You are on page 1of 20

Leadership and communication: perfect organizational tool for effective management

Leadership and Communication: Perfect Organizational Tool

For Effective Management

Submitted to:
Dr. M. Rita Krespi Boothby
Submitted by:
Nabil A. M. Ikhleif
Shadli A. Elsenoussi.
Anas M. Jaweesh.
Adnan Sadiq

Coventry University- Kadir Has University

Leadership and communication: perfect organizational tool for effective management

Table of content


Executive Summary..


The concept of communication.

Definition of Communication..

Aristotles Model

Lass wells Model...

Shannon and Weaver Model...

Schramm's Model...

Riley's Model..

Berlo's model..

Types of Communication...

The concept of organization.

The concept of organizational communication.


Types of Organizational Communication...


The concept of leadershp.


The concept of leadership organizational communication...


Realistic example..




Reference .


Leadership and communication: perfect organizational tool for effective management

Executive Summary

The purpose of this report is to provide a theoretical analysis of communication within

the organization and how it can be used by an organization's leadership in best way to develop of
the organization and achieve its goals.
This report examines the relationship between the leadership and communication in the
organization. In other words, it considers the relationship between an organizational
communication and its impact on a leadership and how can an active leadership use it perfectly.
ConocoPhillips Company is considering herewith as a realistic example.


What distinguishes the human race from the rest of the creatures in this world is the
ability to communicate. Humans are able to deliver what they want in many ways and they spend
most of their time in that. Through the time, human developed methods of communication and
they use them, by this, the humans abilities to communicate have been increased. No doubt that
communication now is the essence of organizations works; it exists between all employees
according to their functions and based on the organizations structure cultures and policy.
Actually, the communication in an organization is different from the other types of
communication (public communication). Therefore, the success of an organization in achieving
its goals is a function in the success of its members to communicate with each another to transfer
ideas, concepts, suggestions and plans, and this is determined by the particular knack of
leadership to implement that.
This report will address the concept of communication, the concept of the organization,
the concept of organizational communication, the concept of leadership, the concept of

Leadership and communication: perfect organizational tool for effective management

leaderships organizational communication, and how can the leadership organizational

communication is used perfectly in the organization (ConocoPhillips as an example).

The concept of communication

Definition of Communication:
The common and prevailing definition of communication present it as an exchange of
messages between the sender and the receiver, and these messages must be for a specific reason,
therefore communication is a process that has a specific purpose. So, what is this purpose? Well,
as general it is possible to determine a framework for this purpose as common understanding to
achieve common goals. Based on that, an understanding requires means that there is information
transferred from the source (sender) to the receiver and the receiver must issue positive signs to
show his understanding of that information, the interactive is necessary, and by this proper
understanding both sender and receiver are able to achieve their common goal.
Toward a broad definition of communication, it can be argued that: it is a process of
exchanging information between two parties in an appropriate manner to understand and
recognize a specific a certain topic in order to achieve a specific common target. But here a
conflict in the concept of communication and the concept of information may occur. The
information is transmission of a message that contains abstract facts about a certain topic without
affecting of the relationship between the informer and the informed. While, communication is
transmission of message that contains a meaning about a certain topic and this meaning can be
understood through the actual interaction between the transmitter and receiver. So, information
and communication are not synonymous. [1]
Many scientists cared to study communication and provide models for measuring and
assessing the level of communication and determine the extent of its effectiveness.

Leadership and communication: perfect organizational tool for effective management

Aristotles Model:
Before 300 BC, Aristotle suggested a model to explain the communication. He concerned
the public speaking more than interpersonal speaking, as a result, his model focused on the
audiences role in the process. Aristotle model consists of 5 elements: Speaker, speech, time,
audience, effect. According to him, there is a speech for every occasion to every type of
audiences; he believed that the speaker should be able to build speeches based on this concept; a
speaker should be familiar with listeners requirements to affect their minds by his words. [2]
Aristotle explained that the listener is the essential element that controls a communication
process and who decides whether the communication takes place or not. [3]






Figure 1: Aristotles model of communication

Lasswell's Model:
Lasswell suggested that the acceptable description of communication is the answer of the
following five questions: Who? Says what? In which channel? To whom? With what effect?



In which








Figure 2: Lasswels model of communication

Leadership and communication: perfect organizational tool for effective management

Lasswells Model consists of five members, four of them are found in Aristotle's model
with a different label and the fifth is the channel (medium). Both of Aristotles Model and
Lasswells Model did not include the feedback from receiver and the effect of noise in the
communication process. [4]
Shannon and Weaver Model:
In 1949 Shannon and Weaver introduced their model to explain how the communication
occurs, they suggested that communication is a process where a sender encodes a message and
transmit it through a medium to a receiver who decodes it and understand its content, and noise
affects this process. So, the model consists of a sender, a message, a medium (channel), noise
and a receiver.

