Group No. Project Title Submission Date 6 Development of a positive pressure ventilator

Positive-pressure ventilation is used when a patient's spontaneous ventilation is inadequate to maintain life. Positive-pressure ventilators supply air or a mixture of air and oxygen under possitive pressure to the patient's trachea (the airway) through an endotracheal (flexible plastic tube that is put in the mouth or nose and then down into the trachea.). The positive pressure causes the gas to flow into the lungs with less effort and also prevent the undesirable contracting in alveoli (The alveoli are tiny air sacs within the lungs where the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide takes place.). Especially for premature infants it is necessary to maintain good ventilation at a controlled oxygen percentage. Presently such devices cost around four to five million rupees and therefore they are not available even in main hospitals. Presently infants are given air and oxygen supply through headboxes, face masks, and nasal prongs without proper control over the pressure, mixing ratio, and flow rate. There is currently a need in the local hospitals for a positive-pressure ventilation device which is able to control pressure, mixing ratio, and flow rate automatically.
1: Trachea 2: Pulmonary artery 3: Pulmonary vein 4: Alveolar duct 5: Alveoli 6: Cardiac notch 7: Bronchioles 8: Tertiary bronchi 9: Secondary bronchi 10: Primary bronchi 11: Larynx

Figure 01: Anatomy of Lungs

• Design a positive pressure ventilation device with the following capabilities: o Mix oxygen and air to a given ratio as determined by a physician. o Ability to set the flow rate of the mixture up to a limit of 15 litres per minute. o Supply the mixture at a pressure of 3 to 5 water centimetres. o Give warning if actual flow rate or pressure is outside set limits. The machine should also stop flow if these values can cause harm to the patient. o Has the ability to record the operating parameters over time. • The device should be portable enough to be carried in an ambulance.

• • • • • • • Conduct a survey on problems related with ventilation, existing devices and identify the drawbacks. Collect the possible solutions and identify the best or feasible frame for the device. Analyze the flow and pressure variations using conventional methods and using CFD methods. Design the device. Construct the device with appropriate materials and suitable manufacturing process. Test the device in laboratory conditions. Test the device on patients.

Expected Outcomes
• Introduce a low cost, portable and reliable positive pressure ventilation device for use in hospitals in Sri Lanka.

Advisor’s Name Signature Date

Dr. Hans Gray 22/07/2009