manana nikolaZe

kuzmas mxatvruli saxis gagebisaTvis Salva dadianis romanSi ,,ubeduri rusi" Salva dadianis romanis ,,ubeduri rusis" gamoqveynebas (1926) kritikis mkacri reaqcia mohyva. platon qiqoZem romanis ideebs komikuri uwoda (p. qiqoZe, 1928, gv. 178), giorgi natroSvilma ki "ubeduri rusi" aRiqva rogorc mwerlis ideuri marcxi, sadac istoria isea warmosaxuli, rom sagulisxmos arafers Seicavs da mkiTxvelisaTvis mxolod zianis motana SeuZlia. misi azriT, romani warsulis araswori gaSuqebaa. kritikosi Tvlida, rom saxelgamma da "zaria vostokas" gamomcemlobam uxeSi Secdoma dauSves, Salva dadianis mankieri wigni rom gamoaqveynes (g. natroSvili, 1952). tendenciuri, araobieqturi iyo mwerlis mimarT saliteraturo kritika, roca mas bralad sdebda istoriulad cnobili faqtebis Selamazebas. S. dadianma moaxerxa argumentirebulad daemtkicebina aseTi braldebebis usafuZvloba. moviyvanT erT amonawers mwerlis mogonebidan: ,,Cemi pasuxi maSinac es iyo da dResac es aris, rom me araferi Selamazebuli ara maqvs, aramed yvela Cems mier gamoyvanili movlenebi da saxeebi istoriul dokumentebzea damyarebuli" (S. dadiani, 1959, gv. 195). im periodSi amgvari kritika xSirad kuriozebamdec midioda. TviT avtori ixsenebs: ,,erTma pirovnebam, rodesac mweralTa kavSirSi morig krebaze arCevdnen am Cem romans da me Cem sapasuxo sityvaSi gamovekamaTe momxsenebels, Sesvenebis dros mkiTxa: ,,kuzma rusi marTla gyavT gamoyvanilio? me didi bodiSiT movaxsene, rom ar gqoniaT wakiTxuli meTqi da ase, bevri romanis waukiTxavad makritikebda" (S. dadiani, 1959, gv. 194). yovelTvis axsovda S. dadians is didi wyena, rac ,,ubedur rusTan" dakavSirebiT SeemTxva: ,,ubeduri rusis" gamo Savi dRe mayares nacionalistad, bagrationebis mexotbed gamomacxades" (s. Wilaia, 1988, gv. 79). imdroindelma kritikam yuradRebis gareSe datova is garemoeba, rom rusi xalxis SesaniSnavi zneobrivi Tvisebebi romanSi maRali ostatobiTaa gamoZerwili iuri ufliswulis aRmzrdelis kuzmas saxiT. ,,romanSi erTi kacis, marTalia, mefiswulis, magram erTi kacis ubedureba davaxasiaTe, Cemma mtrebma ki mTel ruseTze gadaitanes es xasiaTi, TiTqos rusebis winaaRmdeg dameweros es romani. ,,daaviwydaT" romanSi meore rusi _ giorgi ufliswulis aRmzrdeli _ kuzma rom davxate udidesi siyvaruliT. qarTveli qali swored mas SevrTe colad da gavabedniere. is kuzma rusi am qarTvel qals aRmerTebda. es daiviwyes. ratom? rasakvirvelia, mtrobiT. iqneb uvicobiT?... (s. Wilaia, 1988, gv. 80). gansakuTrebiT is aris xazgasasmeli, rom es personaJi (kuzma rusi) istoriuli piri ki ar aris, aramed avtoris fantaziiT aris SeTxzuli.

