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biWiko diasamiZe

enobriv-kulturuli viTareba
adreSuasaukuneebis egrisSi

qarTvel arqeologTa bolo wlebis aRmoCenebi aragvis xeobaSi


(davaTis qva-jvari), yvarlis raionSi (nekresis antikuri xanis naqalaqarze
asomTavruli warwerebi), mcxeTaSi, dmanisSi, fiWvnarSi, webeldaSi da
sxvagan axal informaciebs gvawvdis saqarTvelos teritoriaze adamianis
dasaxlebisa da cxovrebis, qarTuli damwerlobis ganviTarebis,
saqarTvelos mezobel qveynebTan urTierTobisa da sxva mraval
mniSvnelovan sakiTxze.
nekresSi aRmoCenili rva warweridan erT-erTis _ fiqlis natexze
asomTavruliT Sesrulebulis daTariReba ax.w.-is I saukunis 80-iani
wlebiT udavos xdis im Sexedulebas, rom qarTuli damwerloba
warmarTul xanaSi warmoiSva (l. WilaSvili, 2002), xolo IV saukunis 30-
iani wlebis webeldis bareliefebze Sesrulebuli oTxenovani warwera,
romelTagan erT-erTi asomTavrulia, ueWvels xdis am dros qarTuli
damwerlobis gavrcelebulobas dasavleT saqarTvelos teritoriaze.
dRemde qarTul istoriografiaSi miRebuli debuleba, rom "sanam
dasavleTi saqarTvelo bizantiis xelisuflebis qveS imyofeboda,
oficialuri, eklesiisa da saxelmwifo kancelariis enis rols berZnuli
asrulebda" (m. lorTqifaniZe, 1973, gv. 428), emyareboda imas, rom aq
aRmoCenili ar iyo am periodis (IV-IX ss.) qarTuli werilobiTi Zeglebi
da dasavleTi saqarTvelo (egrisi) bizantiis damokidebulebis qveS iyo
moqceuli.
webeldaSi aRmoCenil bareliefebze wminda giorgis xatis Seswavla da
iq warwerebis amokiTxva (g. narsiZe, 2000, gv. 12), agreTve anuxvis mRvimis
qarTuli warwerebi, romlebsac mkvlevari l. maruaSvili V-VIII
saukuneebiT aTariRebs (m. firCxaZe, 2002, gv. 24), ufro safuZvlians xdis
Cven mier adre gamoTqmul eWvs egrisSi berZnuli enis saxelmwifo da
saeklesio-RvTismsaxurebis enad gamoyenebis Sesaxeb (b. diasamiZe, 2001, gv.
63-64).
webeldis bareliefebze aRmoCenili warwerebis Sesaxeb mkvlevari
g.narsiZe aRniSnavs, rom "winamorbed mkvlevarebs, romlebmac Seiswavles
webeldis bareliefebi, ar SeumCneviaT am kompoziciaSi iranis Sahi da is
warwerebi, romlebic TiTqmis yvela xatzea amokveTili. warwerebis
dazianeba sxvadasxva xarisxisaa da umetesi maTganis wakiTxva, kvlevis
Tanamedrove saSualebebis gareSe, Zalze Znelia"... Semdeg igi agrZelebs:
"SedarebiT kargad Semonaxuli calkeuli asoebis mixedviT irkveva, rom
warwerebi Sesrulebuli iyo oTx enaze: qarTulad (asomTavruli),
berZnulad, arameulad da falaurad" (g. narsiZe, 2000, gv. 14). warweriani
bareliefebi ax.w.-is 325 wlis axlo periodiT TariRdeba. amdenad, saqme
gvaqvs IV saukunis pirveli naxevris qarTuli asomTavruliT Sesrulebul
epigrafikul ZeglTan, romelic amtkicebs am saukuneSi egrisis
teritoriaze qarTuli asomTavruli damwerlobisa da, saerTod, qarTuli
mwignobrobis gavrcelebas. es azri axla miT ufro sarwmuno xdeba, Tu
