Modulation Schemes

Lecture 05 EEE 352 Analog Communication Systems Mansoor Khan EE Dept. CIIT Islamabad Campus

Communication Systems
• Baseband Communication Systems Baseband: band of frequencies of the signal delivered by a transducer. Eg voice signals 0 to 3.5 kHz, TV signal occupies band from 0-4.5MHz Short haul communication links, eg Local telephone communication, PCM(between two exchanges) etc • Carrier Communication Systems Uses modulation to shift frequency spectra of baseband signals over multiplexed communication channel.

Long haul effective communication

Modulation
• A process of varying parameters of one waveform by another. • In communication systems, a message signal (baseband signal), which contains the information is used to control or vary the parameters of a carrier signal, so as to impress the information onto the carrier. • A device that performs modulation is known as modulator and a device which performs reverse operation i.e. extracting the modulating or baseband from modulated carrier is termed as demodulator.

Analog and Digital Modulation
The Messages The message or modulating signal may be either: analog – denoted by m(t) digital – denoted by d(t) – i.e. sequences of 1's and 0's The Carrier The carrier could be a 'sine wave' or a 'pulse train'. Frequency of carrier is much higher than that of modulating baseband signal. Analog Modulation: transferring analog baseband m(t) signal over a high frequency carrier. Modulation is applied continuously in response to baseband signal.

Digital Modulation: analog carrier is modulated by digital bitstream d(t) analog carrier is modulated from finite ary of symbols.

Modulation principle
Change parameters of a carrier

vmod  t   Ac cos  2 f ct  c 
Controlled Parameters: Ac(t) fc(t) (t)
Analog Digital

Ac(t) fc(t) (t)

: amplitude modulation : frequency modulation : phase modulation

AM FM PM

ASK FSK PSK

Amplitude Modulation Illustration

Frequency Modulation (FM)
• In FM, the amplitude of the carrier remains fixed • In FM, frequency changes according to the signal:
– when the signal is stronger, the carrier frequency increases slightly, – and when the signal is weaker, the carrier frequency decreases slightly

• Figure (next slide) illustrates an example of FM for an info signal • FM is more difficult to visualize
– because slight changes in frequency are not as clearly visible – However, one can notice that the modulated wave has higher frequencies
when the signal used for modulation is stronger

Frequency Modulation Illustration

Modulation, Digital Input, And Shift Keying
• How can digital input be used in modulation? • Modifications to the modulation schemes described above are needed:
– instead of modulation that is proportional to a continuous signal, digital
schemes use discrete values

• To distinguish between analog and digital modulation
– we use the term shift keying rather than modulation

• Shift keying operates similar to analog modulation
– Instead of a continuum of possible values, digital shift keying has a fixed set – For example, AM allows the amplitude of a carrier to vary by arbitrarily small
amounts in response to a change in the signal

In contrast, amplitude shift keying uses a fixed set of possible amplitude

Figure Illustration of •a carrier wave •a digital input signal •amplitude shift keying •frequency shift keying

Amplitude Shift Keying (ASK)
• Amplitude shift keying (ASK): is a form of modulation which represents digital data as variations in the amplitude of a carrier wave. Two different amplitudes of carrier frequency represent '0' , '1'.

Frequency Shift Keying (FSK)
• In Frequency Shift Keying, the change in frequency define different digits. Two different frequencies near carrier frequency represent '0' ,''1'.

Phase Shift Keying (PSK)
• PSK changes the phase of the carrier wave abruptly
– each such change is called a phase shift – The phase of the carrier is discretely varied in relation either to a reference phase
or to the phase of the immediately preceding signal element, in accordance with data being transmitted. Phase of carrier signal is shifted to represent '0' , '1'.

Phase Shift Keying (PSK)
• Figure illustrates how phase shifts affects a sine wave
– – – –
There are three (abrupt) phase changes A phase shift is measured by the angle of the change The left most portion of sine wave changes its phase by π/2 radians The second phase change corresponds to a 180 shift

Need for Modulation
Modulation facilitates transmission of baseband signal on communication channel some of the important reasons for use of modulation are:

a) b) c) d)

Antenna Height (Ease of radiation) Narrow Banding Poor Radiation and Penetration Multiplexing

