# Amplitude Modulation (Contd

)
Lesson 07
EEE 352 Analog Communication Sytems
Mansoor Khan
DSB-FC – Full AM
 AM modulation is a fundamental modulation process in
communication system.
 Carrier frequency signal >> than modulating frequency signal.
=> f
c
>> f
m
.
 Modulator is used to generate AM signal, am
DSB-FC
(t). It is shown
in block diagram below.
( ) t t v E t v
c m c AM
e cos ) ( ) ( + =
v
m
(t)
v
c
(t)
AM Modulator
Modulating
signal
Carrier signal
AM modulated signal
f t e 2 =
3
 Let :
 Therefore, am
DSBFC
signal can be expressed:
 Given the modulation index :
 am
DSBFC
can be deduced to:
 From trigonometry identities:
 Therefore:
c
m
E
E
m =
( ) t t m E t v
c m c AM
e e cos cos 1 ) ( + =
( ) ( ) B A B A B A ÷ + + = cos
2
1
cos
2
1
) cos( ) cos(
( ) ( )t
mE
t
mE
t E
t t mE t E t v
m c
c
m c
c
c c
m c c c c AM
e e e e e
e e e
÷ + + + =
+ =
cos
2
cos
2
cos
cos cos cos ) (
( ) ( )
( ) t t E E t v
t t v E t v
c m m c AM
c m c AM
e e
e
cos cos ) (
cos ) (
+ =
+ =
t E t v
c c c
e cos ) ( = t E t v
m m m
e cos ) ( = and
 Signal frequency spectrum ; am
DSBFC
( ) ( ) ( ) t t
mE
t E t v
m c m c
c
c c AM
e e e e e ÷ + + + = cos cos
2
cos ) (
Carrier signal Sidebands signal
) (V Amplitud
) (
1 ÷
c
e
m c
e e +
m c
e e ÷
0
c
E
2
c
mE
2
c
mE
m
e
2 2
m c
E mE
=
m
E
where
LSB
USB
Carrier band
Modulating band
 One input to a conventional AM modulator is a 500kHz
carrier with an amplitude of 20Vp. The second input is
a 10kHz modulating signal that is of sufficient
amplitude to cause a change in the output wave of
±7.5Vp. Determine
 Upper and lower side frequencies.
 Modulation coefficient and percent modulation
 Peak amplitude of the modulated carrier and the upper and lower side
frequency voltages.
 Maximum and minimum amplitudes of the envelope.
 Expression for the modulated wave.
 Draw the output spectrum.
 Sketch the output envelope.
EXAMPLE
Example
 If the modulated wave has the equation,

– find
• (a) the carrier freq
• (b) the usf and lsf
• (c) the modulating signal freq
• (d) the peak amplitude of the carrier signal
• (e) the upper and lower side signal peak amplitude
• (f) the change In peak amplitude of the modulated wave
• (g) the coefficient of modulation.
V t t t t v
am
) 218 2 cos( 60 ) 282 2 cos( 60 ) 250 2 sin( 150 ) ( t t t + ÷ =
Full-Carrier AM: Time Domain
• Modulation Index - The ratio between the amplitudes
between the amplitudes of the modulating signal and
carrier, expressed by the equation:
c
m
E
E
m =
Modulation index from AM waveform
min max
min max
V V
V V
E
E
c
m
+
÷
= = |
) (
2
1
min max V V Em ÷ =
) (
2
1
min max V V Ec + =
) (
4
1
2
min max V V
E
E E
m
lsf usf ÷ = = =
EUSF = PEAK AMPLITUDE OF THE UPPER SIDE FREQUENCY
ELSF = PEAK AMPLITUDE OF THE LOWER SIDE FREQUENCY
m c m c E E V E E V ÷ = + = min max ;
ASSUMPTIONS:
• MODULATING SIGNAL IS A TONE
• MODULATING PROCESS IS SYMMETRICAL
(EQUAL + and – ENVELOPE EXCURCIONS)
AMPLITUDE MODULATION (DSB-FC)
Modulating Signal
Unmodulated Carrier
50% Modulation
100% Modulation
Overmodulation and Distortion
 The modulation index should be a number between 0 and 1.
 If the amplitude of the modulating voltage is higher than the
carrier voltage, m will be greater than 1, causing distortion.
 If the distortion is great enough, the intelligence signal becomes
unintelligible.
 Distortion of voice transmissions produces garbled, harsh, or
unnatural sounds in the speaker.
 Distortion of video signals produces a scrambled and inaccurate
picture on a TV screen.
Modulation Index for Multiple
Modulating Frequencies
• Two or more sine waves of different, uncorrelated
frequencies modulating a single carrier is calculated by the
equation:

P
o
w
e
r

Frequency
P
c
= 1000W
P
lsb
= 160W P
usb
= 160W
f
lsb
f
usb
f
c

The total power being transmitted is (1000).(1 + 0.8
2
) = 1320W
2
P
o
w
e
r

Frequency
P
lsb
= 160W P
usb
= 160W
f
lsb
f
usb
f
c

The total power being transmitted is now reduced to 320W
No Carrier
• Calculate total power
• Conclusion ???
DSBFC is wasteful of Power
 75.6% of total transmitted power taken up by carrier.

