A short survey on sensorless air gap active magnetic bearing control.

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A short survey on sensorless air gap active magnetic bearing control.

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air gap electromagnetic levitation control

Ahmed Salman Student ID 37-145015 , Takafumi Koseki

latest advances in the field of sensorless air gap estimation for

electromagnetic levitation control. Sensorless magnetic levitation

can generally be classified into 2 types. 1)Using state observers

and 2) Modulation based. This paper highlights some of the

recent works in modulation based sensorless air gap estimation

and compares the pros and cons for the sub-techniques in the

modulation based approach.

Index TermsMagnetic levitation , sensorless , air gap estimation , self sensing , active magnetic bearings , current change

rate

I. I NTRODUCTION

is a method by which an object can be suspended in

mid air without any physical support or contacts other than

the magnetic field. The gravitational pull and other external

disturbances are countered only by the magnetic force which

is the reluctance force in this case. Magnetic suspension

boasts significant advantages over conventional mechanical

machines such as high speed ,frictionless, less wear and tear

and durability. Magnetic levitation has found its way into the

industrial applications as, most commonly known, the high

speed train. Active magnetic bearings and bearingless motors

are also a significant part of this field. Other applicataions

include vibration isolation platforms and conveyer systems.

Magnetic levitation can be classified, generally, into two

types. 1) Electromagnetic suspension (EMS) and 2) Electrodynamic suspension (EDS). Though, similar in consequence,

they operate under a different mechanism. EMS uses electromagnets to produce attractive force. This results in an inherently unstable system and thus requires active control system

(Fig. 1). EDS, on the other hand, uses superconductors to

produce repulsive force for suspension resulting in a relatively

stable system (Fig. 2)

This paper reviews some of the recent works related with

the sensor less air gap estimation. Firstly a general overview

of theory of electromagnetic suspension is given in section

II. Section III describes the fundamental requirements for

closed loop control and explains the motivation for sensorless air gap estimation. Section IV introduces the basics of

sensorless estimation and its classification, and highlights the

recent advances to counter the technical problems in the afore

mentioned methods. In Section V a comparison between latest

estimation techniques is shown and finally in section VI a

conclusion is drawn from this review.

RELUCTANCE FORCE

electromagnets to generate force. This force is called reluctance1 force. Reluctance force is derived from the energy

stored in the magnetic field which can be converted to mechanical energy by principle of virtual work. This force arises

between surfaces with different permeabilities for example

iron core and air. The direction of the force is perpendicular to

the surface of the core and it tends to decrease the reluctance

of the over all system. Fig.3 shows an iron C-I core with

copper wire wound around one of its legs. Voltage is applied

1 Magnetic

resistance

in the C-I core. This flux produces reluctance force causing

the I core to be lifted.

output voltage. This voltage is fed to the power amplifier

which amplifies it and inputs it to the coil resulting in

current and consequently magnetic force. Generally, in an

EMS system, current sensor and displacement sensors are

used. Displacement sensors are based on different physical

phenomena , such as Inductive Displacement sensors, Eddy

current sensors, Capacitive displacement sensors, flux sensors

and optical sensors [1].

x(t) : Air gap.

l + 2x(t) : M agnetic path.

fmag : Reluctance f orce

Mathematically, this system can be described by considering

three terminals 1)Electrical 2) Magnetic energy storage and 3)

Mechanical terminal. With each terminal there are associated

variables which govern its side of the dynamics. Fig.4 shows

the linkages in electromagnetic system. The equations governing the dynamics of an electromagnetic suspension system are

given as follows:

d

dt

d((L(x)i(t))

v(t) = i(t)R +

dt

v(t) = i(t)R +

Where L(x) =

(1)

(2)

N 2 A0

2(x(t)+xg )+ lr

fmag = N 2 A0

i2

(2(x(t) + xg ) +

l 2

r )

Over the past few decades, much of the research has been

conducted to achieve stable levitation by applying different

control algorithms. Linear and nonlinear control algorithms

have been applied. Linear control algorithms include conventional lag lead, PID, state feedback controllers. Recently more

advanced and complex controllers, for instance Hinf have also

been applied to demonstrate relatively higher performance in

terms of accuracy, stability, power consumption etc. Being a

nonlinear system, researchers have also demonstrated the use

of nonlinear control algorithms, for instance state feedback

linearization etc, to compensate magnetic nonlinearity and

increase the operating range for the levitation. To provide

logical flow to the conlusion, we turn to a simple example of

state feedback control which requires the expression of system

dynamic model in state space as shown (5).

