rusudan saRinaZe palestinis qarTuli warwerebi da maTSi moxseniebuli erTi sakuTari saxeli cnobilma qarTvelma Teologma da filosofosma, qristianuli

neoplatonizmis fuZemdebelma petre iberma V saukunis pirvel naxevarSi palestinaSi, iudas udabnoSi, beTlemis maxloblad bir-el-katis midamoebSi, xirbeT siiar al-Ranamis Crdilo-dasavleTiT aago monasteri, romelic qarTuli kulturis erT-erTi umniSvnelovanesi sazRvargareTuli kera iyo. petre iberTan erTad aq moRvaweobdnen misi gamzrdeli, Tanamoazre da megobari qarTveli filosofos-Teologi ioane lazi _ ioane qarTveli (miTridate, ieroTeosi) da sxva palestineli berebi. cnobili bizantieli avtoris prokopi kesarielis (VI sk.) cnobiT, iustiniane I-is (527-565 ww.) epoqaSi ganaxlebul monasterTa Soris ixsenieba `iberTa monasteri" ierusalimSi da `lazTa monasteri" ierusalimis udabnoSi. pirveli specialistTagan (k. kekeliZe, g. wereTeli, s. yauxCiSvili...) gaigivebulia ierusalimis jvris monasterTan, xolo meore _ swored bir el-katis adgilas aRmoCenil namonastrevTan. fiqroben, rom TviTon saxelwodeba `lazTa monasteri" dakavSirebuli unda iyos petre iberis uaxloesi Tanamoazris ioane-miTridates lazikidan (egrisidan) warmomavlobis faqtTan (v. CaCaniZe, 1974, gv. 39). 1950-1952 ww.-Si italieli arqeologis virjilio korbos eqspediciis mier qarTuli monastris nangrevebSi aRmoCenil iqna ramdenime qarTuli asomTavruli warwera, romlebic Sesrulebulia mozaikiT (sefi) monastris satrapezos iatakze da ezos sxvadasxva adgilebSi. isini amJamad daculia ierusalimSi, franciskelTa monasterSi. erTi maTgani moRweulia dauzianeblad, meore da mesame ki _ fragmentebis saxiT. palestinis warwerebs ikvlevdnen: m. TarxniSvili da g. wereTeli, agreTve S. nucubiZe, al. gamyreliZe, s. yauxCiSvili, v. CaCaniZe, k. kekeliZe da sxv. pirveli warwera TariRdeba 532-552 wlebiT, meore-mesame ki Sesrulebuli unda iyos gacilebiT adre. maTSi moxseniebul pirTa identifikaciisa da paleografiuli niSnis mixedviT mkvlevarebi warwerebs miakuTvneben V saukunis I naxevars, daaxl. 440-ian wlebs (430 w. _ g. wereTeli; 433 w. _ e. maWavariani). virjilio korbom 1955 wels ierusalimSi gamosca wigni `siiar al-Ranamis (mwyemsTa mimdevris) gaTxrebi da Semogarenis monastrebi", romelSic daibeWda m. TarxniSvilis narkvevi monastris qarTul mozaikur warweraTa Sesaxeb. palestinis warwerebs Cvenamde moRweul uZveles epigrafikul ZeglTa Soris didi mniSvneloba eniWeba. isini gamoirCeva sakuTar saxelTa siuxviT, romelTa (maruan _ murvanosis, burzen _ buzmiris, bakuris) safuZvelzec SesaZlebeli gaxda warweraTa daTariReba da qarTuli monastris petre iberTan dakavSireba. am saxelTa umravlesoba axsnilia mecnierTa mier, Tumca zogierTi saxelis Sesaxeb arsebuli mosazrebebi

