# Analysis and Transmission

of Signals
Lesson 04
EEE 352 Analog Communication Systems
Mansoor Khan
EE Dept. CIIT
Signal Energy, Parseval’s Theorem
• Parseval’s theorem gives an alternative method to evaluate
energy in frequency domain instead of time domain.
• In other words energy is conserved in both domains
• Consider an energy signal g(t), Parseval’s Theorem states that
Parseval’s Theorem – Conservation of
energy in frequency domain(CFT)
Parseval’s Theorem – Conservation
of energy in frequency domain(DFT)
Proof
Example
Spectral Density
• The spectral density of a signal characterizes the distribution
of the signal’s energy or power in the frequency domain.
• This concept is particularly important when considering
filtering in communication systems while evaluating the signal
and noise at the filter output.
• The Energy Spectral Density (ESD) or the Power Spectral
Density (PSD) is used in the evaluation of the signals
Energy Spectral Density (ESD)
• The energy of the output
signal y(t) is given by
• Because H(w)=1 over the
passband Δw and as Δw
tends to zero
í
·
· ÷
= e
t
d w H w G E
y
2
) ( ) (
2
1
df w G d w G E
o o y
2 2
) ( 2 ) (
2
1
2 = = e
t
í
·
· ÷
= e
t
d w H w G E
y
2
) ( ) (
2
1
Energy Spectral Density (cont)
• Energy spectral density describes the signal energy per unit
bandwidth measured in joules/hertz.
• The energy spectral density (ESD) ψ(t) is thus defined as
2
) ( ) ( e e G
g
= Ψ
í í
·
· ÷
·
· ÷
= = df f d E
g g g
) ( ) (
2
1
Ψ Ψ e e
t
Energy of modulated signals
• The AM signal is
• And the fourier transform will be
• The ESD of the modulated signal will be φ(t) is
[Φ(w)]
2
( ) ( ) t w t g t
0
cos = m
( ) ( ) ( ) | |
0 0
2
1
w w G w w G w ÷ + + = u
( ) ( ) ( )
2
0 0
4
1
w w G w w G w ÷ + + = +
m
Energy of modulated signals (cont)
• If w
0
≥2πB, then G(w+w
0
) and G(w-w
0
) are nonoverlapping and
• Observe that the area under modulated signal is half the area
under baseband signal
( ) ( ) ( ) | |
2
0
2
0
4
1
w w G w w G w ÷ + + = +
m
( ) ( ) ( ) | |
0 0
4
1
w w w w w
g g
÷ + + + + = +
m
g
E E
2
1
=
m
Energy of modulated signals (cont)
ESD of the Input and the Output
• If g(t) and y(t) are the input and the corresponding
output of LTI system, then
• Therefore
• This shows that
• Thus, output signal ESD is |H(w)|
2
the input signal
ESD
Essential Bandwidth
• The spectra of most of the signals extend to
infinity.
• For practical signals Eg(energy) must approach
zero for ω→∞.
• Most of the signal energy is contained within a
certain bandwidth B Hz.
• Energy content of components greater than B Hz
is negligible.
• Thus most of the energy of signal can be
suppressed within a certain bandwidth B called
essential bandwidth - B Hz.
Criteria for selection of B Hz
• The Criteria for selecting certain bandwidth B
Hz to suppress the signal energy within
depends on error tolerance.
• For example for a particular application B can
be selected at 95% of signal bandwidth.
• Essential bandwidth varies from error
tolerance suited for a particular application
EXAMPLE
Signal Power and Power Spectral
Density
• The power P
g
of a real signal g(t) is given by
• We take a truncated signal g
T
(t)
• The integral on the right hand side will be the energy
of the truncated signal, thus
T
E
P
T
g
t g · ÷
= lim
í
÷
· ÷
=
2
2
2
) (
1
lim
T
T
T
g
dt t g
T
P
Power Spectral Density (cont)
• The truncated signal is an energy signal as long as T
is finite.
• From Parseval’s theoram
• The power of the signal is given by
( ) ( ) dw w G dt t g E
T T g
T
2
2
2
1
í í
·
· ÷
·
· ÷
= =
t
T
E
P
T
g
t g · ÷
= lim
• Where
• S
g
(w) is the Power Spectral Density of Power Signal, Which is
actually the time average of ESD
( )
dw
T
w G
P
T
t g
2
lim
2
1
í
·
· ÷
· ÷
=
t
( )
( )
2
lim
T
w G
w S
T
t g · ÷
=
( ) ( )df w S dw w S P
g g g
í í
· ·
· ÷
= =
0
2
2
1
t
Power Spectral Density (cont)
Time Autocorrelation Function and
PSD
• For a real signal the autocorrelation function g(t) is
defined as
• Notice that
• The auto correlation function is an even function
í
·
· ÷
+ = dt t g t g
g
) ( ) ( ) ( t t v
) ( ) ( t v t v ÷ =
g g
Time Autocorrelation Function and
ESD
• The ESD is the Fourier Transform of the
autocorrelation
{ }
2
) ( ) ( e t v G
g
= ·
) ( ) ( e t v Ψ ·
g
Time Autocorrelation (cont)
• For energy signals the ESD is the Fourier transform of the
autocorrelation
• A similar result applies to power signals
• Because
) ( ) ( e t v Ψ ·
g
T
gT
T
g
) (
lim ) (
t v
t
· ÷
= 9
{ }
2
) ( ) ( e t v G
g
= ·
{ } ) (
) (
lim ) (
2
e
e
t
g
T
T
g
S
T
G
= = 9 ·
· ÷
PSD of Input and Output
• We Know
• then
) ( ) ( ) ( e e e G H Y =
2 2 2
) ( ) ( ) ( e e e G H Y =
) (
) (
lim ) (
2
e
e
e
g
T
T
g
S
T
G
= = 9
· ÷
) ( ) ( ) (
2
e e e
g y
S H S =
PSD of Modulated Signals
• The modulated signal can be represented by
• Its Fourier transform
t t g t
0
cos ) ( ) ( e m =
| | ) ( ) (
2
1
) (
0 0
e e e e e
m
÷ + + =
g g
S S S
g
P P
2
1
=
m
Mathematics-H(f) = 1*exp(-j2∏fto)