Carrier Acquisition in Suppressed

Carrier Schemes
Lesson 09
EEE 352 Analog Communication Systems
Mansoor Khan
EE Dept.
CIIT Islamabad Campus
Carrier Acquisition
• In SC transmissions, we have to generate a carrier with the
same frequency and phase that the carrier at the transmitter.
• Consider the case of DSB-SC where a received signal is
• and the local carrier is
• therefore we have errors in frequency and phase
t t m t
c SC DSB
e m cos ) ( ) ( =
÷
( ) | | o e e + A + t
c
cos 2
Carrier Acquisition (cont)
• The product of the received signal and the local carrier is
• After the LPF we have
| | ( ) | | o e e e + A + × = t t t m t e
c c
cos 2 cos ) ( ) (
( ) | | ( ) { } o e e o e + A + + + A = t t t m
c
2 cos cos ) (
( ) | | { } o e + A = t t m t e
o
cos ) ( ) (
Carrier Acquisition (cont)
• Let’s consider two cases. First
• In this case
• The output is proportional to m(t) because the factor is a
constant
• The output is maximum when δ=0 and minimum (zero) when
δ=±π/2 Thus, this kind of phenomenon only attenuates the
output without adding distortion
• Unfortunately delta is not constant. This may occur for
example because of variations in the propagation path.
0 = Ae
| | { } o cos ) ( ) ( t m t e
o
=
Carrier Acquisition (cont)
• Now consider the second case
• In this case
• The output is distorted as well, the output is m(t) multiplied
by a low frequency oscillation.
• This beating is catastrophic even for a small frequency
0 , 0 = A = e o
( )t t m t e
o
e A = cos ) ( ) (
Carrier Acquisition (cont)
• To ensure identical carrier frequencies at the emitter and
receiver we can use crystal oscillators
• Other method is to send a carrier or pilot at a reduced level
along with the sidebands. Then is filtered at the receiver with
a very narrow filter
Phase Locked Loop (PLL)
• The PLL can be used to track the phase and frequency of the
carrier component of an incoming signal.
• It is then useful for synchronous demodulation of AM signals
with suppressed carrier or with a pilot
• PLL has three basic components:
– A VCO or Voltage Controlled Oscillator
– A multiplier, serving as a phase detector or a phase comparator
– a loop filter H(s)
Phase Locked Loop (cont)
Phase Locked Loop (cont)
• PLL works just like feedback system, the signal fed back tends
to follow the input signal to minimize the error. The quantity
to compare is the phase in this case
• The VCO oscillates linearly with the input voltage
• Where “c” is a constant and w
c
is the free running frequency
of the VCO. This is the one when the input signal is zero
) ( ) ( t ce t
o c
+ = e e
PLL Operation
• Let the input to the PLL be
• Let the output of VCO be
• The multiplier output x(t) will be
( )
i c
t A u e + sin
( )
o c
t B u e + cos
( )
o c i c
t t AB t x u e u e + + = cos ) sin( ) (
| | ) 2 sin( ) sin(
2
o i c o i
t
AB
u u e u u + + + ÷ =
PLL Operation (cont)
• The filter is a low pass narrow filter therefore the
error signal is
• Where θ
e
is the phase error, which is linear for small
error
| | ) sin(
2
) (
o i o
AB
t e u u ÷ =
) sin(
2
e
AB
u =
PLL Operation (cont)
• We have two cases: Input frequency changes or phase
changes
• If input frequency is increased, the input changes to
• Where
• Thus the increase in frequency causes θ
i
to increase thereby
increasing θ
e
which in turn increases input voltage to the VCO
( ) ( )
i c
t k A u e + + sin
( )
i c
t A u e
ˆ
sin + =
i i
kt u u + =
ˆ
PLL Operation (cont)
• The VCO increases the frequency because the input voltage
increased to match the increase in the input frequency
• If the input frequency decreases the same reasoning applies
• The PLL tracks the input sinusoid. The two signals are said to
be phase coherent or in phase lock
PLL Operation (cont)
• A PLL tracks the incoming frequency only over a finite range of
frequency shift. This range is called the hold-in or locks range