gaviTvaliswinebT, rom axali welTaRricxvis pirvel saukuneebSi qarTuli
asomTavruli saqarTvelos mTel teritoriaze farTod gavrcelebuli Cans.
am fonze mravlismTqmelia petre iberis biografis zaqarias cnobebi,
romelic Tan gahyolia mZevlad wayvanil Tormeti wlis murvanoss (petres)
imperator Teodosis karze. misi TqmiT, patara murvanosi saqarTveloSi
sami wlis asakidan "misces samwignobred da daiswava man yovelive swavla
da gulisxmis yofiT aRmoikiTxon wmidaTa werilTa da iwurTin marad dRe
da Rame" (Zeglebi, 1967, gv. 217). igi Tormeti wlis asakSi gaemgzavra
konstantinepols da iq "daiswava ena berZnuli daisvla", xolo
ierusalimSi gamgzavrebis Semdeg "iswava ena da swavla asurebrivi"
(Zeglebi, 1967, gv. 224). rogorc motanili adgilebidan Cans, petre-
murvanoss berZnuli ena konstantinepolSi Casvlis Semdeg uswavlia, xolo
asuruli - ierusalimSi. maSin, sami wlis asakidan Tormet wlamde romel
enaze swavlobda igi? igulisxmeba, rom patara murvanosi cxra wlis
ganmavlobaSi iwvrTneboda "marad dRe da Rame qarTul enaze (a. jafariZe,
2002, gv. 20).
murvanosis mSoblebs Svilis aRmzrdelad mouwveviaT "netari ioane
saWurisi, romelic misi azrebis da miswrafebebis moziare iyo da romelic
mis swrafvas saukuno cxovrebisaken iziarebda da amisken mimaval gzaze
misi damxmare iyo warmoSobiT lazikis qveynidan" (ioane rufusi, 1965, gv.
260).
akad. s. yauxCiSvilis TqmiT, "TavisTavad cxadia, rom ufliswulis
aRmzrdelad ganaTlebul, naswavl kacs gamoiwerdnen... am dros dasavleT
saqarTveloSi iyo ganTqmuli filosofiur-ritorikuli skola (fazisis
maxloblad), sadac IV saukuneSi swavlobdnen bizantieli filosofosi
evgeniosi da misi Svili Temistiosi, cnobili ritori... ar aris
dasaeWvebeli, rom... miTridate am skolasTan dakavSirebuli iqneboda. is an
kolxidis skolis profesori iyo, an... am skolaSi miiRebda ganaTlebas
(qarTlis cxovreba, 1955, gv. 33-34). fazisis skolidan gamosuli miTridate
(ioane lazi), rogorc zemoT iTqva, murvanoss qarTulad wvrTnida da
aswavlida wminda werils, rac im drois dasavleT saqarTveloSi qarTuli
mwignobrobis, qarTul enaze swavla-ganaTlebis arsebobas adasturebs.
mTavarepiskopos anania jafariZis azriT, "ioane lazi unda yofiliyo
qarTuli saeklesio-saRvTsmsaxuro enisa da literaturis fuZemdebelTa,
pirvel mTargmnelTa wris aqtiuri wevri, qarTuli Tavdapirveli
mTargmnelobiTi skolis erT-erTi lideri. aseTi daskvnis argumentad mas
is miaCnia, rom "swored ioane lazis mier agebul palestinis monasterSi
aRmoCnda qarTuli warwerebi... maTSi naxsenebi arian antoni, abai da iosia.
es ukanasknelni pirvel mTargmnelebad iyvnen miCneulni Zvel saqarTveloSi
(a. jafariZe, 2002, gv. 21). rac Seexeba zemoT xsenebul palestinis
monasters, masSi beTlemis monasteri igulisxmeba, romlis Sesaxeb s.
yauxCiSvili SeniSnavs, rom "is monasteri ramenairad marTla lazebis