(3)

dx

= fmag M g

(4)

dt

Using (1),(3),(4) entire magnetic suspension system is defined and analyzed. This set of equations is generally used to

design control system for attaining stable levitation. From the

above set of equations, it is evident that the system is nonlinear.

M

Electromagnetic suspension is inherently an unstable system

and that is why it requires an active control system to achieve

stable levitation. A basic control loop is shown in Fig.III.

Key components are a controller, power amplifier and a

displacement sensor. The displacement sensor measures the

air gap and feeds this information to the controller which,

x = Ax + Bu

(5)

y = Cx + Du

The state vector x in (5) has important dynamics variables

which define the complete system. Some common state vectors

used in magnetic levitation control are given in (6).

x air gap

x air gap

x velocity x velocity

i current

x

acceleration

(6)

model or its variant to estimate the entire state vector. For

that, system need to be observable i.e from measured output,

all the states can be estimated. Unfortunately this is not the

case with every measured output. In designing control system,

care is taken in choosing outputs which are to be measured

using sensors.

sensorless configuration [1]

providing such facility. By measuring air gap as an output, not

only is the system observable but it also induces robustness.

Intuitively it seems more acceptable as the controlled physical

quantity when the final goal is suspension. But as previously

mention, displacement sensors are required to measure air gap

which add substantial cost to EMS applications. Therefore,

drastic reduction in the cost of an EMS system, is a significant

motivation for sensorless air gap estimation.

IV. S ENSOR LESS AIR GAP ESTIMATION

Sensorless air gap EMS or self-sensing EMS, as the name

suggests,is a technique that uses the voltage and current histories to estimate the air gap without the help of displacement

air gap sensors. The function of the displacement sensor is

replaced by some sort of signal processing which can extract

air gap information hidden inside the current and voltage

of the electromagnetic coil as shown in the Fig. 6. There

are several advantages of this technique, the most obvious

being the drastic reduction in expense due to the higher

cost of the industrial grade displacement sensors. Apart from

that, this also results in reduced hardware, less wiring , can

add redundancy in case of failure of displacement sensor.

Especially for the case of Active magnetic bearings (AMB),

no sensor can allow reduced rotor length with the consequence

of higher bending mode and thus higher rotating speeds. This

technique can also be used in hostile conditions when the

medium of levitation is not air e.g water pumps etc.

Nonetheless, dispensing the air gap sensor comes with

certain technical disadvantages. The EMS becomes less robust

due to the fact that system parameters tend to shift from their

mean values. This makes air gap estimation lose accuracy. Sensorless estimation is also computationally demanding because

of the use of high speed processing units for signal processing.

This method is significantly affected by the eddy currents and

magnetic saturation.

As mentioned previously, air gap information is hidden in

the voltage and current of the EMS coil. This can be seen by

manipulating (2) and using expression of L(x). Note that since

the electrical time constant and mechanical time constants vary

dx

by order of 10s, it is justifiable to neglect

resulting in (7).

dt

x(t) + xg =

l

N 2 A0

di(i)

2(v(t) i(t)R) dt

2r

(7)

di(t)

voltage v(t) , coil current i(t) and current slope

are

dt

known, air gap can be calculated accurately. However, in

practical implementation, much of the system parameters are

prone to changes which leads to lose of robustness. Over the

past two decades, research has been conducted to over come

such problems related to robustness and different techniques

have surfaced.

A. Classification of sensorless air gap estimation

Sensorless EMS can be classified into two types. 1)Using

State observers and 2) Modulation/Demodulation which is

further divided into two types. The classification is shown in

Fig.7.

The first type which uses state observers is demonstrated

in [2] in which a hybrid observer is used to show the self

sensing EMS. The results are experimentally proven and shows

the difference between measurements by displacement sensor

and estimated air gap. However, it lacks stability and robust

analysis. Such task has been demonstrated in [3] which is

based on the simplified LTI model of the EMS system. This

the sensorless EMS system when modeled as an LTI system.

However research in this field had not stopped because the

experimentally obtained results by contemporary researches

seem to be in contradiction to it. This paradox has been recently clarified by a comprehensive robustness analysis of selfsensing EMS system by Eric. H.Maslen in [4]. The research

conducts senstivity analysis for both LTI based observers and

linear periodic (LP) based approach in modelling of system.

The results have shown that sensorless EMS shows robustness

if modeled as LP system.

The second category for air gap estimation actually uses

the same approach i.e it involves perturbing the EMS system

continuously. Thus making it an LP system and consequently

more robust. Following is an overview of the different techniques employed in the modulation/demodulation approach.

The Modulation approach involves injecting high frequency

signals along with the control current into the coil. This high

frequency signal injection acts as an interrogation signals to

the EMS system. This signal is inherently present in cases

when the applied voltage is via PWM switching amplifier.

