Business research methodology

Course contents
Introduction, definition and value of research What is research? What is the value of research? Scientific method of research and its special features Important characteristics of scientific research Classification of research Purpose of doing a research The uses of research The time dimension of research Research techniques used Variables and types of variables Relationship among variables Hypothesis testing and characteristics Types of hypothesis The role of the hypothesis The characteristics of a testable hypothesis Review of literature Goals of a literature Review Type of review Where to find the research literature Theoretical framework The components of a theoretical framework

Problem definition and research proposal Techniques for narrowing a topic into a research question From the research question to hypotheses research proposal sections The research proposal sections The research process Broad problem area Preliminary data collection Problem definition Theoretical framework Generation of hypotheses Research design data collection, data, procession and analysis Testing the hypotheses; answering the research questions Report writing The graphic presentation of a research process Measurement of concepts


it is properly defined as “an organized, systematic, data based, critical, objective, scientific inquiry into a specific problem undertaken with the purpose”

Value of a research:

almost every field of life, we can find the element of research, as human being came into this world we was living a life full of difficulties…then later on gradually he become curious about how to make life comfortable…and in this way he start search…whose second step is research…and we all can easily judge in every field this element of research…like I am here adding a few examples of daily life…you all can get the importance of research from them easily. These are university, new product, style, management, evolution, competitors, pollution, investment, defense, fashion, economy revival, virus, software and much more.

Basic steps followed in research
These are given below • • • • Identify problem or opportunity(for development) Diagnose or assess the problem or opportunity Selecting and implementing course of action Evaluate the course of action

Important characteristics of scientific research
 Empirical: observing realities through sensory experiences (both in direct or indirect way).  Verifiable: results that are proved or confirm by others also.  Cumulative: scan through literature and see that their study is not a repetition in ignorance, link between present and previous knowledge has to be established.  Deterministic: explain emerging phenomenon by identifying its cause. “Nothing just happen, it happen for a reason”

Ethical and ideological neutrality: Base on facts derived from actual data(do not take care of any ethical or ideological concept-feel free in your research)  Statistical generalization: scope of the research finding in one organization setting applicable to other organization settings. “Statistical device compare what is logically expected”  Rationalism: based on reasons rather then emotions. ”scientific explanation must make a sense” This is of two type’s i.e. ○ Inductive: particular fact to general rule (theory)
 ○

Deductive: from general to particular.

Classification of research
Research has been classified on the following four bases. 1. Purpose of doing a research 2. The use of research 3. Time dimension in research 4. Research techniques And these are further explained below Purpose of doing a research On the basis of purpose it is divided into four types and these are; • Explore a new topic It is also called as explorative/formulative research (formula, chemical etc) Here you have to explore a new topic and you need to start from beginning. It is initial research conducted

to classify the nature of a problem. Exploratory research is preliminary step to conduct more conclusive future study. • Describe a social phenomenon It describes the factual problematic situation, identifies its causes and suggests suitable solution to it.

• Explain why something occur It seeks to determine answers to who, what, when, where and how questions. E.g. earth quake

The use of research (practical implementation)
➢ Enhance general knowledge (explore) This is also called as basic research, academic research, pure research and fundamental research. It improves our understanding and knowledge. It helps to bring out new scientific ideas. Inductive in nature…i.e. particular to general …and it is often theoretical in nature.

Solve the specific problem (applied research) it solves particular solution to existing problem in various sphere of life. It verifies the findings of pure and descriptive research. And it’s deductive in nature…i.e. general to particular.

Time dimension in research
This is of two type’s i.e.
○ ○

Fixed time: research is conducted in a fixed time/date. Over a period of time: here we plan for future (annual development plan) or we can say here we compare two time periods in our research e.g. (fashion trends in 1992 and 2000) some research conducted in different times.

Research techniques
Research techniques are of two types in nature i.e. a) Quantitative research • Experiences • surveys • using existing statistics Its example is population census a) Qualitative research • Field research (door to door questionnaire) • Case study • Focus group discussion (FGD) such as talk shows.

It is define as anything that varies or changes its value e.g. age gender, marital status , speed ,tie, wages, weight, GPA, inflation, status, behavior, attitude, motivation , habits, taxes etc It is generally anything that may assume different numerical (time, temperature etc) or categorical value (behavior, demand etc).