saxelTan rom ar yofiliyo dakavSirebuli, prokopi ar uwodebda mas
lazTa monasters" (qarTlis cxovreba, 1959, gv. 62). cnobili mecnieris
aseTi daskvna imiTaa CvenTvis mniSvnelovani, rom Tu es monasteri lazTa
iyo, igulisxmeba, misi mesakuTre xalxi im damwerlobiTa da eniT
sargeblobda, romliTac es warwerebia Sesrulebuli. amis mtkiceba
imitomac gvWirdeba, rom dRemde samecniero da saxelmZRvanelo
literaturaSi batonobs azri imis Sesaxeb, rom TiTqos mTeli
adreSuasaukuneebis manZilze dasavleT saqarTveloSi (egrisi)
sakancelario da RvTismsaxurebis enad gamoiyeneboda ara qarTuli, aramed
berZnuli. es debuleba miT ufro usafuZvlo Cans, Tu yvela
zemoTqmulTan erTad gaviTvaliswinebT imasac, rom sakuTriv bizantiaSi
VII saukunemde saxelmwifo enad laTinuri gamoiyeneboda da ara berZnuli
(s. yauxCiSvili, 1948, gv. 97; Âàñèëüåâ, 2000, gv. 158-159) da TviT
berZnulenovani wyaroebis mixedviT, egriselebi am saukuneebSi ar
flobdnen berZnul enas (georgika, 1965, gv. 195; 1936, gv. 125-127).
samecniero literaturaSi bizantias aRmosavleT romis imperiasac
uwodeben, radgan didi iyo romis gavlena bizantiis saxelmwifos
cxovrebaSi, kanonmdeblobaSi, marTva-gamgeobaSi, samxedro organizaciaSi.
berZnebi saukuneebis ganmavlobaSi Tavs "romaelebs uwodebdnen da
erovnebis kiTxvisas pasuxobdnen: "me romaeli var" (s. yauxCiSvili, 1973,
gv. 8). imperator Teodosis (408-450 ww.) dros konstantinepolSi
daarsebul umaRles skolaSi swavleba laTinur enaze warmoebda da
qveyanaSi saxelmwifo ena, rogorc zemoT iTqva, laTinuri iyo.
aseT pirobebSi, saeWvoa, bizantiis xelisuflebas, romelic sakuTar
qveyanas laTinur enaze marTavda, nominalurad morCil lazikaSi (egrisi)
saxelmwifo enad berZnulis gabatonebisaTvis ezruna. miT ufro, roca
damoukideblobis mosurne lazikis xelisuflebis mxridan mas mxardaWera
ar eqneboda, radgan, bolo wlebSi aRmoCenili qarTuli epigrafikuli
Zeglebis mixedviT, aq qarTuli mwignobroba Cans gavrcelebuli.
bizantieli avtorebis cnobiT, VI saukunis Sua xanebSi egriselTa
umravlesobam ar icis berZnuli ena. es gansakuTrebiT kargad Cans agaTia
sqolastikosis mier gubaz II-is mkvlelTa gasamarTlebis scenis aRweridan.
agaTia sagangebod miuTiTebs, rom am sasamarTlos ambebi stenografiuli
sizustiT iwereboda, radgan imperatoris mier gamogzavnil mosamarTle
aTanasis "axldnen kacni, romelTac icodnen swrafi wera da dawerilis
wakiTxva sxapasxupiT" (georgika, 1936, gv. 125). Semdeg igi agrZelebs, rom
"rustike da ioane moiyvanes satusaRodan da daayenes marcxniv, rogorc
braldebulni. meore mxareze dadgnen bralmdebelni, darbaiseli kolxebi,
romelTac ukve karga xania SeeswavlaT ellinTa ena" (iqve, gv. 127).
agaTias mier sagangebod xazgasma imaze, rom bralmdebel kolxebs "karga
xania SeeswavlaT ellinTa ena", miuTiTebs imaze, rom Cveulebrivad