,,Tavisi adamianuri keTilSobilebiT avtorma kuzma rusi ufliswulis srul antipodad dagvixata, amiT araorazrovnad gamoavlina Tavisi Semwynarebluri da keTilganwyobiTi damokidebuleba am erisadmi" (a. nikoleiSvili, 1994, gv. 114). mweralma kuzma rusi imisaTvis Semoiyvana romanSi, rom erTgvarad Seemcirebina da ramdenadme gaenelebina is uaryofiTi STabeWdileba, romelsac giorgi ufliswulis saxe iwvevs. romanis pirveli gverdebidanve kuzma Cven winaSe warmodgeba rogorc keTili idealebisaTvis mebrZoli adamiani, romelic Tavisi qveynis did momavalze ocnebobs. misi ideali iyo erTiani, Zlieri, ayvavebuli qveyana. swored es akavSirebda mas andria bogolubskisTan. ,,andrei siymawvilidanve Seviyvare... didebuli kaci iyo cxonebuli. didi azrebi utrialebda, didi saqmec moimoqmeda. man pirvelma SeZlo ruseTis daqsaqsuli samTavroebis SeerTeba" (S. dadiani, 1990, gv. 23). kuzmam Zalian ganicada andrias tragedia. is SurismaZiebel pirovnebad iqca, magram amave dros did moTminebas iCenda da mTel imedebs iurize amyarebda. iuri iyo misTvis is momavali Zala, romelic SeZlebda andriaseuli taxtis dabrunebas, ruseTis gaerTianebas. am SegnebiT ganmsWvalulma kuzmam daTmo sapirado da yvelaferi iuris aRzrdas umsxverpla: ,,mindoda, uwinares yovlisa, iurisagan mamasaviT mxne da jansaRi meomari gamosuliyo, amitom iyo ar vuSlidi, rodesac ki moiCita, tye-RreSi marto TareSs. mindoda gaCveoda bunebis stiqionTa atanas, martoobas, saSiSroebas, meomrul simkvircxles... laRad unda gazrdiliyo momavali SurismaZiebeli" (S. dadiani, 1990, gv. 27). kuzmam swored aq dauSva Secdoma. man mxolod ufliswulis fizikur mxareze izruna, sulieri samyaro ki yuradRebis miRma darCa. kuzma Zalian gvian mixvda amas. aq ukve Catyda xidi maT Soris: ,,gulmokluli, xelmocaruli, mizandaRupuli da azrganZarculi uxmod gavida kuzma iuris oTaxidan" (iqve, gv. 29). Salva dadianma mwared ganacdevina Tavis gmirs ideebis dakargva, miznebis damsxvreva, rac yvelaze ufro saSinelia. kuzma sxva kuTxiTac ipyrobs Cvens yuradRebas. mas mTeli arsebiT Seuyvarda axalgazrda svani gogona nanuli da Tamaris nebarTviT jvaric daiwera. aseve sainteresoa is faqtic, rom TviT Tamaric iCens mowiwebas kuzmas mimarT. Tu aRviraxsnili giorgi rusi gaaZeva, misi gamzrdeli kuzma Seiwynara da kaxeTSi daasaxla. ,,Tamarma didad Seivrdoma da Seiyvara orive col-qmari da uxvi saCuqaric uboZa: amomwydari kvirikes Zeebis sapatrono kaxeTSi kuzmas gadauloca" (S. dadiani, 1990, gv. 287). rodesac giorgi ufliswulis momxreebs apatimreben, maT Soris vxedavT kuzmasac. Tamari savsebiT bunebrivad iqceva, roca kuzmas aseTi sityvebiT mimarTavs: ,,Sen raT dautusaRebixarT? Sen araferi dagiSavebia, mxolod erTguli iyav Senis gazrdilisa da aq ra aris saaugo. mxolod man ver gagimarTla imedebi" (iqve, gv. 358). kuzma rusi romanis dasrulebuli tipia. igi gamWriaxi gonebis patronia. misTvis damaxasiaTebelia ganusazRvreli erTguleba iurisadmi,

