine
children, adopted it as his hundredth. Later he gave him to a hermit named
Yunzhongzi to be his disciple.
Several years later Leishenzi found two apricots, and ate them both. He then
noticed that wings had grown on his shoulders. Yunzhongzi told him that the
mysterious fruit had not only caused Leishenzi to grow wings, known as Wings of
the Wind and Thunder, but his face had become green; his nose long and
pointed and two tusks protruded horizontally from each side of his mouth, while
his eyes shone like mirrors. Yunzhongzi then instructed Leishenzi to help his
father, King Wen who is in a great trouble caused by the tyrant King Zhou of
Shang.

Leizu
Goddess of Silk
Leizu was Yellow Emperor's consort. She found a method to create silk from a
silkworm, since then Chinese people wearing clothes made from silk

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Li Bai
God of Water and Sea; Patron God for Wine Seller
Li Bai was famous poet and heavy drinker from the Tang Dynasty. One night he
saw the reflection of moon in the pond. Because Li Bai was heavily intoxicated by
alcohol that time, he thought that the moon had drowned in the pond. In order to
save the moon, Li jumped into the pond and drowned himself.

Liezi
Liezi (Master Lie) or Lie Yukou is one of greatest Taoist Philosopher. It is
believed that Lie Yukou was living in Zheng State. He studied from various
master such as Guanyinzi, Huqiuzi, Laoshanshi and so on. Lie Yukou’s lived in
poverty, but he refused a chart of food from Prime Minister Ziyang since he
considered Ziyang as unvirtuous man. One year later Ziyang and his companion
were killed in turmoil. Lie Yukou and his family were saved because of his
refusal.
Zhuangzi depicted Liezi as an immortal figure who rode on the wind and pursued
his own way with admirable indifference. Emperor Xuanzong of Tang venerated
him as Chongxu Zhenren.

Li Jing
Li Jing is a deity known as Tuoda Tianwang (Heavenly King who Brought
Pagoda) because he carries a pagoda that can capture any spirit, demon or god
within its walls. Li Jing has three sons from his wife, Yinsi: Li Jinzha, Li Muzha
and Li Nezha (They all become deities too). For details about Li Jing, see
"Nezha"

Lin Lingsu
Lin Lingsu was Emperor Huizong of Song favorite spiritual teacher. Before Lin
Lingsu was summoned to court, Huizong had a dream. In the dream, the
emperor visited Shenxiaogong (Palace of Divine Mist), where the Jade Emperor
granted him an audience. On leaving the palace, Huizong came across a man in
black riding a buffalo.
Certainly, the Taoist Priest did not know the emperor had that dream. But when
they met in court for the first time, the priest who actually Lin Lingsu said he went
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up to Heaven on the night of the Mid-Autumn Festival a year before to be
received in audience by the Jade Emperor, and met Huizong, who was leaving
the Palace of Divine Mist. That, of course, convinced Huizong that the priest was
the man he came across in dream. According to the Taoist Priest, Heaven had
nine skies, Shenxiao, divine mist, being the highest. The Palace of Divine Mist
was in that highest sky. Many divine kings lived there and Huizong was one of
them,

Lin Moniang
See “Mazu”

Li Sahojun
Li Shaojin is a Taoist who was responsible for much of the mystical content of
popular Daoist thought. Gaining the confidence of the great Han Emperor Wudi,
Li persuaded him that immortality could be achieved by eating from a cinnabar
vessel that had been transmuted into gold.
When that occurred, Li said, one would suddenly see the famous sages on
Penglai, the legendary isles of immortality. If one performed the proper rituals
while gazing on this Xian, one would never die. According to Li, the first step in
the transmutation of cinnabar involved prayers to Zaojun, the Kitchen God.
These prayers became an established part of Taoist ritual. Even after Li’s death
the emperor’s faith in Li was unshaken; he declared that Li had merely
transformed himself into another state. When Wudi had Li’s coffin opened, only
clothes and a cap remained.

Lingbao Tianzun
Second member of Three Pure Ones
Lingbao Tianzun is in the middle position of the second rank, second only to
Yuanshi Tianzun he resides in Shangqing Heaven.
According to Dongzhen Dadong Jing, the essence of vital breath of the jade
morning and purple clouds of best auspices, which were brilliant like jade and
glorious like gold, combined with the original spirit and dwelt in the mother's
womb, and were transformed into a man, this was Lingbao Tianzun.

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Lingbao Tianzun resides in Shangqing, the second highest position among the
36 heavens. In Taoist Temples, he is always appears to the left of Yuanshi
Tianzun, with a ruyi in his hand.

Lin Jiuniang
LIn Jiuniang and Li Sanniang are Chen Jinggu's apprentice (See "Chen
Jinggu").. Chen Jinggu, Lin Jiuniang and Li Sanniang are know as Sannai (the
Three Matrom), the matriarchs of Lushan Sect of Taoism. Sometimes Lin
Jiuniang is referred as Lin Moniang (See "Mazu").

Ling Lun
God of Music
Ling Lun was an inventor of musical instrument from Huangdi's era. Ling Lun was
believed to have created bamboo flutes which made the sounds of many birds,
including the mythical phoenix. In this way, he invented the five notes of the
ancient Chinese five-tone scale (gong, shang, jiao, ahi', and yu) which is
equivalent to 1, 2, 3, 5, and 6 in numbered musical notation (do, re, mi, so, and la
in Western) and the eight sounds made by eight musical instruments. Later the
Yellow Emperor ordered him to build a set of 60 bells

Linshui Furen
See "Chen Jinggu".

Li Sanniang
Li Sanniang and Li Jiunniang are Chen Jinggu's apprentice (See "Chen Jinggu").
Chen Jinggu, Lin Jiuniang and Li Sanniang are know as Sannai (the Three
Matron), the matriarchs of Lushan Sect of Taoism.

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Lishan Laomu
Lishan Laomu (The old lady from Mt. Lishan) is a female immortal venerated by
Taoist Adherents. She was from Bozhou (city in Anhui) of the Northern Song
period. She retired into seclusion in the Mt. Lishan and sustained only on water.
In folktales, Lishan Laomu taught many female heroes, such as: Fan Lihua, Babo
Gongzhu and Mu Guiying. Many accounts conflated her with Nuwa, the Mother
of Humankind.

Lishou
Goddess of Cat
In the past Li Shou was worshiped as a goddess who protects farmers against
pest by eliminating them. She was also believed to ward off malevolent spirits at
night.

Li Tian
The God of Fire cracker
According to myth Li Tian was the inventor of firecracker. He used it to scare
away the demons.

Liu An
Patron God of Tofu Seller/Maker, (See "Eight Immortals from Huainan").

Liu Bei
Patron God of Sandal's Maker
Once a sandal’s seller, Liu Bei raised his career into first emperor of Shu Dynasty
during the Three Kingdom Era. He is sworn brother with Guan Yu and Zhang Fei

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Liuding Liujia
General Liuding Liujia aka Liuding Liujia Deities, a group of 12 generals or
protectors that Taoist Priests or spiritual masters will invite or evoke the Energies
while performing Rituals or certain associated Ceremonies. According to Taoist
Records & Scriptures, Liuding Liujia are made up of 6 male generals or generals
that representing the Yang Element & 6 female deities or generals that
representing the Yin Element.
Sometimes Liuding Liaujia depicted with animal face. The animals are taken from
the 12 Chinese Zodiacs: rat, ox, tiger, rabbit, dragon, snake, horse, goat,
monkey, rooster, dog, pig.

Liu Haichan
Liu was a minister during the tumultuous Five Dynasties era . One day a Taoist
visited him. He requested ten eggs and ten coins which he adroitly stacked into a
teetering pagoda on the grand councilor’s desk. The Taoist stated that Liu's life
was more precarious than this egg. He snatched the ten coins from the pagoda
and vanished, leaving a ruin of smashed eggs on the polished wood.
Suddenly Li Haichan realized about the hollowness of worldly dignities. Several
days later he renounced his titles and studied the art of immortality form Lu
Dongbin and Han Zhongli. By Ming times Liu was venerated as an immortal and
was always depicted unkempt, unshod, and carrying a three-legged toad.
One folktale told that the toad was the reincarnated spirit of Liu Haichan’s father,
a greedy petty official whose human life was spent squeezing peasants for
money. One day Liu Haichan peered into a ruined well and saw the toad’s red
eyes glowing in the filthy darkness. Recognizing something familiar about the
creature, Liu Haichan dangled a string of money down the well. The greed of his
previous life could not be left behind and the toad grabbed the coins with his
mouth. Liu Haichan drew Chan Chu up from the slime and thereafter the two
became inseparable.
Liu Haichan is also known as Haichanzi.

Liu Hou (Liu Yuanshaui)
One of Five Thunder marshals; Members of 36 Heavenly Marshals
When Liu Hou was a child, he once followed his father to fish. Suddenly a storm

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started and Liu Hou was being sweep by the strong wave into the deep river. Liu
Hou's father had to return home in grief. But how surprised (and delighted) he
was to see Liu Hou at home like nothing had happened to him.
After growing up, Liu Hou successfully became an officer. One year, the Imperial
Capital met with drought disaster. By seeing the folks suffered from the disasters,
Liu Hou volunteered to request for rain from the Heaven and within moments,
rain-pour. From then, the folks respected him more than ever.

Liu Meng
Liu Meng is one of gods of agriculture who prevents hordes of locusts from flying
into the village and eating the crops.

Liuren Xianshi
As a child, Li Chunfeng had learning disabilities. When his father summoned a
Taoist, he stated that his son learning disabilities are just temporarily and he had
a great potential.
Later the Taoist prediction was proven, at the age of six he can master all the
Chinese Classics, literatures and even memorize every single word after reading
once. At the age of nineteen Li Chunfeng met again with the Taoist and followed
him as his disciple. Li Chunfeng is the founder of Taoist Sect Chunfeng Dao and
his title is Liuren Xianshi.

Liu Shengzhe
Member of 36 Heavenly Marshals; Patron God for Non-Chinese Sect
Liu Shengzhe real name was Liu Zhida, a Taoist Master from Mt. Qitai. He
sacrificed himself during a battle with demons.. When Yuja Jiao (Yoga Sect) from
India entered China; they imported Liu Shengzhe as one of its founder. This is
why the statue of Liu Shengzhe is usually portrayed in the Yoga’s gesture.

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Liushujing
A Willow Spirit who became Lu Dongbin's apprentice. He is depicted as a half
naked demon like man with a willow tree growing from his head.

Li Yuanshuai
Member of 36 heavenly Marshals
Li Feng was a formidable pirate during Sui Dynasty. He ran from his house
because he had killed the murderer of a neighbor’s parents. One day he took
refuge in a temple of a marine divinity and there five deities who saw him coming
cried out that a god was coming. When Li Feng questioned them, they introduced
themselves as officers of the Dragon King. They gave him a sword and then
disappeared. This vision kept puzzling him thereafter.
In one occasion, Li Feng perceived in the bed of Jiang River a monstrous devil,
and all about were huge waves stirred up by a terrifying wind. Li Feng jumped out
of the boat and began to walk over the waves. A black wind raged frantically
hollowing out the waters and the devil appeared face to face with Li. He was
large as a mountain with a tail more than 90 feet long and attended by seven
/other demons. However Li Feng killed them all and the storm grew calm.
The next night a spirit came to thank him for his exceptional services and to
assure him that he would beg the Jade Emperor, to recompense him for them.
The Heaven did reward him by canonization with the title of Li Yuanshuai
(Marshall Li.)He has two marshals as assistants.

Long Ji, Princess
According to Fengshen Yanyi, she was the first daughter of Jade Emperor and
Queen Mother of The West. She aided King Wu rebellion against King Zhou of
Shang and married with a handsome general named Hong Jin. However she and
her husband were killed by Tongtian Jiaozhu's disciple, Jinling Shengmu.

Longmu (Dragon Mother)
Longmu's original name was Wen Shi. She frequently went to the Xi River to fish
and wash clothes for her family. On one such errand, she found a large smooth
white stone along the banks of the river. She took the beautiful stone home, but
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later discovered that the stone was actually an egg, from which hatched five baby
snakes (an alternate version says one).
Wen Shi's family was poor, but Wen Shi saved the best food she had for her
baby snakes and fed them by hand. As the snakes grew, they helped Wen Shi
catch fish at the Xi River. The snakes were natural swimmers and became very
good at catching fish. The snakes eventually matured into five powerful dragons.
In Chinese culture, dragons are considered spirits of water, and have the power
to control the weather; during a drought, therefore, Wen Shi asked her dragon
children to summon the rain for her village. When rain came and ended the
drought, the grateful villagers gave Wen Shi the name "Mother of Dragons".

Longnu (Dragon Lady)
Longnu is the daughter of Dragon King and Guanyin’s acolyte.
According Nanhai Guanyin Quanzhuan, The Third Dragon Prince was caught in
a fisherman's net when he was carrying out his father's orders in the form of a
carp. Princess Miao Shan (Guanyin) at once sent her faithful disciple, Shancai, in
the guise of a servant, to buy him, giving him a thousand cash to purchase the
fish, which he was to take to the foot of the rocks at Putuo and set free in the
sea. As a token of gratitude, the Dragon King presented Guanyin with a luminous
pearl, so that she may recite her prayers by its light at night-time. Longnu
volunteered herself to send the gift. After offering the pearl to Guanyin, she
decides to stay with her and become her disciple.
Alternate tale depicted Long Nu as Han Xiangzi's lover. It is said that Han Xiangzi
came to the shores of the Eastern Sea. At the close of the day, he played his
flute and was heard by Longnu. She was instantly captivated by the sweet music,
she transformed herself into an eel and swam close to Han Xiangzi, twisting and
turning as if dancing to the music he played. Then, to Han Xiangzi'z amazement,
the eel changed into the most beautiful woman he had ever seen.
Next day Han played again at the same spot and the eel returned. All the events
of the previous day repeated themselves. However on the fourth day, the girl
failed to return. Han played and played, but not even his sweetest songs could
bring her back. As Han fell to his knees, and wept, an old woman suddenly
appeared and told him that the Dragon Princess could not meet him, because
her father (the Dragon King) forbade her. As a memento, the Dragon Princess
gave him a bamboo flute. The old lady said that his princess made this flute from
the bamboo from Guanyin's dwelling in Putuoshan.
Han Xiangzi was so disappointed that he devoted himself into spirit cultivation.

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Many years later he achieved his immortal hood. As for Longnu, it is believed
that she learned Buddhism from Guanyin to heal her broken heart.

Long Wang
See “Dragon King”.

Lu Ban
Patron God of Carpenter
Lu Ban was master of carpenter from the Spring and Autumn Period. According
to folklore, he could make a wooden bird fly to the sky and wooden turtle walked.
There is popular Chinese Proverb: Banmen Nongfu (playing axe in front of Lu
Ban's door). This proverb mocks people who show off their amateur skill in front
of expert.

Lu Chunyang
See "Lu Dongbin".

Lu Dongbin
Member of Eight immortals; Patron Deity for Barber and Scholar

Lu Dongbin is probably the most popular member of Eight Immortals. His
given/birth name is Lu Yan and his honorary title is Lu Chunyang. When he was
born, a fragrance allegedly filled the room. His birthday is said to be on the
fourteenth day of the fourth month of the Chinese calendar. He had been very
intelligent since childhood and had many academic achievements. However, he
failed two times in top level civil service exam to become a government officer.
One night when Lu Dongbin was in Chang'an, he dozed off as his yellow millet
was cooking in a hotel. He dreamed that he took the imperial exam and excelled,
and thus was awarded a prestigious office and soon promoted to the position of
vice minister. He then married the daughter of a prosperous household and had
a son and a daughter. He was promoted again and again, and finally became the
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prime minister. However, his success and luck attracted jealousy of others, so he
was accused of crimes that caused him to lose his office. His wife then betrayed
him, his children were killed by bandits, and he lost all his wealth.
As he was dying on the street in the dream, he woke up. Although in the dream,
eighteen years had passed, the whole dream actually happened in the time it
took his millet to cook. The characters from his dream were actually played by
Han Zhongli in order to make him realize that one should not put too much
importance on transient glory and success. This is the incident referred to in
Chinese literature in the phrase "Yellow Millet Dream". Convinced of the
hollowness of worldly dignities, he begged Han to teach him the secret of
Immortality.
Lu Dongbin's weapon is a flying sword that can be used to slay demon
(sometimes it referred as single or double swords). He obtained it from Dalong
Zhenren who also taught him the Swordsmanship of Tiandun.
There is an idiom said: "Like the dog bites Lu Dongbin", meaning a man with
good intention but suspected and then tormented.

Luduan
Lu Duan is a beast which could detect truth from the Chinese Mythology. In the
Qing Dynasty, rulers such as the Qianlong Emperor surrounded his throne with
the image of luduan in order to properly subdue his subjects.

Luo Gongyuan
Luo Gongyuan is famous Taoist from the Tang Dynasty. He was one of Emperor
Xuanzong's favorite Taoist, along with Zhang Guolao and Ye Fashan.
One story from Ninth story told that he took Emperor Xuanzong on a voyage to
the moon. At the moon palace the emperor memorized the music for Nishang
Yuyi Qu, the most renowned music composed in his reign (according to alternate
version, it was Ye Fashan who took the emperor to the moon).
Based on a cult that flourished in North and Northwest of Chengdu during the
late North Century, the natives considered him as perfected figure. They believed
that Luo Gongyuan cultivated himself on Mt. Qingcheng. During one drought, an
old woman appeared and told the villagers to pray their pleas to Luo Gongyuan.
The villagers followed her instruction and rain began falling immediately. Thus
Luo became the god of a local rain cult.

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Luo Xuan
See “Huobu”.

Luozu
Patron God of Barber
In old times most Chinese people were rarely cut their hair, since they believed
that their hair was given by his parents. One day the crown prince of Ming
Dynasty got an abscess on his head and his hair should be cut to accelerate the
medication effect. The emperor then called a senior monk named Luozu to cut
his son's hair; this monk is later respected as Patron God for Barber.
In alternate version of this story, Luozu was a disguise of the Taoist Immortal
Lu Dongbin. That’s why Lu Dongbin also worshiped as the Patron God of
Barber.

Luwu
Luwu is the protector deity of Kunlun Mountain. He is depicted as a half man,
half-beast with a human head, tiger body and nine tails

Luxing (God of Prosperity)
See "Fu-Lu-Shou".

Lu Xiujing
Daoist scholar and liturgical master active during the Liu Song dynasty.
Regarded as the seventh patriarch of the Celestial Master sect (Tianshi Dao ),
founded by Zhang Daoling in Sichuan Province. Master Lu was a key figure in
the development of the Taoist Temple during the Six Dynasties Period.
It is believed that Lu Xiujung has four eyes, thus people called him Four Eyed
God. He is the teacher of Zhang Yuanxiao (Zhang Xian).

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Lu Yu
Patron of Tea Seller
Born as poor child, Lu Yu grew as an acrobatic player and finally a tea expert. He
wrote a book about tea known as Chajing.

Lu Yue
See "Wuwen Shizhe (Five Commissioners of Plague)".

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M
Maitreya
The Future Buddha
Maitreya is foretold as a Future Buddha in Buddhist eschatology. In India, his
appearance was tall and slender. However in China, Maitreya is traditionally
depicted as a fat bald man wearing a robe and wearing or otherwise carrying
prayer beads. This image is based on Monk Budai (Budai Heshang), a historical
figure who lived in Five Dynasty Period. He was believed as Maitreya's
reincarnation. His identification with the Maitreya is attributed to a Buddhist hymn
he uttered before his death:
"Maitreya, the true Maitreya
Has billions of incarnations.
Often he is shown to people at the time;
Other times they do not recognize him."
Budai Heshang carries his few possessions in a cloth sack, being poor but
content. He is often depicted entertaining or being followed by adoring children.
His other name is Laughing Buddha, since he always laugh and show happiness
in his face.