Antenna Height
• Transmitting and receiving antenna are the important elements of long range radio communications where communication channel is free space and signal travel in the form of electromagnetic waves, antenna converts information signal to EM waves and are converted back to electrical signals at receiver side. The most important design parameter is to design antenna that provides efficient radiation of EM waves and their satisfactory reception. The most important design parameter is the height of antenna. A rule of thumb for proper transmission and reception of radio waves, the height of antenna should be the order of one quarter or half wavelength of the frequency of transmitted signal. If h is the height of antenna, l is the wavelength of the signal, f is the frequency of the signal, and c is the velocity of light (3 * 10^8 m /sec) , then the required height of antenna according to rule is:

• •

h = λ/4
Or h = λ/2 Where λ = c/f height of antenna can be expressed as a function of transmitted signal’s frequency as: h(f) = c/4f From the above result it is clear that height of antenna is inversely proportional to the frequency of transmitted signal.

Consider the example of a radio broadcast system that transmits voice of 300 to 3000Hz. Required antenna height to transmit the audio in the given range is:
Maximum height = 3 x 10^8 / 4 x 300 = 250km Minimum height = 3 x 10^8 / 4 x 3000 = 25km Therefore to transmit a signal in audio range the required height of antenna lies between 250 km and 25 km. It is obvious that the height is not practically feasible. The only solution to this problem lies in transmitting the signal on a carrier of frequency higher than that of baseband signal – modulation. Therefore a modulated signal is transmitted to keep the height of antenna in practical range. Suppose carrier frequency for audio range broadcast is 1.5MHz, corresponding height of antenna comes to: h = 3x10^8 / 4 x 1.5 x 10^6 = 50m which is in practical limits.

Narrow banding
• In all communication systems, the baseband signal occupies a range of frequencies i.e. has a certain bandwidth for example audio signals lie in the range of 20 – 20kHz, video signals lie in the range of 0 to 5MHz. • In radio communication system the frequency of the signal to be transmitted determines antenna height. • If an audio signal is to be transmitted, then each frequency suggests corresponding antenna height, if baseband signal is transmitted without modification then as many antennas are required as the frequency components. • As this is not practical, solution to this problem is smaller number of antennas or preferably single antenna with height in practical limits, which can transmit the entire baseband range. • Solution to this problem can be found by analyzing band-edge ratio of baseband signal.

Band-edge ratio of audio signal is(20 – 20kHz): 20 / 20 x 10^3 = 1 : 1000 The practical significance of this ratio is to transmit a frequency component of 20kHz height of antenna required is 1 unit, then height of antenna for 20Hz component is 1000 units. Since band edge ratio is large the antenna height may not be practical. Solution to this problem is to translate the baseband signal to high frequency say 1.5MHz then lowest and highest freq components becomes: Lowest frequency component : Highest frequency component: 1.5MHz + 20Hz = 1500020Hz 1.5MHz + 20kHz = 1520000 Hz

The band edge ratio of modulated signal is: 1500020/1520000 = 0.9868 (approximately 1) Therefore band edge ratio is 1:1 Thus a single antenna can be used to transmit the entire range of baseband signal. With this concept a wideband is practically narrowed so the ratio to lowest and highest frequency component is 1:1.

Poor Radiation and Penetration
• The radiated power is directly proportional to the frequency of EM (radio) waves. • E = hf ; where h is the Planck’s constant h = 6.626068 × 10-34 m2 kg / s • If the baseband signal is to be transmitted without modulation the radiations will be poor and may suffer complete deterioration over large distances due to attenuation and additive channel noise. • This may result in loss of signal at the receiver. • Therefore to make sure that the transmitted radiation has sufficient power to reach the receiver the baseband signal needs to be translated to high frequency carrier – modulation. • Another reason to use modulation is to increase the penetration of radiation in ionospheric layers of atmosphere in free space for effective satellite communication systems. Low frequency baseband signals cannot penetrate the atmospheric layers resulting in poor reception at the end.

Multiplexing
• Consider a case of several radio stations broadcasting in the audio range simultaneously without any modification. Since the bandwidth of transmitted signal for each radio station is close to each other. Interference takes place over the communication channel. • This makes it impossible for several radio stations to broadcast simultaneously. • Bandwidth of channel may be greater than that of audio range, which results in wastage of channel resource utilization if single station transmits at a time. • Practical solution to such problem is to modulate the transmitted signals at same time assigning each station a frequency range far apart from one another (preventing overlapping)which can be bandpass tuned at receiver end. • Such technique which uses same channel to transmit several signals at the same time assigning each signal a frequency band is known as Frequency Division Multiplexing. • Here the bandwidth of the channel is shared by various signals without overlapping.