Figure 3: Shannon and Weaver model of communication

Despite the fact that this model has explained that the blame does not always located on
the receiver for not understanding the massage properly where incorrect encoding by the sender
or a noise has the same result, it (the model) overlooked an important aspect of the
communication process: the responding (feedback); without feedback it is not possible to figure
out whether the receiver received the massage and understand it or no. [5]

Leadership and communication: perfect organizational tool for effective management

Schramm's Model:
In 1954 and based on the Model of Shannon and Weaver, Wilbur Schramm proposed his
model of communication. The principle of his Model is: if information is not properly
formulated to convert a thought to content, it is useless. Schramm saw that encoding and
decoding are essential to the success of communication where the responsibility of a sender is
coding the message in sound manner and the responsibility of a receiver is decoding that
message correctly and understand its content and send his feedback to the sender. If this not
happen, information does not flow between them and the communication process is incomplete.
Schramm noted that for understanding to take place between sender and receiver, they
must have common thing. If their fields of experience overlap, communication can happen. [6]



Field experience


Field experience



Figure 4: Schramms model of communication

Riley's Model:
In this model, the couple Riley showed that both of sender and receiver are influenced by
their groups which they affected by a larger society that they belong to. Thus, the process of
communication between them is part of a larger social process, and the effect of affiliation may
be positive and may be negative. [3]

Leadership and communication: perfect organizational tool for effective management

Berlo's model:
The communication process is presented by four elements in Berlos Model: sender,
message, transmission channel and receiver. The sender could be individual, group, company,
organization, institution.
There are several factors determine how the sender play his role in the communication
process which include: communication skills, the ability to speak, writing, drawing, attitudes
toward the public, subject, the extent of knowledge of the subject, experience, social background,
education, culture, positivism. These factors determine also the role of the receiver.
Communication failure may be caused by sender, transmission channel, receiver or altogether. [3]

Types of Communication:
Communication classified by several ways: by level, by medium used, by natural of
communication, by direction and by context.
By levels:
Communication classified to three types: Interpersonal, Group (from 3 to 12) and Public
By medium used:
Communication classified to three types: Verbal, Non-verbal and Meta Communications.
By natural of communication:
Communication classified to two types: Formal, Informal Communications.
By context:
Communication classified to four types: Organizational, Political, Intercultural (between
people from different cultures) and Educational Communications.

Leadership and communication: perfect organizational tool for effective management

The concept of organization

Any group of people met to achieve a goal or set of goals and developed a plan, policy,
and strategy to achieve these goals and has contact with external surround is an organization,
such as a firm, a corporation or an institution. And by business dictionary, it is also a social
group of people that has its structure and management system that is necessary to meet a need or
to pursue collective goals that it is created for. All organizations have a management structure
that determines relationships between the different activities and the members, and subdivides
and assigns roles, responsibilities, and authority to carry out different tasks. Organizations are
open systems; they affect and are affected by their environment. Now, it is possible to discuss the
power in side an organization. [7] [8]
In sum, an organization is an entity of people (from one person to thousands of people)
organized to achieve a goal or set of common goals and has a number of features:
Vision: the image in its members minds about how it should be working and how it
should be appeared.
Mission: the overall purpose.
Values: policy and culture that its members carry out their activities based on.
Strategic goals: the overall targets.
Strategies: the approaches it follows to reach its goals.
System and process: its department, programs, divisions, teams, etc. and manners of
achieving the goals by each.

Leadership and communication: perfect organizational tool for effective management


The concept of organizational communication

Organizational communication belongs to the category of communication by context as

mentioned earlier in this report. By the overall concept of communication, the organizational
communication can be defined as the transmission of a message through a channel to a receiver,
while by the social concept it can be defined as the way used to create different types of
relationships, work teams and networks. These definitions illustrate the restrictions placed on the
communication channels as a result of the organizational structure and the ability of effective
communicate to create new opportunities for organization. Thus, the organizational
communication is the outcome of the constraint and creativity. [9]

Types of Organizational Communication:

Organizational communications is divided into two parts: external communication and
internal communication.
External Communication:
It is a communication process between the organization and any entities in its external
environment such as customers, potential customers, suppliers, investors, shareholders,
and society at large. In this type of communication organization often act as a sender and
delivers its massage through several channels include face-to-face communication,
websites, Facebook, Twitter, email, radio, television, newspapers, magazines, fliers, and
newsletters. External communication approach differs depending on the circumstances,
purpose and receiver.
Internal Communications:
By it all of :Sharing of organization information, Sharing of organization information,
Building of commitments, Management of changes, Motivation of employees,
Development of organization competitiveness take place. [10]

Leadership and communication: perfect organizational tool for effective management


Figure 5: Organizational Communications

According to its formality, organizational communication consists of two types:

formal and informal communications.