Ma Gu
Goddess of Longevity for Woman
Ma Gu is described as a beautiful young woman with long birdlike fingernails. Ma
Gu personally tells of having lived to see three metamorphoses in which the East
Sea transformed from an ocean to a gigantic field of mulberry trees, and then
back again to the sea. From this we can gather that Ma Gu is both very old and
also that great changes will happen in the world, even if it takes a long time to
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achieve.
This one version of Ma Gu's origin:
Ma Gu is Ma Qiu's daughter. She worked as sewer for rich people. One day, she
saw an old woman collapsing at the street. Ma Gu offered her a peach, but the
old woman asked a little porridge. Ma Gu hurriedly cooked some porridge in her
house and returned to the old lady. However she could not found the old lady,
instead she found a stone peach on her place.
hat night the old lady appeared in Ma Gu's dream and instructed her to plant the
stone peach. Ma Gu did as she told and within a year it had grown into a large
peach tree. The tree flowered after a few months and not long afterward
produced big red peaches. Ma Gu shared the peach with the poor e them to
poor, old people. The people wbo ate it would be filled for days and cured form
his/ her illness. Since that day people called Ma Gu as Xiangu (Female Immortal)
and her peaches was named Magu Xianshou (Ma Gu offers longevity)

Ma Lingguan
See “Huaguang Dadi”.

Mang Shen
Mang Shen is a deity who beats the Spring Ox with a willow branch every year to
end the winter and starts the spring. Several places in ancient Chinese held a
yearly spring ceremony with clay statues of Mang Shen and the Spring Ox.

Manjusri (Wenshu Sheli)
Bodhisatva of Wisdom
In India Manjusri is known as man, but in several places in China he/she is
refereed as woman. He/she rides an Azure Lion.
According to the story of Princess Miao Shan, the princess has two sisters: Miao
Qing and Miao Yin. After Miao Shan became Bodhisattva (Guanyin), her parents
and sisters who formerly tainted with earthly pleasures were followed her
example for the pursuit of the perfect life. Gradually they progressed until
reached the true perfection. Miao Qing appointed as Manjusri, and Miao Yin
appointed as Samantabadra).

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About her Azure Lion, based on Fengshen Yanyi, the Azure Lion Spirit was
originally Tongtian Jiaozhu's disciple who was subdued by Manjusri and became
her mount. However in the story of Princess Miao Shan, Azure Lion and White
Elephant were evil gods who caught Miao Shan parents and sisters who would
go on a pilgrimage to Xiangshan (the place of Miao Shan). Both of the animals
were conquered by the Heavenly Deity and later became Miao Qing and Miao
Yin,s mount.

Ma Yuanshai
See"Huaguang Dadi".

Mazu
Goddess of Sea; Patron Goddess of Fisherman and Sailor
Mazu’s original name is Lin Moniang, a daughter of fisherman from Fujian. She
was a prodigy and blessed with supernatural power since her childhood. As a
teenager she defeated Shunfeng'er (spirit with mighty hearing) and Qianliyan
(spirit with mighty eyes).
Once upon a time, a terrible typhoon arose while her father and brothers were
out at sea. In her house, Moniang dreamed that she saved her father and
brothers while she was sleeping. Unfortunately Moniang's mother discovered her
sleeping and tried to wake her. This diverted Moniang's attention and caused her
to drop her brother who drowned as a result. Consequently, Moniang's father
returned alive and told the other villagers that a miracle had happened.
At the age of 28, Lin Moniang climbed a mountain alone and flew to Heaven and
became a goddess. People venerated her with the title Mazu, or Tianfei, or
"Tianshang Shengmu".

Mengmo (Dream Demon)
Mengmo is male or female demons that seek sexual intercourse with
women/men in their sleep. The Dream Demon will steal the vital essence of their
victim.

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Mengpo
Mengpo is old woman who gives a tea to souls in Hell. after drinking his tea, that
souls will forget about their past.
A legend told us that Mengpo was originally a fragment of Five Colored Stones
left over from when Nuwa was repairing the skies. The spirit eventually the
fragment became a grass stalk that attaches itself and grew under the bridge in
hell. It eventually became a spirit that assumed human form named Lady Meng.
Lady Meng fell deeply in love and married a handsome scholar who went on to
take the imperial exams. She made him promised that he would not be unfaithful
during his departure, but afraid that he would fall for another woman, the spirit
cast a spell on her husband. Should he break his promise to be faithful, he will
die. Unfortunately her husband really married a new wife and never came back.
The spell worked, and so he lost his live.
Realizing what she had done, the spirit begged to Yama King for a chance to see
her husband once more. Seeing how broken she was, the king allowed her to
serve soup to her husband. Not wanting to let her husband remember her evil
doings, Lady Meng caste a spell into the soup so her husband soon loses all his
memories and passes on to the bridge that led towards reincarnation.
The Yama King was furious at what she had done, but also realized that it was a
good thing for re incarnating souls to forget everything to start anew. As a
punishment, the spirit was made to stand under the bridge to serve soup to every
soul that will be passing the bridge for reincarnation. As years went by, Lady
Meng became Granny Meng.

Meng Shan
Member of 36 Heavenly Marshals
Meng Shan was a warm-hearted jailer who released his entire prisoner during
New Year Eve, in promise that they would return to the jail tomorrow. But since
no prisoner returned, then he was executed by his commander.

Mengshen
See “Door Gods”

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Meng Tian
Patron of Writing Brush Maker
Meng Tian was a famous general under Qin Shihuang. He was credited in the
construction of the Great Wall of China, but his greatest accomplishment was the
invention of writing brush (although some say that he just improved or modified
the existing writing brush).
Legend has it that Meng Tian had to report to emperor by carving on a bamboo
slips that took long time to write anything. One day Meng Tian got an idea. He
took his sword tassel, dipped it into ink and used it to write. Actually it was so
much faster. Later he used animal's fur that tied to bamboo stick as his writing
brush.

Miao Shan
See "Guanyin".

Mifei
See "Goddess of Luo river".

Miaole Tianzhun
Senior deity, divine teacher of Xuantian Shangdi and Huaguang

Mo Lihai
See "Four Kings of Heaven"

Mo Lihong
See "Four Kings of Heaven"

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Mo Lishou
See "Four Kings of Heaven"

Mo Liqing
See "Four Kings of Heaven"

Monk Xuanzang
Xuanzang was a monk from Tang Dynasty who traveled to India to fetch
Buddhist scripture. According to the legend, he was accompanied by four
students. they are; Sun Wukong, Zhu Bajie, Sha Wujing and the Dragon Horse.
Upon returning to China he was bestowed the title: Tang Sanzang, meaning:
Monk Triptiaka from Tang Dynasty. He was believed as the reincarnation of
Tataghata Buddha's apprentice: Jin Canzi (Golden Cicada)

Moon Goddess
See “Chang’e”

Mother Lightning (Dianmu)
Goddess of Lightning
Once upon a time Leigong mistakenly shoot an innocent girl to death. This girl
then deified as Leigong's assistant. Her duty is to give signal using her lightning
and Leigong will shoot his thunder to that direction.
Fengshen Yanyi contain alternate story for this goddess. It is said that Mother
Lightning was formerly a female priest from Jian'ao Island named JInguang
Shengmu (Mother Golden Lightning). She helped Grand Chancellor Wen Zhong
who fought against Jiang Ziya. They were both died in the battle, but later she
was canonized as Mother Lightning and Wen Zhong was canonized as Leisheng
Puhua Tianzun.

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Mowang (Mara)
The Demon King
Mowang (sanskrit: Mara) is the tempter and the evil one in Buddhist Mythology.
He distracts human from practicing the spiritual life by making mundane things or
the negative seem positive.
When Shakyamuni meditated under the Bodhi Tree, Mara was alarmed to his
impending enlightenment. The evil one considered his success as the end of his
reign, so Mara decided to prevent him from attaining his Buddha hood.
The Demon King seduced Shakyamuni both with promises of glory and pleasure,
but Shakyamuni easily rejects these. Knowing they are meaningless.
Mara then tried to scare him. He launched his demon army to hurt him, but as
their arrow approached, they are transformed into flowers and fall harmlessly to
the ground. The three daughters of Mara appeared and tried to seduce
Shakyamuni, but he was not swayed from his goal.
Finally Mara mocked Shakyamuni, the evil one stated that his work is
meaningless, since was no one there to recognize his achievement. Shakyamuni
responded that the earth would be his witness. He touched the ground the earth
trembles in agreement. Thus Mara admitted his defeat, but he was determined to
carry on harassing the Buddha and his followers.

Mulian
Before Mulian became monk, he often gave his mother (Madame Liu) money for
feeding monks and beggars. But the stingy Madame Liu always hide it away.
Several years after her mother death, Mulian became a Buddhist Monk, One day
he used his divine eyes and saw his mother was tortured in Hell for her bad
behavior in earth. Mulian seek Buddha's help and got a divine a rod to smash
Hell's gate and release the prisoners of hell to a higher reincarnation. However
his mother was not released, instead she was reborn as a Hungry Ghost. .
Mulian tried to send her food by placing it on the ancestral altar, but the food
bursts into flame just as it reached her mouth. To rescue her from this torture, the
Buddha instructs Mulian to provide a Grand Feast of Yulan on the fifteenth day of
the seventh month.
Later Madame Liu was reincarnated as a black dog, Mulian recited Sutras for
seven days and seven nights, and finally his mother became a human again and
could attain the joys of Heaven.

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Muzha
See Hui'an.

Mysterious Lady from Ninth Heaven
See "Jiutian Xuannu".

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N
Nandou Xingjun
Gods of Southern Dipper
Nandou Xingjun resides in South Pole. Together with Beidou Xingjun, they are
respected for prolonging of one's age, ceasing of the death disasters and
changing of someone fortune & luck. Nandou Xingjun are in charge register of
life, thus, they are more associated with life.
Nandou Liusi Xingjun (The Six Longevity Gods of the South Pole) are consisting
of Six Stars Deities:
1. Tianfu Siming Xingjun
2. Tianxiang Silu Xingjun
3. Tianliang Yanshou Xingjun
4. Tiantong Yisuan Xingjun
5. Tianshu Du'e Xingjun
6. Tianji Shangsheng Xingjun

Nanji Xianweng
See "Fu Lu Shou"

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Nezha
Nezha is the third son of Li Jing, a general under King Zhou and commander of
Chengtang Pass. His mother, Yinsi was conceived him for three years and six
months. When he finally born, Yinsi gave birth to a ball of flesh instead of baby.
Li Jing thought that his wife had given birth to a demon and attacked the ball with
his sword. The ball split open and a baby (Li Nezha) emerged, surrounded by a
halo of red light. Its face was very white, About his right arm he wore a golden
armlet and around his thighs was wound a length of crimson silk, whose glittering
shine dazzled the eyes.. An immortal suddenly appeared before Li JIng and his
wife. He introduced himself as Taiyi Zhenren and said that the baby was an
avatar of Ling Chuzi. Taiyi Zhenren then asked their permission to take Nezha as
my pupil. Li Jing was delighted and bowed his thanks to the immortal.
When Nezha was seven years old he whisked his crimson silk trouser about in
the water to wash it. No sooner were the magic trousers immersed in the stream
than the water began to boil, and the Castle of the Dragon King of the East Sea
to was trembled to its very foundations. The Dragon Prince of East Sea, Ao BIng
confronted him, but Nezha slew the prince and drew out his dragon sinew.
Ao Guang, the Dragon King, full of fury confronted Nezha and his family. He
threatened to flood Chentang Pass and report Nezha to the Jade Emperor. To
save his family and the people, Nezha committed suicide himself them carving
up his own flesh and dismembering his bones "returning" these to his parents in
repayment for the debt of his birth.
Later Nezha appeared in his mother's dream and asked her to build a temple for
him, so he could be revived by eating incense from his worshipper. Unfortunately
Li Jing soon found out about this temple and destroyed it because he was still
angry at Nezha and felt that he had already caused too much trouble for their
family.
Li Nezha was later brought back to life by his teacher, Taiyi Zhenren, who used
lotus roots to construct a human body for his soul and gave him two new
weapons: the Wind Fire Wheels and the Fire-tipped Spear.
The resurrected Nezha vowed to punish Li Jing for destroying his temple. He
rode his Wind Fire Wheels to find his father. Li Jing was unable to withstand his
son and fled. He was so exhausted when a hermit named Randeng came to help
him. Randeng raised his arm, and a pagoda shaped itself out of red, whirling
clouds and closed around Nezha. Then Radiance of Light placed both his hands
on the pagoda and a fire arose within it which burned Nezha so that
he cried loudly for mercy. Then he had to promise to beg his father
forgiveness and always to obey him in the future. Randeng then gave the pagoda

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to Li Jing and taught him a magic saying which would give him the mastery over
his bratty son.
After Nezha reconciling with his father, they joined King Wu's rebellion against
the tyrant King Zhou of Shang (Together with Nezha's elder brother, Li Jinzha
and Li Muzha)
Nezha's title is San Taizhi or Zhongtan Yuanshuai. His other ability is to
transform into a creature with three heads and six arms.

Nian
Long long ago, there was a monster called Nian who ate men and animals every
Chinese New Years. In despair the people asked Lion God for help. The Lion
God successfully wounded Nian and chase it away. But Nian announced to
return for taking revenge.
Te next year the villagers did not have a lion to protect themselves. So, they
solved the problem by creating a costume likeness of a lion and two villagers
used it to scare Nian away. This is the reason the lion dance is performed every
Chinese New Year.
Actually the Chinese word for "year" is "Nian" which sounds like this monster
name. See "Hongjun Laozu" for the alternate version of Nian legend.

Nine-Headed Bird
The Nine-headed Bird was worshiped by ancient natives in Hubei Province, (part
of the Chu Kingdom during Warring States Period). Due to the hostile
relationship between the Kingdom of Chu and its former lord, the Zhou Dynasty,
the Nine-Headed Bird, (which is the totem creature of the Chu people) was
demonised as a result. Later it often used
Fengshen Yanyi mentioned a creature resemble Nine-Headed Bird, it called
Nine-Headed Pheasant (Jiutou Zhiji Jing). Together with her sisters: Nine-Tailed
Fox and Pipa Spirit, they disguised as beautiful women who seduced King Zhou
of Shang into his doom.

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Nine Luminaries (Jiuyaoxing)
Jiuyaoxing consist of nine stars (planets) deities: Jupiter (Taixing), Mars
(Huoxing), Mercury (Shuixing). Venus (Jinxing). Saturn (Muxing), Luoxing
(Rahu), Ziqi, Jidu (Ketu) and Yuebo.

Nine Immortal from the Nine Carp Lake (Jiulihu Xian)
Once upon a time there was a couple from Fujian who had nine sons.
Unfortunately, their eldest son only had one eye and all the others blind. The
father in despair determined to kill them all. But the mother found a man to take
them of to the mountains.
There on the mountain of the Nine Immortals they devoted themselves to the
hermit's life. Nearby is a lake and on its shores they concocted the elixir.
Succeeding in their essay, they mounted each a red carp and disappeared,
hence the lake is called Jiulihu (The Nine Carp Lake). By the lake is a temple
where great crowds gather every year to burn incense in honor of the nine
brothers.

Nine sons of the Dragon's Son
Legend said that Dragon has nine sons in Ming Dynasty. The Dragon sent its
nine sons to help the Zhu Yuanzhang to establish Ming Dynasty. After
completing the mission, nine dragons were preparing their journey to return to
Heaven. But the emperor played a trick on the most powerful dragon, the 6th
son, to carry a magic stele with a carved inscription, which could suppress any
ghost, spirit or evil creature.
The 6th dragon couldn't move under the magic stele, and all of his other brothers
wouldn't leave without him. However, they wouldn't work for the emperor
anymore. They decided to no longer show their dragon identities and turned
themselves into evil creatures.
1. The Pulao, dragons which like to cry, are represented on the tops of bells,
serving as handles.
2. The Qiuniu, which like music, are used to adorn musical instruments.
3. The Chiwen, which like swallowing, are placed on both ends of the ridgepoles
of roofs (to swallow all evil influences).

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4. The Chaofeng, lion-like beasts which like precipices, are placed on the four
corners of roofs.
5. The Yazi, which like to kill, serve as ornaments of sword-grips.
6. The Bixi, which have the shape of the (Chilong]), and are fond of literature, are
represented on the sides of grave-monuments.
7. The Bi'an, which like litigation, is placed over prison gates (in order to keep
guard).
8. The Suanni, which like to sit down, are represented upon the bases of
Buddhist idols (under the Buddha’s' or Bodhisattva’s feet).
9. The Baxia, finally, big tortoises which like to carry heavy objects, are placed
under grave-monuments.

Nine-Tailed Fox Spirit (Jiuweihu)
Nine-Tailed Fox is considered as the queen among the foxes, since Yu the
Great’s consort was a Nine-Tailed Fox. The Jiuweuhu who married Yu the Great
was surely a virtuous creature, but there was another Nine-Tailed Fox who was
very lascivious and evil. She is considered as the queen of all foxes. During Xia
Dynasty she became Meiqi, King Jie favorite concubine. She seduced the king to
build wine pool, meat forest and neglected his people. This initiated rebellion that
finished Xia Dynasty.
After that nine tail fox go to India and become concubine of king Magada, only to
make him met same fate as King Jie.
Finally she turned herself into beautiful lady named Su Daji and became
concubine of King Zhou, the last ruler Shang Dynasty. As always she seduced
the king into glamorous live that led to the end of his dynasty, unfortunately this
time she couldn't escape and executed by Jiang Ziya.

Ningfengzi
Patron God of Potter
Ningfengzi was a man who lived in the time of Huangdi. According to tradition, he
was Huangdi's master potter. He built a kiln to bake his pot but on a bad day
Ningfengzi fell into his kiln and die. People then worshiped him as Patron God of
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Potter.
In the alternate version for this story, Ningfengsi intentionally entered his kiln
after getting an instruction from certain immortal.

Niulang
See “Zhinu”.

Niuwang
The god of Oxen
Niu Wang is believed to protect cattle against epidemics and sickness

Nong Yu
Long time ago there was an adept flute player named Xiao Shi. When he played
his flute, Xiao Shi was able to imitate the sound of phoenixes. Nong Yu, the
daughter of Duke Mu of Qin fell in love with him and eventually they married. He
taught her to play the way a phoenix calls out. After several decades of this, male
and female phoenixes would come down in response to the sounds. The duke
then built a Phoenix Terrace, where the couple would spend their time. Several
more years later Nong Yu got on a phoenix, Xiao Shi mounted a dragon, and the
two of them ascended into immortality.

Nugua
See “Nuwa”.

Nuwa
Mother of Human-kind
Nuwa or Nugua is a goddess with half woman and half snake body. It is believed
that Nuwa was the first creature in the beginning of the world. She felt very lonely
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and began to create animals: On the first day she created chickens. On the
second day she created dogs. On the third day she created sheep. On the fourth
day she created pigs. On the fifth day she created cows. On the sixth day she
created horses. On the seventh day, she took up a handful of yellow clay, mixed
it with water and molded a figure in her likeness.
As she worked, the figure came alive and became the first human being. Nuwa
was pleased with her creation and went on making more figures of both men and
women. As she grew tired, Nuwa dipped a rope in the clay mud, and swung it to
create the figurines. The handmade figurines became the wealthy and the noble;
those that created with her rope became the poor and the common. Another
version stated that the figurines melted in the rain, and that in this way sickness
and physical defect came into existence.
A long time later, Gong Gong, the God of Water was fought with Zhu Rong, the
God of Fire, When Gong Gong saw that he could not win; he smashed his head
against Mount Buzhou, a mythical peak which is said to be the pillar holding up
the sky. The pillar collapsed caused disaster everywhere. Nuwa decided to mend
the sky and end this catastrophe. She melted together the five colored stones
and with the molten mixture patched up the sky. Then she killed a giant turtle and
used its four legs as four pillars to support the fallen part of the sky.

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P
Pangu
Creator of the World
In the beginning there was nothing in the universe except a formless chaos
(Hundun). This chaos coalesced into a cosmic egg for about 18,000 years.
Within it, the perfectly opposed principles of Yin and Yang became balanced, and
Pangu emerged from the egg.
Pangu is usually depicted as a primitive, hairy giant who has horns on his head
and wears furs. Pangu began creating the world: he separated Yin from Yang
with a swing of his giant axe, creating the Earth (murky Yin) and the Sky (clear
Yang). To keep them separated; Pangu stood between them and pushed up the
Sky. With each day the sky grew ten feet higher, the Earth ten feet thicker, and
Pangu ten feet taller.
In some versions of the story, Pangu is aided in this task by the four most
prominent beasts, namely the Turtle, the Qilin, the Fenghuang, and the Dragon.
After the 18,000 years had elapsed, Pangu died. His breath became the wind,
mist and clouds; his voice, thunder; his left eye, the sun; his right eye, the moon;
his head, the mountains and extremes of the world; his blood, rivers; his
muscles, fertile land; his facial hair, the stars and Milky Way; his fur, bushes and
forests; his bones, valuable minerals; his bone marrow, sacred diamonds; his
sweat, rain; and the fleas on his fur carried by the wind became animals.