P
o
w
e
r

Frequency
P
c
= 1000W
P
lsb
= 160W P
usb
= 160W
f
lsb
f
usb
f
c

The total power being transmitted is (1000).(1 + 0.8
2
) = 1320W
2
In transmitting 1320W of the total power, the carrier contains
1000W and does not contain any information being transmitted. The
side freq each have 160W and each carries a copy of the same info
signal.
So, 1320W is being used in order to transmit only 160W.
DSB is wasteful of Bandwidth
 DSB has a Wide Bandwidth
 wasteful BW usage i.e info in USB = info in LSB
If so much of the transmitted wave is not required, then why
transmit it? – any alternative? – DSBSC?
DSB Suppressed Carrier (DSBSC)
 Generated by circuit called balanced modulator where it produces
sum (f
usb
) and difference (f
lsb
) freq but cancel or balance out the
carrier (f
c
).

P
o
w
e
r

Frequency
P
lsb
= 160W P
usb
= 160W
f
lsb
f
usb
f
c

The total power being transmitted is now reduced to 320W
No Carrier
DSBSC helps in reducing power but bandwidth still the same as
DSBFC.
Suppressing the carrier
 Eliminating the carrier results in a double-
sideband suppressed carrier (DSSC or DSB)
signal shown below.
Suppressed carrier AM signal (DSB)
-2
-1.5
-1
-0.5
0
0.5
1
1.5
2
Time (sec)
V
o
l
t
a
g
e

(
V
)
-2
-1.5
-1
-0.5
0
0.5
1
1.5
2
Time (sec)
V
o
l
t
a
g
e

(
V
)
Full carrier AM signal
Note the phase transitions
DSBSC in frequency domain
Suppressed carrier AM signal (DSB) Full carrier AM signal
0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000
0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
Frequency (Hz)
V
o
l
t
a
g
e

(
V
)
-2
-1.5
-1
-0.5
0
0.5
1
1.5
2
Time (sec)
V
o
l
t
a
g
e

(
V
)
-2
-1.5
-1
-0.5
0
0.5
1
1.5
2
Time (sec)
V
o
l
t
a
g
e

(
V
)
0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000
0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
Frequency (Hz)
V
o
l
t
a
g
e

(
V
)
Frequency domain Frequency domain
AM Power Distribution
 The average power dissipated in a load by unmodulated
carrier is equal to the rms carrier voltage, E
c
squared
divided by the load resistance, R.
 Mathematically, power in unmodulated carrier, P
c
is:
R
E
R
E
R
E
P
c c
rms
c
c
2
) 2 (
) (
2
2
2
) (
= = =
AM Power Distribution
 The upper and lower sideband powers:

