# Lecture 02

Introduction to Signals
Mansoor Khan

EEE352 Analog Communication Systems

Signals
• A signal is a set of information or data. Examples
– a telephone or television signal, – monthly sales of a corporation, – the daily closing prices of a stock market

• We deal exclusively with signals that are functions of time.

Speech Signal

01/10/2009

EEE 352

3

Energy of Signals
• The signal energy Eg of g(t) is defined (for a real signal) as

• In the case of a complex valued signal g(t), the energy is given by

Power of Signals
• Power of the signal is defined as

Energy Signals
• A signal g(t) is an energy signal if Eg <

• A necessary condition for the energy to be finite is that the signal amplitude goes to zero as time tends to infinity

Power Signal
• A signal is a power signal if

• A signal cannot be an energy and a power signal at the same time

Energy Signal

Power Signal

Unit Impulse Function
• The Unit Impulse function or Dirac function is defined as

• Multiplication of a function by an impulse

 (t ) (t )   (0) (t )

• Delayed impulse

 (t ) (t  T )   (T ) (t  T )
• Sampling property of the Unit Impulse Function



  (t ) (t )dt   (0)



  (t ) (t  T )dt   (T )

Unit Step function
• Unit step function u(t), defined as

Signal & Systems Preliminaries

Signals and Systems
• A signal is a useful information or data. For example telephone, television signal, FM etc • A signal which is not useful is NOISE! • Signals are processed by systems, which may modify them or extract useful information from them. • Systems usually processes a set of inputs and produces a certain output which maybe a modified version of a input signal. • System can be made up of physical components, electrical, mechanical or hydraulics or it may be a software that computes an output from input signal.

Sampling
Let the analogue signal be denoted by x(t). the sampled waveform is then given by:

s(n)  x(nT )

  n  

where n is an integer and T is the sampling period.

A sequence of samples

Z – Transform

The z-transform plays a key role in the study of linear time-invariant systems, which are characterized by the following two properties: • • linearity and time invariance The linearity property means that the system satisfies the principle of superposition. Specifically, if v1(n) and v2(n), are two different inputs applied to the system and u1(n) and u2(n) are the responses produced by the system, respectively, then the response of the filter to the composite excitation a v1(n) + b v2(n) is equal to au1(n) + bu2(n), where a and b are arbitrary constants.

The time-invariance property means that if u(n) is the response of the system due to the excitation v(n), then the response of the system to the new excitation v(n - k) is equal to u(n - k), where k is an arbitrary time shift.

Causality and Stability
A linear time-invariant filter is said to be causal if its impulse response h(n) is zero for negative time, as shown by h(n) = 0 for n < 0 Clearly, for a filter to operate in real time, it would have to be causal. The filter is said to be stable if the output sequence (response) of the filter is bounded for all bounded input sequences (excitations). This requirement is called the bounded input-bounded output (BIBO) stability criterion, the application of which is well suited for linear timeinvariant filters.

That is, the impulse response of the filter must be absolutely summable.

Causality and stability are not necessarily compatible requirements. A causal, linear time- invariant filter is stable if and only if all of the poles of the filter's transfer function lie inside the unit circle in the z-plane.
Consider transfer function of a LTI system(filter) where poles are in the denominator given by b coefficients and zeros by a:

Frequency response of an LTI System

Frequency response of an LTI System

Continuous Fourier Transform (FT)
• Transforms a signal (i.e., function) from the spatial domain to the frequency domain.

where

Why is FT Useful?
• Remove undesirable frequencies from a signal.
• Easier and faster to perform certain operations in the frequency domain than in the spatial domain.

Example: Removing undesirable frequencies
noisy signal frequencies

To remove certain frequencies, set their corresponding F(u) coefficients to zero!

remove high frequencies

reconstructed signal

Steps in Frequency Filtering
• 1. Take the FT of f(x) • 2. Remove undesired frequencies: • 3. Convert back to a signal:

Definitions
• F(u) is a complex function:
• Magnitude of FT (spectrum): • Phase of FT: • Magnitude-Phase representation:

• Power of f(x): P(u)=|F(u)|2=

Example: rectangular pulse

rect(x) function

sinc(x) function or sin(x)/x

Example: impulse or “delta” function
• Definition of delta function:
• Properties:

Example: impulse or “delta” function (cont’d)
• FT of delta function

Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT)

Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT) (cont’d)
• Forward DFT

• Inverse DFT

1/NΔx

Example