Panguan
Judge of Hell
Panguan has a hideous face with a matted beard. He holds a giant calligraphy
brush in his hand, using it to note down the names of evil human beings. Pan
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Guan has two lackeys Niutou (Ox Head) and Mamian (Horse Face).
There are several Panguans in Netherworld, their chief is Cui Jue, an ex officer
from Tang Dynasty. When Cui Jue was still alive, people considered him as an
officer in human world during daylight and a Panguan in the midnight.

Pan Jinlian (Golden Lotus Pan)
Goddess of Fornication
Pan Jinlian is legendary wanton woman from Water Margin and Golden Lotus
novel. According to Golden Lotus, Pan killed her own husband, so she could
marry with Ximen Qing.
Upon becoming Ximen wife, Pan secretly had an affair with Ximen's servant and
even with Ximen's son in law (from other wives). So big her passion until she
could drink man's urine

Pang Yuanshai (Marshall Pang)
When he was still mortal, Pang Qiao was a poor but kindhearted ferryman. He
was never impartial to those who traveled by ferry and helped people in
emergency and difficulty.
One evening, a young woman came to cross the river. It was snowing and
nobody dared to go across. Pang Qiao and his father gave her shelter and got
her clothes dried. Next day, they took the girl on board to bring her to her home.
Unfortunately it was a stormy day, the River was rough and the boat capsized.
Pang Qiao and his father were swept by the wave; meanwhile the young woman
was disappeared mysteriously. As father and son finally awakened in the beach,
they found Water Ghosts weeping around them. The Ghosts was disappointed
since they could not drown Pang Qiao and his father (the Water Ghosts would
take over their bodies if they succeed). Actually the father and son were saved by
Guanyin Bodhisattva who disguised herself as the young woman.
Later Pang Qiao was appointed as deity; the Jade Emperor bestowed him with a
Golden Sword.

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Peng
According Zhuangzi, Peng is a giant bird that can fly with tremendous speed. It
wings are like clouds filling the sky. He beats the whirlwind, leaps into the air, and
rises up ninety thousand li, cutting through the clouds and mist, shouldering the
blue sky.
When the Buddhism came to China, the Chinese began associating Peng with
Garuda. Many legends such as Journey to the West and Shouyue Quanzhuan
describe Peng as Tataghata Buddha's disciple. Legend said that Yue Fei, a
famous general from the Song Dynasty was an incarnation of Peng.

Peng Zu
Peng Zu or Peng Jian is legendary long lived figure in China. He supposedly
lived over 800 years in the Shang Dynasty. Peng Zu was regarded as a saint in
Taoism. The pursuit of eternity drugs by supporters of Taoism was highly
influenced by Peng Zu. He is well known in Chinese Culture as a symbol for long
life, nutrition treatments, and sex therapy treatments. Legend maintains he
married more than 100 wives and fathered hundreds of children, as late as in his
800s.

Pixiu
Pixiu is a Chinese mythical hybrid creature considered to be a very powerful
protector to practitioners of Fengshui. It resembles a winged lion. Pixiu is an
earth and sea variation, particularly an influential and auspicious creature for
wealth. It is said to have a voracious appetite towards only gold and silver. There
are two different types of Pixiu. The difference is with their horns.
1. Pixiu with two horns is known as Piya, it wards off evil. It is also believed that
Piya has the ability of assisting anyone who is suffering from bad Feng-Shui that
is due to having offended Taisui (see “Taisui”)
2. Pixiu with one horn is called Tianlu. It is in charge of wealth. Displaying Tianlu
at home or in the office is said to prevent wealth from flowing away.
The myth of Pixiu tells that the creature violated a law of Heaven, so the Jade
Emperor punished it by restricting the Pixiu's diet to gold. Thus, Pixiu can only
absorb gold, but cannot expel it. This is the origin of Pixiu's status as a symbol of
the acquisition and preservation of wealth.

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Plague God (Wenshen)
In former times, people believed that plagues were caused by evil spirits. In order
to ward off these epidemic goblins, protection deities were venerated that were
thought to dispel the spirits of contagion.
The oldest gods of pestilence are believed as Emperor Zhuanxu's sons. Zhuanxu
had three sons that died immediately after their birth and became evil spirits
spreading plagues: One lived in the Yangzi River and was called Nuegui (Ghost
of Malaria). The second lived in the River Ruo and was called Wang Liang
(Demon Ghost), and the third used to dwell in the corners of human abodes. He
appeared in the shape of a young boy scaring the inhabitants, and was therefore
called Xiao Gui (Small Ghost).
In later tradition, the Plague God are associated with Wuwen Shizhe (Five
Commissioners of Plague).

Princess Iron Fan Princess Iron Fan (Tieshan Gongzhu)
Princess Iron Fan is a goddess with a magical plantain fan as her weapon. When
she uses her fan, it will make a strong wind in first wave and rain in second wave.
According Journey to the West P
rincess Iron Fan is a Luoshanu (Rakhsasi). She is mother of Red Boy (Hong
Hai'er) and wife of Bull Demon King (Niumowang)
However in Journey to the South, the princess is depicted as a goddess. She
was daughter of Yuhuan Shengmu and wife of Huaguang Dadi (the protagonist
of Journey to the South).

Pusa
See “Boddhisatva”.

Puxian (Samantabhadra)
Puxian is Bodhisattva of Virtue who rides a white elephant. Like Manjusri and

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Guanyin, sometimes he/she also known as man in India but as woman in several
place in China.
According to the story of Princess Miao Shan, the princess has two sisters: Miao
Qing and Miao Yin. After Miao Shan became Bodhisattva (Guanyin), her parents
and sisters who formerly tainted with earthly pleasures were followed her
example for the pursuit of the perfect life. Gradually they progressed untill
reached the true perfection. Miao Qing appointed as Manjusri, and Miao Yin
appointed as Samantabhadra)
About her White Elephant, Based on Fengshen Yanyi, the White Elephant Spirit
was originally Tongtian Jiaozhu's disciple who was subdued by Manjusri and
became her mount. However in the story of Princess Miao Shan, Azure Lion and
White Elephant were evil gods who caught Miao Shan parents and sisters who
would go on a pilgrimage to Xiang Shan (the place of Miao Shan). Both of the
animals were conquered by the Heavenly Deity and later became Miao Qing and
Miao Yin,s mount.

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Q
Qianliyan
Qianliyan is a deity with mighty sight that can see from 1000 li distance. His real
name was Gao Ming. Together with his colleague: Gao Jue (Shunfeng'er), they
were initially a malevolent spirit. Depend on the version they were subdued and
then converted by Ma Huagauang or Mazu or Jiang Ziya. Jade emperror ussually
used Qian Liyan and Shunfeng'er's talent to monitor condition in another realms.

Qigu
Goddess of Toilet
Qigu was the concubine of Liu Bang, first Emperor of the Han Dynasty. Empress
Lu, the first consort of Liu Bang envied her so much. As the Emperor died, she
tortured Qigu and mutilated several of her body parts. She then threw suffered
Qigu into the dirtiest latrine in the whole of China. It wasn’t long before QIgu’s
torment became infamous, and soon she was elevated to the rank of Goddess.
Another Goddess of lavatory is Zigu, a concubine who was murdered by his
husband's first wife and thrown her corpse into toilet.

Qilin
Chinese unicorn
Qilin is believed as symbol of good luck and prosperity. It is said that a qilin
appeared to the pregnant mother of Confucius. The qilin thereupon coughed up

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an inscribed jade tablet that foretold the future greatness of the unborn child. The
death of Confucius was foreshadowed when a qilin was injured by a charioteer. A
qilin has a double horn on its forehead, dragon head, oxen hoves, and fish skin
hide.

Qilu Luohan (Deer Sitting Luohan)
Member of 18 Luohan
Pindola the Bharadvaja, was formerly a powerful government official who
became a Buddhist Monk. One day, Bharadvaja appeared in front of the palace
riding a deer. The king welcomed him and told Bharadvaja that he could have his
position back if he wanted. Bharadvaja declined his offer and replied that he
wished the king to join him. After a long conversation the king was finally
convinced. He left his throne to his son and followed Bharadvaja to become a
monk.

Qin Gao
Qin Gao was a man from Zhao States (Warring States Period). He studied Taoist
Magic and mastered the secrets of immortality. After traveling in Jizhou and
Zhoujun for more than 200 years, he disappeared into Zhoujun Lake to catch a
dragon.
One day his disciples saw Qing Gao emerged from the lake riding on a huge red
carp. It was believed that Qin Gao ascended to Heaven with his red carp.

Qinguang Wang (King Qinguang)
One of Ten Yama King
In the First Court of Hell, King Qinguang conducts preliminary trials and each
prisoner is judged according to his deeds in his past life. The ‘good’ are
distinguished from the ‘evil’ and the King recommends appropriate reward or
punishment. Punishment is then carried out in the various Courts"
1. Those with virtuous conduct in their past life will be lead over the ‘Golden
Bridge’ to reach paradise.
2. Those whose past good deeds outweigh crimes committed will be sent to the
‘Silver Bridge’ to reach paradise.

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3. Those who were evil doers in their past life will be sent to repent before the
‘Mirror of Retribution’ and then taken to a subsequent Court of Hell to be
punished.
It is believed that Qinguang Wang was actually Jiang Ziwen, a man who lived in
Eastern Han Dynasty. In a course of putting down an insurrection, he was killed
by a blow on his forehead. During the Three Kingdoms Era, people repeatedly
reported encountering his spirit, so that Sun Quan called him the God of Bell
Mountain (Zhogsha Shashe).
Following the introduction of Buddhism to China and the popularization of its king
of the dead Yama, Jiang was placed in charge of the first of ten Hells as the
Qinguang Wang.

Qinglong
See "Azure Dragon".

Qingniao (Azure Bird)
Qingniao is three Mythical Birds which regarded as the Queen Mother of the
West's attendant. In the older myths, the Queen Mother is depicted as a tiger-lke
beast residing in Kunlun Mountain. Qingniao's duty was to fetch Queen mother's
food and carried her messages.

Qitian Dasheng
See “Sun Wukong”.

Qi Xiannu
Qi Xiannu is the seventh daughter of Jade Emperor and Queen Mother of the
West. One day she descended to earth and met a poor scholar named Dong
Yong. Dong Yong was a filial son, he sold himself to Mr. Fu (as salve), so he
could give a proper burial for his deceased father.
Qi Xiannu fell in love with Dong Yong and asked him to marry her. However,
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Dong Yong afraid his poverty would make her suffer. The Seventh Fairy insisted
to marry him. She asked a Huaiyin Tree whether Dong Yong should marry her or
not. Miraculously the Huaiyin Tree swayed it branches and leaves as the
approval (actually it was Earth God who helped the Seven Fairy). Dong Yong
finally agree to marry her. The two of them asked the Heaven and Earth as the
witnesses of their marriage.
As they arrived in Mr. Fu house, the Young master Fu treated Dong Yong like a
slave. The Seventh Fairy challenged Young Master Fu to give her an impossible
job, so she might repay Dong Yong's debt.
The young master said that she could buy her husband's freedom by weaving 10
batches of brocade in one night (There are several alternate versions for this,
100 batches of brocade for 10 days or 300 batches for a month) But if she failed,
they should be forever the slaves for him. Qi Xiannu agreed. At the night she
called her sisters from Heaven to help her and so they successfully weaved 10
batches of brocade in a night. The young master had no other choice but to let
Dong Yong and his wife go.
Dong Yong and his wife were very happy. But suddenly the Heavenly soldiers
caught up with the Qi Xiannu. Actually the Jade Emperor had discovered her
daughter's absence. The Heavenly soldiers told the Qi Xiannu fairy that they
would kill Dong Yong if she did not come with them.
Before leaving, Qi Xiannu told Dong Yong about her true identity and told him
that she was pregnant. She told him to come back one year later to get his son
under the Huaiyin Tree (that became their matchmaker earlier).
Qi Xiannu is venerated as Qi Niangma, the goddess who protects child.

Qiye and Baye
See “Bai Wuchang and Hei Wuchang”.

Queen Mother of the West (Xi Wangmu)
Queen Mother of the West is the mistress of female immortals. She was born out
of the most sublime pre-existent vital breath of the Western essence and a
personification of the feminine element (Yin)
The Queen Mother palace is on Kunlun Mountain. Her dwelling can't be reached
by normal person because it is surrounded by Ruoshui River. The water of

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Ruoshui River is so weak that even feather will sink to its bottom. Outside the
Ruoshui River is a circle burning mountain ranges called Yanhuo Mountain.
According to Shanhaijing, Queen Mother of the West is described as a tiger like
creature with human body, tiger teeth and animal tail. But tte later tradition
changed her appearance into beautiful goddess.
Every thousands years, Queen Mother of the West celebrates Pantao Hui (Feast
of Peaches) at the borders of the Jasper Pond (Yaochi). In this banquet she will
entertain her guest with the Peaches of Immortality. The peaches is endowed
with the mystic virtue of conferring longevity on all who have the good luck to
taste them. The peach tree put forth leaves once every thousand years and it
required another three thousand years for the fruit to ripen.
Queen Mother of the West birthday is on the 3rd day of the 3rd lunar month or
the 18th of the 7th month. People also called her Wangmu Niangniang or Yaochi
Jinmu (since she resides near Yaochi pond). Some records cite her real surname
as Hou or Yang and her given name is Hui. Sometimes she is referred as
Dongwanggong's wife or Jade Emperor's Queen (depend on the version).

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R
Randeng Gufo (Dypankara Buddha)
In Mahayana Buddhism, Randeng Gufo or Dipankara Buddha is worshipped as
the Buddha from the ancient, long before Shakyamunui attained his Buddha
hood.
However in Fengshen Yanyi he was depict4ed as Taoism deity who subverted
into Buddhism after the fierce battle with Tongtian Jiaozhu's Jie Clan.

Red Boy (Hong Hai’er)
See “Shancai”.

Rong Cenggong
Rong Chengong presented himself as the teacher of Huangdi He knew perfectly
the technique repairing and leading. He used to draw up the essence in the
mysterious female. His principle was that the living spirits that reside in valley do
not die, for this is how life and breath are sustained. His hair once white became
black again, his teeth which had fallen out grew again.

Rulai Fo
Rulai Fo (Tataghata) was Sidharta Gautama, the founder of Buddhism. Sidharta
was son of King Sudidhana from Kapilavastu. People also called him
Shakyamuni, because he came from Shakya Clan.

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Since he was born in the Lumbini grove (during the 6th century BC), Sidharta
was kept free from knowledge of daily suffering in the palace. During a ride he
first became aware of human suffering in shape of an sick person, an old man
and a funeral. Very upset by these visions of true life, Siddharta left his family
and for seven years lived as an ascetic, only to find out that the extreme ascetic
life was not able to solve from suffering. He further relied upon meditation to
arrive at the conclusions that made him a Buddha (Enlightened Man).
In Chinese Myth, Rulai Fo is considered as the leader of all Buddha,
Bodhisattvas and Arhats. He resided in Leiyin Temple on Vulture's Peak
Mountain.

Rushou
God of Metal; God of Punishment
Rushou is Shaohao's assistant. He has human face, tiger's claw, white tail, a
snake in his left ears. He Dwells on Mt. You in the West. As the God of
Punishment, Rushou always holds a You Axe in his hand.

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S
Samantabhadra
See "Puxian".

Sanguan Dadi
The Three Great Officials of Daoism also known as Sanyuan Dadi or Sanjiegong,
they are:
1. Tianguan
2. Diguan
3. Shuiguan.

Sanjiegong
See "Sanguan Dadi"'

Sanmao Zhenjun (Three Gods from Maoshan)
Mao Ying left his family to study Taoism in Mt. Heng. After six years of
refinement of both External and Inner Alchemy, he was summoned by the Queen
Mother of the West and given the Dao of Jade Ornament and Gold Adornment
(Yupei Jindang Zhidao ) as well as the Book of Mysterious Perfection of the
Supreme Ultimat (Taiji Xuanzhen Zhijing ).
At the age of 49, he successfully finished cultivating Dao and returned home.
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His father now abused him for vagrancy and lack of filial
piety, the old man took a stick to beat him but it flew in pieces of itself.
Later, both of Mao Ying's younger brothers, Mao Gu and Maozhong gave up their
positions on government. and followed Mao Ying to Mt. Juqu. Together they
cultivated themself in Mt. Juqu and finally ascended to Heaven. Later Mt. Juqu
was also known as Mt. Mao (Maoshan). Their teaching became the foundation of
Maoshan Sect.

Sannai
Sannai are three Shamans from Fuzhou who use the ritual techniques of Lushan.
They are Chen Jinggu (Linshui Furen) Lin Jiuniang and Li Sanniang.

Sanqing
Three highest deity in Taoism cosmogony:
1. Yuanshi Tianzun
2. Lingbao Tianzun
3. Daode Tianzun (Taishang Laojun).

San Shengmu
San Shengmu is the younger sister of Erlang Shen and the Goddess of Mt Hua.
She violated the Heavenly rule by marrying a scholar named Liu Yanchang, As
punishment his brother imprisoned her under Mt. Hua.
In her imprisonment, San Shegmu gave birth a son named Chen Xiang and sent
him out to her husband. When Chen Xiang grew up, he learned magic under
Pilu Daxian's tenure. Finally Chen Xiang managed to defeat Erlang Shen and
cleaved Mt. Hua using his axe to save his mother.

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Sanshi
Three worms’ spirits which dwelled within human body, their existence was first
recorded in Baopuzi by Ge Hong. Sanshi keep track of the good deeds and
particularly the bad deeds of the person they inhabit. Every Gengshen day (one
of the sixty days of the Chinese calendrical cycle) Sanshi will report the person’s
evil deeds to the Heaven, when their host is sleeping. The gods then will instruct
them to punish the sinners with sickness, bad fortune or even early death. To
prevent Sanshi for leaving their body, people on the eve of Gengshen day take
ritual precautions and try to stay awake. It is believed that Sanshi will be perished
if they failed from leaving seven times.

San Taizi
See "Nezha".

Saoqing Niangniang
Goddess of Good Weather
Saoging Niangniang literally means Goddess of Broom. Saoqing Niangniang was
depicted as a female deity holds a broom in her hand. She will sweep the cloud
in when rain is needed and sweeps it out when people don’t need rain. According
to Gaiyu Congkao, if it is rainy for a long time, people makes paper cutting girl
who bring broom in her hand and put it under the eaves. This paper girl is called
Saoqing Niang.

Sa Shoujian
When he was young, Sa Shoujian trained under three masters: Xujing Zhenren,
Lin Lingsu and Wang Shichen. From Lin Lingsu and Wang Shicen he learned
thunder magic; he also got Palm Leave Shape Fan from Lin Lingsu.
One night Sa Shoujian was resting in City God Temple. Suddenly a Yamen
Runner woke him up and asked Sa to follow him to magistrate court. As They
arrived in magistrate court, the Officer was there outside waiting to usher him in.
The officer explained that the City God came into his dream and told that a future
high ranking deity was having a rest in the humble temple, The City God hope
that the Officer could entertain the deity on behalf of him. And this was why the
officer was shocked and dashed out of his bedroom in the middle of the night.
After that incident, forever where Sa Shou Jian went, there would sure be
someone waiting to entertain him. Later Sa Shoujian had an apprentice named
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Wang Shan (See "Wang Lingguan").

Seven Fairies
Seven Fairies are seven daughters of Jade Emperor and Queen Mother of the
West. Sometimes they are referred with Zhang surname: Zhang Yijie, Zhang
Erjie, Zhang Sanjie, Zhang Sijie, Zhang Wujie, Zhang Liujie, and Zhang Qijie.
The reason is because many records believe that Jade Emperor's surname is
"Zhang".
Other account also called them as: Yi Xiannu, Er Xiannu, San Xiannu, Si Xiannu,
Wu Xiannu, Liu Xiannu, and Qi Xiannu.

Seven Immortals from Quanzhen
See “Wang Chongyang”.

Seventy Two Earthly Fiends (Qishi’er Disha)
Seventy Two Earthly Fiends are star generals inhabiting the Big Dipper. The
Taoist Priest invokes them to exorcise malevolent demon. Unfortunately the
Seventy Two Earthly Fiends are also believed to have evil influence on earth
causing bad fortune and plagues.
According to the classical novel Shuihuzhuan, the Seventy Two Earthly Fiends
and Thirty Six Heavenly Marshals (Sanshiliu Tianjiang) were reincarnated into
108 Outlaws from Liangshan.