mTlad naTeli ar aris. vgulisxmobT mesame warweras, romelic ase ikiTxeba: `...da ZuZ/eulni m/aTni ba/kur da // gri orm/izd da n/aSobni /maTni q(rist)e // S(eiwyal)en amen..." aq moxseniebul saxelTa Soris yuradRebas ipyrobs gri ormizd (an: a. gri-or-mizdi _ g. wereTeli; b. gri-orm-izd http://ka.wikipedia.org/wiki; g.-gri-orm-izd _ ARMAZI Project/Manana Tandashvili, Frankfurt/Tbilisi 2000). samecniero literaturaSi gavrcelebuli mosazrebebis mixedviT, bakuri petre iberis papa (dedis mama), `didi bakuri" unda iyos. rac Seexeba gri-ormizds, am saxelis Sesaxeb gamoTqmulia sxvadasxva Sexeduleba: 1) m. TarxniSvilis azriT, gri-ormizd saxelis pirveli nawili unda warmoadgendes Semoklebas giorgi an grigolisa. amasTanave, mecnieri miuTiTebs, rom grigoli im droisaTvis ufro gavrcelebuli saxelia, vidre _ giorgi; 2) s. yauxCiSvili saeWvod miiCnevs am saxelis grigolad wakiTxvas, radgan aq da kavSiri aris erTi: bakur da gri-ormizd. aq grigoli rom iyos, maSin unda gvqondes ori da kavSiri: bakur da gri da ormizd; 3) rogorc g. wereTeli aRniSnavs, sakiTxis garkvevisaTvis gadamwyveti mniSvneloba aqvs im garemoebas, rom es `ucnauri gri- iranuli warmoSobis saxels miuZRvis win". amitom gri-s Zieba iranul niadagze unda moxdes. s. yauxCiSvilis msgavsad, g. wereTelma es saxeli sparsul orwevrian kompozitad cno, xolo sawyisi sityva `gri" daukavSira saSualo sparsul termins `gri", romlis mniSvnelobaa `suli" da romelic tradiciulad ixmareboda adamianis sakuTari saxelebis win. manve aRniSnuli sityvis analogiad miiCnia axali sparsulis `jan" termini (g. wereTeli, 1960, gv. 30-34). aqedan gamomdinare, mesame warweraSi unda iyos ara giorgi, aramed gri-or-mizdi. g. wereTlis azriT, araferia moulodneli imaSi, rom es sityva aris iranuli, radganac iranuli sityvebi CvenSi mravlad aris gavrcelebuli ara marto qristianobis wina periodSi, aramed SemdegSiac. TviT palestinis qarTul warwerebSi moxsenebul pirTa saxelebis didi nawili iranulia (magaliTad, bakuri). Tu vin iyo gri-or-mizdi, teqstidan ar Cans, arc sxva wyaroebidan mogvepoveba mis Sesaxeb raime cnoba. mxolod erTi ram aris safiqrebeli: SeiZleba is naTesaur kavSirSi iyos bakurTan. zogierTi Tanamedrove mkvlevari palestinis mesame warweraSi moxsenebul pirTa Sesaxeb gamoTqvams sruliad gansxvavebul mosazrebas. magaliTad, b. xurcilava eyrdnoba koriunisa da movses xorenacis, `mefeTa cxovrebis", `qebai da didebai qarTulisa enisais", davaTis qvastelisa da palestinis mesame warweris monacemebs da gri ormizds ukavSirebs farnavaz mefes. somxur wyaroebSi mas amoukiTxavs `bakuri" da `jali". jals is aigivebs gri ormizdTan (Sdr. zemoT aRniSnuli gri _ jan>jal). `farnavazis cxovrebis" mixedviT farnavazs hqonda meore saxeli: `sparsulad armaz erqua" (farnavaz _ spars. xelmwife). spars. `armazi" saSual sparsulSi `ormizdis" Sesatyvisia (Zv. spars. `ahuramazda", saS.

spars. `hormizd//ormizd", parT. `ohrmazd") (b. xurcilava, 2008). palestinis mesame warweris bakursa da gri ormizds b. xurcilava qarTuli asomTavruli anbanis Semqmnelebad miiCnevs da `qebaiSi" moxsenebul `axal ninosa" da `elene dedofalSic" am pirovnebebs gulisxmobs, Tumca gri ormizdis pirovnebaSi misTvis bevri ram mainc `TeTr laqad" rCeba. palestinis erT-erT warweraSi moxseniebuli saxeli ormizdi (<spars. Hhormozdi//hormizdi = sikeTis RmerTi, ahuramazda, adamianis, planetis saxeli), romelic mkvlevarTa mier miCneulia iranul samyarosTan saukunovani urTierTobis Sedegad, SesaZlebelia, palestinis warweraSi moxvedrili iyos berZnuli gziT. berZnulSi dasturdeba daaxloebiT amave agebulebis sityva ormuzdi (Zvel sparsul religiaSi: sinaTlisa da sikeTis RvTaeba, sparsulad ahuramazda _ m. WabaSvili, 1989, gv. 357); berZnulSi aris agreTve saxeli arimani, romelic upirispirdeba ormuzds. Eesaa Zvel sparsul religiaSi: borotebis RvTaeba _ sparsulad _ anhra-mainiu, Seurigebeli mteri Tavisi Zmis _ keTili RvTaebis _ ormuzdisa (iqve, gv. 53). am saxelebma mogvagona XX saukunis dasawyisSi sasuliero xasiaTis gazeT `Sinaur saqmeebSi" dabeWdili erTerTi publikacia, romelSic dadasturebulia sityva ormuzdi. imis saCveneblad, Tu rogor emTxveva yvela xalxis gadmocemebi bibliur moTxrobas qveynis gaCenis Sesaxeb, statiaSi moTxrobilia nawyvetebi sparsTa Zveli nawerebidan. sparsuli gadmocemebiT, `xiluli sofeli, ca da qveyana, Seqmnil iqmna eqvs Jamsa Sina. pirvelad `ormuzdma" _ sikeTis RmerTma _ Seqmna naTeli Soris cisa da qveynisa. amis Semdeg wyali, romelic faravda mTels qveyanas; Semdeg gamoCnda dedamiwa, Seiqmna yvela gvaris xe; mexuTed yvela mxeci da bolos Seqmnil iqmna pirveli kaci qaionuratsi mbrwyinav da ze aRpyrobil Tvalebiani. magram odesme keTilad Seqmnilman Zvelman arimanman, dabneleba moaxdina naTlis samefoSi da yovelive qmnuli daamaxinja" (`Sin. saqm.", 1908, 22, 11). ormizdi da ormuzdi erTi da igivea da orive saxeli dakavSirebulia sparsul sityva hormozdTan (//hormizdTan). amave mniSvnelobisaa ahuramazda, rac adamianis, planetis saxelicaa. zemoTqmulis gaTvaliswinebiT CvenTvis saintereso saxelTan dakavSirebiT SesaZlebelia davuSvaT ramdenime varianti. palestinis warweraSi moxseniebulia: 1. ori saxeli _ bakuri da grigoli (an giorgi); 2. ori saxeli _ bakuri da ormizdi; 3. sami saxeli _ bakuri, grigoli da ormizdi; 4. ori saxeli _ bakuri da grigoli _ sikeTis RmerTebad wodebuli. amaTgan arCevanis SeCereba SeiZleba or variantze: palestinis mesame warweraSi, Cveni azriT, moxsenebuli unda iyos ori pirovneba. esaa, erTi mxriv, bakuri da gri-ormizdi (gri- nawilakia), meore mxriv ki _ bakuri da grigoli (ormizdi) _ sikeTis RmerTebad wodebuli, e.i. ormizdi _ sikeTis RmerTi aq aris epiTeti an zedwodeba.