kolxebs (egriselebs) berZnuli ena ar scodniaT. es rom asea, kargad Cans
Semdeg monaTxrobSi: "bralmdeblebi rom aseT braldebebs ayenebdnen,
kolxTa laSqars, romelic iqve iyo Tavmoyrili, arc naTqvami sityvebi
esmoda da arc azrebis mniSvnelobis gageba SeeZlo; magram imas ki
xvdebodnen isini, Tu ris gamo iyo TiToeuli maTgani gamoTqmuli da maTi
kamaTis dros TavianT gulisnadebsac urTavdnen da maTTan erTad mixvra-
moxvrasac icvlidnen. isini icvlidnen gunebas imisda mixedviT, imeds
amCnevdnen bralmdeblebs Tu sasowarkveTas (iqve, gv. 140).
motanili adgilebi aSkarad aCveneben, rom adreSuasaukuneebSi
egriselebma ar ician berZnuli ena da adgilobrivi eniT, qarTuli eniT
sargebloben, radgan winareqarTuli enis diferenciacia-daSla qarTul,
zanur da svanur enebad Zveli da axali welTaRricxvebis mijnaze Cans.1
isini jer kidev sagrZnoblad ar arian erTmaneTisagan daSorebuli da
qarTuli, romelic saliteraturo-samwerlobo enad Camoyalibda,
yvelasaTvis gasagebi da misaRebia, yvela erTnairad zrunavs misi movla-
patronobisaTvis. albaT es hqonda mxedvelobaSi akad. i. javaxiSvils, roca
ambobda: `qarTvel ers Tavisi mravalsaukunovani saxelmwifoebrivi da
samwerlobo enac hqonda da abadia axlac, romelic... megrelebisa da
svanebisTvisac erTaderTi samwerlobo da kulturis ena iyo da aris
axlac, romlis Seqmna-SemuSavebaSiac megrelebsac da svanebsac TavianTi
wvlili aqvT Setanili (i. javaxiSvili, 1979, gv. 154). es azri miT ufro
sarwmunoa, Tu gaviTvaliswinebT, rom Cvens welTaRricxvamde arsebuli
yvela ena, romelsac damwerloba da didi literaturuli tradicia
gaaCnda, dRes an mkvdaria, an safuZvlianadaa Secvlili. samyaroSi ar
arsebobs ena, romelsac sami aTasi wlis manZilze Tavisi saxe
SeenarCunebinos, ucvlelad Senaxuliyos; yvela Tanamedrove ena Tu eri
(xalxi, miT ufro, udamwerlobo), faqtiurad, Tanamedrove saxiT qristes
Semdeg yalibdeba" (qeba~... 2000, gv. 109).
amgvarad, nekresis antikuri xanis naqalaqarze ax.w.-is I saukunisa da
webeldis bareliefebze IV saukunis pirveli naxevris qarTuli
asomTavruli warwerebis aRmoCena udavos xdis imas, rom axali
welTaRricxvis pirvel saukuneebSi rogorc aRmosavleTi, ise dasavleTi
saqarTvelo erTiani qarTuli sivrcea eniT, damwerlobiTa da yofa-
cxovrebiT. amitom safuZvels moklebulia Tanamedrove istoriografiaSi
gabatonebuli Sexeduleba - adreSuasaukuneebis dasavleT saqarTveloSi
berZnuli enis `funqcionirebisa da mogvianebiT egriselTa e.w.
"qarTizaciis" gaqarTvelebis Sesaxeb. Tu kvlavac gaviziarebT
,,qarTizaciis" Teorias, maSin uarvyofT adreSuasaukuneebSi saqarTvelos
mTel teritoriaze erTiani qarTuli eTnikuri da kulturuli sivrcis
arsebobas, rac ewinaaRmdegeba istoriul realobas, radgan istoriul
kolxeTsa Tu iberiaSi ucxoeli avtorebi, umravles SemTxvevaSi, mTlian
saqarTvelos, ,,sruliad saqarTvelos" gulisxmobdnen.