Shakyamuni
See "Rulai Fo".

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Shancai
One of Guanyin's acolytes
According to the Tales of Princess Miao Shan, Shancai was an orphan made a
long journey to learn Buddhism from Guanyin in Putuoshan. Guanyin want to test
his fidelity and affection. So she ordered the Earth God and other immortals to
disguise themselves as pirates and to besiege the mountain, waving torches, and
threatening with swords and spears to kill her.
Guanyin ran to the edge of a abyss and jumped off Shancai, seeing her fall into
the abyss, without hesitation flung himself after her. Suddenly Guanyin
reappeared and lifted Shancai back to the cliff. Guanyin then asked Shancai to
look down. and he saw his mortal remains at the foot of the cliff. Since that day,
Guanyin received Shancai as her disciple.
There is a very different Shancai's origin according to Journey to the West. The
novel told us that Shancai was formerly an evil spirit called Red Boy (Hong
Hai'er). He is son of Bull Demon King (Niumo Wang) and Princess Iron Fan who
kidnapped Monk Xuanzang and even want to eat him. In the end he was
subdued by Guanyin Bodhisattva and finally became her disciple.

Shangdi
Shangdi is is a Supreme God in China's Traditional Religions. In the later Shang
and Zhou Dynasties, Shangdi was gradually replaced by or conflated with
Heaven (Tian).The Duke of Zhou justified his clan's usurpation through the
concept of the Mandate of Heaven, In later eras, he was more commonly
conflated with the Jade Emperor.

Shangyang (Rain Bird)
Once upon a time there was a strange one legged bird that performed a dance in
front of Qi Palace. An embassy was sent to Confucius to inquire the meaning of
this event. Confucius said that the bird name was Shangyang and it served as
omen of imminent heavy rain.
The sage advised the digging of drainage and the raising of dikes. As a result of
following his advice, Qi was spared calamity due to the ensuing inundation,
whereas the other states who did not heed the advice were heavily damaged.

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Shanshen
Mountain God. Each mountain has it own god.

Sha Wujing
Sha Wujing is the third disciple of Monk Xuanzaang who accompanied him
during his Journey to the West. Sha Wujing was originally General Juanlian from
Heaven. He was unintentionally destroyed a valuable vase and thus exiled from
Heaven. Sha Wujing then resided in Liusha (Flowing Sand) River as cannibal.
Every day, seven flying swords sent from Heaven would stab him in the chest
before flying off as a punishment to him. As a result, he had to live in the river to
avoid the punishment.
He has grisly appearance. His beard is red and his head partially bald. who had
him struck 800 times with a rod and exiled to earth, where he was to be
reincarnated as a terrible man-eating sand demon.
Later, Guanyin, the Bodhisattva of compassion, and her disciple Hui'an came
searching for powerful bodyguards in preparation of Xuanzang's journey to the
West. She recruited Wujing in exchange for some relief from his suffering.
In the end of their journey to the West, Tataghata transformed him into Jinshen
Luohan (Arhat with Golden Body)

Shaohao
Shaohao was a legendary emperor from prehistoric time. According to some
traditions, he is a member of the Five Emperors. Legend says that his mother
was a beautiful fairy named Huang'e who fell in love with Taibai Jinxing while
drifting along the Milky Way. The two enjoyed many intimate nights together on
her raft and they created a son. She soon gave birth to Shaohao, who grew up to
be a handsome young man with a lot of potential.
His great uncle, the Yellow Emperor, was so impressed with him that he named
him God of the Western Heavens, some people also called him "White Emperor".
He was responsible for the daily setting of the sun. In addition, Shaohao was
thought to have introduced China to the twenty five string lute.

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Shen
Chinese term for god, deity or spirit.

Shen Gongbao
Shen Gongbao is disiple of Yuanshi Tianzun and a junior of Jiang Ziya. He
became jealous of his senior and opposed Jiang Ziya in every way possible.
When Jiang Ziya decided to assist King Wen in overthrowing the ruthless and
cruel King Zhou of the Shang Dynasty, Shen Gongbao becomes an advisor to
King Zhou and he instigates various supernatural beings to join Shang's side in
the war. Shen Gongbao is ultimately defeated and cast into the Northern Sea by
Yuanshi Tianzun. He became Water Dividing Deity.

Shengmu
Literally means "Holly Mother”. A honorary title for Taoist Goddess.

Shennong
Great Emperor of Medicine (Yaowang Dadi); God of Agriculture
Shennong is a king from prehistoric time. He tried all kind of plant so he might
decide which one was good for his people and which one was poisonous. If
Shennong got himself poisoned, he will drink a tea and recuperated immediately.
Unfortunately or him, one day Shennong eat incurable poison from
Duancahngcao grass and died immediately.
Shennong was also credited with having invented basic agriculture, including the
plow.

Shenshu and Yulu
They are two deities mentioned in the Shanhaijing. The Jade Emperor ordered
them to guard peach trees which were being gnawed by demons. The people
respected them for their ability to ward off demons and worshipped them as door
gods.

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Shen Wansan
God of Gold
Shen Wansan was one of richest men at the beginning of Ming Dynasty. When
the emperor chose Nanjing as capital, he helped to build one third of the wall of
the capital.
According to the legend, young Shen Wansan was a farmer on Qinhuai River.
One day, he saw a person caught a bag of frogs and was preparing to cook it.
Shen Wansan pitied the frog, so he bought and released them into a pond. In the
evening, Shen Wansan found that the frogs released by him were surrounding a
pot; hence, he took the pot into his house.
When a gold was to drop into the pot, the pot would magically filled with full of
gold. When a silver ingot was to drop into the pot, the pot would magically filled
with full of silver ingots. It was thus known as the Treasure Pot. Later, people
worshiped him as God of Gold.

Shi De
See “Hehe Ershen”.

Shi Gandang
Shi Gandang is a spirit sent down from Mt. Tai by Bixia Yuanjun to protect
ordinary people from evil spirits. That's the reason Chinese People built a tablet
of stone in front of the house and carve a name "Shigandang" on it.
Based on legend, Shigangdang was once a governor of Mt. Tai Area and his
favorable governance brought him the title of Chief General of King Wen of Zhou.

Shouxing (God of Longevity)
See "Fu-Lu-Shou".

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Shuibu (Water Agency)
A Ministry for Water God, the chief for this agency is the Dragon Kings.

Shuiguan
Member of Sanguan Dadi
Shuiguan is the Water Official who eliminates misfortunes. His birthday is one
the15th of the tenth month

Shuijingzi
Water God
Shuijingzi is a member of Five Supreme Elders representing the Water Element.
He was an ancient Water God from the beginning of the world. He was born as
very handsome person in the North. His garments made from the bark of ebony.

Shuimu Niangniang
Water Goddess
Several regions in China worship her as good deity, when the other regions fear
her as a malevolent goddess.
This is her story based on Shanxi's folktale:
Once upon a time, there was a young girl named Liu Chunying who lived the
village near of Jinci. Liu's mother-in-law treated her so bad and asked her carry
water from a place where far away their home. After her carried water back, her
wicked mother-in-law just used a little bit and said the water too dirty.
One day, Liu meet an old man on her way home. The old man asked her for
water and as reward he gave her a whip. The old man told her that the water will
be full when she placed the whip in her bucket.
Since that day, Liu Chunying did not have to carry water everyday. This resented
her mother-in-law, because she liked to see her daughter in law suffered. One
day her mother in law found her secret and want to try it. She picked this whip
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up, suddenly; water unstoppable spouted out from the bucket and almost flooded
the village. When Liu heard this news, she quickly sat on the bucket for stopping
the water. People in village were survived, but she never left.

Shuixian Zunwang
God of Water and Sea
There are 5 historical figures associated with Shuixian Zunwang. They are:
1. Yu the Great (Da Yu)
See “Yu the Great”.
2. Qu Yuan
A loyal officer from Chu Kingdom. After giving some strict comments to his king,
he was expelled from his kingdom. Upon knowing Chu Kingdom would be
destroyed at any moment, he was so upset and killed himself by jumping into
river.
3.Wu Zixu,
A well known general from Wu Kingdom. He was executed by his king and his
body was being thrown into the sea.
4. Li Bai
See “Li Bai”.
5. Wang Bo
Another famous poet from the Tang Dynasty. One day he took a boat across the
sea. However, the boat met with big storm and overturned. All the people on that
boat were drowned.

Shujun
God of Faming and Cultivation
According to the various sources, Shujun was the son of Dijun or else Houji's son
or nephew. Shujun is one of the individuals named in Chinese mythology as
helping to found the practice of agriculture in China, along with Houji, Dijun,
Shennong, and others. Shujun is specially credited with inventing the use of a
draft animal of the bovine family to pull a plow to turn the soil prior to planting.

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Shunfeng'er
Shunfeng’er is a deity with ability to hear something from 1000 li (1 li is 0,5 km) .
His real name was Gao Jue. Together with his colleague: Gao Ming (Qian Liyan),
they were initially a malevolent spirit. Depend on the version they were subdued
and then converted by Ma Huagauang or Mazu or Jiang Ziya. The Jade Emperor
usually used their talents to monitor other realms.

Sida Tianwang
See “Four Kings of Heaven”.

Sisheng (Four Saints)
Exorcist Deities
Four Saints are four assistants of Ziwei Dadi who preside over the department of
exorcism:
1. Yousheng (Xuantian Shangdi)
2. Yisheng (Heisha)
3. Tianpeng Yuanshuai
4. Tianyou Yuanshuai

Six Deities of Six Vital Organs of the Bodies
1. Danyuan: God of Heart
2. Changzai: God of Spleen
3. Huahao: God of Lungs
4. Longyan: God of Liver
5. Longyao: God of Gall-bladder
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6. Xuanming: God of Kidneys

Si Xiannu
Si Xiannu is the fourth daughter of Jade Emperor and Queen Mother. She
married with a honest scholar named Cui Wenrui. Her parents disapproved their
marriage, they ordered Heavenly Marshal to separate Si Xiannu and Cui Wenrui.
However the clever Si Xiannu seeks protection under Sun Wukong, the Monkey
King. Since no Heavenly Marshals could beat Sun Wukong, then no one could
separate the couple.

Snake and Turtle General
Assistants of Xuantian Shangdi; Member of 36 Heavernly Marshalls
Before attaining his immortality, Xuantian Shangdi was often suffered from an
extreme hunger during his meditation. In his annoyance, he split his belly and
took out both organs, then threw them out to the grass behind him. After he
becomes an immortal, his stomach and intestines after absorbing the world
essences it was transformed into a demonic Turtle and Snake harming people.
Eventually Xuantian Shangdi subdued the Turtle and Snake and made them as
his assistants.
There also another story about the origin of Snake and Turtle General:
During the reign of the Emperor Zhou of Shang, The demon kings were ravaging
the universe. Yuenshi Tianzun assigned Xuantian Shangdi and his Heavenly
Marshals to conquer the demon. The Heavenly Marshals fought the Demon king
at the Grotto of Gloom. The Demon King made out of air a grey tortoise and a
huge serpent which fought on his side. Yet Xuantian Shangdi stepped upon the
Turtle-Snake and subdued them. The Heavenly army won the victory, overran
the Demon's troops and flung them in chains into the abyss Fengdu in Sichuan.
That chasm is reputed the mouth of hell.

Song Jiang
Patron God of Robber
Song Jiang was leader of 108 Outlaws from Liangshan, a Chinese version of
Robin Hood and his bandits.
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Songzi Niangniang
Songzi Niangniang is the Goddess who bestowed female child. It is said that she
is Zhangxian’s daughter.

Subhuti
He was one of the Ten Great disciples of Shakyamuni, and foremost in the
understanding of emptiness. In Journey to the West novel, Subhuti became Sun
Wukong's mentor. Most of Sun Wukong's magic was aught by him, including his
72 transformations.

Sui Ren
Fire God
In the prehistoric time, it is said that Sui Ren discovered the way of producing fire
by boring one piece of wood with another. He shared his knowledge with other
people and taught people to cook their food.

Sun Bin
Patron God of Shoemakers
Descendant of Sun Wu (Sun Zi), famous strategist from Wu Kingdom who wrote
the Art of War .Like his ancestor, Sun Bin also become great strategist and write
his own Art of War Book. Sun Bin was Guiguzi's apprentice. After finishing his
study, Sun Bin went to serve the Wei State. Unfortunately he was betrayed by his
envious sworn brother Pang Juan. Pang Juan framed Sun Bin and removed his
kneecaps, thus crippling him for life.
Luckily Sun Bin managed to escape to Qi State. The King of Qi acknowledged
his talents and appointed Sun Bin as chief military advisor. When Wei State
attacked the Zhao State with Pang Juan leading their army, Sun Bin considered
it as his chance for revenge. However his crippled feet prevented him from riding
horseback, and would have a negative effect on the morale of soldiers. So Sun
Bin designed a new model of shoes to support his feet. Later Sun Bin
successfully defeated Wei's army and killed Pang Juan in Maling. After finishing
his job for his kingdom, Sun Bin led a reclusive life as a hermit. Many peoples
believed that he finally attained the Tao and became immortal.
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It is said that the late shoemakers copied Sun Bin's design, thus he is worshiped
as the Patron god of Shoemakers.

Sun Bu'er
Patron of Taoist Nun
Sun Bu'er was disciple of Wang Chongyang, the founder of Quanzhen Sect.
According to tradition, Wang Chongyang told Sun Bu’er that if she traveled 1,000
miles to Luoyang, she would meet an immortal who would instruct her in the
ultimate secrets of the universe. Sun Bu’er resolved to go, even though it meant
giving up her comfortable life. However, Wang foresaw that Sun Bu’er’s beauty
would make her a target of lust-craving men if she made the journey. He
explained the situation and forbade her to make the journey.
Determined to overcome the fact that her physical attractiveness would inhibit
her study of the Tao, Sun Bu’er went home and burned her face with a splash of
hot oil, destroying her beauty. Wang was astonished by Sun’s action. He
immediately began to train her in earnest in the secrets of internal alchemy.
Eventually, it is said, she did achieve immortality, ascending into Heaven in
broad daylight in her physical body.

Sun Rooster
Sun Rooster is a cock that lives near the sun dwelling in Fusang Island. He will
awaken the Sun everyday so he can illuminate the world.

Sun Simiao
Heavenly Doctor, God of Medicine
Sun Shimiao is a famous physician from Sui-Tang Dynasty. He also practiced
preserving health through qigong (inner energy). It is said that Sun Simiao
decided to become doctor, because he was frequently getting sick as a child.
There is legend that Sun Simiao once saved the Dragon of Kunming Lake and
rewarded with 3000 medical recipes from the Dragon Palace. He compiled that
recipe into Qianjinfang (One thousand golden methods).

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Sun Simiao is renowned for his medical ethic to treat all patients the same. He
was venerated as deity soon after his death. His title is Tianyi Zhenren and
Yaowang.

Sun Wukong
Sun Wukong is a Monkey King who born from a stone. He became very strong
after learning 72 transformations from Subhuti.He could fly through the air, and
with one
leap he could cover 108,000 li. Sun Wukong took the golden rod (Ruyi Jingu
Bang) from Eastern Sea and made it as his weapon. This magic weapon could
accommodate itself to all his wishes; being able to assume the most incredible
proportions or to reduce itself to the form of the finest of needles, which he kept
hidden in his ear.
Later Sun Wukong became very haughty. He appointed himself as Qitian
Dasheng (Great Sage Equaling of Heaven) and made great havoc in both Hell
and Heaven After defeated by Tataghata Buddha he was imprisoned under Mt.
Wuxing.
500 years later, Sun Wukong was freed from his imprisonment by Monk
Xuanzang. As atonement for his sin, the Monkey King followed Monk Xuanzang
as his disciple. He protected his master on his Journey to the West to fetch
Buddhist scriptures from India.
According to Journey to the South, Sun Wukong had a daughter named Yue
Boxing, but it was unclear about her mother.
Some people venerated him as the God who Protects Children. In Taiwan, he is
also worshiped as the God of Gambler and Risky Investment.

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T
Taibai Jinxing (White Venus)
The Legate of Jade Emperor
Taibai Jinxing real name is Li Changgeng. He is depicted as wise kind-hearted
old deity. Taibai Jinxing's duty is to transmit Jade Emperor's order some
accounts also consider him as Jade Emperor' secretary. It said that Li Bai, the
famous poet from the Tang Dynasty was his reincarnation.

Taigong Wang
See “Jiang Ziya”

Taishang Laojun
Taishang Laojun (or Daode Tianzun) is the third member of Three Pure Ones.
He resides in Shangqing Heaven.
According to Yunji Qiqian, he is the Ancestor of Original Vital Breath (Yuanqi)
and the Root of Heaven and Earth. Coming out of Spontaneity, the subtle origin
of the great Dao is born from non-birth, precedes the unprecedented, is formed
from the Empty Grotto (Kongdong), and creates and nourishes Heaven and
Earth
Taishang Laojun has repeatedly incarnated himself in the world:
As Yuhuazi in the time of Fuxi

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As Guangshouzi in the time of Zhu Rong
As Guangchengzi in the time of the Yellow Emperor
Aas Lutuzi in the time of Emperor Ku
As Wuchengzi in the time of Yao, and Yinshouzi in the time of Shun
As Zhenxingzi in the time of Yu of the Xia Dynasty
As Xizezi in the time of Tang of the Yin Dynasty
As Master Wenyi in the time of King Wen
It is also believed that Taishang Laojun manifested himself in the form of Laozi,
the author of Daodejing (the holy book for Taoist). It is said that Laozi was
conceived when his mother gazed upon a falling star. He supposedly remained in
her womb for 70-80 years before being born while his mother was leaning
against a plum tree. That why her mother gave him name 'Li'er", because the
Chinese surname Li shares its character with plum. Laozi is said to have
emerged as a grown man with a full grey beard and long earlobes, both symbols
of wisdom and long life.
Later he became Keeper of the Archives for the royal court for more than eighty
years. Later on, when the virtue of Zhou had fallen into decay, he mounted his
green ox and departed from his country. When he passed through Hangu Pass.
The Warden of the Pass is an astrologer named Yin Xi (Wenshi) received him
with honor. Knowing that Laozi was a saintly man, he persuaded him to write a
treatise, which was no other than the Daodejing (the holly book for Taoist) in two
parts, one roll to each.
In Taoist Temples, Taishang Laojun always appears to the right of Yuanshi
Tianzhun. He depicted as a white-haired and white-bearded elder man with a
feather fan in his hand. His birthday is on the 15th of the 2nd lunar month.

Taishan Niangnaing
See “Bixia Yuanjun”.

Taishan Wang
See "Dongyue Dadi".

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Taisui
God of Times; God of Jupiter
In whole for cycle of the Lunar Year there is Sixty Taisui. They are composed by
the sequentially-matched ten Heavenly Stems and twelve Earthly Branches, from
the first element Jiazi to the last Guihai. Since the Sixty Taisui represent sixty
years in one cycle, it is believed that each Taisui is responsible for protecting
the respective people who were born in the year that specific Taisui related to.
So people would worship the related Tai Sui in order to be blessed.
Usually the Sixty Taisuis are represented by one deity called Yin Yuanshuai
(Marshall Yin). Yin Yuanshuai was actually Yin Jiao, the crown prince of Shang
Dynasty and son of evil King Zhou. Even tough his father once tried to kill him
and his brother (under agitation of his concubine Su Daji), however, as a filial
son, Yin Jiao still protected King Zhou when King Wu wanted to dethrone him.
Finally Yin Jiao lost his live in battle, but as filial son he still got promising reward
in his afterlife as Taisui Ye.
In several aspects, Taisui can be considered as dangerous deity. Those whose
Chinese Zodiac is offended, or by their sign conflict or clash with the Taisui of the
year, are advised to conduct a prayer session with a Taoist Priest to ask for
blessings in obtaining peace and good fortune throughout the year. Talismans
thought to protect against Taisui are sold in many areas.