The system dynamics of the EMS cause the high frequency

signals amplitude to be changed based on the value of the

air gap as shown in Fig.8. This current is obtained via signal

processing techniques which is in direct proportion to air gap.

Further this approach is sectioned into two types based on how

this high frequency signal (current ripple) is obtained.

B. Current ripple extraction: Signal processing using

HPF/LPF

As mentioned, the aim is to some how extract the current

ripple which in the frequency spectrum resides at a relatively

high frequency. Signal processing concepts are applied to first

remove the control current spectrum by a high pass filter

(HPF). Then the remaining spectrum is brought down to lower

frequencies by demodulation. This process is depicted in Fig.9.

This process of strongly dependent on the duty rate of the

power amplifier and the magnetic nonlinearity. Phase delays

are caused by the use of HPF and LPF. The drifting parameters

of the EMS also effect the estimation. In the recent trends,

these issues have been dealt with. Some recent research on

mitigation of these issues follow:

1) New results for self-sensing AMB using modulation

approach [5]: To compensate the duty rate variation, this

simultaneously. Fig.10 shows the estimation algorithm. The

applied voltage is also band pass filtered and demodulated to

obtain ud . Equation (8) shows the dependency of demodulated

coil current on air gap x, magnetic offset lmr and demodulated

voltage vd (Duty rate). The effects of duty rate and magnetic

offset are compensated. The magnetic nonlinearity is compensated by estimation of magnetic field from iL and subtracting

this offset from uidd .

1

lm

(2(x + x0 ) +

)ud

Ks

r

id = (kx x + kb2 B 2 + kb1 B + kb0 )ud

1 id

xge =

kx ud

id =

(8)

linear curve between the measured position and estimation position is achieved as depicted in Fig.11. The research concludes

by stating that systems robustness can further be improved

by modeling the systems nonlinearities more accurately. A

critical drawback for this technique is the use of an additional

voltage sensor for compensating duty rate effect.

2) Magnetic displacement of one DOF using simultaneous actuation and displacement sensing technique[6]: The

research deals with demonstration of removing the effect of

variable duty rate of PWM switching power amplifier from

the air gap estimation. The concept is based on the the idea of

D.Noh [7]. The concept is similar to the use of state observers.

Difference lies in the fact that the instead of the output i(t)

to be compared to generate error for

and simulated output i(t)

observer, the current ripple is used. The algorithm is shown

in Fig. 12.

Fig. 11. Estimator static performance compared with the position sensor.

Estimated position (solid)- measured position (dotted)

Fig. 13. Closed loop employed for direct measurement of current slope using

transformer.

Fig. 12. Self sensing parameter estimation scheme for determining air gap.

rectifier and a low pass filter. Its purpose is to generate a signal

proportional to the air gap but at a low frequency. The outputs

of each forward path filter are subtracted to generate an error

which is fed to a controller, Proportional-Integral (PI) in this

case. The output is the estimated air gap. The controller serves

to keep the error e zero. As long as this holds, the estimated

air gap is well within acceptable bounds for stable levitation.

A critical drawback for this method is its dependency on

the simulated model of the EMS. Since actual hardware can

shift from mean values of its parameters, the robustness of

this method is questionable. This can also be attributed to

the simplified EMS model. If EMS system is modeled by

taking the neglected phenomena of magnetic saturation, cross

coupling and eddy currents, as has been done in [8] , this

approach can be improved. Use of adaptive control algorithms

to compensate the changing parameters can be a good solution

for this issue.

Unlike the demodulation approach which appears mathematically challenging, this approach is somewhat simple. As

the name suggest, it involves direct measurement of the change

di(t)

of current ripple. It is evident from (7) that measuring

dt

holds significance in air gap estimation. Since, the current ripples frequency spectrum lies at high frequencies, measuring a

rapidly changing signal demands fast computational processors

and samplers. Nonetheless, due to availability of high speed

processors, this approach has been pursued by many. Initially,

the idea was first proposed and demonstrated by Lichuan Li in

di(t)

) is measured by using a transformer

[9]. Current slope(

dt

like coil whose output voltage is directly proportional to the

current slope as shown in Fig.13. Though the approach is new,

it involves yet use of another sensor, (extra coil) , side by

side current sensor, which could be used for the purpose of

displacement sensing as well. Another drawback stated for

this method is that it required exact timing for sampling the

transformers output. This is attributed to the transient in the

current ripple due to the fast switching PWM. An improvement

in for this case would be to measure current slope without such

extra hardware. This problem has been addressed the following

way by some recent works.

