# Concept of Instantaneous

Frequency
Angle Modulation
Lesson 10
EEE 352 Analog Communication Systems
Mansoor Khan
CIIT EE Department
Angle Modulation
• Information in a modulation process is carried by a carrier signal in the
form of variation in any one of the three parameters: amplitude,
frequency or phase.
• If modulating signal is carried by the variations in the amplitude of carrier
keeping phase and frequency of carrier constant the resulting modulation
is AMor Amplitude Modulation.
• If the information is carried as the variation in phase or frequency of the
signal while maintaining the amplitude of carrier constant, the type of
modulation is angle modulation.
• Angle Modulation is further divided into two categories:
I. If frequency of carrier is varied with respect to instantaneous amplitude
of modulating signal while keeping other parameters constant the
resulting modulation is FM(frequency modulation).
II. If phase of carrier is varied with respect to instantaneous amplitude of
modulating signal while keeping other parameters constant the
resulting modulation is PM(phase modulation).
Angle Modulation
• Entails both frequency modulation (FM)
and phase modulation (PM).
• Angle modulation results whenever the
phase angle (ө) of a sinusoidal wave is
varied with respect to time.
Angle Modulation
• An angle-modulated wave can be expressed
mathematically as :
Angle Modulation
• With angle modulation, it is necessary that ө(t)
be prescribed function of the modulated signal.
Angle Modulation
• If the frequency of the carrier is varied
directly in accordance with the modulating
signal , FM result.
• If the phase of the carrier is varied directly
in accordance with the modulating signal ,
PM result.
EEE 352
AM and FM Modulation
(a) Carrier wave.
(b) Sinusoidal modulating signal.
(c) Amplitude-modulated signal.
(d) Frequency modulated signal.
Angle Modulation vs. AM
• Properties of amplitude modulation
– Amplitude modulation is linear
• just move to new frequency band, spectrum shape does not
change. No new frequencies generated.
– Bandwidth ≤ 2W
• Properties of angle modulation
– They are nonlinear
• spectrum shape does change, new frequencies generated.
– Bandwidth is usually much larger than 2W
Angle Modulation Applications
• Applications
– Microwave and satellite communications
• When we say that a signal is sinusoidal, it is given by
• Now, let us consider a generalized form of sinusoidal signals
• Because the two angles are tangential to each other over this
small interval
• The frequency is actually the slope of its angle over this
interval
) cos( ) (
0
u e m + = t A t
c
) ( cos ) ( t A t u m =
• The instantaneous frequency,
• Or
• We can see the possibility of transmitting the information of
m(t) by modifying the angle θ of a carrier.
• Such technique of modulation where the angle of carrier is
varied in some manner with a modulating signal is known as
angle modulation or Exponential modulation
dt
d
t
i
u
e = ) (
í
· ÷
=
t
i
d t o o e u ) ( ) (
• Two most extensively studied angle modulation schemes are
phase modulation (PM) and frequency modulation (FM)
• In PM the angle is varied linearly with m(t)
• In FM we modify the instantaneous frequency directly with
the amplitude of m(t)
Phase Modulation
• In PM angle varies according to message signal
• Assuming the initial phase to be zero
• Phase modulated signal will be
) ( ) (
0
t m k t t
p c
+ + = u e u
) ( ) ( t m k t t
p c
+ = e u
)) ( cos( ) ( t m k t A t
p c PM
+ = e m
• The instantaneous frequency is now
• Therefore in PM the instantaneous frequency varies
proportionally to the derivative of the modulating signals or
to the variation of the modulating signal
) ( ) ( t m k
dt
d
t
p c i

+ = = e
u
e
Frequency Modulation
• In FM we modify the instantaneous frequency directly with
the amplitude of m(t) as
• Therefore the angle is
) ( ) ( t m k t
f c i
+ = e e
| |
í
· ÷
+ =
t
f c
d m k t o o e u ) ( ) (
í
· ÷
+ =
t
f c
d m k t o o e ) (
• Frequency modulated signal can be written as
) ) ( cos( ) (
í
· ÷
+ =
t
f c FM
d m k t A t o o e m
Example 5.1 (cont)
Example 5.1 (cont)
Example 5.2 (cont)
Power of Angle Modulated Waves
• Amplitude of Angle modulated schemes (FM +
PM)regardless of kf or kp remains constant.
• Hence power of FM and PM always remain
constant i.e