Formal communication:
It is restricted by the organizational structure of the organization that determines who
communicates whom through what and for what. Formal communication is an official
organization communication that can move upward, downward, or horizontally and often
is prearranged and necessary for performing some task.
Upward compunctions:
Flow from a lower level (staff) to a highest level (administrators) for providing
information on the status of the lower levels of the organization.

Downward communications:
Flow from a highest level (administrators) a lower level (staff) to giving

Leadership and communication: perfect organizational tool for effective management


Horizontal communications:
Flow in the same organizational level between different sections of a same
department or between different departments in order to coordinate and integrate
Diagonal communications:
Not commonly used. They take place only between people who have not direct
relationships with structure of organization in limited occasions such as directly
meetings between employees and their high management by coordinate with their
labor union.
Informal communication:
They take place within the organization, but spontaneously and automatically without
specific reference, and allow people to product plans and ideas for their organization and
strengthen relationships and links between them.
Grapevine communications:
The communications happen between all employees from different levels in brake
time, lunch time, in corridors and so on. [11]

The concept of leadership

Despite the existed controversy about the precise definition of a leadership and whether is
Director or manager is a leader or not, the agreement prevailing among researchers in the field
specified the leaders as person who are able to inspire members of group they belongs to, raise
their morale, prepare them to perform the tasks entrusted to them even if they were above the
level of their abilities and make them compete forward the better without wasting cooperation
between them. Gender of leaders or their positions or levels inside the organizations have no

Leadership and communication: perfect organizational tool for effective management


The concept of leadership organizational communication

Those who take the leadership in order to succeed as leaders; they have to possess
necessary skills which the most important one of them is communicative leadership. This skill is
essential to convincing, motivating and influencing people who are around them.
No doubt that communicative leadership is vary from one organization to another
according to organizational structure, number of employees, organization's culture,
organizations politics and organizational communication, but it can be defined by recognize its
general impacts which are as the following:

Creating a positive atmosphere in the organization:

Leaders behaviors towards their users are an indication of how organizations evaluate them.
Organization does not deal with individuals but deals with leaders and leaders deal with
individuals. Positive deals of leaders with their users reflect the organizations' behavior towards
Ensure Reflexivity:
Usually, leader speaks and users listen and implement. Communicative leadership guarantees
discussions, exchange of views and self-express for everyone without restrictions with perfect
listening from leaders.
Employees Participation in Decision-Making
Participation in decision-making improves quality of decisions, increase employees
understanding of issues or dilemmas, and raise their degrees of commitment.

Emotional Intelligence:
Five components help a communicative leader to take work with emotional intelligence:


Leadership and communication: perfect organizational tool for effective management




The ability to recognized others mood

Self-confidence, realistic


To think before act

Integrity comfort


A passion to work

Strong optimism


Know the emotions of others






Social skills

Build network among people

Effectiveness in leading change


The first component of emotional intelligence is awareness. If we define the selfawareness it means that we should know the deep understanding of ones emotional
attitude his strength, and drives. A self-awarded person is honest not only with others but
also with himself. In fact self-aware people easily recognized by their self-confidence.
They wont ask for challenge that they know they cant handle alone.
Self- Regulation:
Why does self-regulation matter so much important for leaders? First of all, all those
people who know how to control their feelings are responsible and able to create an
environment of trust and fairness. In this situation the politics play no role but the
productivity level is really high in the organization. No one likes to be hot head when he
knows that our boss is very calm man and he does not like such kind of things in the

Leadership and communication: perfect organizational tool for effective management


The one trait that virtually affects the organization how the leaders are motivational.
There are number of people who motivate with big salary or the status that comes from
having an impressive title or being part of an organization. If you are looking for leaders,
how could you identify people who are actually motivated by the drive to achieve rather
than by external rewards.

Empathy in organization is most easy thing to recognize. This trait is mostly used in the
business and people in this organization praised it, let alone rewarded, for their empathy.
In this organization the word empathy does not mean that the leader is going to please
everyone by saying that everything is OK and you are OK. It is just a night mare in the
organization anywhere in this world. Empathy means thoughtfully considering
employees feelings along with other factors as well in the process of making

Social Skills:
Social skills in organization are not as simple as it sounds. Its not only the matter of
friendship in the organization but friendliness with purpose. In this organization the term
social skills means that how to move people in those directions where you can make new
strategies about a new product.
Talking about the social skills tends to the wide circle of people having common grounds
with people of all kind. In fact they know that alone they are nothing and they wont be

Leadership and communication: perfect organizational tool for effective management


able to get the desire result alone. The firm has social network in place when the time for
action comes.