bolos, gulwrfeli siyvaruli qarTveli qalisadmi, rac mas did tanjvad Seecvala (S. radiani, 1972, gv. 26). nawarmoebis wakiTxvis Semdeg CvenTvis savsebiT naTelia, rom kuzma rusi mwerals daxatuli hyavs yovelmxriv dadebiT personaJad, magram Salva dadiani mainc ver ascda imdroindel kritikas da ,,erT-erTi mTavari braldeba, romelic mas romanis gamoqveynebis Semdgom araerTgzis wauyenes, rusi xalxisadmi upativcemuloba da uaryofiTi damokidebuleba iyo, magram, rogorc amis gamo Tavad S. dadiansac xazgasmiT aqvs aRniSnuli, es braldeba yovelgvar safuZvelsaa moklebuli da erTi pirovnebis mankierebaTa mxileba mTel xalxs aramc da aramc ar unda mieweros" (a. nikoleiSvili, 1994, gv. 113). ramdenadac sZags (magram sadRac ecodeba kidec) avtors giorgi rusi, imdenad uyvars kuzma da amitom mkiTxvelsac aseve ganawyobs. romanSi aSkarad igrZnoba avtoriseuli simpaTia misadmi (g. ciciSvili, 1974, gv. 216). SesaZlebelia, mweralma kuzmas mxatvruli saxe imisaTvis Seqmna, rom romani "gadaerCina". Salva dadianma Tanamedroveobis gasakritikeblad gamoiyena istoriuli epoqa, man farTo sazogadoebis dasaintereseblad mTlianad gamonagoni personaJi Semoiyvana nawarmoebSi. SeiZleba es personaJi im epoqis erTgvar xarkadac miviCnioT, romelSic Salva dadiani cxovrobda.

damowmebuli literatura S. dadiani, 1959 - S. dadiani, rac gamaxsenda, Tb., 1959. S. dadiani, 1990 - S. dadiani, ubeduri rusi, Tb., 1990. g. natroSvili, 1952 - g. natroSvili, mankieri romani da redaqtoris uprincipo bolosityvaoba, gaz. "komunisti", 1952, #135, 8 ivnisi. a. nikoleiSvili, 1994 - a. nikoleiSvili, XX saukunis qarTuli literaturis istoriis narkvevebi, t. I, quTaisi, 1994. S. radiani, 1972 - S. radiani, rCeuli werilebi, wigni II, Tb., 1972. p. qiqoZe, 1928 - p. qiqoZe, Zveli hangebi da axali forma Cvens mwerlobaSi, Jurn. "mnaTobi", 1928, #3. g. ciciSvili, 1974 - g. ciciSvili, Salva dadiani, Tb., 1974. s. Wilaia, 1988 - s. Wilaia, Salva dadiani, Jurn. ,,kritika", 1988, #3.

MANANA NIKOLADZE ON THE UNDERSTANDING OF THE LITERARY IMAGE OF KUZMA IN SHALVA DADIANI’S NOVEL “AN UNHAPPY RUSSIAN”

The publication of Shalva Dadiani’s novel “An Unhappy Russian” was marked with severe reaction from the proletariat critics. They were unfair and biased in blaming the author to have distorted the famous historical facts. The literary critic of that period overlooked the fact that in the image of Kuzma, a teacher and mentor of Prince Iury, the author with great masterly depicted remarkable moral qualities of the Russian people. The image of Kuzma is brought about in the novel to reduce to a certain degree the negative impression exerted by the image of Prince Iury. Kuzma the Russian, a man of sharp intellect, is a consummated literary image. He is characterized with unfathomed loyalty to his disciple and sincere love towards the Georgian woman. It is possible that the writer created Kuzma’s literary image in order to “rescue” the novel. Shalva Dadiani made use of the distant historical epoch to criticize his contemporary society. To make interested the general public he had introduced Kuzma, a completely imagined personage. It can also be conjectured that in the image of Kuzma Shalva Dadiani paid a tribute to the epoch he lived.