- analog communication Lecture 17
- ANLOG COMMUNICATION Lecture 06
- analog communication Lecture 14
- ANALOG COMMUNICATION Lecture 07
- ANALOG COMMUNICATION Lecture 03
- analog communicationLecture 13
- signal and system Lecture 6
- analog communicationLecture 16
- analog communicationLecture 15
- ANALOG COMMUNICATION Lecture 08
- ANALOG COMMUNICATION Lecture 02
- ANALOG COMMUNICATION Lecture 11
- signal and system Lecture 4
- Lecture 1
- ANALOG COMMUNICATION Lecture 10
- ANLOG COMMUNICATION Lecture 04
- signal and system Lecture 18
- signal and system Lecture 13
- signal and system Lecture 12
- ANLOG COMMUNICATION Lecture 05
- signal and system Lecture 15
- signal and system Lecture A
- ANALOG COMMUNICATION Lecture 09
- signal and system Lecture 16
- signal and system Lecture 11
- Fourier series
- signal and system Lecture 17
- signal and system Lecture 19
- signal and system Lecture 21
- signal and system Lecture 10
- signal and system Lecture 14
- signal and system Lecture 18
- signal and system Lecture 13
- signal and system Lecture 23
- signal and system Lecture 12
- signal and system Lecture 15
- signal and system Lecture 22
- signal and system Lecture 16
- signal and system Lecture 11
- signal and system Lecture 9
- signal and system Lecture 17
- signal and system Lecture 20
- signal and system Lecture 19
- signal and system Lecture 21
- signal and system Lecture 10
- At Mega 16
- signal and system Lecture 8
- signal and system Lecture A
- analog communication Lecture 18
- analog communicationLecture 13
- signal and system Lecture 6
- signal and system Lecture 1
- analog communicationLecture 16
- analog communicationLecture 15
- signal and system Lecture 7
- signal and system Lecture 4
- signal and system Lecture 2
- signal and system Lecture 5

Lesson 12 EEE 352 Analog Communication Systems Mansoor Khan EE Department CIIT Islamabad Campus

Frequency Modulation

Frequency Modulation

• The magnitude and direction of the frequency shift (Δf) is proportional to the amplitude of the modulating signal.

• The rate at which the frequency changes are occurring is equal to the frequency of the modulating signal (fm).

• (Δf) is called the frequency deviation.

Phase Modulation

• The magnitude and direction of the phase shift (Δө) is proportional to the amplitude of the modulating signal.

• The rate at which the phase changes are occurring is equal to the frequency of the modulating signal (fm).

• (Δө) is called the phase deviation

Mathematical Analysis

For Phase: For Frequency: e = Ec cos[ωct + KpEicos(ωit)] e = Ec cos[ωct + (KfEi/ ωi)sin(ωit)]

Kp = Deviation Sensitivity of the Phase Modulator Kf = Deviation Sensitivity of the Frequency Modulator

**Frequency Modulation Waveform Mathematical Analysis
**

In FM, the message signal m(t) controls the frequency fc of the carrier. Consider the carrier

**then for FM we may write:
**

FM signal will depend on m(t). Given that the carrier frequency will change we may write for an instantaneous carrier signal ,where the frequency deviation

where i is the instantaneous angle =

and fi is the instantaneous frequency.

Bessel Function

**Examples from the graph
**

= 0: When = 0 the carrier is unmodulated and J0(0) = 1, all other Jn(0) = 0, i.e.

= 2.4: From the graph (approximately)

J0(2.4) = 0, J1(2.4) = 0.5, J2(2.4) = 0.45 and J3(2.4) = 0.2

**Significant Sidebands – Spectrum.
**

As may be seen from the table of Bessel functions, for values of n above a certain value, the values of Jn() become progressively smaller. In FM the sidebands are considered to be significant if Jn() 0.01 (1%).

Although the bandwidth of an FM signal is infinite, components with amplitudes VcJn(), for which Jn() < 0.01 are deemed to be insignificant and may be ignored.

Example: A message signal with a frequency fm Hz modulates a carrier fc to produce FM with a modulation index = 1. Sketch the spectrum.

n 0 1 2 3 4 5 Jn(1) 0.7652 0.4400 0.1149 0.0196 0.0025 0.0002 Amplitude 0.7652Vc 0.44Vc 0.1149Vc 0.0196Vc Insignificant Insignificant Frequency fc fc+fm fc - fm fc+2fm fc - 2fm fc+3fm fc -3 fm

Significant Sidebands – Spectrum.

As shown, the bandwidth of the spectrum containing significant components is 6fm, for = 1.

**Significant Sidebands – Spectrum.
**

The table below shows the number of significant sidebands for various modulation indices () and the associated spectral bandwidth.

0.1 0.3 0.5 1.0 2.0 5.0 10.0 No of sidebands 1% of unmodulated carrier 2 4 4 6 8 16 28 Bandwidth 2fm 4fm 4fm 6fm 8fm 16fm 28fm

e.g. for = 5, 16 sidebands (8 pairs).