1) Direct current measurement approach [10]: This is a

recent work based on the original work of [5]. However, this

is an improvement from it as it doesnt use extra voltage

sensors to eliminate the duty rate effects. The idea is based on

the measurement of current ripple amplitude to approximate

current slope and consequently estimate the air gap. The

algorithm scheme in shown in Fig. 14. The sampled current

is averaged out and subtracted from within itself to extract

out the current ripple. The maximum value of ripple is taken

which is when multiplied with a constant kx gives estimated

air gap. Further magnetic offset is subtracted as had been done

in [5].

Since the operating frequency of the PWM switching power

amplifier is high at 20Khz, the nonlinear dependency of the

additional advantage which can be inferred from the final

equation (10) derived for the position estimation. The air gap

in this case doesnt depend on the resistance of the coil or the

velocity of the levitating rotor. These two quantities have been

canceled out by the use of double detection of current slopes.

PM 1

i n, =

PM 1

2

j=0

(9)

0 AN 2

(i1 ,n i 2 ,n )

(10)

2Udc

For the rejection of duty cycle effects, this method follows

the same approach of fixing the duty cycle at 0.5. This on one

hand doesnt disrupt the current control but it does decrease is

performance in terms of slew rate for current rise and current

fall as shown in Fig.18. Thus a compromise is made between

the accuracy of the position estimation and the dynamics of

the current control.

This estimation method is also experimentally verified by

using it for an Active magnetic bearing. The block diagram

for the control system is shown in Fig.19. The hardware

consists just of power amplifiers and a current sensor. This

is a significant edge over the previously mentioned estimation

methods. The experimental results are shown in 20 which are

acceptable for the application of AMB.

xn =

Fig. 15. Raw coil voltage and current showing measurement and control

cycles.

same, 0.5 at the time current ripple is measured. This divides

the PWM cycle into a sensing cycle and a measurement

cycle as shown in Fig.15. By doing this, the current control

performance is degraded or to achieve the same current slope

slew rate, the applied voltage is required to be doubled.

The proposed method is compared with the results of [5]

as shown in Figure.16. The position error for the case of

simulated DCM remains approximately zero for a range of

about 400s unlike that of Schammass [5]. However, the

experimental results show some odd variation throughout the

operating range. Yet, the error still remains quite low.

2) Detection of current slope using multiple current samples [11][12][13]: This works has proposed a new improved

method of direct measurement of current slope by using high

speed ADC to sample current multiple times in one duty cycle

as shown in Fig.17. M samples are then used to estimate

the current slope using least square method as given in (9).

It should be noted that in the latest work [13], instead of

V. C OMPARISON

After a short review of some of the recent works in the

field of sensorless air gap estimation, Table.V sums up the

comparison between different techniques. General trend observed is that the modulation approach using filters somewhat

lacks good duty rate rejection and often involves an additional

sensor apart from current sensor thus increasing hardware. The

mathematical analysis also is relatively complex unlike the

direct current slope measurement which is straight forward.

Duty cycle rejection is seen compensated significantly by the

Fig. 20. Estimation performance of step change of the real position in y-axis.

a)Position of x-axis during the step change in the y-axis. b)Zoom of a. c)Step

change of real position in y-axis, d)zoom of c.

Fig. 18. PWM pattern with split sensing and control cycles.

current control performance.

It should also be noted that comparison is based on the

commonly touched topics between these researches. However,

a comprehensive comparison involving additional comparison

parameters for instance stability, current control performance

etc could be incorporated.

Modulation approach using filters is observed to be mathematically more complex and involved relatively higher degree

of mathematical analysis e.g the derivation of the current

ripple equation after signal processing. Unlike this, the direct

current slope measurement is straigh forward in sense, the the

original equation for air gap estimation is implementedw with

an increased effort in calculation of the current ripple slope.

Magnetic saturation is seem to be compensated only in [5]

and its improved method [10]. Apart from these, the remaining

presented methods do not explicitly deal with this issue.

In case of hardware complexity, most of the works presented

included either additional sensors or filters. The work done by

[13] employs just current sensors while most of the algorithm

is implemented digitally.

As mentioned before in IV, eddy currents can affect the

accuracy of the estimation. Most of the researches have

sufficed by avoiding it by fixed timing or limitation of the duty

cycle since the such effects are predominant at the transition

times between positive and negative pulses.

VI. C ONCLUSION AND FUTURE PROSPECTS

estimation has been conducted. Two commonly researched approaches, modulation approach using signal processing filters

and direct current slope measurement, have been dealt with.

