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of Signals

Lesson 04

EEE 352 Analog Communication Systems

Mansoor Khan

EE Dept. CIIT

Signal Energy, Parseval’s Theorem

• Parseval’s theorem gives an alternative method to evaluate

energy in frequency domain instead of time domain.

• In other words energy is conserved in both domains

• Consider an energy signal g(t), Parseval’s Theorem states that

Parseval’s Theorem – Conservation of

energy in frequency domain(CFT)

Parseval’s Theorem – Conservation

of energy in frequency domain(DFT)

Proof

Example

Spectral Density

• The spectral density of a signal characterizes the distribution

of the signal’s energy or power in the frequency domain.

• This concept is particularly important when considering

filtering in communication systems while evaluating the signal

and noise at the filter output.

• The Energy Spectral Density (ESD) or the Power Spectral

Density (PSD) is used in the evaluation of the signals

Energy Spectral Density (ESD)

• The energy of the output

signal y(t) is given by

• Because H(w)=1 over the

passband Δw and as Δw

tends to zero

í

·

· ÷

= e

t

d w H w G E

y

2

) ( ) (

2

1

df w G d w G E

o o y

2 2

) ( 2 ) (

2

1

2 = = e

t

í

·

· ÷

= e

t

d w H w G E

y

2

) ( ) (

2

1

Energy Spectral Density (cont)

• Energy spectral density describes the signal energy per unit

bandwidth measured in joules/hertz.

• The energy spectral density (ESD) ψ(t) is thus defined as

2

) ( ) ( e e G

g

= Ψ

í í

·

· ÷

·

· ÷

= = df f d E

g g g

) ( ) (

2

1

Ψ Ψ e e

t

Energy of modulated signals

• The AM signal is

• And the fourier transform will be

• The ESD of the modulated signal will be φ(t) is

[Φ(w)]

2

( ) ( ) t w t g t

0

cos = m

( ) ( ) ( ) | |

0 0

2

1

w w G w w G w ÷ + + = u

( ) ( ) ( )

2

0 0

4

1

w w G w w G w ÷ + + = +

m

Energy of modulated signals (cont)

• If w

0

≥2πB, then G(w+w

0

) and G(w-w

0

) are nonoverlapping and

• Observe that the area under modulated signal is half the area

under baseband signal

( ) ( ) ( ) | |

2

0

2

0

4

1

w w G w w G w ÷ + + = +

m

( ) ( ) ( ) | |

0 0

4

1

w w w w w

g g

÷ + + + + = +

m

g

E E

2

1

=

m

Energy of modulated signals (cont)

ESD of the Input and the Output

• If g(t) and y(t) are the input and the corresponding

output of LTI system, then

• Therefore

• This shows that

• Thus, output signal ESD is |H(w)|

2

the input signal

ESD

Essential Bandwidth

• The spectra of most of the signals extend to

infinity.

• For practical signals Eg(energy) must approach

zero for ω→∞.

• Most of the signal energy is contained within a

certain bandwidth B Hz.

• Energy content of components greater than B Hz

is negligible.

• Thus most of the energy of signal can be

suppressed within a certain bandwidth B called

essential bandwidth - B Hz.

Criteria for selection of B Hz

• The Criteria for selecting certain bandwidth B

Hz to suppress the signal energy within

depends on error tolerance.

• For example for a particular application B can

be selected at 95% of signal bandwidth.

• Essential bandwidth varies from error

tolerance suited for a particular application

EXAMPLE

Signal Power and Power Spectral

Density

• The power P

g

of a real signal g(t) is given by

• We take a truncated signal g

T

(t)

• The integral on the right hand side will be the energy

of the truncated signal, thus

T

E

P

T

g

t g · ÷

= lim

í

÷

· ÷

=

2

2

2

) (

1

lim

T

T

T

g

dt t g

T

P

Power Spectral Density (cont)

• The truncated signal is an energy signal as long as T

is finite.

• From Parseval’s theoram

• The power of the signal is given by

( ) ( ) dw w G dt t g E

T T g

T

2

2

2

1

í í

·

· ÷

·

· ÷

= =

t

T

E

P

T

g

t g · ÷

= lim

• Where

• S

g

(w) is the Power Spectral Density of Power Signal, Which is

actually the time average of ESD

( )

dw

T

w G

P

T

t g

2

lim

2

1

í

·

· ÷

· ÷

=

t

( )

( )

2

lim

T

w G

w S

T

t g · ÷

=

( ) ( )df w S dw w S P

g g g

í í

· ·

· ÷

= =

0

2

2

1

t

Power Spectral Density (cont)

Time Autocorrelation Function and

PSD

• For a real signal the autocorrelation function g(t) is

defined as

• Notice that

• The auto correlation function is an even function

í

·

· ÷

+ = dt t g t g

g

) ( ) ( ) ( t t v

) ( ) ( t v t v ÷ =

g g

Time Autocorrelation Function and

ESD

• The ESD is the Fourier Transform of the

autocorrelation

{ }

2

) ( ) ( e t v G

g

= ·

) ( ) ( e t v Ψ ·

g

Time Autocorrelation (cont)

• For energy signals the ESD is the Fourier transform of the

autocorrelation

• A similar result applies to power signals

• Because

) ( ) ( e t v Ψ ·

g

T

gT

T

g

) (

lim ) (

t v

t

· ÷

= 9

{ }

2

) ( ) ( e t v G

g

= ·

{ } ) (

) (

lim ) (

2

e

e

t

g

T

T

g

S

T

G

= = 9 ·

· ÷

PSD of Input and Output

• We Know

• then

) ( ) ( ) ( e e e G H Y =

2 2 2

) ( ) ( ) ( e e e G H Y =

) (

) (

lim ) (

2

e

e

e

g

T

T

g

S

T

G

= = 9

· ÷

) ( ) ( ) (

2

e e e

g y

S H S =

PSD of Modulated Signals

• The modulated signal can be represented by

• Its Fourier transform

t t g t

0

cos ) ( ) ( e m =

| | ) ( ) (

2

1

) (

0 0

e e e e e

m

÷ + + =

g g

S S S

g

P P

2

1

=

m

Mathematics-H(f) = 1*exp(-j2∏fto)

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