– where mE
c
/2 is the peak voltage of usf and lsf.
– Then,
 Total transmitted power in DSBFC AM envelope:
R
E m
R
mE
P P
c c
lsb usb
8 2
) 2 (
2
2 2
= = =
c
c
lsb usb
P
m
R
E m
P P
4 2 4
2
2
2
=
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
= =
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ = + =
+ + =
+ + =
2
1
2
4 4
2 2
2 2
m
P P
m
P
P
m
P
m
P
P P P P
c c c
c c c
lsb usb c t
AM Power Distribution
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ = + = + + = + + =
2
1
2 4 4
2 2 2 2
m
P P
m
P P
m
P
m
P P P P P
c c c c c c lsb usb c t
Power Spectrum for
AM DSBFC wave
Note:
Carrier power in the modulated signal is the same in the unmodulated signal i.e
carrier power is unaffected by the modulation process.
The total power in an AM envelope increase with modulation (i.e as m |, P
t
|).
Major disadvantage of AM DSBFC is most of the power is wasted in the carrier. (It
does not contain info, info is contained in the sidebands).
Sideband and Carrier Power (cont)
• The sideband power is the useful power and the Carrier
Power is the power wasted
• We define the Power Efficiency as
% 100 *
) (
) (
) (
2
1
2
) (
2
1
~~~~~~~
2 2
~~~~~~~
2
~~~~~~~
2
2
~~~~~~~
2
t m A
t m
t m
A
t m
P P
P
TotalPower
r UsefulPowe
s c
s
+
=
+
=
+
= = n
Sideband and Carrier Power (cont)
For the special case of tone modulation
then its power is
then
The max value when (100% modulation) is
t A t m
m
e u cos ) ( =
( )
2
) (
2
~~~~~~~
2
A
t m
u
=
( )
( )
( )
( )
% 100 *
2
% 100 *
2
2
% 100 *
2 2
1
2
2 2
1
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
u
u
u
u
u
u
n
+
=
+ +
=
A
A
A
A A
A
1 = u
% 33 = n
Example
 Determine the maximum sideband power if the carrier
output is 1 kW and calculate the total maximum
transmitted power.
Since E
SF
= mE
c
/2,
It is obvious that the max SB power occurs when m = 1 or 100%, and
also when m = 1, each side freq is ½ the carrier amplitude.
Since power is proportional to the square of voltage, each SB has ¼
of the carrier power i.e ¼ x 1kW, or 250W.
Therefore, total SB power is 250W x 2 = 500W.
And the total transmitted power is 1kW + 500W = 1.5kW
Importance of High-percentage
Modulation
m P
c
P
1SB
P
SBs
P
T
E
1.0 1kW 250W 500W 1.5kW
0.3
0.5 1kW 62.5W 125W 1.125kW
0.1
Notes
Even though the total transmitted power has only fallen from 1.5kW to
1.125kW, the effective transmission has only ¼ the strength at 50% modulation as
compared to 100%.
Because of these considerations, most AM transmitter attempts to maintain
between 90 and 95 percent modulation as a compromise between efficiency and
the chance of drifting into overmodulation.
Table: Effective transmission at 50% versus 100% modulation
Generation of AM Signals
• Any DSB-SC modulators are valid if the modulating signal is
• Because the carrier does not need to be suppressed, we do
not need balanced circuits
• The modulators are then very simple
| | ) (t m A+
Switching Modulator
Switching Modulator (cont)
• The input is with c>>m(t) so the switching
action does not depends on m(t)
) ( cos t m t c
c
+ e
| | ) ( ) ( cos
'
t w t m t c v
c
bb
+ = e
| |

|
.
|

\
|
+ ÷ + + = ..... 5 cos
5
1
3 cos
3
1
cos
2
2
1
) ( cos
'
t t t t m t c v
c c c c
bb
e e e
t
e
etc t t m t
c
v
c c
bb
+

+ = e
t
e cos ) (
2
cos
2
'
Demodulation of AM Signals
• We do not need a local generated carrier in this case
• If we have undermodulation then we can use
1. Rectifier detection
2. Envelope detection
Rectifier detector
Rectifier detector (cont)
• If the AM wave is applied to diode and resistor circuit. The
negative part of the AM is supressed. This is like saying that
we have half wave rectified the AM
Mathematically
| |

|
.
|

\
|
+ ÷ + + = ..... 5 cos
5
1
3 cos
3
1
cos
2
2
1
cos ) (
'
t t t t t m A v
c c c c
R
e e e
t
e
| | terms other t m A v
R
+ + = ) (
1
'
t
Rectifier detector (cont)
• If we pass this voltage thru a LPF we get
• If we use a capacitor, we block the DC and we obtain
| | ) (
1
t m A v
filtered
+ =
t
| | ) (
1
t m v
out
t
=
Envelope detector
(QAM)
• DSB signals occupy twice the bandwidth required for the base
band.
• This disadvantage can be overcome by transmitting two DSB
signals using carriers of the same frequency but in phase
• The message signals m
1
(t) & m
2
phase components of φ
QAM
(t)
t t m t t m
c c QAM
e e m sin ) ( cos ) (
2 1
+ =
Modulation and Demodulation of QAM
QAM (cont)
• We can obtain both the signals by using two local carriers in
• Similarly the output of the lower branch can be shown as
• A slight error in phase leads to distortion and mixing of signals
| | t t t m t t m t t x
c c c c QAM
e e e e m cos sin ) ( cos ) ( 2 cos 2 ) (
2 1 1
+ = =
t t m t t m t m t x
c c
e e 2 sin ) ( 2 cos ) ( ) ( ) (
2 1 1 1
+ + =
| | ( ) u e e e e m + + = = t t t m t t m t t x
c c c c QAM
cos sin ) ( cos ) ( 2 cos 2 ) (
2 1 1
u u sin ) ( cos ) ( ) (
2 1 1
t m t m t x ÷ =