Each approach has its own pros and cons, however the latter

TABLE I

C OMPARISON BETWEEN DIFFERENT SENSORLESS AIR GAP ESTIMATION TECHNIQUES

+ Good

bad

Duty Cycle variation effects

Less Complexity

Magnetic

Saturation

Compensation

Reduced

Hardware

components

Eddy

current

compensation

Original

Schammass Tau

Idea

2005

2011

Lichuan

Niemann

Wang,

Li 2004

2013

2014

++

+++

+++

++

+++

++

++

++

++

++

+++

one has been observed to have few technical edges over the

former one. For instance, increased simplicity and reduced

hardware. See Table.V.

In section IV, inherent lack of robustness was mentioned

as a major disadvantage of sensorless approach. The recent

works have definitely proved otherwise. It has been shown that,

though not as robust as the displacement sensor incorporated

control, the sensorless estimation methods when use the high

frequency injected interrogative signal make the over all

system gain robustness.

It has been observed that the theoretical basis and stability

analysis, for the direct current slope measurement is not widely

presented. Most researches extract the sensitivity curves experimentally. The author is of the view that a logical and rational

theoretical basis is a necessity if further knowhow about the

behavior of the such techniques is aimed.

Since, none of the listed works deal with eddy current

compensation and most have sufficed by avoided it by fixed

timings, this could be a ripe area of research for sensorless air

gap estimation.

Generally, industrial EMS system multiple coils which

raises yet another issue of cross-coupling which consequently

effects the estimation accuracy. A crude side-solution to this

problem is presented in [8]. However focused research into

this issue might hold additional possibilities.

R EFERENCES

[1] M. E. H. E. Schweitzer, Gerhard, Magnetic Bearings, Theory, Design,

and Application to Rotating Machinery, 2009.

[2] Y.-K. Tzeng and T. Wang, A novel compensating approach for selfsensing maglev system with controlled-pm electromagnets, Magnetics,

IEEE Transactions on, vol. 31, no. 6, pp. 42084210, Nov 1995.

[3] N. Morse, R. Smith, B. Paden, and J. Antaki, Position sensed and

self-sensing magnetic bearing configurations and associated robustness

limitations, in Decision and Control, 1998. Proceedings of the 37th

IEEE Conference on, vol. 3, 1998, pp. 25992604 vol.3.

[4] D. T. Eric H. Maslen and T. iwasaki, Robustness limitations in selfsensing magnetic bearings, Journal of Dynamic Systems, Measurement,

and Control, 2006.

[5] A. Schammass, R. Herzog, P. Buhler, and H. Bleuler, New results

for self-sensing active magnetic bearings using modulation approach,

Control Systems Technology, IEEE Transactions on, vol. 13, no. 4, pp.

509516, July 2005.

[6] T. M. Lim and S. Cheng, Magnetic levitation of a one {DOF} system

using simultaneous actuation and displacement sensing technique,

Mechatronics, vol. 21, no. 3, pp. 548 559, 2011. [Online]. Available:

http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0957415811000213

[7] M. Noh and E. H. Maslen, Self-sensing magnetic bearings using parameter estimation, Instrumentation and Measurement, IEEE Transactions

on, vol. 46, no. 1, pp. 4550, Feb 1997.

[8] E. Ranft, G. van Schoor, and C. du Rand, Self-sensing for electromagnetic actuators. part ii: Position estimation, Sensors and Actuators

A: Physical, vol. 172, no. 2, pp. 410 419, 2011. [Online]. Available:

http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0924424711005516

[9] L. Li, T. Shinshi, and A. Shimokohbe, State feedback control for active

magnetic bearings based on current change rate alone, Magnetics, IEEE

Transactions on, vol. 40, no. 6, pp. 35123517, Nov 2004.

[10] A. C. Niemann, G. van Schoor, and C. P. du Rand, A self-sensing

active magnetic bearing based on a direct current measurement

approach, Sensors, vol. 13, no. 9, p. 12149, 2013. [Online]. Available:

http://www.mdpi.com/1424-8220/13/9/12149

[11] J. Wang and A. Binder, Self-sensing magnetic bearings using multiple

sampling of currents alone, in Power Electronics and Applications

(EPE), 2013 15th European Conference on, Sept 2013, pp. 110.

[12] , Current slope calculation in fpga for sensorless control technique and associated slope based predictive precise current control,

in Sensorless Control for Electrical Drives and Predictive Control of

Electrical Drives and Power Electronics (SLED/PRECEDE), 2013 IEEE

International Symposium on, Oct 2013, pp. 18.

[13] A. B. Jinou Wang, Position estimation for self-sensing magnetic bearings based on double detection of current slopes, in 14th International

symposium on Magnetic Bearings, 2014.

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