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manana nikolaZe

kuzmas mxatvruli saxis gagebisaTvis Salva dadianis


romanSi ,,ubeduri rusi"

Salva dadianis romanis ,,ubeduri rusis" gamoqveynebas (1926)


kritikis mkacri reaqcia mohyva. platon qiqoZem romanis ideebs komikuri
uwoda (p. qiqoZe, 1928, gv. 178), giorgi natroSvilma ki "ubeduri rusi"
aRiqva rogorc mwerlis ideuri marcxi, sadac istoria isea warmosaxuli,
rom sagulisxmos arafers Seicavs da mkiTxvelisaTvis mxolod zianis
motana SeuZlia. misi azriT, romani warsulis araswori gaSuqebaa.
kritikosi Tvlida, rom saxelgamma da "zaria vostokas" gamomcemlobam
uxeSi Secdoma dauSves, Salva dadianis mankieri wigni rom gamoaqveynes (g.
natroSvili, 1952). tendenciuri, araobieqturi iyo mwerlis mimarT
saliteraturo kritika, roca mas bralad sdebda istoriulad cnobili
faqtebis Selamazebas.
S. dadianma moaxerxa argumentirebulad daemtkicebina aseTi
braldebebis usafuZvloba. moviyvanT erT amonawers mwerlis mogonebidan:
,,Cemi pasuxi maSinac es iyo da dResac es aris, rom me araferi
Selamazebuli ara maqvs, aramed yvela Cems mier gamoyvanili movlenebi da
saxeebi istoriul dokumentebzea damyarebuli" (S. dadiani, 1959, gv. 195).
im periodSi amgvari kritika xSirad kuriozebamdec midioda. TviT
avtori ixsenebs: ,,erTma pirovnebam, rodesac mweralTa kavSirSi morig
krebaze arCevdnen am Cem romans da me Cem sapasuxo sityvaSi gamovekamaTe
momxsenebels, Sesvenebis dros mkiTxa: ,,kuzma rusi marTla gyavT
gamoyvanilio? me didi bodiSiT movaxsene, rom ar gqoniaT wakiTxuli
meTqi da ase, bevri romanis waukiTxavad makritikebda" (S. dadiani, 1959, gv.
194).
yovelTvis axsovda S. dadians is didi wyena, rac ,,ubedur rusTan"
dakavSirebiT SeemTxva: ,,ubeduri rusis" gamo Savi dRe mayares -
nacionalistad, bagrationebis mexotbed gamomacxades" (s. Wilaia, 1988, gv.
79).
imdroindelma kritikam yuradRebis gareSe datova is garemoeba, rom
rusi xalxis SesaniSnavi zneobrivi Tvisebebi romanSi maRali ostatobiTaa
gamoZerwili iuri ufliswulis aRmzrdelis kuzmas saxiT. ,,romanSi erTi
kacis, marTalia, mefiswulis, magram erTi kacis ubedureba davaxasiaTe,
Cemma mtrebma ki mTel ruseTze gadaitanes es xasiaTi, TiTqos rusebis
winaaRmdeg dameweros es romani. ,,daaviwydaT" romanSi meore rusi _
giorgi ufliswulis aRmzrdeli _ kuzma rom davxate udidesi
siyvaruliT. qarTveli qali swored mas SevrTe colad da gavabedniere. is
kuzma rusi am qarTvel qals aRmerTebda. es daiviwyes. ratom?
rasakvirvelia, mtrobiT. iqneb uvicobiT?... (s. Wilaia, 1988, gv. 80).
gansakuTrebiT is aris xazgasasmeli, rom es personaJi (kuzma rusi)
istoriuli piri ki ar aris, aramed avtoris fantaziiT aris SeTxzuli.
,,Tavisi adamianuri keTilSobilebiT avtorma kuzma rusi ufliswulis
srul antipodad dagvixata, amiT araorazrovnad gamoavlina Tavisi
Semwynarebluri da keTilganwyobiTi damokidebuleba am erisadmi" (a.
nikoleiSvili, 1994, gv. 114).
mweralma kuzma rusi imisaTvis Semoiyvana romanSi, rom erTgvarad
Seemcirebina da ramdenadme gaenelebina is uaryofiTi STabeWdileba,
romelsac giorgi ufliswulis saxe iwvevs.
romanis pirveli gverdebidanve kuzma Cven winaSe warmodgeba rogorc
keTili idealebisaTvis mebrZoli adamiani, romelic Tavisi qveynis did
momavalze ocnebobs. misi ideali iyo erTiani, Zlieri, ayvavebuli qveyana.
swored es akavSirebda mas andria bogolubskisTan. ,,andrei siymawvilidanve
Seviyvare... didebuli kaci iyo cxonebuli. didi azrebi utrialebda, didi
