Single Sideband and Vestigial

Sideband Modulation
Lesson 08
EEE 352 Analog Communication Systems
Mansoor Khan
EE Dept.
CIIT Islamabad Campus
Single-Sideband Modulation
• SSB Signals
 One sideband is all that is necessary to convey information in a
signal.
 A single-sideband suppressed carrier (SSSC) signal is
generated by suppressing the carrier and one sideband.
Single-Sideband Modulation
• SSB Signals
 SSB signals offer three major benefits:
 Spectrum space is conserved and allows more signals to be
transmitted in the same frequency range.
 All power is channeled into a single sideband. This produces a
stronger signal that will carry farther and will be more reliably
received at greater distances.
 Occupied bandwidth space is narrower and noise in the signal is
reduced.
Amplitude Modulation: Single Sideband
(SSB)
• The idea is to transmit either the USB or LSB
SSB (cont)
• Let m
+
(t) and m
-
(t) be the complex conjugates of m(t)
• Where m
h
(t) is unknown
| | ) ( ) (
2
1
) ( t jm t m t m
h
+ =
+
| | ) ( ) (
2
1
) ( t jm t m t m
h
÷ =
÷
SSB (cont)
• To determine m
h
(t) we know that
• Comparing above equation with the one on the previous slide
) ( ) ( ) ( w u w M w M =
+
| | ) sgn( 1 ) (
2
1
w w M + =
) sgn( ) (
2
1
) (
2
1
w w M w M + =
) sgn( ) ( ) ( w w M t jm
h
·
• Hence
• Applying duality prop. to pair 12 of table 3.1 yields
• Which gives
• This is the Hilbert transform of m(t)
) sgn( ) ( ) ( w w jM w M
h
÷ =
t t m t m w M
w j
t
h h
t
t
1 ) ( ) ( ) (
) sgn(
1
- = ·
÷ ·
í
·
· ÷
÷
= o
o
o
t
d
t
m
t m
h
) ( 1
) (
Hilbert Transform
• We can Hilbert transform m(t) if we pass it through a filter
with
• It follows that |H(w)|=1 and that
¹
´
¦
< =
> = ÷
=
÷
0 1
0 1
2
2
w e j
w e j
j
j
t
t
) sgn( ) ( e e j H ÷ =
0 for 2 and 0 for 2 ) ( < > ÷ = w w
h
t t e u
Hilbert Transform (cont)
Mathematics
• From previous figure USB spectrum can be expressed as
• The inverse transform yields
• Substituting m
+
(t) and m
-
(t) from previous eqs
) ( ) ( ) (
c c USB
w w M w w M w + + ÷ = u
÷ +
t jw t jw
USB
c c
e t m e t m t
÷
÷ +
+ = ) ( ) ( ) ( m
t w t m t w t m t
c h c USB
sin ) ( cos ) ( ) ( ÷ = m
Mathematics (cont)
• Similarly we can show
• General SSB signal can expressed as
t w t m t w t m t
c h c LSB
sin ) ( cos ) ( ) ( + = m
t w t m t w t m t
c h c SSB
sin ) ( cos ) ( ) (  = m
EXAMPLE
Generation of SSB Signals
• Two methods are used for the generation of SSB signals
– Selective Filtering Method
– Phase Shift Method
Selective Filtering Method
• Selective Filtering using filters with sharp cutoff
characteristics. Sharp cutoff filters are difficult to design
• The audio signal spectrum has no dc component, therefore ,
the spectrum of the modulated audio signal has a null around
the carrier frequency
• This means a less than perfect filter can do a reasonably good
job of filtering the DSB to produce SSB signals
Filtering (cont)
Filtering (cont)
Phase Shift Method
Demodulation
• SSB signals can be coherently modulated in the same way as
DSB-SC
Demodulation (cont)
• Since
Amplitude Modulation: Vestigial
Sideband (VSB)
• The generation of SSB signals is rather difficult in practice
• To produce SSB signal from DSB signal ideal filters should be
used to split the spectrum in the middle so that the
bandwidth of bandpass signal is reduced by one half
• The selective filtering method demands dc null in the
modulating signal
• The generation of DSB signals is simple, but DSB signals
require twice the signal bandwidth of SSB
Vestigial Sideband (cont)
• Vestigial sideband (VSB) modulation was designed to provide
a compromise between DSB and SSB
• In VSB instead of rejecting one sideband completely, we do a
gradual cutoff of one sideband
• It can be detected with a synchronous detector in conjunction
with an appropriate filter at the receiver output
• If a carrier is sent along the transmission, the VSB can be