Taixuannu
Taixuannu (Maiden of the Great Mystery) original name is Zhuan He. Soon after
she gave birth to a son, her husband died. One day a diviner told her that she
and her son would not live long. Taixuannu didn't panic to hear that. She
retreated to the mountain and learned the art of immortality from Yuzi (see
"Yuzi")
Taixuannu could dive into the water without drowning or bearing the greatest
coldness in winter. She also had a magic finger. When she pointed her finger
toward the snowdrifts, the snow would melt immediately; When she pointed her
finger toward a big tree, it leaves would begin to fall. She lived to be over two
hundred years old and her complexion was always that of young woman.

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Taiyang Xingjun
Taiyang Xingjun or Taiyang Dijun or Rigong is the God of the Sun. Usually he is
associated with Hou Yi, the Divine Archer. (See “Hou Yi”).

Taiyi Huangren
Taiyi Huangren studied the Art of Immortality on Mt. Emei(Sichuan). He was
elder brother of Zhenyuan Daxian (See "Zhenyuan, The Great Immortal"). When
Huangdi visited Mt. Emei, Taiyi Huangren instructed him the secret of
immortality. Taiyi Huangren also taught his magic to Hou Yi (the Divinine Archer).

Taiyi Jiuku Tianzun
Taiyi Jiuku Tianzun is of the highest ranking Taoist deities who rode on a Nineheaded Lion. According to the Taishang Sandong Biaowen, there are nine
Heavenly Lords and Taiyi Jiuku Tianzun is their chief:
1. Taiyi Jiuku Tianzun
2. Shifang Jiuku Tianzun
3. Jiuyou Duzui Tianzun
4. Zhuling Duming Tianzun
5. Huolian Danjie Tianzun
6. Faqiao Dadu Tianzun
7. Jinque Huashen Tianzun
8. Xiaoyao Kuaile Tianzun
9. Baohua Yuanman Tianzun
Taiyi Jiuku Tianzun may appear everywhere in response to the kinds who need
too be saved (similar to Guanyin, the Buddhist Goddess of Mercy).No matter in
Heaven, in Human World, In Water Realm, or even in Hell.
In the Hell, he became the Taoist equivalent to the Buddhist Dizang Wang Pusa
who committed himself to delivering the dead from the punishments inflicted by

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Yanluo Wang and the 10 Courts of Hell.
According to Ming Novel Fengshen Yanyi, Taiyi Jiuku Tianzun was originally
Taiyi Zhenren, a disciple of Yuanzhi Tianzun and mentor of Nezha. He resides in
Jinguang Cave on Mt. Qianyuan.

Taiyi Zhenren
See “Taiyi Jiuku Tianzun”.

Tang Sanzang
See “Monk Xuanznag”.

Tataghata Buddha
See "Rulai Fo".

Ten Sun Deities (Shijinwu)
Ten Sun Deities are Dijun and Xihe’s sons; they live in a mulberry tree in Fusang
Island and will do their job to illuminate the world in turn, one sun for one day.
Once upon a time all suns want to go together, as result they caused tremendous
heat that threaten human world. In one legend they were killed by Hou Yi the
Divine Archer, as in other legend they were killed by Erlang Shen.
In older time, the Chinese believed that the sun was actually a One-Legged crow.
That’s why they called it “Jinwu” (Golden Crow). Shijinwu mean Ten Sun,
because in the past Chinese had 10 days a week, so one sun for every day.

Ten Yama Kings (Shi Yanwang)
Ten Yama Kings are ten sovereign kings of Netherworld who judge deceased
people's soul. Each of Yama Kings had his own court in the Underworld. They
are:

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1. Qinguang wang
2. Chujiang Wang
3. Songdi Wang.
4. Wuguan Wang.
5. Yanluo Wang
6. Biancheng Wang
7. Taishan Wang
8. Dushi Wang
9. Pingdeng Wang
10. Zhuanlun Wang
King Qinguang in first court decides who gets to be reincarnated, and who gets
to be tortured.
King Chujiang, Songdi, Wuguan, Yanluo, Biancheng, Taishan, Dushi and
Pingdeng from the court 2-9 will determine the exact punishment for each sinner.
There are totally 18 level of Chinese Underworld. Each level has it own torture
methods; from climbed a mountain of knives, boiled by oil, disemboweled, etc.
King Zhuanlun in tenth court is in charge of the Wheel of Reincarnation. The
souls will be reincarnated depending on their past life; they would be reborn
either as a human or an animal. Some would be reborn into a life of ease and
comfort while others into sorrow and suffering. Before the souls go through the
wheel of Reincarnation, they must go to the Pavilion of Forgetfulness where the
old Granny Mengpo gives them a cup of tea which makes them forget their past
lives.

The 108 Stars of Destiny
The 108 Stars of Destiny are 108 Star deities on Heaven. They are consisting of
the Thrity Six Heavenly Marshals (Sanshiliu Tianjiang) and the Seventy Two
Earthly Fiends (Qishi’er Desha).
In the folk novel Shuihuzhuan, the 108 Star of Destiny were 108 demon kings
who were imprisoned by the Taoist Dong Xuan in Mt. Longhu. Later the 108 stars

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are released by accident, and were reborn in the world as 108 Heroes from
Liangshan. Since the 108 Heroes did many kindness in their live, then people
venerated them as 108 Stars Deities.

Thirty Six Heavenly Marshals (Sanshiliu Tianjiang)
Sanshiliu Tianjiang (Tiangang) are 36 Heavenly Marshals under Xuantian
Shangdi. Their job is to subdue evil spirits and demons. There are various
different versions of their members.
According to the classical novel Shuihuzhuan, the Thirty Six Heavenly Marshals
and Seventy Two Earthly Fiends (Qishi’er Disha) were reincarnated into 108
Outlaws from Liangshan.

Three Legged Crow (Sanzuwu)
Ten sun crows (Jinwu) which settled in 10 separate suns. They have three legs
in their body. See Teen Sun Deities “Shijinwu”.

Three Pure Ones
See "Sanqing"

Thunder God
See ”Leigong”, “Leishen”, “Leisheng Puhua Tianzun”, and “Leibu”.

Tian
Tian means "Heaven". The Chinese believed that Tian (Heaven) overruled
human efforts

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Tianbi Tianjiang
Chinese term for Heavenly Army and Marshals

Tiandu Yuanshuai
God of Opera
Tiandu Yuanshuai real name is Lei Haiqing, famous musician and opera actor in
emperor Xuanzong's palace during Tang Dynasty. According record, Lei Haiqing
was abandoned in field after birth because his body was completely in black
color that represents portentousness. Crabs secreted liquids to feed him and
help keep his moisture (That's why an opera player in China is prohibited to eat
crab)
Fortunately, Lei Haiqing was then adopted by an old couple and raised in rural
area. He was good at music since childhood. At the age of 18, he participated in
the imperial examination, and Emperor Xuanzong of Tang made an exception to
select him as the Number One Scholar. During An Lushan Rebellion, Lei Haiqing
was killed by turncoats. After his death, he made a divine manifestation to save
the Emperor. The Emperor mistook his last name as Tian, and revered him as
“Taindu Yuanshuai.
Since Tiandu Yuanshuai is good at music, he became the patron saint of
Chinese opera. Tiandu Yuanshuai described has crab symbol in his forehead.

Tianguan
Member of Sanguan Dadi
Tianguan is the Heavenly Official who confers blessings. His birthday is on the
15th of the first month

Tianhua Yuanshaui (Bi YuanshauI)
One of Five Thunder Marshalls
Tian Hua is a manifestation of thunder He took to himself a human body in a
field. His birth took place amid terrifying thunder storm and gales. When the newborn babe striding a huge serpent appeared, all the bees fled to feed him with
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their honey.
On growing up, he took the family name of Tian (Field) with the personal name of
Bi (Complete) because his birthplace was a field set off with flowers of which he
presumably was the latest, the finishing touch. Then he retired to a hermitage on
Lulu Cliff.
When Nuwa failed to patch the holes in the sky, Tian Bi came to her help with a
mixture of the essences of fire, water and primal rock matter; the fusion was
forwarded by the South wind and then a dreadful crash shook earth and sky. The
gap was filled.
Later, he helped Huangdi vanquishing Chi You's rebellion. He showered the
rebel with five-colored fire amid a whirl of wind and thunder. After that Tian Bi
secluded himself in Huaxu. Henceforth he added Hua to his name.
At the end of the Han Dynasty the Jade Emperor canonized Tan Hua as Thunder
God. He aided Xuantian Shangdi in overcoming the demons and putting to death
criminals.

Tianji Xing
Tianji is a Star Deity who represents wisdom, knowledge and intelligence. It is
believed that Tinji has reincarnated as many military genius such as: Sun Wu
(Sunzi), Sun Bin, Zhuge Liang, Wu Yong and Liu Bowen.

Tianlong
Tianlong is Celestial Dragon. It job is to pull the chariots of the gods and guard
their palaces.

Tianpeng Yuanshuai (Marshall of Heavenly Canopy)
Member of Sisheng (Four Saints)
His real name was Bian Zhuang, a manifestation of Beidou Xingjun. He born
during the Zhou Dynasty, as a fierce figure with 3 heads and 6 arms (while in
provoke situation, he will show 4 heads and 8 arms), each hand holding on to a
spiritual weapons to fight against negative entities and demons. Incantations to
Tianpeng exhort him to exorcize malevolent demons.

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It is said that Tianpeng Yuanshuai was very lazy in his youth. His teacher
threatened him that if he didn't change his manner, then he would be reborn as
pig. Since that day Tianpeng was reformed his behavior.
In Journey to the West novel, Tianpeng Yuanshuai was degraded as lusty pig
spirit-Zhu Bajie. Some Taoist considers it as serious insult.

Tianshang Shengmu
See "Mazu".

Tianyou Yuanshuai
Member of Sisheng
Tianyou is one of Ziwei Dadi’s assistants, he is vice marshals to Tianpeng
Yuanshuai (See “Tianpeng Yuanshuai”). Like Tianpeng, Tianyou is also
described as fierce figure with multiple heads and hands. Some accounts depict
him to have 3 heads and 4 arms, each hand holding magical weapons with fire
as his element.

Tieguai Li (Iron Crutch Li)
Member of Eight Immortals
His name means Li with the Iron Staff. He is depicted as a lame and repulsive
looking beggar, though originally he was a handsome, well built man. This is how
the transformation came about: When he was setting off to meet Taishang
Laojun on one of the sacred mountains, he told a disciple that only the spiritual
part of him was making the journey, while his body would remain behind. If the
spirit should not return within seven days, the body might be burnt.
Unfortunately the disciple was anxious to visit his sick mother, so he left on the
sixth day, after burning the body. Consequently, when the Masters spirit returned
on the following day, it had nowhere to go, until at last it entered and re-animated
the corpse of a beggar who had died of starvation. Thereafter Tieguai Li walked
the earth in the guise of a cripple, clad in rags and tattered.
Later Taishang Laojun Laozi gave him two gifts: An unbreakable staff (which the
beggar needed to walk around) and a gourd filled with a magical elixir that could

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cure all illnesses.
Tieguai Li is the emblem of the sick.

Tie Tou
Member of 36 Heavenly Marshals
It was believed that Tie Tou (Tie Yuanshuai) was actually the Manifestation of the
General Liuding Energies. He was born from a woman named Madam Yan. In
age 20, Tie Tou visited various place to find a teacher. Finally, he settled himself
on Mt. Yin.
Upon completing his training, Tie Tou subdued Fiery Horse and joined King Wu's
rebellion against Shang. During the final Battle with the Shang Army, Tie
Yuanshuai was being surrounded by the demon fire. He was being burnt to death
(this is the reason of why his appearance appeared to be Black). After the
physical body of Tie Yuanshuai was being burnt, his Soul ascended into the Air
and just at the moment of realizing that he had passed-on, a Heavenly General
was there to guide him into Heaven.

Tongtian Jiaozhu
Yuanshi Tianzun and Taishang Laojun and Tongtian Jiaozhu are Hongjun
Laozu's dicciple. Tongtian is Hongjun's third disciple. He lived in Biyou palace on
Jinsha Island.
Yuanshi Tianzun and Taishang Laojun found the Chan Taoism Sect and became
it patriarchs. Meanwhile Tongtian made his own sect known as Jie Taoism Sect.
Near the end of Shang dynasty, the wicked last ruler of Shang, King Zhou was
rebelled by his ex-subordinate King Wu. At this war, most of Jie’s apprentices
sided with the King Zhou and fought against King Wu (who was aided by good
deities from Chan Sect). As result many of Tongtian's disciples were slain in the
hand of Chan’s disciples.
Tongtian swore to take revenge. He led his disciples: Jinling Shengmu, Doubao
Daoren, Guling Shengmu, Wudang Shegmu, Pilu Xian and others to make a
deadly trap to kill Chan’s apprentice. However this trap could be destroyed by
Yuanshi Tianzun and Taishang Laojun, assisted by two of Budhist Patriarchs:
Jieyin Daoren and Zhunti.
Tongtian made an even more deadly trap called Ten Thousand Immortal

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Slaughtering Trap, but once again his scheme was foiled by Chan and Buddhist
followers. Finally he was arrested by his master, Hongjun Laozu.
Tongtian Jiaozhu is appeared in many legends, mostly as antagonist.

Tudi Gong
See "Fude Zhengshen".

Tudi Po
Earth Goddess; Tudi Gong wife
A story says that Tudi Po is supposed to be a young lady. After Tudi Gong
received a Heavenly rank, he gave everything that the people asked for. When
one of the gods went down to earth to do inspections, he saw that Tudi Gong
was distributing blessings unnecessarily.
Soon after that, the god went to the Celestial Palace and reported to the Jade
Emperor. After the Jade Emperor knew this, he found out that there was a lady
that was going to be killed, but she was not guilty. Thus, the Jade Emperor told a
god to go down to Earth and bring the lady to Heaven. When the lady was
brought to the Celestial Palace, the Jade Emperor bestowed her to Tudi Gong as
his wife. She was ordered to look after how many blessings Tudi Gong
distributes and that they not be unnecessarily distributed.
This is why many people do not want to pay respect to Tudi Po, because they
are afraid that she will not let Tudi Gong give lots of wealth to them.

Tu'er Shen
God of Homossex
Once upon a time there was a man from Fujian named Hu Tianbao. He was a
gay and smitten with the imperial censor who came to his village. Unfortunately
for him, Hu Tianbao was caught when he was peeping the censor in the toilet.
The censor flew into rage. He ordered his subordinates to torture Hu and
executed him under a dead tree. Fortunately the god pitied Hua Tianbao's and
deified him as patron of his "kind", his title is Tu'er Shen.

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Tuoda Tianwang (The Pagoda Bearer Heavenly King)
See "Li Jing".

Twenty Eight Constellations (Ershiba Xiu)
Ancient Chinese worshiped stars. The 28 Constellation divided into four group.
Each group consists of seven stars.
1. Qinglong (Azure Dragon) in East: Jiao, Kang, Di, Fang, Xin, Wei, Ji
2. Baihu (White Tiger) in West: Kui, Lou, Wei, Mao, Bi, Zi, Shen
3. Zhuque (Vermilion Bird) in South: Jing, Gui, Liu, Xing, Zhang, Zi, Zhen.
4. Xuanwu (Black Tortoise) in North: Dou, Niu, Nu, Xu, Wei, Shi, Bi.

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V
Vermilion Bird (Zhuxue)
One of four mythical beasts in China. It represents South and Fire Element.

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W
Wang and Gao, Er Yuanshuai
Members of 36 Heavenly Marshals
Wang and Gao were born the same year, during King Li's reign of Zhou Dynasty.
The two had become sworn brothers. They held various offices in different
provinces of the empire but they resigned when the king took no account on their
advice.
One day Gao informed his friend that he was going away on a voyage to Nanling.
Wang reminded him that Nanling was infested with tigers. But Gao stated that
death or life is of small account. So Gao went off, and of course shortly his friend
must follow him. It was only Wang who met a tiger and he killed it. Gao went to
meet his friend, anxious lest he be the prey of tigers and they made the return
journey together.
In consideration of their bravery, the Jade Emperor conferred them the title of
Superintendents of the Tiger Hill.

Wangao Laozu
Wangao Laozu is Wangchan Laozu's (See "Guiguzi") cousin (sharing paternal
grandfather). According to popular folktale, Wangao Laozu was the teacher of
Xue Dingshan, the son of famous Tang's General, Xue Rengui.
There is a stone chessboard on one of Mt. Langya's peak, people called it Qipan
Tuo. It is believed that no man could make that stone chessboard. Legend has it
that the stone chessboard was made by the immortal Wangao Laozu and Sun
Bin.

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Wang Chan
Wang Chang was one of Zhang Daoling's favorite disciples. It is said that he was
ascended to Heaven together with his teacher. Peasants worshiped him and beg
protection against epidemics and public calamities. Especially from the white
ants which destroy the wooden framework of house.

Wangchan Laozu
See "Guiguzi".

Wang Chongyang
Wang Chongyang is the founder of Quanzhen Sect, one of most influencing
Taoist Sect in China. Wang was born from wealthy family. He received good
education and also adept at martial arts. When he was about forty years old,
Wang met two Taoist immortals, Han Zhongli and Lu Dongbin. They taught him
the secret of Tao and gave him a written instruction called Ganshui Xianyuan Lu.
Wang Chongyang then built a tomb for himself near Mt. Zhongnan and called it
"Tomb of the Living Dead".
He lived in it for three years, after that he traveled to Shandong to find disciples.
In Shandong he met local tycoon named Ma Yu who agreed to allow him to set
up a hut in his garden. Wang Chongyang named his hut “Hut of Complete
Realization" (Quanzhen An). Totally Wang Chongyang had seven disciples who
later became known as the “Seven Immortals of Quanzhen”, they are:
1. Ma Yu (Ma Danyang)
Ma Danyang was a tycoon from Shandong who built a retreat for Wang
Chongyang in his garden. Wang Chongyang started his sect at Ma's garden and
received 7 disciples. Later Ma Yu succeeded Wang as head of the school. He
was also renowned for his acupuncture skill.
2. Tan Chuduan
Tan Chuduan suffered a chronic arthritis from lying down drunk in snow. He
followed Wang Chongyang after he miraculously cured his illness. Tan Chuduan
founded the Nanwu's branch of Quanzhen.
3. Li Chuxuan
According to legend, Li Chuxuan was cultivated himself at brothel to purify his
heart from all kind of seduction. He founded the Suishan lineage of Quanzhen.

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4. Qiu Chuji (Qiu Changchun)
Qiu Chuji was summoned by Genghis Khan in 1220. When they finally met, Qiu
advised the Khan to be less brutal in his conquest. He also taught him the basic
of Taoist cultivation. Genghis Khan decreed that all Taoist in his domain were to
operate under Qiu Chuji's authority. Qiu recorded his journey in his infamous
book: Qiu Changchun Xiyouji (Qiu Changchun's Journey to the West). He
founded the Longmen lineage of Quanzhen Sect.
5. Wang Chuyi
It is said that Wang Chuyi once resurrected a dead person by shouting "The
Netherworld should not receive him!". Wang Chuyi founded the Mt. Yu lineage of
Quanzhen.
6. Hao Datong
Hao Datong trained himself at Mt. Hua and founded the Quanzhen's branch at
Mt. Hua (Huashan Pai)
7. Sun Bu'er
See "Sun Bu'er".

Wang Xuanfu
See "Donghua Dijun".

Wang Lingguan
Member of 36 Heavenly Marshals; Fire God
Wang Shan's real name was Wang'e, an evil fire god who claimed the sacrifice of
children from the people. When the Priest Sa Shoujian (See "Sa Shoujian")
heard this, he became very angry and burned Wang's temple (another version
cites that Wang Shan was not evil god and Sa Shoujian burned his temple by
accident).
Wang'e complained to the Heaven and the Jade Emperor gave him diamond
eyes, a whip, and the right to follow Sa Shoujian for a number of years. He would
be allowed to whip Sa Shoujian if Wang found that he did any wrong. At the end
of the period Wang had not found that he did any wrong and asked to be
accepted as his follower. It was then that his name was changed from Wang'e
(meaning bad) to Wang Shan (meaning good). His title is Wang Lingguan
Wang Lingguan has a red face, three eyes, and wears a suit of armor. He holds

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a whip in his hand as a symbol of maintaining order.

Wangmu Niangniang
See "Queen Mother of the West".

Wang Shan
See "Wang Lingguan".

Wangzi Qiao
Wangzi Qiao was King Ling of Zhou Dynasty eldest son. He was good at playing
the sheng and could imitate the call of a phoenix. As he roamed in the area
between the Yi and Luo rivers the Taoist Master Fuqiu (Fuqiu Gong) drew him up
to a high mountain in the Song mountain range. 30 years later he ascended to
Heaven by riding a crane.

