Lesson 6
EEE352 Analog Communication Systems
Mansoor Khan
Amplitude Modulation
• Amplitude Modulation is the process of changing
the amplitude of a relatively high frequency carrier
signal in proportion with the instantaneous value of
the modulating signal (information).
• Use in commercial broadcasting of both audio and
video signals.
• Also used for twoway mobile radio
communications.
AM Waveforms
Time Domain
Signal
Carrier
time
time
time
Detection of Signal
time
time
Susceptible to Noise
time
Frequency Domain
Unmodulated
frequency
Signal
Carrier
Baseband
watts
Modulated
frequency
Signal
Carrier
Baseband
watts
Baseband
AMPLITUDE MODULATION: DOUBLE
SIDE BAND (DSB)
• Modulating signal, base band signal, information
signal
• Carrier signal:
• with Spectrum
) (t m
) (e M
) cos( ) (
c c
t t c u e + =
  ) ( ) ( ) (
c c
C e e o e e o t e + + ÷ =
DSB (cont)
• Modulation is the product of the base band with the
carrier
  ) ( ) (
2
1
) cos( ) (
c c c
M M t t m e e e e e ÷ + + ·
DSB (cont)
• DSBSC modulation simply shifts the frequency
contents of m(t) to the carrier frequency
USB & LSB
Demodulation
• To demodulate we multiply the signal by a
• Therefore the FT of this signal is
• If we lowpass filter this signal we recover
) cos( t w
c
 
+ = = ) 2 cos(
2
1
2
1
) ( ) ( cos ) ( ) cos( ) cos( ) (
2
t w t m t w t m t w t w t m
c c c c
  ) 2 ( ) 2 (
4
1
) (
2
1
) 2 cos(
2
1
2
1
) (
c c c
w M w w M w M t w t m ÷ + + + ·
+ e
) (
2
1
t m
Demodulation (cont)
• We need a carrier of exactly the same frequency and
phase as the carrier used for modulation:
Synchronous Detection or Coherent Detection
Demodulation (cont)
Modulators
• Multiplier Modulators
• Nonlinear Modulators
• Switching Modulators
• Ring Modulator
Nonlinear Modulators
• Let the IO characteristic of a system to be
• Substituting the two inputs
• We obtain
) ( ) ( ) (
2
t bx t ax t y + =
    ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) (
2
2 2
2
1 1 2 1
t bx t ax t bx t ax t y t y t z + ÷ + = ÷ =
) ( cos ) (
1
t m t w t x
c
+ = ) ( cos ) (
2
t m t w t x
c
÷ =
t w t bm t am t z
c
cos ) ( 4 ) ( 2 ) ( + =
Nonlinear Modulators (cont)
• If we pass the signal though a BPF centered at w
c
we
will get the modulated signal
t w t bm t z
c
BPF THE AFTER
cos ) ( 4 ) ( =
Switching Modulators
• In this case we multiply the modulating signal by any periodic
signal of frequency w
c
• The fourier series of a square pulse train is (Eq. 2.75)
• then

.

\

+ ÷ + = .... 5 cos
5
1
3 cos
3
1
cos
2
2
1
) ( t w t w t w t w
c c c
t

.

\

+ ÷ + = .... 5 cos
5
) (
3 cos
3
) (
cos ) (
2
2
) (
) ( ) ( t w
t m
t w
t m
t w t m
t m
t w t m
c c c
t
Switching Modulators (cont)
• If this signal is passed trough a BPF centered at w
c
we
get our modulated signal
( ) . cos ) (
2
) ( ) ( t w t m t w t m
c
BPF THE AFTER
t
=
Series/Shunt bridge diode
modulator
Ring Modulator
• This is the second kind of switching modulators, in this case
the square wave is bipolar
• The fourier series of this pulse train will be given by (Eq. 2.76
B.P. Lathi)
• then

.

\

+ ÷ = .... 5 cos
5
1
3 cos
3
1
cos
4
) ( t w t w t w t w
c c c
t

.

\

+ ÷ = .... 5 cos
5
) (
3 cos
3
) (
cos ) (
4
) ( ) ( t w
t m
t w
t m
t w t m t w t m
c c c
t
Ring Modulator (cont)
• The desired signal after the BPF is
• The input of the BPF does not contain any of the original input
signals, therefore this is an example of a double balanced
modulator
( ) . cos ) (
4
) ( ) ( t w t m t w t m
c
BPF THE AFTER
t
=
Frequency Mixer or converter
• We wanted to change the modulated signal from w
c
to w
I
• The product x(t) is
• Down conversion if we select
t t t m t x
mix c
e e cos cos ) ( 2 ) ( =
( ) ( )   t t t m t x
mix c mix c
e e e e + + ÷ = cos cos ) ( ) (
I c mix
e e e ÷ =
( ) ( )   t t t m t x
I c c I c c
e e e e e e ÷ + + ÷ ÷ = cos ) ( cos ) ( ) (
( ) ( )   t t t m t x
I c I
e e e ÷ + = 2 cos ) cos ) ( ) (
Frequency Mixer (cont)
• Up conversion if we select
I c mix
e e e + =
( ) ( )   t t t m t x
I c c I c c
e e e e e e + + + + ÷ = cos ) ( cos ) ( ) (
( ) ( )   t t t m t x
I c I
e e e + + = 2 cos ) cos ) ( ) (
Frequency Mixer (cont)
AMPLITUDE MODULATION
(Transmitted Carrier DSBTC)
• In this case we send the carrier with the signal
• We can think as the modulating signal to be
Sidebands
c
Carrier
c AM
t t m t A t e e m cos ) ( cos ) ( + =
t t m A t
c
DC a with signal ulating
AM
e m cos ) ( ) (
mod
+ =
AM (cont)
• The spectrum of this signal is
   
spectrum Carrier
c c
spectrum SC DSB
c c AM
w w w w A w w M w w M w ) ( ) (
2
1
) ( ) (
2
1
) ( ÷ + + + ÷ + + = u
÷
o o
EEE 352
AM (cont)
• A is large enough that . The demodulation can be
achieved by a simple envelope detector
• Let’s consider the peak value of to be . Then the
condition for envelope detection of AM signal is
• Which is equivalent to
0 ) ( > + t m A
) (t m
p
m
0 ) ( > + t m A
p
m A>
Modulation Index
• We define the modulation index as
• Therefore we can see that if we want to maintain the
condition
• We have
A
m
p
= u
p
m A>
1 0 s s u
Example 4.4
Example 4.4 (cont)
Percentage Modulation
Under modulated (<100%) 100% modulated
Envelope Detector
Can be used
Envelope Detector
Gives Distorted signal
Over Modulated (>100%)