**Carson’s Rule for FM Bandwidth.
**

An approximation for the bandwidth of an FM signal is given by BW = 2(Maximum frequency deviation + highest modulated frequency)

Bandwidth 2(f c f m )

Carson’s Rule

**Narrowband and Wideband FM
**

Narrowband FM NBFM

From the graph/table of Bessel functions it may be seen that for small , ( 0.3) there is only the carrier and 2 significant sidebands, i.e. BW = 2fm.

FM with 0.3 is referred to as narrowband FM (NBFM) (Note, the bandwidth is the same as DSBAM).

Wideband FM WBFM For > 0.3 there are more than 2 significant sidebands. As increases the number of sidebands increases. This is referred to as wideband FM (WBFM).

For FM Modulator with frequency deviation of 10 kHz, modulating signal frequency of 10 kHz, Carrier amplitude voltage of 50V and Carrier frequency of 500 kHz, determine the following: (a) Minimum Bandwidth using Bessel table (b) Minimum Bandwidth using Carson’s rule (c) Amplitudes of the side frequencies and plot the output frequency spectrum

**a)From Bessel function table, m=1 yields three sets of significant sidebands. Thus bandwidth is
**

m f 10kHz 1 f m 10kHz

B 2(3 10kHz) 60kHz b) Approx. minimum bandwidth is given by Carson’s rule. So

B 2(10kHz 10kHz) 40kHz

c)

J 0 0.77(50) 38.5V J1 0.24(50) 12V J 2 0.11(50) 5.5V J 3 0.02(50) 1V

38.5V 12V 5.5V 1V 12V 5.5V 1V

470

480

490

500

510

520

530

Armstrong Indirect FM Transmitter

Demodulation of FM (cont)

Bandpass Limiter

- analog communication Lecture 17Uploaded byali_rehman87
- ANLOG COMMUNICATION Lecture 06Uploaded byali_rehman87
- analog communication Lecture 14Uploaded byali_rehman87
- ANALOG COMMUNICATION Lecture 07Uploaded byali_rehman87
- ANALOG COMMUNICATION Lecture 03Uploaded byali_rehman87
- analog communicationLecture 13Uploaded byali_rehman87
- signal and system Lecture 6Uploaded byali_rehman87
- analog communicationLecture 16Uploaded byali_rehman87
- analog communicationLecture 15Uploaded byali_rehman87
- ANALOG COMMUNICATION Lecture 08Uploaded byali_rehman87
- ANALOG COMMUNICATION Lecture 02Uploaded byali_rehman87
- ANALOG COMMUNICATION Lecture 11Uploaded byali_rehman87
- signal and system Lecture 4Uploaded byali_rehman87
- Lecture 1Uploaded bysumith_2828
- ANALOG COMMUNICATION Lecture 10Uploaded byali_rehman87
- ANLOG COMMUNICATION Lecture 04Uploaded byali_rehman87
- signal and system Lecture 18Uploaded byali_rehman87
- signal and system Lecture 13Uploaded byali_rehman87
- signal and system Lecture 12Uploaded byali_rehman87
- ANLOG COMMUNICATION Lecture 05Uploaded byali_rehman87
- signal and system Lecture 15Uploaded byali_rehman87
- signal and system Lecture AUploaded byali_rehman87
- ANALOG COMMUNICATION Lecture 09Uploaded byali_rehman87
- signal and system Lecture 16Uploaded byali_rehman87
- signal and system Lecture 11Uploaded byali_rehman87
- Fourier seriesUploaded byHarsha
- signal and system Lecture 17Uploaded byali_rehman87
- signal and system Lecture 19Uploaded byali_rehman87
- signal and system Lecture 21Uploaded byali_rehman87
- signal and system Lecture 10Uploaded byali_rehman87

- signal and system Lecture 14Uploaded byali_rehman87
- signal and system Lecture 18Uploaded byali_rehman87
- signal and system Lecture 13Uploaded byali_rehman87
- signal and system Lecture 23Uploaded byali_rehman87
- signal and system Lecture 12Uploaded byali_rehman87
- signal and system Lecture 15Uploaded byali_rehman87
- signal and system Lecture 22Uploaded byali_rehman87
- signal and system Lecture 16Uploaded byali_rehman87
- signal and system Lecture 11Uploaded byali_rehman87
- signal and system Lecture 9Uploaded byali_rehman87
- signal and system Lecture 17Uploaded byali_rehman87
- signal and system Lecture 20Uploaded byali_rehman87
- signal and system Lecture 19Uploaded byali_rehman87
- signal and system Lecture 21Uploaded byali_rehman87
- signal and system Lecture 10Uploaded byali_rehman87
- At Mega 16Uploaded byali_rehman87
- signal and system Lecture 8Uploaded byali_rehman87
- signal and system Lecture AUploaded byali_rehman87
- analog communication Lecture 18Uploaded byali_rehman87
- analog communicationLecture 13Uploaded byali_rehman87
- signal and system Lecture 6Uploaded byali_rehman87
- signal and system Lecture 1Uploaded byali_rehman87
- analog communicationLecture 16Uploaded byali_rehman87
- analog communicationLecture 15Uploaded byali_rehman87
- signal and system Lecture 7Uploaded byali_rehman87
- signal and system Lecture 4Uploaded byali_rehman87
- signal and system Lecture 2Uploaded byali_rehman87
- signal and system Lecture 5Uploaded byali_rehman87