saqmec moimoqmeda. man pirvelma SeZlo ruseTis daqsaqsuli samTavroebis
SeerTeba" (S. dadiani, 1990, gv. 23).
kuzmam Zalian ganicada andrias tragedia. is SurismaZiebel
pirovnebad iqca, magram amave dros did moTminebas iCenda da mTel imedebs
iurize amyarebda. iuri iyo misTvis is momavali Zala, romelic SeZlebda
andriaseuli taxtis dabrunebas, ruseTis gaerTianebas.
am SegnebiT ganmsWvalulma kuzmam daTmo sapirado da yvelaferi
iuris aRzrdas umsxverpla: ,,mindoda, uwinares yovlisa, iurisagan
mamasaviT mxne da jansaRi meomari gamosuliyo, amitom iyo ar vuSlidi,
rodesac ki moiCita, tye-RreSi marto TareSs. mindoda gaCveoda bunebis
stiqionTa atanas, martoobas, saSiSroebas, meomrul simkvircxles... laRad
unda gazrdiliyo momavali SurismaZiebeli" (S. dadiani, 1990, gv. 27).
kuzmam swored aq dauSva Secdoma. man mxolod ufliswulis fizikur
mxareze izruna, sulieri samyaro ki yuradRebis miRma darCa. kuzma Zalian
gvian mixvda amas. aq ukve Catyda xidi maT Soris: ,,gulmokluli,
xelmocaruli, mizandaRupuli da azrganZarculi uxmod gavida kuzma
iuris oTaxidan" (iqve, gv. 29). Salva dadianma mwared ganacdevina Tavis
gmirs ideebis dakargva, miznebis damsxvreva, rac yvelaze ufro saSinelia.
kuzma sxva kuTxiTac ipyrobs Cvens yuradRebas. mas mTeli arsebiT
Seuyvarda axalgazrda svani gogona nanuli da Tamaris nebarTviT jvaric
daiwera. aseve sainteresoa is faqtic, rom TviT Tamaric iCens mowiwebas
kuzmas mimarT. Tu aRviraxsnili giorgi rusi gaaZeva, misi gamzrdeli kuzma
Seiwynara da kaxeTSi daasaxla. ,,Tamarma didad Seivrdoma da Seiyvara
orive col-qmari da uxvi saCuqaric uboZa: amomwydari kvirikes Zeebis
sapatrono kaxeTSi kuzmas gadauloca" (S. dadiani, 1990, gv. 287).
rodesac giorgi ufliswulis momxreebs apatimreben, maT Soris
vxedavT kuzmasac. Tamari savsebiT bunebrivad iqceva, roca kuzmas aseTi
sityvebiT mimarTavs: ,,Sen raT dautusaRebixarT? Sen araferi dagiSavebia,
mxolod erTguli iyav Senis gazrdilisa da aq ra aris saaugo. mxolod
man ver gagimarTla imedebi" (iqve, gv. 358).
kuzma rusi romanis dasrulebuli tipia. igi gamWriaxi gonebis
patronia. misTvis damaxasiaTebelia ganusazRvreli erTguleba iurisadmi,
bolos, gulwrfeli siyvaruli qarTveli qalisadmi, rac mas did tanjvad
Seecvala (S. radiani, 1972, gv. 26).
nawarmoebis wakiTxvis Semdeg CvenTvis savsebiT naTelia, rom kuzma
rusi mwerals daxatuli hyavs yovelmxriv dadebiT personaJad, magram
Salva dadiani mainc ver ascda imdroindel kritikas da ,,erT-erTi
mTavari braldeba, romelic mas romanis gamoqveynebis Semdgom araerTgzis
wauyenes, rusi xalxisadmi upativcemuloba da uaryofiTi damokidebuleba
iyo, magram, rogorc amis gamo Tavad S. dadiansac xazgasmiT aqvs
aRniSnuli, es braldeba yovelgvar safuZvelsaa moklebuli da erTi
pirovnebis mankierebaTa mxileba mTel xalxs aramc da aramc ar unda
mieweros" (a. nikoleiSvili, 1994, gv. 113).
ramdenadac sZags (magram sadRac ecodeba kidec) avtors giorgi rusi,
imdenad uyvars kuzma da amitom mkiTxvelsac aseve ganawyobs. romanSi
aSkarad igrZnoba avtoriseuli simpaTia misadmi (g. ciciSvili, 1974, gv.
216).
SesaZlebelia, mweralma kuzmas mxatvruli saxe imisaTvis Seqmna, rom
romani "gadaerCina". Salva dadianma Tanamedroveobis gasakritikeblad
gamoiyena istoriuli epoqa, man farTo sazogadoebis dasaintereseblad
mTlianad gamonagoni personaJi Semoiyvana nawarmoebSi. SeiZleba es
personaJi im epoqis erTgvar xarkadac miviCnioT, romelSic Salva dadiani
cxovrobda.

