said muliani iran-saqarTvelos urTierToba I-VI saukuneebSi saqarTvelo Tavisi saukeTeso geografiuli mdebareobis gamo yovelTvis iyo Zlieri

mezoblebis yuradRebis centrSi da saukuneebis manZilze civiliziciaTa gzajvaredins da damakavSirebels warmoadgenda. amis Sedegad qarTvelebi sxva erebisa da qveynebis kulturisa da civilizaciis elementebs iTvisebdnen da amiT qarTuli sazogadoeba mdidrdeboda. Tumca es sulac ar niSnavs imas, rom qarTvelebi sxva xalxebis gavlenis qveS eqceodnen, piriqiT, isini arasodes kargavdnen TviTmyofadobas. irans da saqarTvelos midielebis droidan, anu iranuli pirveli ariuli dinastiidan, hqoniaT kavSirebi. albaT es iqneboda hovaxSaTras dros, romelmac gaaZliera da gaafarTova iranis maSindeli mTavroba. herodotes TqmiT, aqemenidebs kolxebi nebayoflobiT xarks uxdidnen 100 gogos da 100 biWis saxiT _ xuT weliwadSi erTxel. garda amisa, kolxebs samxedro valdebulebac hqondaT nakisri sparselebis mimarT; isini weliwadSi 300-500 talantamde vercxls uxdidnen iranelebs gadasaxadis saxiT. irans da saqarTvelos medianTa da aqemenianTa dros mWidro kavSirebi hqondaT. rogorc akad. g. wereTeli brZanebs: Sua aziisa da amierkavkasiis mier aqemenianTa imperiaSi ganviTarebuli administraciuli, sazogadoebrivpolitikuri da samarTlebrivi struqturebis gacnobas udidesi mniSvneloba hqonda am regionebisaTvis. pirveli saukuneebi iranSi parTiis dinastiiT iwyeba, romelic daaxloebiT xuTi saukunis manZilze gagrZelda. am periodSi parTiam aziidan, xolo romma evropidan somxeTis winaaRmdeg gailaSqres. maT mxari auba saqarTvelos mefe farsmanma, romelmac daipyro somxeTi da iqaur mmarTvelad Tavisi Zma mirdati dasva. pirvel saukuneSive qarTvelebma alanebTan erTad araerTxel gailaSqres iranSi da iqidan didZali nadavli gaitanes. marTalia, qarTvelebi romaelTa da iranelTa winaaRmdeg medgrad ibrZodnen, magram gasaTvaliswinebelia, rom iransac da romsac kulturuli TvalsazrisiT didi gavlena hqondaT qarTvelebze. didi xnis manZilze, sanam farnavaz mefe anbans SemoiRebda, berZnul, iranul, arameul mecnierebaSi iyvnen gawafulebi. amis damadasturebelia mcxeTis maxloblad aRmoCenili orenovani Zegli (e.w. bilingva), romelic ekuTnis mcxeTeli pitiaxSis _ zevaxis asuls, serafitas. Zegli berZnul da arameul enebzea dawerili da ekuTvnis warmarTul epoqas. Zegli qarTulsparsul kavSirebzec mianiSnebs (sityva `faTiaxSi" niSnavs parTiis mefis warmomadgenels). sasanidTa dros saqarTvelos mniSvneloba ormagad gaizarda, maTi da romis erToblivi interesebis gamo, Crdiloeli momTabare tomebis