Water Ghost (Shuigui)
Water Ghost is the spirit of people who drowned. They lurk in the place where
they died. The Water Ghost will drag unsuspecting victims underwater, and
drown them to take possession of their bodies. The victim's spirit takes the Water
Ghost’s place and the process will repeat itself. Some legends suggested that a
kind hearted Water Ghost may become Water God.

Water God
See “Shuijingzi”, “Gong Gong”, “Shuimu Niangniang”, and “Shuixian Zhenjun”.

Wei Boyang
Wei Boyang, a native of Wu, had no wish for an official career, but felt an

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instinctive love for Tao and its mysteries; so he retired into the hills and occupied
himself with concocting the divine elixir.
Two of the three disciples whom he had at that time he knew to be lacking in faith
and singleness of heart; so, when Boyang had some of the elixir prepared, he
tested it on a dog, immediately the dog fell and dead. However Wei Boyang
insisted to test the elixir himself. On the instant that it entered his mouth he fell
down lifeless. Seeing which, one of the disciples followed him swallowing the
elixir, In an instant he fell lifeless too. The other two disciples thought that it
would be better to refrain from taking a drug and set off from their mountain.
As soon as they were gone, Boyang rose up and set to work refining the drug
until he got it perfect. Then he poured some into the mouths of his dead disciple
and dog, and in a very short time they too came to life again. This done, he and
the disciple went off, together with the dog, all having become immortal. all. their
way over the hills they met a wood-cuter and handed him a letter to be delivered
to the other two disciples, thanking them for the trouble they had taken in
arranging the funeral.

Weituo Pusa (Skanda)
Skanda, also known as Wei Tuo, is a Mahayana Bodhisattva regarded as a
devoted guardian of Buddhist Monasteries who guards the Buddhist Teachings.
In Chinese Temples, Wei Tuo faces the statue of the Buddha in the main shrine.
In others, he is on the far right of the main shrine, whereas on the left is his
counterpart, Sangharama (personified as the historical General Guan Yu). In
Chinese Sutras, his image is found at the end of the sutra, a reminder of his vow
to protect and preserve the teachings.
This is one of folktale about Wei Tuo:
Once upon a time, the people of Quanzhou need a bridge, so they could cross
the river safely. Guanyin Bodhisatva decided to help the Quanzhou citizen. She
turned herself into a beautiful young maiden and stood on the row of a boat. This
maiden vowed to marry anyone who could succeed in touching her by throwing a
piece of money from the edge of water. Due to many people missing, she
collected a large sum of money in her boat.
There was straw she vendor in that town named Wei Tuo. Wei Tuo was honest
man. He had been worked night and day to make extra money to give as a
donation for the bridge construction. Too bad the government always misused
the funding. Deep inside his heart Wei Tuo was enamored with the girl on boat,
but he hesitated to throw his coin. Suddenly an old man encouraged him to
participate. He instructed Wei Tuo about how to throw his coin, and eventually he
successfully hit her body.

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Guanyin ordered the Earth God to row the boat closer to the riverbank and
revealed herself as Bodhisattva. She gave all money in her boat to Wei Tuo. He
instructed him to built the bridge with that money, after that she could meet her in
in Putuoshan. Wei Tuo did as Guanyin said. As he finished the bridge
construction, he followed Guanyin to Putuoshan and became her disciple.

Wenchang Dijun
God of Tutelary and Literatures
In ancient China, scholars who planned to take the imperial civil service
examinations always prayed to Wenchang Dijun.
Originally Wenchang is the collective name for a group of stars located in the
Great Bear (Ursa Major) constellation.
Later many account depict him as a man named Zhang Yazi or as an incarnation
of Zitong Shen (See "Zitong Shen")
One version states that Zhang Yazi was a President of the Ceremony at Zitong
(Sichuan) during Tang Dynasty. He was not only noble and upright but also
talented which made him greatly respected
Another version cites that Zhang Yazi was an incarnation of Zitong Spirit who
became a minister during Jin Dynasty. He was rising up against the invasion of
King Fu Jian and died as hero in 374.
Wenchang Dijun was usually accompanied by his assistants: Kuixing, Zhuyi Fuyi,
Tianlong and Diya. His birthday is on February 3 of the lunar calendar

Wen Qiong
God of Plague; Member of 36 Heavenly Marshals
One year, when a village did something wrong and after Heaven notice it,
Heaven sent an officer down to spread the disease into the whole village. Upon
knowing that, Wen Qiong stopped the officer by swallowing the whole bottle of
disease down his throat. Immediately he was being poisoned and his soul was
being summoned to the Celestial Palace, due to his compassionate action, Jade
Emperor bestowed him with as God of Plague.

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Wenshen
See"Plague God".

Wenshi Zhenren
Yin Xi is the warden of Hangu Pass who obtained the Daodejing from Laozi (See
"Taishang Laojun"). Before his departure from Hangu pass, Laozi told Yin Xi to
meet him in Sichuan thousand days later, Yin Xi might finding him by following
his green ox.
After the appointed time came, Yin Xi went to Sichuan and saw a little herd boy
leading a green ox. The herd boy said that this ox is his young master's ox and
he had not stopped crying after this ox running away two days ago. Yin Xi
delighted to hear that (as he recognized this green ox as Laozi's ox). He asked
the herdboy to tell his young master that Yin Xi was arriving.
As soon as the young master saw Yin Xi, he transformed himself into Laozi. He
announced that Yin Xi's immortal name was already listed in the Heaven. Then
the old sage took Yin Xi on a journey throughout the universe, Yin Xi' title is
Wenshi Zhenren, he is credited as the ideal Taoist student

Wenshu Sheli
See "Manjusri".

White Dragon Horse (Bailongma)
Originally he is the third son of the Dragon King of the West Sea. He once
accidentally caused a fire that destroyed a pearl given to his father by the Jade
Emperor, and was about to be executed for committing this offence when
Guanyin appeared and pleaded for his life. The dragon prince was spared from
death and banished to Yingchou Stream.
To redeem his sin, Guanyin instructed the Dragon Prince to aid Monk Xuanznag
in his Pilgrimage to the West. The prince then transformed himself into White
Dragon Horse and serves as Tang Sanzang's steed. In the end of their
pilgrimage, Tataghata transformed Bailongma into Tianlong (Heavenly Dragon)
as reward for his merit.
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White Tiger (Baihu)
See "Baihu".

Wubai Luohan (500 Arhats)
According to scriptures, there was a group of 500 Arhats who assembled to
recite the general teachings of the Buddha at the First Council. The names of the
500 Arhats have not been preserved, except for the closest disciples, who were
historical persons, and the number “500” indicates a great number rather than an
actual head-count.

Wudang Shengmu
Wudang Shengmu is the Goddess of Mt. Wudang. She appeared in many classic
folktales such as Fengshen Yanyi (as Tongtian Jiaozhu’s disciple), Beiyouji and
Fan Lihua.

Wu Daozi
Patron God of Artists
Wu Daozi is a famous artist during Tang Dynasty. It is said that Wu Daozi never
died; he just entered one of his mural and disappeared forever.

Wudou Xingjun
Gods of Five Dippers:
1. Nandou Xingju, the Gods of Southern Dipper
2. Beidou Xingjun, the Gods of Northern Dipper
3. Dongdou Xingjun, the Gods of Eastern Dipper
4. Xidou Xingjun, the Gods of Western Dipper

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5. Zhongdou Xingjun, the Gods of Center Dipper

Wufang Guizhu (Demon Masters of Five Directions)
Plague Gods-See “Five Commissioners of Plague (Wuwen Shizhe)”

Wufang Shen (God of Five Direction)
1. East-Gou Mang,the God of Wood, in charge of spring.
2. West-Rushou, the God of Metal., in charge of autumn.
3. North-Xuanming, the God of water, winter.
4. South-Zhu Rong, the God of Fire, in charge of summer.
5. Center-Houtu, Mother Goddess of Earth, in charge of all four seasons and all
the directions

Wufang Wudi (Five Emperors of Five Directions)
After the world was being formed and settled down, the Five Supreme Elders
(See "Wulao") manifested another group called Wudi (Five Emperor). They were
being appointed to station at one corner in the Universe to look into issues that
were associated with the Directional Element that they were being allocated to.
Their member is:
1. East-Changdi (Green Emperor).
He is responsible for the balance of Yin and Yang. Sometimes the Green
Emperor is identified with the mythical emperor Fuxi. He rides a Green Dragon
(Canglong) and represents the wood (Mu).
2. South-Chidi (Red Emperor)
He is responsible for the regeneration and flourishing of the beings on earth. The
Red Emperor (also called Yandi) is identified with Shendong, or with Zhu Rong.
He rides a Red Dragon (Danlong) and represents the fire (Huo).
3. Central-Huangdi (Yellow Emperor)
He is responsible for the overall completeness and harmony of things. He rides
Yellow Dragon and represents earth (tu)
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4. West-Baidi (White Emperor)
He is responsible for the ways of the spirits and souls. The White Emperor is
identified with Shaohao He rides White Dragon and represents metal (jin)
5. North-Heidi (Black Emperor)
He is responsible for the fluency of qi energy down to earth and the balanced
harmony on earth. The Black Emperor is identified with Zhuanxu. He represents
water (Shui) and rides Black Dragon).

Wu Gang
A god who is punished to cut an osmanthus tree on the moon. The osmanthus
tree is self healing, so basically he does an endless job.
One version states that Wu witnessed a liaison between his wife and Yandi's
grandson In a rage, Wu murdered his wife's lover but Yandi ordered Wu
banished to the Moon, where he would cut down a tree. After each blow, the tree
healed itself and Wu was therefore forced to cut at it forever.
In the alternate version of Wu Gang's origin, Wu found a teacher in the
mountains in his quest for immortality. When his teacher taught him to heal, he
gave up after three days. When he was taught to play Chinese chess, he gave
up after two days. When he was taught the method of eternal life, he gave up
after a day. His teacher then sent him to the Moon to chop down the tree.

Wulao (Five Supereme Elders)
Wulao or Wufang Wulao are personifications of the Five Elements (Wuxing). It is
said that at the beginning of universe Xuanxuan Shangren manifested into Three
Pure Ones and then made up Five Supreme Elders (Wulao):
1. East-Qingling Shi Laojun
2. South-Danling Zhen Laojun
3. Central-Yuanling Yuan Laojun
4. West-Haoling Huang Laojun.Baidi
5. North-Wuling Xuan Laojun

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In some contexts, the Five Supreme Elders (Wulao) are:
1. East-Mugong (Dongwanggong)
2. South-Chijingzi (Huojingzi)
3. Central-Huanglao (Some accounts consider him as Laozi/Taishang Laojun)
4. West-Jinmu (Xi Wangmu-Queen Mother of the West)
5. North-Shuijingzi
When the Five Supreme Elders set their primal spirit into motion, the sky floated
upward, and the earth grew firm in the depths. As the Heaven and Earth divided,
they created sun, moon and the stars, river and mountain. Then there came forth
grasses and trees, birds and beasts. Dijun and Jinmu combined Ying and Yang,
thus created the first human being, men and women.
After the world was being formed and settled down, the Five Supreme Elders
manifested another group called Five Emperors (See Wufang Wudi). They were
being appointed to station at one corner in the Universe to look into issues that
were associated with the Directional Element that they were being allocated to.
Note: This version of creation is indeed very different from the Pangu and Nuwa
version

Wulang Shen
See “Wutong Shen”.

Wulu Caishen (God of Wealth of Five Directions)
They are Zhao Gongming and his four assistants (Caishen Shizi):
1. Invite Treasure Lord of Heaven (Zhaobao Tianzun ): Xiao Sheng
2. Collect Treasures Lord of Heaven (Nazhen Tianzun ): Cao Bao
3. TheHerald of Inviting Wealth (Zhaochai Shizhe ): Chen Jiugong
4. Lucky Money Immortal Officer (Lishi Xianweng ): Yao Shaosi

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There is also a theory that Wulu Caishen are derived in greatley altered form
from the cult of Wutong Shen, a five evil deities who promise an instant wealth
from their worshiper.

Wu Meng
Wu Meng served as an official in the Kingdom of Wu (Three Kingdom Era). By
disposition he was an extraordinarily filial son and ranked among the twenty four
paragons of filial piety. Wu Meng learned Taoist magic from a priest named Ding
Yi.
Once when a storm was raging, he wrote out a charm and threw it on the roof,
where a black crow seized it in its beak and flew away. The wind instantly
dropped. Asked why he had done this, he replied that a boat on the Southern
Lake had been caught in the storm, and that on board was a Taoist Priest who
had prayed to be saved from the peril. On investigation this turned out to be true.
In other occasion, a magistrate had lain dead for three days, Wu Meng declared
that his allotted span was not yet exhausted. So he lay down to sleep beside the
corpse and not long afterward the magistrate was revived from his death.
Wu Meng is teacher of Xu Xun (Xu Jinyang), his honorary title is Shenlie Zhenren

Wusheng Laomu
Wusheng Laomu (Wujiumu) is central deity for Yiguandao or Xiantiandao Sect.
She is depicted as the primordial force of the universe and the source of all
things.

Wuwen Shizhe
See "Five Commissioners of Plague".

Wuxing Qiyao Xingjun
See "Five Planets and Seven Luminaries".

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Wuying Shenjiang (Five Directioanl Mashalls)
Wuying Shenjiang or Wufang Shenjiang is the group of marshals that only
appeared in folk’s culture contexts or folk’s deities system. There are so many
variations of Wuying Shenjiang members.

Wushan Shennu (Goddess of Mt. Wushan)
She was a daughter of the Queen Mother of the West and was called Lady
Yunhua of the Cloudy Flower or Yaoji. She supported Yu the Great in taming the
waters of the Yangzi River, by chased away the evil spirits and broke the large
rocks obstructing navigation.. Unfortunately, Yaoji was too exhausted to go back
to the Heaven. She had to stay there forever. Every day, she stood on the cliff,
watching hundreds of boats plying along the Three Gorges.
Eventually, she herself became a mountain peak, the Goddess Peak of Wushan
Mountain and her maids were also transformed into peaks of various heights.
Together, they are known today as the Twelve Peaks of Wushan Mountain.
In warring states period, this goddess appeared in King Huai from Chu dream’s
and having sex with him. When she want to left she told the king that she
appeared as cloud in the morning and as rain in afternoon. Since then people
say “Cloud and rain from Wushan” as idiom of sexual intercourse.
According to Shanhaijing, Yaoji was Yandi’s daughters (See “Yaoji”), not Queen
Mother of the West daughter.

Wu Tao
See “Baosheng Dadi”

Wutong Shen
God of Instant Wealth
Wutong Shen or Wulang Shen are group of five sinister deities from Southern
region of China. Their cult began on Tang Dynasty, and usually depicted as one
legged demons or five young deities. By nature wanton and lascivious, the
Wutong often disguised themselves as handsome gentlemen to seduce
unsuspecting and vulnerable women. Women who were ravished or possessed
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by these creatures lost consciousness and endured painful fits and convulsions
lasting for days, even weeks, which often brought them to the brink of death.
Generally he is worshiped by people who want instant wealth.
In 1685, Tang Bin, the governor of the province of Jiangsu, undertook the
destruction of the Wutong temples at Suzhou, the provincial capital, and then
throughout the entire province, with an aim to reform local customs and
practices.

Wuyue Dadi
The Sovereign Kings of Five Mountain:
1. Dongyue Dadi in Taishan
2. Zhongyue Dadi in Songshan
3. Xiyue Dadi in Huashan
4. Nanyue Dadi in Hengshan (Hunan)
5. Beiyue Dadi in Hengshan (Shanxi)

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X
Xian
Xian or Xianren is a Chinese term for Immortal. Generally a Taoist Hermit who
has cultivated himself and attained enlightenment. According to Zhonglu
Chuandao Ji, there are five class of Xian:
1. Guixian (Ghost Immortal)
Guixian is a person who cultivates too much yin energy. Like an evil spirits, this
kind of immortal will drain the life essence of the living.
2. Renxian (Human Immortal)
Renxian have an equal balance of Yin and Yang energies, so they can become
either a ghost or immortal. Renxian suffer from hunger and thirst, they also
require clothing and shelter like a normal human. However they do not suffer
from aging or sickness. Renxian do not leave the realm of humans.
3. Dixian (Earth Immortal)
Dixian has successfully transformed Yin into the Pure Yang. They do not need
food, drink, clothing or shelter and is not affected by hot or cold temperatures.
Dixian are forced to stay on earth until they shed their human form.
4. Shenxian (Spirit Immortal)
Shenxian is the perfected version of Dixian. They have supernatural powers and
can take on the shape of any object. When Shenxian accumulate enough merit in
Human World , they will become Tianxian.
5. Tianxian (Heavenly Immortal)
Tianxian are live in the Heaven. They have the power to travel back and forth
between the Mortal and Celestial Realms.

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Xianglong Luohan (Taming Dragon Luohan)
Member of 18 Luohan
Nantimitolo was a warrior monk who subdued the ferocious dragon who stole the
Sutras and restored the Sutras back to earth. That's why he is called the Taming
Dragon Luohan.

Xiangu (Xianu)
Chinese term for female immortal.

Xiangliu
Xiangliu is a nine headed snake. He is a minister Gong Gong, the God of Water.
Xiangliu causes flood and devastate the ecology wherever he goes. So
poisonously virulent was the blood of Xiangliu that the soil which it soaked could
no longer grows grains. Xiangliu was eventually killed by Yu the Great ( or Nuwadepend on the version)

Xiang River Goddesses (Xiangshui Shen)
E Huang and Nu ying are the daughters of Emperor Yao. Their fathers married
them to his successor: Emperor Sun. They got along with each other very well.
When they heard their husband was dead, E Huang and Nu Ying threw
themselves into Xiang River.

Xiang Tuo
God of Bright Kid
Xiang Tuo became famous in Chinese history because Confucius recognized
him as his teacher. Throughout Chinese history, young children were inspired by
the example of Xiang Tuo. One day Confucius was riding in a chariot with his
disciples. A group of boys were building a sand castle in the middle of the road.
Confucius asked the boys to move aside and let the chariot passed. Xiang Tuo

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replied, "When does a castle give way to a chariot? All the while, chariots have to
go round a castle to get to the other side".
Confucius was astonished at the reply. Being a famous teacher, Confucius
refused to admit defeat to a young boy. Confucius fired off a stream of questions
to test Xiang Tuo. But the boy answered all perfectly. Confucius was astounded
by the intelligence of 7 years old Xiang Tuo. He invited Xiang Tuo to play a game
with him. That game was a form of gambling. Xiang Tuo refused. He said A king
who gambles led to the downfall of his country; A farmer who gambles will not
have a good harvest; A student who gambled ignore his studies. Confucius was
deeply embarrassed. He admitted that he learnt a lot from this young boy. Too
bad Xiang Tuo did not live till ripe, old age. He died at the age of 10.

Xianzi
Chinese term for fairy.

Xiao Min (Lang Rui)
Xiao Min is the sworn brother of Zhang Ciguan (Fazhu Gong) and Zhang Ming.
His Taoist name is Lang Rui and his weapon is a magical stone hoe. Together
the three sworn brothers did many good deeds and removals of demons that
cause people troubles and hardship. On one occasion Xiao Min became very
angry until his face turned green. That’s why people always depict Xiao Min's
face green. (see "Fazhu Gong" for the detail of the story)

Xiao Shengzhe (Xiao Yuanshuai)
Member of 36 Heavenly Marshals
As young man Xiao Shengzhe learned magic from Fazhu Gong. As he attained
enlightenment, millions of spiritual armies from the Northern Heaven Realm were
there to usher him to the Celestial Palace.

Xiao Shi
See "Nong Yu".

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Xiaotianquan (Howling Celestial Hound)
Erlang Shen's hound.

Xidou Xingjun
The Gods of Western Dipper
Xidou Xingjun are venerated for protection people's body. The Western Dippers
are consisting of Four Star deities:
1. Gong Baibaio Xingjun
2. Fu Gaoyuan Xingjun
3. Dian Huangling Xingjun
4. Jiang Juwei Xingjun

Xiezhi
Xiezhi is a mythological animal credited with the ability to distinguish between
true and false. Xiezhi is the emblem of justice. When it sees a quarrel, Xiezhi will
touch the wrong side. Xiezhi's pattern was embroidered on the attire of Imperial
scribes, surveillance commissioners and law superintendents during Qing
Dynasty.