damowmebuli literatura

S. dadiani, 1959 - S. dadiani, rac gamaxsenda, Tb., 1959.


S. dadiani, 1990 - S. dadiani, ubeduri rusi, Tb., 1990.
g. natroSvili, 1952 - g. natroSvili, mankieri romani da redaqtoris
uprincipo bolosityvaoba, gaz. "komunisti", 1952, #135, 8 ivnisi.
a. nikoleiSvili, 1994 - a. nikoleiSvili, XX saukunis qarTuli
literaturis istoriis narkvevebi, t. I, quTaisi, 1994.
S. radiani, 1972 - S. radiani, rCeuli werilebi, wigni II, Tb., 1972.
p. qiqoZe, 1928 - p. qiqoZe, Zveli hangebi da axali forma Cvens
mwerlobaSi, Jurn. "mnaTobi", 1928, #3.
g. ciciSvili, 1974 - g. ciciSvili, Salva dadiani, Tb., 1974.
s. Wilaia, 1988 - s. Wilaia, Salva dadiani, Jurn. ,,kritika", 1988, #3.

MANANA NIKOLADZE

ON THE UNDERSTANDING OF THE LITERARY IMAGE OF


KUZMA IN SHALVA DADIANI’S NOVEL
“AN UNHAPPY RUSSIAN”
The publication of Shalva Dadiani’s novel “An Unhappy Russian” was marked
with severe reaction from the proletariat critics. They were unfair and biased in blaming
the author to have distorted the famous historical facts.
The literary critic of that period overlooked the fact that in the image of Kuzma, a
teacher and mentor of Prince Iury, the author with great masterly depicted remarkable
moral qualities of the Russian people. The image of Kuzma is brought about in the novel
to reduce to a certain degree the negative impression exerted by the image of Prince Iury.
Kuzma the Russian, a man of sharp intellect, is a consummated literary image. He is
characterized with unfathomed loyalty to his disciple and sincere love towards the
Georgian woman.
It is possible that the writer created Kuzma’s literary image in order to “rescue” the
novel. Shalva Dadiani made use of the distant historical epoch to criticize his
contemporary society. To make interested the general public he had introduced Kuzma, a
completely imagined personage. It can also be conjectured that in the image of Kuzma
Shalva Dadiani paid a tribute to the epoch he lived.

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