Tavdasxmebisagan Tavdasacavad. mniSvnelovania isic, rom am periodSi saqarTvelom miiRo qristianoba, rac sruliad ar moswonda zirovatrian sasanidebs. 338 wels, rodesac jer nisibinis zavis vada jer kidev ar iyo bolomde gasuli, iranis Sahma safur II-m daiwyo moqmedeba romaelTa winaaRmdeg. qarTli am periodSi mokavSire iyo, Tumca misi aqtiuri monawileoba brZolaSi ara Canda. 350 wels romaelebma elCi gagzavnes mokavSireebTan uxvi saCuqrebiT, maT Soris mirianTan da arSakTan _ qarTlis da somxeTis mefebTan. 358 wels iranelebi SeiWrnen saqarTveloSi, qarTlis mefe saurmagi taxtidan Camoagdes da varaz-bakuri dasves. meoTxe saukunis 70-ian wlebSi iranelebma qarTlis samefo mTlianad daimorCiles. cixe-qalaq TbilisSi ijda maTi moxele - pitiaxSi. iranis gabatonebis Semdeg qarTlis mefeebi ibrZodnen TavisuflebisaTvis da am miznis ganxorcielebas ramdenime maTgani Seewira kidec. iranelTa mizani iyo savsebiT moespoT is Sinagani damoukidebloba, romelic SerCenodaT maT qveSevrdom amierkavkasiis qveynebs. iranelebma gadamwyveti brZola gamoucxades qristianul eklesias. maTi mizani iyo qristianuli religiis mazdeanuriT Secvla. Tavisi miznis misaRwevad iranelebi moxerxebulad iyenebdnen dapyrobili qveynebSi arsebul viTarebas. am periodSi qarTlsa da amierkavkasiis sxva qveynebSi mimdinareobda feodalizacis procesi, rac gulisxmobs brZolas centralur xelisuflebasa da centridanul Zalebs Soris. am procesSi mefisa da adgilobrivi feodalebis interesebi miwebis mflobelobisa da Tanamdebobebis dakavebis sakiTxebSi ar emTxvevoda erTmaneTs. amiT isargebla iranma da SeZlo feodalTa nawilis gadabireba. vaxtang mefis dros iransa da saqarTvelos Soris kavSiri gaizarda. 50-60-ian wlebSi vaxtang mefe iranelTa jarTan erTad ramdenime omSi monawileobda Sua aziasa da indoeTSi. man dasavleTi da samxreTdasavleTi saqarTvelo SemoierTa. miuxedavad imisa, rom vaxtang mefe daexmara irans, maT Soris momavalSi araerTi brZola gaimarTa da swored 502 wels, samgoris velze gamarTul omSi igi sasikvdilod daiWra da maleve gardaicvala. 532 wels iransa da bizantias Soris dadebulma e. w. "uvado zavma" iranis mdgomareoba ganamtkica. bizantiam scno iranelTa batonoba aRmosavleT saqarTveloze, ris Semdegac gauqmda mefoba qarTlSi da iranelTa mmarTveloba damyarda. pirvelad xosrom iranSi administraciuli reorganizacia moaxdina da qveyana oTx vilaieTad, anu kustakad dahyo. saqarTvelo miekuTvneboda afaxtaris, anu dasavleTis kustaks. qveynis marTva-gamgeobaSi iranelebma farTod moizides adgilobrivi warCinebulebic. Sahebi cdas ar aklebdnen, rom dasayrdeni gaeCinaT did aznaurebSi. maT erisTavebs memkvidreobiT daumtkices qarTlis mefeebisgan odesRac samoxeled da droebiT micemuli qveynebi. qarTlis saTaveSi

mdgomi marzpanis rezidencia TbilisSi iyo. marzpani qarTlis uzenaesi samoqalaqo da samxedro xelisufleba iyo. saqarTvelos qalaqebs anu Sahrebs marzpanebi marTavdnen, romlebic kustakis ufross _ spaspets emorCilebodnen. eWvgareSea, rom irani Tavisi siZlieriT da simdidriT yovelTvis did da mniSvnelovan gavlenas axdenda saqarTveloze. saqarTveloc xan iranis, xan ki iranis metoqis xelSi iyo. miuxedavad imisa, rom saqarTvelo am qveynebTan SedarebiT Zalian mcire Zalas warmoadgenda, qarTvelebi arasodes kargavdnen brZolis xaliss da survils sakuTari qveynis gaTavisuflebisaTvis; yovelTvis gmirulad ibrZodnen. aRsaniSnavia, rom es gavlenebi yovelTvis calmxrivi ar yofila da qarTvelebsac, TavianTi SesaZleblobidan gamomdinare, hqondaT gavlena mezobel qveynebze, rac momdevno saukuneebSi ufro cxadad da Rrmad moCans.

SAID MULIANI IRANO-GEORGIAN RELATIONSHIPS IN A.D. I-VI CENTURIES Because of its geographic location Georgia has always been in the center of attention of her neighboring countries. For centuries it presented the connecting crossroads of civilizations. Owing to this fact the Georgians adopted cultural elements of various nations and countries to enrich their society. However, they were not submissive to the foreign influences and always maintained their identity. Iran and Georgia had been related since the Median epoch and these relationships became stronger during the Achaemenid Empire. Iran and Rome exerted their cultural influence on Georgia for long periods. Before Parnavaz introduced the Georgian alphabet Georgians were well versed in Greek, Iranian and Aramaic scholarships. This is approved by the bilingual inscription excavated in the vicinity of Mtskheta written in Greek and Aramaic languages belonging to the heathen epoch. The monument also suggests the Georgian and Persian contacts. During the Sassanid Empire the importance of Georgia increased two-fold because of the joint interests of Iran and Rome to defend their lands from the raids of the northern tribes. It is also noteworthy that Georgia embraced Christianity during this period. Iranians declared a full-scale war on Christianity. To achieve her aim Iran made extensive use of the situations in the subjugated countries. During the reign of King Vakhtang Georgia’s contacts to Iran became more efficient, although the relations remained tense. No doubt, Iran exerted great influence on Georgia with its strength and wealth. Georgia fell under almost permanent control either of Iran or Iran’s vying countries. However, Georgians never gave up the wish to fight for the liberation of their country and underwent heroic battles. It must be also noted here that Georgians also exercised more or less influences on their neighbors that became evident during the subsequent centuries.