recovered by an envelope or a rectifier detector
Vestigial Sideband (cont)
• Generation of VSB is done by multiplying m(t) by 2cos(w
c
t)
and applying this signal to a filter H
i
(w)
Vestigial Sideband (cont)
• Because the VSB is not a SSB, the bandwidth is 25 to 33%
larger only, but it also makes the band-pass filter easier to
realize
Vestigial Sideband (cont)
• The VSB signal spectrum is given by
• Where H
i
(w) is VSB shaping filter, which allows the
transmission of one sideband and suppresses the other
sideband gradually
( ) ( ) ( ) | | ( ) w H w w M w w M w
i c c VSB
÷ + + = u
Vestigial Sideband (cont)
• We can recover the message by using synchronous
demodulation
• Multiply the incoming VSB signal by 2cos(w
c
t)
Vestigial Sideband (cont)
• The product e(t) is given by
• The Fourier Transform of e(t)
• After Passing the signal from low pass filter
( ) ( ) t w t t e
c VSB
cos 2m =
( ) ( ) ( ) | |
c VSB c VSB
w w w w w E ÷ u + + u =
( ) ( ) ( ) | | ( ) w H w w w w w M
o c VSB c VSB
÷ u + + u =
• Hence
( )
( ) ( ) | |
B w
w w H w w H
w H
c i c i
o
t 2 ,
1
s
÷ + +
=
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) | | ( ) w H w w H w w H w M w M
o c i c i
÷ + + =
Vestigial Sideband (cont)
Spectrum of H
i
(w) and H
o
(w)
Linearity of Amplitude Modulation
• In all types of AM discussed before, linearity is satisfied
• produces the modulated signal
• The modulation system following the superposition theorem
of spectra is known as linear modulation system
– The theorem states that the sideband spectrum of a multiple tone AM
signal is equal to the sum of the sideband spectrum of the individual
tone modulation.
) ( ) (
2 2 1 1
t m k t m k +
) ( ) (
2 2 1 1
t k t k m m +
AM Broadcasting
• Allocated the band 530 kHz – 1600 kHz (with minor variations)
• 10 kHz per channel. (9 kHz in some countries)
• More that 100 stations can be licensed in the same geographical area.
• Uses AM modulation (DSB + C)
AM Broadcasting
• In radio communication systems, the transmitted signal is
very weak when it reaches the receiver, particularly
when it has traveled over a long distance.
• The signal has also picked up noise of various kinds.
• Receivers must provide the sensitivity and selectivity
that permit full recovery of the original signal.
• The radio receiver best suited to this task is known as the
superheterodyne receiver.
Ability of a receiver to
pick up weak signal
Ability of a receiver to select a signal of a
desired frequency while rejecting those on
closely adjacent frequencies
Sensitivity
– A communication receiver’s sensitivity, or ability
to pick up weak signals, is a function of overall
gain, the factor by which an input signal is
multiplied to produce the output signal.
– The higher the gain of a receiver, the better its
sensitivity.
– The more gain that a receiver has, the smaller
the input signal necessary to produce a desired
level of output.
– High gain in receivers is obtained by using
multiple amplification stages.
Selectivity
– A receiver with good selectivity will isolate the
desired signal and greatly attenuate/eliminates
other signals.
– To improve selectivity is to add stages of
amplification, both before and after
demodulator
– Eg : Tuned Radio Frequency
Tuned Radio Frequency (TRF) Receiver
Figure: Tuned radio-frequency (TRF) receiver.
Tuned Radio Frequency (TRF) Receiver
– In the tuned radio frequency (TRF) receiver sensitivity
is improved by adding a number of stages of RF
amplification between the antenna and detector,
followed by stages of audio amplification.
– The RF amplifier stages increase the amplitude /gain
before it is applied to the detector.
– The recovered signal is amplified further by audio
amplifiers, which provide sufficient gain to operate a
loudspeaker.
Tuned Radio Frequency (TRF) Receiver
– The main problem with TRF receivers is tracking
the tuned circuits.