damowmebuli literatura
georgika, 1965 - bizantieli mwerlebis cnobebi saqarTvelos Sesaxeb,
tomi II, teqstebi qarTuli TargmaniTurT gamosca da ganmartebebi
daurTo s. yauxCiSvilma, Tb., 1965; t. III - 1936.
b. diasamiZe, 2001 - b. diasamiZe, qristianoba dasavleT saqarTveloSi,
baTumi, 2001.
ioane rufusi, 1965 - ioane rufusi, wminda petre iberis, netari
episkopozis da Cveni uflis aRmsareblis da asketis cxovreba, georgika, II,
1965.
m. lorTqifaniZe, 1973 - m. lorTqifaniZe, egris-afxazeTi, saqarTvelos
istoriis narkvevebi, t. II, Tb., 1973.
g. narsiZe, 2000 - g. narsiZe, webeldis wminda giorgis xati, kreb.
qristianuli arqeologiis IV konferencia, Tb., 2000.
m. firCxaZe, 2002 - m. firCxaZe, qristianobis gavrcelebis istoria
dasavleT saqarTveloSi (I-IV ss.), avtoreferati, Tb., 2002.
qarTlis cxovreba, 1955 - qarTlis cxovreba, teqsti dadgenili yvela
ZiriTadi xelnaweris mixedviT s. yauxCiSvilis mier, t. I, Tb., 1955; t. II -
1959.
qeba~, 2000 - qeba~ da dideba~ qarTulisa enisa~, Semdgenel-
redaqtori t. futkaraZe, Tb., 2000.
s. yauxCiSvili, 1948 - s. yauxCiSvili, leqciebi bizantiis istoriidan,
Tb., 1948.
Zeglebi, 1967 - Zveli qarTuli agiografiuli literaturis Zeglebi,
II, Tb., 1967.
l. WilaSvili, 2002 - l. WilaSvili, Cveni warmarTi winaprebis
fasdaudebeli saxsovari, gaz. "saqarTvelos respublika", #290, 30
noemberi, 2002.
iv. javaxiSvili, 1979 - iv. javaxiSvili, Txzulebani, t. I, Tb., 1979.
a. jafariZe, 2002 - mTavarepiskoposi anania jafariZe, qarTuli
saeklesio (saliteraturo) enis Camoyalibebis sakiTxisaTvis (ioane lazi),
Tb., 2002.

BICHIKO DIASAMIDZE

LINGUO-CULTURAL SITUATION IN THE EARLY


MEDIEVAL EGRISI

The recent years’ discoveries of the Georgian archaeologists in the Aragvi Valley
(Davati Stone Cross), in Kvareli region (Nekresi inscriptions), in Mtskheta, Dmanisi,
Pichvnari, Tsebelda and elsewhere provides novel information about the development of
the Georgian script, and about many important issues, among them the relationships of
Georgia with her neighboring countries.
The discovery of the Georgian capital script (mtavruli) of Nekresi, the ancient
town, in I century and on the bas-relief of Tsebelda in the IV century makes it an
indisputable fact that in the initial centuries of the new era east and west Georgia was one
wholesome space in terms of language, script and the way of life. Therefore I deem
groundless the opinion dominated in the modern historiography about the Greek language
functioning here in the early medieval centuries and about so-called late Kartization
(Georgianization) of Egrisi. If we agree the Kartization theory, then we refute the
existence of the unified Georgian ethnic and cultural space in the early medieval
centuries that openly contradicts the historical reality. My argument is also confirmed by
the fact that refereeing to Kolhketi or Iberia foreign authors also in most cases meant the
entire Georgia.

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