Xihe
Xihe is first wife of Dijun and mother of Ten Sun Deities. Each day one of Sun
Deity (in the shape of Crow) would illuminate the world on a carriage driven by
Xihe. After that she would bathe his sons in the Ganyuan Water. This caused
water in Ganyuan seethed and that’s why the river valley was referred to as Hot
Water Valley.

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Xishen (Goddss of Hapiness)
Xishen is usually depicted with female face but with long beard. Her image is
generally found in ancient wedding ceremony.
According to folk belief, Xishen original name was Sun Jixiang, she was born
during Eastern Jin Dynasty. When she was 16 years old, Sun Jixiang prayed at
Beidou Xingjun’s altar on the 7th day of 1st month (it is believed that Beidou
Xingjun will descend to earth on this day). However she dressed herself as man
since she thought it was not suitable for young female to meet with males (even if
they were deities)
Upon seeing Sun Jixiang paying respect to them, Beidou Xingjun asked her on
what request that she wanted.
Her first wish, she requested for prolonging of her parent’s life and the gods
granted her wish.
Her second wish, Sun Jixiang requested happiness to the whole country and the
gods granted it too.
Unfortunately, before she said her last wish, Sun Jixiang pointed her own mouth.
The deities thought that she wanted a bunch of beard, and so they granted her
"request" When Sun Jixiang realized that she got a bushes beard on her face the
Deities had been gone. Sun Jixiang cried and tried to cut her beard, but it always
grew back again.
Later Sun Jixiang met a Taoist named Sun Tai. The priest told her that she was
actually a deity who in charge to lead four seasons and everything what happen
to her was fated. So Sun Jixiang accepted her fate and then she followed Sun
Tai as her disciple. Finally she attained her immortal hood after 5 years of
cultivation.

Xing Tian
Xing Tian is on of Yandi's retainer. When his master was defeated by Huangdi in
Banquan, Xing Tian challenged Huangdi for one to one combat. Huangdi cut off
his head, and the head was buried in the Changyang Mountains. But Xingtian,
with his breasts as eyes, and his navel as mouth, continued to fight with his axe
and shield.

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Xin Xing (Xin Yuanshuai)
One of Thunder Gods; Member of 36 Heavenly Marshals
Xin Xing was born near a Mountain named as Thunder Mountain. One year, her
old mother was being fright to death of the strong Thunder Roar. Xin Xing was
very upset as he continuously blamed the Heaven for causing his mother’s
death. Upon hearing his complaints, the Thunder God turned himself into a priest
and descended to the human world to express his apologize to Xin Xing.
After that, he reported this incident to Jade Emperor. Knowing that Xin Xing was
a filial and upright person, Jade Emperor summoned him into the Celestial
Palace and made him one of the Thunder Gods that in charge of Thunder Roar.

Xiqin Wangye
See "Laolang Shen".

Xi Shi
Goddess for Cosmetics and Perfume
Xi Shi is one of four renowned beauty women from Ancient China (some
considered her as the prettiest one). Xi Shi’s loveliness was praised by an old
idiom: Chenyu Luoyan, meaning that her beauty can make fish sink to the river
bottom and wild geese fall out of the sky.
Xi Shi was born in Yue State during Spring and Autumn Period. King of Yue sent
her as a tribute to King Fu Chai of Wu as a strategy to weaken Wu State from
inside. Fu Chai bewitched by her beauty and forgot about his state affairs; even
he executed his loyal minister to please her. The power of Wu State weakened
gradually, and eventually vanquished by Yue's army. Legend has it that after the
fall of Wu State, Xi Shi married with Fan Li, a retired minister of Yue State.
Nobody saw them again.

Xi Wangmu
"See Queen Mother of the West".

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Xuanming
God of Water from North; God of Plague
Xuanming is Huangdi's grandson and assistant of Zhuanxu. He is in charge of
winter. It said that Xuanming has human face, bird body, two green snakes in his
ears.

Xuantian Shangdi
Xuantian Shangdi is the Great Emperor of the North and leader of 36 Heavenly
Marshals (Some accounts said 12 Marshals). He is also known as Zhenwu Dadi
or Xuanwu Shen. Xuantian Shangdi is embodiment of Water Element. Until the
Tang Dynasty he was still believed to have the shape of a turtle-snake or Black
Turtle (based on the mythical beast Xuanwu). Later his figure was changed into a
mighty warrior with long loose hair, and a beard, barefoot, and holding a sword. It
is also common to see the turtle and snake near his feet or being stepped upon.
People in the past usually called him Xuanwu (Mysterious Warrior), but during
the Northern Song Dynasty, his name was changed to Zhenwu (Perfect Warrior),
to avoid using the character "Xuan" that appeared in the name Zhao Xuanlang
(royal ancestor of Son Dynasty)
According to Taishang Shuo Xuantian Dasheng Zhenwu, Xuantian Shangdi was
originally a prince of Jingle Kingdom. One night her mother dreamed that she
swallowed the sun, and she immediately became pregnant. When the prince
grew up, he felt the sorrow and pain of the life of ordinary people. He secluded to
Mt. Wudang and attained immortality 42 years later.
The dramatized version of this story can be found in Journey to the North
(Beiyouji), the story is mentioned as follow:
One day the Jade Emperor was tempted by a golden tree in Mr. Liu house. But
since Mr. Liu rejected giving his tree, then the Jade Emperor decided to
reincarnated 1/3 of his soul as Mr Liu's son, so he could inheriting his tree.
Unfortunately it's so difficult for this 1/3 soul to become god again that he failed in
three reincarnation. In His fourth incarnation, he had born as Xuanwu, the crown
prince of Jingle Guo. As he grew up, he shocked to see the sorrow and pain of
the life of ordinary people. The prince then abandoned his kingdom and followed
the Goddess Doumu to Mt. Wudang, where he cultivated himself according
religious doctrine.
During his meditation, Xuanwu suffered from an extreme hunger. In his

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annoyance, he split his belly and took out both organs, then threw them out to
the grass behind him.
Later Xuanwu was appointed as Xuantian Shangdi. He led 36 Heavenly
Marshals to quell the demon and evil spirit that ravaging Human World. Xuantian
Shangdi's right hand assistants are Turtle General and Snake General. Both
were born from his stomach and intestine that he threw away earlier.
It was during the Ming Dynasty, that Xuantian Shangdi’s worship enjoyed its
greatest influence, especially during the reign of Yongle Emperor, as he believed
Xuantian Shangdi aiding him in his campaign against his nephew, Emperor
Jianwen. The Yongle Emperor built a large temple of Xuantian Shangdi at Mt.
Wudang as well as in the Forbidden City.

Xuanwu
See "Black Tortoise".

Xuanxuan Shangren
See “Hongjun Laozu”

Xu Jingyang
Xu Xun was a famous Taoist from the Jin Dynasty. As a young man, Xu Xun was
skillful at archery. One day he shot a deer and his arrow hit a baby deer. The
mother deer was so sad to see her infant collapsed. She licked it baby's wound
again and again. After a while, the mother deer collapsed and died. Xu Xun was
curious and cut the mother deer’s abdomen. Suddenly he cried to see it
intestines are broken into 1-inch pieces. Actually the mother deer was so sad
over her baby's death and caused her intestines to break into pieces. Xu Xun
was enlightened by this experience. That day he broke his bow and discarded his
arrows. Xu Xun then left his home and learned Taoism from Wu Meng. He also
befriended the famous Taoist Guo Pu.
Later, Xu Xun was renowned due to his merit eradicating the Jiaolong (Flood
Dragon) that caused recurring flood. After his victory over the Jiaomo Wang
(King of the Jiaolongs) he assembled the members of his family, to the number of
forty two, on Xishan, outside the city of Nanchang and all ascended to Heaven in
full daylight, taking with them even the dogs and chickens.

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Xu Shenweng
Xu Shenweng who original name was Xu Shouxin was one of most famous late
Northern Song Dynasty's prophet. In the age of nineteen he became temple
sweeper at local Taoist Temple at Hailing, Taizhou. When he was about forty he
began fortunetelling, but he declined to be ordained as a Taoist Priest and
continued to sweep the floor for the temple (actually this is symbolically a true
spiritual purification). Emperor Zhezong once consulted him about his imperial
heir and Xu Shenweng predicted Zhao Ji (which later proven to be true).
During Song and Yuan Dynasty, Xu Shenweng was included as member of Eight
Immortals. But since Ming Dynasty his place was replaced by He Xiangu.

Xu Xun
See "Xu Jinyang".

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Y
Yandi (Flame Emperor)
One of legendary Chinese ruler from pre-dynastic time and brother of Huangdi
(other sources say he is Huangdi's cousin or close relative). Yandi once fought
his Huangdi in Banquan Plain but lost. Some account considered Yandi as the
same person with Shennong.

Yanluo Wang (King Yanluo)
Yanluo Wang is the leader and representation of Ten Yama King. He is in charge
of the Fifth Court of Hell. Many people believe that Yanluo Wang is actually Bao
Zheng (Bao Gong), a righteous and incorruptible judge from the Song Dynasty.

Yang Jian
See "Erlang Shen".

Yanguang Nainai
Yanguang Nainai is the Goddess of Eyesight and often portrayed as an attendant
to Bixia Yuanjun.

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Yang Ren
Based on Fengshen Yanyi, Yang Ren is a high-ranking official within the Shang
Dynasty. One day King Zhou grew exceedingly angry over him and immediately
demanded for his eyes to be gouged out as punishment.
The hermit Qingxu Daode Zhenjun came to rescue him with his Yellow
Handkerchief. While Yang Ren was being held within his arms, he would blow on
Yang Ren's eye sockets and effectively awaken him with a pair of hands that had
eyes within the palm, rather than a pair of eyes itself. Qingxu Daode Zhenjun
then instructed Yang Ren to help King Wu's rebellion against Shang Empire.
Later Yang Ren was appointed as the deity of Jiazi Taisui Shen

Yang Yuanshuai
Member of 36 Heavenly Marshalls
Yang Yuanshuai real name is Yang Biao (Little Tiger) because immediately
before his birth a tiger was seen running up.
Becoming a magistrate during Han Dynasty, he pardoned a robber whom the
emperor was about to put to death, and once when local magistrate tried to
corrupt him with a gift of a thousand silver pieces, he went on with his resolution.
Whilst he exercised his functions at Yangzhou, he distinguished himself for
courage and perfect integrity. Jade Emperor granted him the post of terrestrial
spirit. He has authority both over this world and the world beyond:
*In the other world, over the demons of the five directions and over the ten rulers
in Hades
*In our world, he is charged with the rewarding of good and evil actions and
further has a power of restraint over the demons of the sea and of mountains.

Yaochi Jinmu
See "Queen Mother of the West"

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Yaoguai
The word “Yaoguai” is used for evil spirits, monster, demons, and foxes.

Yaoji
Yaoji is one of Yandi’s daughters. She died in Mt. Wushan before getting married
and transformed into a plant called Yaocao. Another version states that the Jade
Emperor pitied her and made Yaoji as the Goddess of Mt. Wushan (See
“Wushan Shennu”)

Yaoshi Fo
Yaoshi Fo is holly Buddha from the East. He is known as Buddha of Medicine
who cured humankind from Illness.

Yaowang (King of Pharmaceutical)
This title can be associated with several figures, such as:
1. Pian Que, a physician who lived during the Warring States Period. Pian Que
was an expert in pulse diagnostics. It is believed that he once drank a potion
which made him immune against any disease. This allowed him to perceive
sickness in the organs of his patients.
2. Sun Simiao, see "Tianyi Zhenren".
3. Wei Cizang, a famous doctor Tang Dynasty
4. Shennong, see "Shennong".

Yecha (Yakhsa)
Monstrous looking creatures in Chinese Myth it based on Yakhsa from Hindu
Mythology. There are evil Yecha and benevolent Yecha.

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Ye Fashan
Ye Fashan is a famous Taoist during the Tang Dynasty. He is one of Emperor
Xuanzong's favorite priests.
One night the emperor summoned Ye Fashan to behold the Lantern Festival with
him. The old priest claimed tht he just came from Liangzhou. Emperor Xuanzong
marveled and asked ifYe could bring him. Ye Fashan bade the emperor to closse
his eyes, recommending him not to take a peep, as otherwise he might be
terrified by what he saw. Emperor Xuanzong followed his instruction, and with
one bound they found themselves flying through the air.
When their feet touched earth again, Ye Fashan said that the emperor could
open his eyes. They saw row upon row of lanterns extending for miles in
continuous array amid tightly packed horses and chariots and vast crowds of
sight seers. The Emperor expressed his wonder at the scene.
At noon on the 3rd day of the 6th moon, a cloud chariot drove up to Ye Fashan's
door, strains of Heavenly melody filled the room, a rainbow cloud enveloped him
and brought him to the Heaven.

Yellow Dragon (Huanglong Zhenren)
Holly Monk Huiji built his monastery in Yellow Dragon Mountain. Later people
called him Huanglong Zhenren. Many old stories credited Huanglong as Lu
Dongbin's rival.
In Lu Dongbin Feijian Zhan Huanglong, Lu Dongbin unleashed his magical sword
and threw it at Huanglong, just because he was defeated in religious debate.
However Huanglong merely pointed his finger at the sword and it dropped to the
ground. In the end Lu Dongbin admitted Huanglong's superiority.
Meanwhile, according to Lu Chunyang Dianhua Du Huanglong, It is Lu Dongbin
who overmatched Huanglong in a spirit travel contest (Sprit travel is a technique
to send someone's spirit anywhere he/she wants by leaving his/her physical
body)

Yellow Emperor
See "Huangdi".

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Yeren (Wild Man)
Yeren was an apprentice of Ge Hong. When his master ascended to Heaven as
immortal, he left some of his elixir hidden in a stone pillar on Mt. Luofu. Yeren
found it and swallowed one. Yeren enjoyed his immortality by singing joyous
songs over the mountain. Travelers who crossed Mt. Luofu by night might see
him naked with his long hair covered all over his body.

Yidi
Goddess of wine
Yidi was Yu the Great’s wife (some sources cite her as his daughter). According
some records, she brewed the first wine to please her husband.

Yinglong
Yinglong is a winged dragon. It assisted Huangdi during his war against Xiangyu.
It also believed that Huangdi ascended to Heaven by riding on a Yinglong.

Yin Yuanshuai
See “Taisui”.

Yisheng
Member of Sisheng (Four Saints)
Yisheng is one of Ziwei Dadi’s assistants. During the Kaibao reign of the
Song Dynasty he descended on Mt. Zhongnan and introduced himself
as Heisha Jiangjun. Later Emperor Taizong of Song bestowed him the title
Yisheng Jiangjun. Like the other member of Sisheng, Yisheng is also known as
an exorcist figure.

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Youchao
Protector of House
In the primitive society, human beings lived together with birds and animals and
therefore frequently attacked by wild beasts, beaten by snakes and stung by
insects. Then, a legendary smart architect appeared. Taking a cue from treeroosting birds, he made tree houses for human beings with branches and mud.
As living in the tree was very comfortable, the practice quickly caught on among
the people. They no longer worried about being attacked by wild animals at night.
Then, out of gratitude, people chose the architect as their chief and named him
Youchao (literally meaning having houses).

Yuan Gong
Yuan Gong was a White monkey who mastered many martial arts. He
challenged Goddess Jiutian Xuannu for duel but lost. In the end, he became her
apprentice. People worshiped him as Tongbei Yuanhou (Long Armed Gibbon).

Yuanshi Tianzun
The first of Three Pure Ones.. It is believed that he came into being in the
begining of the universe (altough some accounts cite that his existence was is
preceded by Hongjun Laozu or Xuanxuan Zhenren). Yuanshi Tianzun resides in
Yuqing Heaven.
According to Lishi Zhenxian Tidao Tongji, Yuanshi Tianzun was the entity who
created the world (as Pangu), and then transformed into the patriarch who rules
Heaven, Yuanshi Tianzun.
A difterent theory can be found in Zhenzhongshu by Ge Hong.It stated taht
Pangu had completed his work in the primitive Chaos, his spirit left its mortal and
reached Fuyutai. There he saw a saintly lady named Tai Yuan. Captivated by her
virgin purity, Pangu's spirit took advantage of a moment when she was breathing
to enter her mouth in the form of a ray of light. She was enceinte for twelve
years, at the end of which period the fruit of her womb came out through her
spinal column. From its first moment the child could walk and speak,and its body
was surrounded by a five-coloured cloud. The newly-born took the name of
Yuanshi Tianwang, and his mother was generally known as Taiyuan Shengmu
(the Holy Mother of the First Cause).

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Yuanshi Tianwang
See "Yuanshi Tianzun".

Yuchi Jingde
Patron Feity of Blacksmith
Yuchi Jingde or Yuchi Gong was a former blacksmith who became trustworthy
general for Emperor Taizong of Tang Dynasty. He is worshiped as Door God and
as Patron God of Blacksmith.

Yudi
See "Jade Emperor"

Yuding Zhenren
Yuding Zhenren is disciple of Yuanshi Tianzun, mentor of Erlang Shen. He
resides in Jinyuan Cave in Mt. Yuquan.

Yuelao (Yuexia Laoren)
The God of Matchmaker
Yuelao is an old deity from the moon. He brings a red thread, a couple which
bonds with this thread would be bound into marriage affinity.

Yue Fei
Yue Fei is greatest hero from the Song Dynasty. He is best known for leading
Southern Song forces in the wars in the war between Southern Song and the
Jurchen ruled Jin dynasty in northern China. However Yue Fei was framed by

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treacherous Prime Minister of Song Dynasty: Qin Hui. He was arrested and then
executed without a clear reason. Chinese people venerated Yue Fei as Yuedi or
Yuewumu Wang. In several places in China, his altars can be found in military
barracks.

Yu Hualong
See "Doushen Niangniang".

Yuhuang Dadi
See "Jade Emperor"

Yunu (Jade maiden)
Young fairies who become servants of senior deities in Heaven.

Yunzhongzi
Yunzhongzi is a renowned immortal of the Jade Column Cave atop Mount South
End. After the Nine-Tailed Fox Spirit Daji had taken her grasp over King Zhou of
Shang, Yunzhongzi was the first immortal who admonished the king.

Yushi
See "Chi Songzi".

Yu the Great
Yu the Great (Da Yu) is the founder of Xia Dynasty. According to Chinese
folklore, King Yao assigned Yu's father Gun, who was supposedly a descendent
of the Yellow Emperor, to control massive flooding, but he failed. Yao's
successor King Shun had Gun executed and his body exposed, but when Gun's

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corpse did not decompose, it was cut open and Yu was born by
parthenogenesis. Shun appointed Yu to control the floods, and after succeeding
through diligently constructing canals, Yu divided ancient China into the Jiuzhou
or Nine Provinces.

Yuzi
According to Shenxianzhuan, Yuzi was a telented man during Zhou Dynasty his
real name was Wei Zhen. King You offered him an official post, but Yuzi refused
it. He exclaimed that wealth and honor were meaningless when our allotted span
was exhausted. Accordingly, he learned the secret of immortality from Chang
Sangzi.
Yuzi mastered the essence of Five Elements. Whenever he was traveling with
his apprentices, for each of them he would give them a clay doll. Then, he
ordered them all to close their eyes. Miraculously, the clay horse was
transformed into real horse. This horse could travel 1,000 li in a day. In the end,
Yuzi climbed to the summit of Mt. Kongtong and ascended to Heaven in broad
daylight

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Z
Zaojun
See "Kitchen God".

Zhang Boduan
Zhang Boduan is a Taoist Master (and latter immortal) who renowned as master
of spirit travel. When he entered meditative stillness, he can send his spirit
anywhere he wants.

Zhang Ciguan
See "Fazhu Gong".