• The frequency range over which the input will cause the loop
to lock is called the Pull-in or Capture range
Carrier Acquisition in DSB-SC
• Signal Squaring Method
• Costas Loop
Signal Squaring Method
• This method is explained in the following block diagram
• The squarer output will be
• Now m
2
(t) is a non negative signal and therefore has non zero
average value in contrast to m(t)
( ) ( ) | | ( ) ( ) t w t m t m t w t m t x
c c
2 cos
2
1
2
1
cos
2 2 2
+ = =
( ) ( ) | | ( ) ( ) t w t m t m t w t m t x
c c
2 cos
2
1
2
1
cos
2 2
2
+ = =
Signal Squaring Method (cont)
• Let the average value, which is the dc component of m
2
(t)/2,
be k then
• Where is a zero mean baseband signal minus its dc
component
( ) ) (
2
1
2
t k t m o + =
( ) t o
( ) ( ) ( ) t w t m t m t x
c
2 cos
2
1
2
1
2 2
+ =
( ) ( ) t w t t w k t m
c c
2 cos 2 cos
2
1
2
o + + =
Signal Squaring Method (cont)
• Where is a zero mean baseband signal minus its dc
component
• First term of x(t) is suppressed by Narrow BPF centered at 2ωc
• Third term has zero dc value at 2ωc thus only residue of third term
passes through Narrow BPF having pass band << 4B.
• x(t) consists of pulses of k located at ωc which are passed along
with the residue of third term which will be suppressed by the PLL
which tracks kcos2 ωc t.
• PLL output after passing through frequency divider yields the
desired carrier.
( ) t o
( ) ( ) t w t t w k t m
c c
2 cos 2 cos
2
1
2
o + + =
Costas Loop
Frequency Division Multiplexing
Multiplexing
Needs Multiplexing – Process of transmitting two or
more signals simultaneously
Multiplexing Principles
Multiplexing Principles
Multiplexing : Applications
 Four communication applications that would be prohibitively
expensive or impossible without multiplexing are:
Telephone systems
Telemetry
Satellites
Broadcasting (radio and TV)
The current techniques that can
accomplish this include
 frequency division multiplexing (FDM)
 time division multiplexing (TDM)
Synchronous vs statistical TDM
 wavelength division multiplexing
(WDM)
 code division multiplexing (CDM)
MULTIPLEXING TECHNIQUES
Types of Multiplexing
 The two most common types of multiplexing are
Frequency-division multiplexing (FDM)
 Generally used for analog information.
 Individual signals to be transmitted are assigned a different frequency
within a common bandwidth.
Time-division multiplexing (TDM)
 Generally used for digital information.
 Multiple signals are transmitted in different time slots on a single
channel.
These two basic methods are illustrated below.
M
1
M
2
M
3
M
4
M
5
time
freq
B
L
B
H
AB
time
freq
M
1
M
2
M
3
M
4
M
5
At
B
L
B
H
M
1
M
2
M
3
M
4
M
5
B
L
B
H
AB
M
1
M
2
M
3
M
4
M
5
t
t
FDM TDM
At
B
L
B
H
TDM: messages occupy all the
channel bandwidth but for short
time intervals of time
FDM: all signals are transmitted
at the same time (all the time)
but in different frequency bands
Frequency Division Multiplexing
FDM: all signals are
transmitted at the
same time (all the
time) but in different
frequency bands
Frequency Division Multiplexing
FDM
 FDM(Frequency-Division Multiplexing)
 is an analog technique that can be applied when the bandwidth of a link
(useful bandwidth of the medium excess) is greater than the combined
bandwidths of the signals to be transmitted
BW
signal
<< BW
medium
FDM signal generation
 FDM process
 each telephone generates a signal of a similar frequency range
 these signals are modulated onto different carrier frequencies(f1, f2, f3)
FDM signal generation
modulated onto different carrier
frequencies
Requires its own carrier frequency
Composite
signal
FDM multiplexing process, time-domain
FDM signal generation
 FDM multiplexing process, frequency-domain
FDM signal generation
 Demultiplexing
 separates the individual signals from their carries and passes them to the
waiting receivers.