ormizdi/ormuzdi saxelebis dakavSireba da varaudi berZnuli gziT warweraSi moxvedrisa emyareba mravalsaukunovan qarTul-berZnul istorias, qristianul tradicias, agreTve imave warwerebSi moxseniebul sxva berZnul saxelebs. aseTia, magaliTad, antoni abai (winamZRoli). vimedovnebT, zemoT aRniSnuli ori variantidan arCevanis gakeTeba momdevno kvlevis Sedegad iqneba SesaZlebeli. damowmebuli literatura k. kekeliZe, 1960 - k. kekeliZe, uZvelesi qarTuli monasteri ierusalimis maxloblad da misi mozaikuri warwera: etiudebi Zveli qarTuli literaturis istoriidan, t. VI, Tb., 1960. qarTuli ena - enciklopedia, Tb., 2008. v. CaCaniZe, 1974 - v. CaCaniZe, petre iberieli da qarTuli monastris arqeologiuri gaTxrebi ierusalimSi, Tb., 1974. g. wereTeli, 1960 - g. wereTeli, uZvelesi qarTuli warwerebi palestinidan, Tb., 1960. m. WabaSvili, 1989 - m. WabaSvili, ucxo sityvaTa leqsikoni, Tb., 1989. b. xurcilava, 2008 - b. xurcilava, qarTuli asomTavruli anbani da misi Semqmnelebi: `bakur" da `gri ormizd", Tb., 2008. http://ka.wikipedia.org/wiki; ARMAZI Project/Manana Tandashvili, Frankfurt/Tbilisi, 2000.

RUSUDAN SAGHINADZE GEORGIAN MANUSCRIPTS OF PALESTINE AND A PROPER NAME MENTIONED IN THEM Among the earliest epigraphic monuments of the Georgian language the capital letter inscriptions discovered by an Italian archaeologist Virgilio Corbo’s expedition (1950-1952) in the ruins of the Georgian monastery of Palestine, in Judas Desert in the vicinity of Bethlehem are of great importance. They are distinguished with the multitude of proper names on the basis of which (Maruan - Murvanosi, Burzen – Buzmiri, Bakuri) it became possible to date the inscriptions and to associate the Georgian monastery with Peter the Iberian. Most of these names are explained in the specialist literature; however, the opinions developed about some names are not completely clear. To these names belongs e.g. Gri Ormizd, mentioned in III inscription: “... da ZuZ/eulni m/aTni ba/kur da // gri orm/izd da n/aSobni / maTni // S(eiwyal)en amen..i. Considering the opinions adopted in the specialist literature I think a few other options can be admissible. Namely: 1. two names: Bakuri and Grigoli (or Giorgi);

2. two names: Bakuri and Ormizdi 3. three names: Bakuri, Grigoli and Ormzidi; 4. two names: Bakuri and Giorgi – referred to “Lords of kindness.” Of these four variants the following two seems convincing. On the one hand it is Bakuri and Gri-Ormizdi (to regard Gri- as particle), on the other it is Bakuri and Grigoli (Ormizdi), referred to “Lords of kindness”, i.e. Ormizd - lord of kindness - is an epithet or a distinctive appellation. This name could have appeared in the Palestine inscription through the Greek language. The assumption is based on the many-centuries old Georgian-Greek relation history and Christian traditions, as well as other Greek names mentioned in the same inscriptions, as for instance Antoni Abai (leader).