Zhang Daoling
Zhang Daoling, was a Taoist Taoist master who lived during the Eastern Han
dynasty. Zhang had a certain organizational genius, which was manifested in his
founding of the theocratic and millennial Tianshi Dao (Way of the Celestial
Masters) Sect or the Wudoumi Dao (Five Pecks of Rice Movement), the earliest
and most influential schools of institutional Daoism.
Zhang Daoling claimed to have received revelation from Taishang Laojun and
established his sect in Sichuan. He created a hierarchy of twenty-four libationers
which were led by an official. Each libationers had a civil register which recorded
people's names and ranks.
Zhang Daoling governed his people by appealing to their sense of shame, for he

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disliked inflicting punishment. He made a rule that sick persons should write
down all the sins they had committed since they were born and cast these written
confessions into a stream of water, vowing to the gods that they would sin no
more. The Sinners were given public work to do as a sentence. He required the
financially able members to pay five pecks of rice for their participation, and then
used these revenues to pay for the administration of the community and the care
of its less fortunate members, that's why this movement was called "Five Pecks
of Rice Movement".
After successfully making his elixir of immortality, Zhang did not ingest it
(according another account he just ingest half of it). He vowed to accomplish
something for the world before his departure from earth.
At the time, thousands of demons terrorized people of Sichuan. Zhang Daoling
bravely fought and conquered all the demons of the Six Heavens. He swore that
people owns the day and demon the night, thus distinguishing Yin and Yang.
Whoever offends this is to be killed by the Law of Orthodox Oneness
On the 9th day of the 9th Lunar month of the second year of the Yongshou Era,
Zhang Daoling, together with his wife, Yong and the disciples Wang Chang and
Zhao Sheng, ascended to Heaven in daylight.
Zhang Daoling is portrayed as a fierce old man wearing a Taoist crown; usually
rides a tiger brandishing his sword. He and his descendants bear the tittle Zhang
Tianshi (Heavenly Teacher Zhang)
Zhang Tianshi is considered as one of the most potent exorcists in Chinese
tradition. His picture or even the imprint of his seal, hung in the home, will protect
it from all evil spirits. His charms will drive away, and keep away the demons of
illness. He is prayed to in times of trouble.

Zhang Fei
Patron God of Butcher-For his story see "Guan Yu".

Zhanggong Fashu
See "Fazhu Gong".

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Zhang Guolao
Member of Eight Immortals
He was a famous hermit during the Tang Dynasty. It was his custom to ride a
white donkey, on which he could cover immense distances in a single day. When
he stopped to rest, he would fold the animal up like paper, and put it away in his
cap-box. Then, when he was ready to start again, he sprayed water over it from
his mouth, and changed it back into a donkey. According to Ye Fashan, Zhang
Guolao was originally a white spiritual bat which came out of primeval chaos
He is said to have been invited to Court by more than one of the early Tang
emperors, but did not respond until the reign of Minghuang, who treated him with
great respect. On receiving another summons, however, he immediately lay
down and died. He was buried in the usual way by his disciples, but
subsequently, when the coffin was opened, it was found to be quite empty.
Pictures of Zhang Guolao show him seated on his donkey and holding a musical
instrument called a fish-drum, which looks like a golf-bag with two clubs (really
castanets) protruding from it.
According to one tale, Zhang Guolao was unintentionally attained his immortality.
It is said that one day Zhang Guolao took a long journey and stopped at an
abandoned monastery. As he entered the monastery, he was welcomed by a
delicious aroma from a corner of the temple grounds. Assuming it was a gift from
Heaven, Zhang Guolao pick a pair of twigs as his chopsticks and began to
devour the food. Even he fed a bit of the soup to his donkey. Unbeknownst to
Zhang, this unexpected lunch was actually a thousand years ginseng that
prepared by local Taoist for himself. As the unfortunate Taoist returned, Zhang
Guolao and his donkey had already ascended to the Heaven

Zhang Liang
See “Huangshi Gong”.

Zhang Ming (Lang Ming)
Zhang Ming is the sworn brother of Zhang Ciguan (Fazhu Gong) and Xiao Min
(Lang Rui). His Taoist name is Lang Ming and his weapon is a magical hammer.
Together the three sworn brothers did many good deeds and removals demons
who causes people troubles and hardship. On one occasion Zhang Ming want to
help Zhang Ciguan who was imprisoned in a cave He used his hammer and
broke the rock that was blocking the cave entrance. Unfortunately one of the

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broken rocks flew and hit Zhang Ciguan on his forehead, causing a huge swell.
Zhang Ming was so embarrassed that his face turned red. This is why people
always depict Zhang Ming's face green. (See "Fazhu Gong" for the detail of the
story)

Zhang Sanfeng
As boy Zhang Junbao (Zhang Sanfeng's real name) was learning martial arts in
Shaolin, but later he converted into Taoism. His Taoist teacher was an immortal
named Huolong Zhenren (Fire Dragon).
Zhang Junbao built his hermitage on Mt. Wudang. One day he saw a rock
formation resemblied three peaks pointing up the sky. Taken by the view, he then
changed his named as Zhang Sanfeng (Sanfeng means three peaks).
Sometimes later, Zhang Sanfeng witnessed a fight between a crane and snake.
The crane attacked the snake fiercely, but the snake was able to avoid every
attacks and launch it on strikes. In the turn, the crane circled around and used his
wings to beat the snake aside when he struck. Zhang Sanfeng contemplated this
experience.
That night a god visited him in his dreams and taught Zhang Sanfeng the secret
of the Tao from the snake and crane fighting. Based on this enlightenment,
Zhang Sanfeng created a new martial art that relied upon at Qi as its root. This
martial art is later known as Taiji Quan. It is believed that Zhang Sanfeng was
lived more than hundred years old and finally ascended to Heaven as immortal.

Zhang Shengzhe
Member of 36 Heavenly Marshals and Assistant of Baosheng Dadi
Zhang Shengzhe was a Secretary of Tongan City during Song Dynasty. He was
sworn borther of Jiang Feijie (Jiang Xianguan). Upon hearing his sworn brother
had resigned from his post and followed Wu Tao (Baosheng Dadi), Zhang was
also resigned from bis position and learnt medical knowledge under Wu Tao. Wu
Tao, Jiang Xianguan and Zhang Shengzhe were ascended to heaven at the
same day.

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Zhang Silang
Zhang Silang is popular deity from Mt. Baiyun, Sichuan who protects people from
plagues and evil spirits. He was included as Eight Immortals members in several
Yuan Dramas (replacing He Xiangu). Zhang Silang is usually conflated with
Zhang Yuanxiao (see “Zhang Xian”).

Zhang Taishi
See "Zhang Daoling".

Zhangxian
God of Childbirth
In the Chinese Deity System, there are a few Zhangxian being recorded, but the
most popular is Zhang Yuanxiao, a native from Meishan during Five Dynasty Ten
Kingdom Period.
As a young man Zhang Yuanxiao often traveled around his hometown to provide
assistances to the needy. One day, four eyes god Lu Xiujing gave him a bow and
a golden pearl. Before the old man left, he told Zhang that these 2 items were
able to help him in assisting the folks to overcome any forms of disasters.
One year Zhang's hometown was plagued by a serious disease emitted by
Tiangou (Celestial Dog). Without any further consideration, he took out his bow
and shoot Tiangou with his golden pearl. From the moment on, his hometown
regained its peacefulness.
Later Zhang Yuanxiao reunited with Lu Xiujing on Mt. Baihe (another source cites
Mt. Qingcheng). The old deity then taught the secret immortality to him.
The other figure associated with Zhangxian is Meng Chang, the last ruler of Shu
Kingdom. When Shu Kingdom was destroyed by Song Dynasty, Mengchang’s
concubine, Huarui Furen was brought to the harem of Song Emperor. Huarui
Furen secretly preserved the portrait of her former husband. When the Song
Emperor questioned her about it, Huarui declared that it was a portrait of
Zhangxian, the God of Childbirth.

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Zhang Yuanxiao
See "Zhang Xian"

Zhao Sanniang
Patron Goddess for Wig Maker/Seller
Zhao Sanniang was wife of poor scholar. When her husband was away for
Imperial Examination, she gave the best food for her parents-in-law and only ate
husks for himself. When her parents-in-law died, Zhao Sanniang sold her own
hair, so she could arrange proper burial for them.

Zhao Gongming
God of Wealth; God of Pestilence; Member of 36 Heavenly Marshals and Hufa
Sida Yuanshuai
According to Fengshen yanyi, when Jiang Ziya led King Wu's rebellion against
King Zhou of Shang, Grand Chancellor Wen Zhong of Shang Empire sought
assistance from Zhao Gongming, the hermit from Mt. Emei. Zhao Gongming
approved and joined Shang's army. He performed many wonderful feats. He rode
his black tiger and outmatched King Wu;s troop using his Ocean Tamer Pearls.
Jiang Ziya (leader of King Wu's troops) only managed to overcome him by relying
on black art. He made a straw image of Zhao Gongming, wrote his name on it,
burned incense and worshipped before it for twenty days, and on the twenty-first
shotarrows made of peach-wood into its eyes and heart. At that same moment
Gongming, then in the enemy's camp, felt ill and fainted, and uttering a cry gave
up the ghost.
Later when the war had been ended and Jiang Ziya inaugurated 365 Deities,
Zhao Gongming was appointed as God of Wealth.
Zhao Gongming's skin was totally black, that's why called "Zhao Xuantan". His
mount is a black tiger known as Xuantan's Tiger. In older myth Zhao Gongming
also referred as one of God of Pestilence/Plague (See “Five Commissioners of
Plague”)

Zhao Xuantan
See "Zhao Gongming".

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Zheng Yuanhe
Patron God of Strolling Singers
Zheng Yuanhe was rich scholar from Tang Dynasty who spent all his money on a
courtesan named Li Yaxian. As he lost all of his fortune, he had to make living by
singing in the street. The courtesan Li Yaxian pitied her ex client, so she used all
of her savings to support Zheng study. Later Zheng succeeded in Imperial
Examination and the couple lived happily ever after.

Zhenwu Dadi
See "Xuantian Shangdi".

Zhenyuan, the Great Immortal
Zhenyuan Daxian was a younger of brother of Taiyi Huangren (See "Taiyi
Huangren"). He lived as hermit on Mt. Wanshou. When he had finished his
cultivation, he went to met his brothers at a temple in Mt. Emei, Sichuan. Both of
them were among the guests at the Great Banquet of Peach (Pantaohui) given
by Queen Mother of the West. So Zhenyuan and Taiyi Huangren were achieved
their immortality.
According to Journey to the West, Zhenyuan Daxian is referred as the Patriarch
of all Earth Deities. In his temple (Wuzhang Temple), there is a special ginsengfruit tree that produces only 30 fruits every 9,000 years. The fruit is shaped like
an infant less than three days old. A person who smells the fruit can extend his
lifespan by 360 years while a person who eats the fruit can live for another
47,000 years. Later he kidnapped Monk Xuanzang, since Xuanzang's disciples
had stolen his ginseng-fruit and destroyed the tree. The conflict was eventually
resolved when Guanyin Bodhisattva restored his ginseng-fruit tree back to life

Zhenren
Zhenren is Taoist term for perfected person, it first mentioned in the Book of
Zhuangsi. Zhenren’s rank is above Xianren (Immortal).

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Zhou Chang
Zhou Chang is a repented mountain robber who became Guan Yu's right hand
man. He accompanied his master when Guan Yu was captured and executed by
Sun Quan in 219 AD. Zhou Chang's statue usually placed together with Guan Yu
and Guan Ping on Guan Yu's Altar.

Zigu
See "Qigu".

Ziguang Furen
See “Doumu”.

Zhinu
Goddess of Weaver
Zhinu is daughter of Jade emperor and Queen Mother of the West, her duty is to
weave the clouds. One day when Zhinnu descended to earth and took a bath in a
lake. A herd-boy named Niulang stole her fairy cloth so she couldn’t fly back to
Heaven. Finally Zhinu married Niulang and had two children.
Many years later, her mother, Queen Mother of the West came and took Zhinu
back to the Heaven (since a goddess is prohibited marrying human). Niulang was
very upset that his wife had disappeared. Suddenly, his ox began to talk, telling
him that if he killed it and put on its hide, he would be able to go up to Heaven to
find his wife. Crying bitterly, he killed the ox, put on the skin, and carried his two
beloved children off to Heaven to find Zhinu. The Queen Mother discovered this
and was very angry. Taking out her hairpin, the Goddess scratched a wide river
in the sky to separate the two lovers forever, thus forming the Milky Way between
Altair and Vega.
Zhinu must sit forever on one side of the river, sadly weaving on her loom, while
Niulang watches her from afar while taking care of their two children. But once a
year all the magpies in the world would take pity on them and fly up into heaven
to form a bridge "the Bridge of Magpies", Queqiao) over the star in the Cygnus
constellation so the lovers may be together for a single night, which is the
seventh night of the seventh moon. This date is celebrated as Chinese Valentine
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Date.

Zhong Kui
The Heavenly Ghost Catcher; Exorcist Deity; God of Literature
According to folklore, Zhong Kui traveled with his friend Du Ping to take part in
the imperial examinations at the capital. Though Zhong Kui achieved top
graduate in the exams, but his title was stripped by the emperor because of his
fierce appearance. In anger, Zhong Kui committed suicide upon the palace steps
by hurling himself against the palace gate until his head was broken. Du Ping
buried him.
In Netherworld, King Yama appointed him as a vanquisher of ghosts and evil
beings. He was accompanied by his sworn brothers: Han Yuan and Fu Qu. Later
Zhong Kui returned to his hometown on the Chinese New Year's Eve. He repaid
Du Ping's kindness by marrying his sister to him.
During Kaiyuan Period of Tang Dynasty, Emperor Minghuang was attacked by
fever. In his nightmare the emperor saw a small demon fantastically dressed in
red trousers, sporting and gamboling in his palace. He introduced himself as Xu
Hao (Emptiness and Devastation). The Emperor was frightened, but suddenly
another big demon appeared, wearing a tattered head-covering and a blue robe,
a horn clasp on his belt, and official boots on his feet. He caught Xu Hao and ate
him. The big demon then introduced himself as Zhong Kui and told his sad story
to the emperor. As Zhong Kui finished his story, the emperor awoke and found
that the fever had left him. Emperor Minghuang then called for Wu Daozi to paint
the portrait of Zhong Kui. The work was so well done that the emperor
recognized it as the actual figure he had seen in his sleep,
Note: Older myth also referred Zhong Kui as God of Literature; he is associated
with the God of Literature: Kuixing.

Zhongli Quan
See "Han Zhongli".

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Ziwei Dadi
Member of Siyu (The Four Heavenly Ministers)
Zhongtian Ziwei Beiji Dadi is the Stellar Sovereign of the whole Purple Subtlety
Constellation. He assisted the Jade Emperor in administering the longitudes and
latitudes of Heaven, the Earth, the sun, the moon and stars, and the climate of
the four seasons. He is the "Master of all Stars. His birthday is on 27th day of the
tenth lunar month

Zhuangzi
Zhuang Zhou (fourth and third centuries B.C.) or generally known as Zhuangzi, is
one of the greatest famous Taoist Philosopher. He dwells on the relativity of
knowledge:
One day Zhuangzi dreamed that he was a butterfly. When he finally woke up,
Zhuangzi uncertain whether he was a man dreaming that he was a butterfly, or
he was a butterfly dreaming that he was a a man.
It is said that Zhuangzi asked Laozi about the reason of his dream. The old sage
told that Zhuangzi was formerly a white butterfly. This butterfly nourished with the
Quintessence of flowers and of Yin and Yang should have been immortalized.
One day it stole some peaches in Queen Mother of the West's garden. The
guardian of the garden slew the butterfly and so it was reincarnated as Zhuangzi.

Zhuanxu
Zhuanxu is Huangdi' descendant and Shaohao's nephew, He is called the
Emperor of the North and in charge of Pole Star. He introduced the method of
mapping the sky. During his reign, Zhuanxu once fought Gong Gong, the God of
Water for the throne of empire and won.

Zhu Bajie
Patron God of Brothel, Casion and Nightclub
Pig spirit who became second disciple of monk Xuanzang who protected him
during his journey to the West. Bajie was so foolish, wanton, egoistic and often
quarreled with his big brother; Sun Wukong.
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Zhu Bajie originally held the title of Tianpeng Yuanshuai, commander in chief of
80,000 Heavenly Navy Soldiers. He was later banished, however, for
misbehavior. At a party organized for all the significant figures in Heaven, Bajie
saw Chang'e and was captivated by her beauty. Following a drunken attempt to
sexually harass her, she reported this to the Jade Emperor and thus he was
banished to Earth. Unfortunately, when he was exiled from Heaven and sent to
be reincarnated on earth, his body was fell into a pig well and was reborn as a
pig monster.
As atonement for his past sins, Guanyin Bodhisattva recruited him to protect
Monk Xuanzang in his Pilgrimage to the West. In the end of their journey to the
West, Tataghata Buddha rewarded him with a job as "Cleanser of the Altars" and
all the leftovers he can eat.
Zhu Bajie used a nine tooth iron muck rake from Heaven that weighs roughly
5,048 kilos as his weapon. In Taiwan and some other places, Zhu Bajie is
venerated as Patron Deity for Prostitution Business.

Zhuge Liang
Patron God of Meat-bun Maker
Zhuge Liang is brilliant prime minister of Shu Dynasty during the Three Kingdom
Era. When his troop is attacking Nanman, their journey was halted by a sacred
river which asked human sacrifice for whoever wanted to cross it. Zhuge Liang
made a steamed cake resembling human's head and threw it into the lake as
substitute for real human's head. Finally they crossed the river safely. Now this
kind of cake is known as meat-bun

Zhulong
Zhulong is a giant red draconic solar deity in Chinese mythology. It supposedly
had a human's face and snake's body, created day and night by opening and
closing its eyes, and created seasonal winds by breathing.

Zhunti (Cundi)
Zhunti is a Buddha or bodhisattva venerated in Mahayana Buddhism, with
emphasis of her practice in Vajrayana Buddhism. Her cult spread with the Pala
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Empire, eventually becoming important in Tibetan Buddhism and Tangmi. Zhunti
appears with eighteen arms on a lotus and is referred to as Goddess of the
Seventy Million Buddhas.
Normally Zhunti is referred as female, except in Fengshen Yanyi where he is
depicted as male.

Zhu Rong
God of Fire
Zhu Rong real name is Zhongli; he is Yandi's descendant and father of Gong
Gong, the God of Water. He taught people the art of purifying, forging, and
welding metals by the action of fire. He also instructed peasants to burn
brushwood to drive away the venomous and savage animals.
Zhongli occupied the post of Minister of Fire for Di Ku (Yellow Emperor's
descendand). He achieved great merit and was able to illuminate and heat the
whole world. Di Ku gave him the title "Zhu Rong". At the time, Gong Gong (Zhu
Rong's son) the God of Water rebelled and Di Ku send Zhu Rong to execute
Gong Gong.
In other mythological account, Gun (Yu the Great's father) stole the Xirang from
the god and executed by Zhu Rong on Feather Mountain (Mt. Yushan)

Zhusheng Niangniang
Goddess of Birth and Childcare
She is in charge of pregnancy, delivery of infant, protection of mother and child.
She holds a book and a brush reflecting the Chinese practice of recording new
born child in the family lineage records. Many people believes that Zhusheng
Niangniang is actually Bixia Yuanjun from Mt. Taishan

Zhuxue
See "Vermilion Bird".

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Zhu Yanfu
Member of 36 Marshals
Zhu Yanfu is in charge of Dongyue Dadi’s army. One of his task is to maintain
order of the wanderings. According to Journey to the North, Zhu Yanfu was once
quarelled with Xuantian Shangdi before he joined Xuantian Shangdi as his
marshall.

Zhuyi Fuyi (Mr. Redcoat)
Zhuyi Fuyi and Kuixing represented as the two inseparable companions of the
God of Literature, Wenchang. Zhuyi is the purveyor of official posts. However, in
practice, he is more generally regarded as the protector of weak candidates, as
the God of Good Luck for those who present themselves at the examinations
with a somewhat light equipment of literary knowledge.

Zitong Shen
Zitong Shen is a Serpent Spirit lived atop a Mt. Qiqu located near the town of
Zitong, in Sichuan. It controlled thunder and rain that affected the local area. It is
said that the Snake Spirit went through many successive human and divine
incarnations. In every incarnation it always performed good deeds to bring
benefit to people.
During the suppression of a rebellion in Chengdu, Sichuan, in 1000 A.D, the
rebel army was besieged by General Lei Yuzhong but they refused to surrender.
Suddenly a man mounted a ladder, and pointing to the rebels cried in a loud
voice that Zitong Shen told him the rebel would be vanquished on the twentieth
day of the ninth moon. The town was captured on the day indicated. The general,
as a reward, caused the temple of Zitong Shen to be repaired, and sacrifices
offered to it.
Later Zitong Shen was conflated with Wechang Dijun, the God of Literature.

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