FDM signal generation
 FDM demultiplexing process, time-domain
FDM signal generation
 FDMdemultiplexing, frequency-domain
FDM: Composite signal spectrum
WHY???? BW
signal
<< BW
medium
FDM: Composite signal spectrum
For telephony, the physical line is divided (notionally) into 4kHz bands or channels, i.e.
the channel spacing is 4kHz. Thus we now have:
f
Bandlimited
Speech
Guard Bands
4kHz
guard bands - to reduce adjacent channel crosstalk.
Frequency Division Multiplex
• Advantages:
 no dynamic coordination needed
• Disadvantages:
 waste of bandwidth
if traffic distributed unevenly
 guard spaces
k
3
k
4
k
5
k
6
f
t
c
Channels
k
i
Frequency Division Multiplexing
Frequency Division Multiplexing
 Example : CableTelevision
 coaxial cable has a bandwidth of approximately 500Mhz
 individual television channel require about 6Mhz of bandwidth for
transmission
 How many channels it will carry??
can carry 83 channels theoretically
Frequency Division Multiplexing
Each broadcast stations carries an information
signal (voice & music ) which occupies bandwidth
between 0Hz ~5kHz
Impossible to differentiate or
separate one station’s transmission
from another
Example 1
Assume that a voice channel occupies a bandwidth of 4
KHz. We need to combine three voice channels into a link
with a bandwidth of 12 KHz, from 20 to 32 KHz. Show
the configuration using the frequency domain without the
use of guard bands.
Solution
Shift (modulate) each of the three voice channels to a
different bandwidth
Example 1
Example 2
Five channels, each with a 100-KHz bandwidth, are to be
multiplexed together. What is the minimum bandwidth of
the link if there is a need for a guard band of 10 KHz
between the channels to prevent interference?
Solution
For five channels, we need at least four guard bands.
This means that the required bandwidth is at least
5 x 100 + 4 x 10 = 540 KHz
Example 2
Multiplexing Hierarchy
Example: analogue carrier system for
telephony
Analog Carrier Systems
• Hierarchy of FDM schemes
• Group
—12 voice channels (4kHz each) = 48kHz
—Range 60kHz to 108kHz
• Supergroup
—60 channel
—FDM of 5 group signals on carriers between 420kHz and 612 kHz
• Mastergroup
—10 supergroups
Time Division Multiplexing
Synchronous Time Division
Multiplexing
• The original time division multiplexing.
• The multiplexor accepts input from attached devices in a
round-robin fashion and transmit the data in a never ending
pattern.
• T-1 and ISDN telephone lines are common examples of
synchronous time division multiplexing.
Synchronous Time Division
Multiplexing
• If one device generates data at a faster rate than other
devices, then the multiplexor must either sample the incoming
data stream from that device more often than it samples the
other devices, or buffer the faster incoming stream.
• If a device has nothing to transmit, the multiplexor must
still insert a piece of data from that device into the
multiplexed stream.
STDM
Synchronous TDM
• Very popular
• Line will require as much bandwidth as all
the bandwidths of the sources
Statistical Time Division Multiplexing
• A statistical multiplexor transmits only the data from active
workstations (or why work when you don’t have to).
• If a workstation is not active, no space is wasted on the
multiplexed stream.
• A statistical multiplexor accepts the incoming data streams
and creates a frame containing only the data to be transmitted.
Statistical TDM is useful for applications in which
the low-bit-rate streams have speeds that vary in
time.
Statistical Time Division Multiplexing
• A statistical multiplexor does not require a line over as high
a speed line as synchronous time division multiplexing since
STDM does not assume all sources will transmit all of the
time!
• Good for low bandwidth lines (used for LANs)
Much more efficient use of bandwidth!
TDM(cont’d)
 Inverse Multiplexing
 takes the data stream from one high-speed line and breaks it into portion
that can be sent across several lower speed lines simultaneously, with no
loss in the collective data rate
TDM(cont’d)
 Multiplexing
and inverse
multiplexing
high-speed
breaks it into
portion
TDM(cont’d)
 Why do we need inverse multiplexing ?
 wants to send data, voice, and video each of which requires a different data
rate.
• [example]
 voice - 64 Kbps link
 data - 128 Kbps link
 video - 1,544 Mbps link