Giving quick, balanced and appropriate feedbacks from leaders after their active listening to
employees opinions, suggestions or complaints are highly evaluated by employees and leave a
good impact on their job performance. [12]

Realistic example (ConocoPhillips)

ConocoPhillips is American energy company, it is selected because it is a large global

organization with multiple activities in oil and gas industry; also because one of the authors of
this report has been working in its headquarter in Houston TX. Its huge oil and gas production
and its large reserves make it the largest independent global company in the field of exploration
and production.
Because it is a multi-branched company with large number of employees and
stockholders, both inside and outside communication is the lifeblood of its success.
Communicative leadership is activated in all branches of Conocophillips and evidenced are:

Clarity is a prevalent feature in all communication within the company; receiver does
not resort to guess to understand the meaning of a message.

Allowances and prohibitions are precisely defined, what the employee has to do is
known, and what he/she should not to do is known too. Everyone at all levels is
committees with that.

Leadership and communication: perfect organizational tool for effective management


There are no hidden measures and frankness is available; leaders do not use hints to
deliver concepts also they do not encourage employees to show the flaws of their
colleagues. Any mistake made by an employee the dealing will be with employee
him/herself and no declare for all.

Because communication is available on all levels, there is no postponement, and

leaders always can deal with any changes and they have quick active responses.

Relations and confidence are fundamentals in the company's culture; leaders do not
use mocking tones, high voices or threats to discourage users about their intention.

No conflict between formal and informal communication; leaders do what they say,
therefore Conocophillips in high say/high do quarter of D Aprix say/do matrix.

periodic meetings take place in Conocophillips, each one for one hour only, the first ten
minutes for social communication nothing relative to work mentioned during this minutes, then
the meetings agenda which prepared and sent to those who have to attend the meeting a while
before the meeting time is discussed, the last ten minutes is open discussion about anything in
the work environment. There are meetings by the internet or by telephone. In addition to phones
within offices, the company supplied every employee with a mobile phone, as a result, any
employee can be communicated quickly and easily at any time in any place, and the employee
who will not be available in his/her office leaves a note on the offices door shows how to
communicate him/her during that time.

Time difference between the branches of the company does not constitute an obstacle to
the process of communication. Informal communication is the prevailing among employees at all
levels and between all levels always managers start this communication.

Leadership and communication: perfect organizational tool for effective management


The company always makes concerts and dinners for users and their families in the common
occasions and as incentives to raise their efficiency operation.

Leadership and communication: perfect organizational tool for effective management



1. Communication is vital between individuals, groups, organizations and communities.

2. Common elements in the communication process according to the different models are
the sender, the message, the center carrier and receiver.
3. There are several types of communication that determined by method of classification.
4. Organizational communication is divided into two types: internal communication and
external communication.
5. Leaders must have communication skills.
6. Effective leadership is aware of the importance of communication.
7. There are many obstacles in the process of communication and effective leadership
capable to making communication channels open in all directions upward, downward,
horizontally and diagonally.
8. Effective leadership helps his/her staff to communicate by train them to use
organizational communication properly.
9. Ease and clarity are essential for the success of communication within an organization;
the ability of receiver to understand is not a factor.
10. Effective leadership knows that tilling is a small part of the communication and it is not a
11. Communicate effectively solves a lot of problems but it does not solve all problems.
12. The quality of communication is effective not the amount of communication.
Speech may stop but communication does not stop.
13. Communication skills can be obtained by learning and training.

Leadership and communication: perfect organizational tool for effective management


1. Losee, Robert M., Sep. 28, 1999, Communication Defined as Complementary Informative
Processes, Journal of Information, Communication and Library Science, USA.
2. Communication Theory website,, accessed Nov.2014
3. University of Missouri-Extension website, Developing Effective Communications,, accessed Nov.2014.
4. Communication Theory website,, accessed
5. Communication Theory website,, accessed Nov.2014
6. Management study guide website,, accessed Nov.2014
7. Wikipedia website, Organization,, , accessed
8. Business dictionary website, Organization, , accessed Nov.2014
9. Eisenberg, E. M., Goodall, H. L., & Trethewey, A., (2007), Organizational communication:
Balancing creativity and constraint 5th ed, Boston: Bedford/St. Martins.
10. Bevan, R. & Bailey, J. Lesley, (1991), Handbook of Public Relations and Communication.
11. Business Case Studies website, Using Effective Communications
accessed Nov.2014
12. Johansson, Miller & Hamrin , ( 2011), Communicative Leaders: Theories, Concepts, and


Communication Behaviors, Frfattarna och Mittuniversitetet, Sweden, accessed