– In a receiver, the tuned circuits must be made
variable so that they can be set to the frequency
of the desired signal.
– Another problem with TRF receivers is that
selectivity varies with frequency.
Superheterodyne Receivers
• Superheterodyne receivers convert all incoming signals
to a lower frequency, known as the intermediate
frequency (IF), at which a single set of amplifiers is used
to provide a fixed level of sensitivity and selectivity.
• Gain and selectivity are obtained in the IF amplifiers.
• The key circuit is the mixer, which acts like a simple
amplitude modulator to produce sum and difference
frequencies.
• The incoming signal is mixed with a local oscillator signal.
Superheterodyne Receiver Block Diagram
Antenna
IF Stage
(intermediate frequency)
IF Amplifier
& IF BPF
X
Converter
(Multiplier)
a(t) b(t) d(t)
c(t)
Envelope Detector
Diode, Capacitor,
Resistor, & DC blocker
Audio Stage
Power amplifier
d(t) e(t) f(t) g(t)
Ganged RF
BPF and
Oscillator
RF Stage
(radio frequency)
RF Amplifier
& RF BPF
Local
Oscillator
cos[(e
c
+e
IF
)t]
Notes:
• With one knob, we are tuning the RF Filter
and the local oscillator.
•The filter are designed with high gain
to provide amplification as well.
Superheterodyne Receivers
RF Amplifier
– The antenna picks up the weak radio signal and
feeds it to the RF amplifier
– provide some initial gain and selectivity and are
sometimes called preselectors.
– Pick up desired station by tuning filter to right
frequency band
Superheterodyne Receivers
Figure: Concept of a mixer.
Mixer
From
RF
output
Superheterodyne Receivers
Mixing Principles
– Mixers accept two inputs: The signal to be translated to
another frequency is applied to one input, and the sine
wave from a local oscillator is applied to the other input.
– Like an amplitude modulator, a mixer essentially performs
a mathematical multiplication of its two input signals.
– The oscillator is the carrier, and the signal to be translated
is the modulating signal.
– The output contains not only the carrier signal but also
sidebands formed when the local oscillator and input
signal are mixed.
Local Oscillator
• What should be the frequency of the local
oscillator used for translation from RF to IF?
f
LO
= f
c
+ f
IF
(up-conversion)
or f
LO
= f
c
÷ f
IF
(down-conversion)
• Tuning ratio = f
LO, max
/ f
LO, min
• Up-Conversion: (1600 + 455) / (530+455) ≈ 2
• Down-Conversion: (1600–455) / (530–455) ≈ 12
• Easier to design oscillator with small tuning ratio.
Superheterodyne Receivers
IF Amplifiers
• The primary objective in the design of an IF
stage is to obtain good selectivity.
• Narrow-band selectivity is best obtained at
lower frequencies.
• At low frequencies, circuits are more stable
with high gain.
Superheterodyne Receivers
IF Amplifiers
– The output of the mixer is an IF signal containing
the same modulation that appeared on the input
RF signal.
– The signal is amplified by one or more IF amplifier
stages, and most of the gain is obtained in these
stages.
– Selective tuned circuits provide fixed selectivity.
– Since the intermediate frequency is usually lower
than the input frequency, IF amplifiers are easier
to design and good selectivity is easier to obtain.
Superheterodyne Receivers
Demodulators
– The highly amplified IF signal is finally applied to
the demodulator, which recovers the original
modulating information.
– The demodulator may be a diode detector (for
AM), a quadrature detector (for FM), or a product
detector (for SSB).
– The output of the demodulator is then usually fed
to an audio amplifier.
Superhetrodyne AM Receiver
Why IF
• At very high frequencies, signal processing circuitry
performs poorly
• It is difficult to build amplifiers, filters, and detectors
that can be tuned to different frequencies
• It is also used to improve frequency selectivity
Advantage Superhetrodyne
• Overcome equipment : cannot operate at high
frequency
• Component operate at fixed frequency
– Optimize utilization
– Reduce cost
Radio AM Radio FM
Carrier range RF 0.535 – 1.605 MHz 88 – 108 MHz
IF 0.455 kHz 10.7 MHz
Bandwidth IF 10 kHz 200 kHz
AM Vs FM